Dr. N.R. Dash* Mr. Shashikant Kumar1** The city of Surat is the commercial capital of the state and is of significant importance to the country. The Arabian Sea is to its west at a distance of about 22 km along the Tapi and about 16 km by road. The city is pivotal center on the Ahmedabad – Mumbai regional corridor as well as on the 225 km long industrial belt, having direct linkages with the industrial urban centers of Vadodara, Ankleshwar and Vapi. National Highway 8 passes with in 16 km of the SMC boundary and is one of the busiest inter-state trunk routes in the country. Surat is located midway on the 500 km long Ahmedabad-Mumbai western railway corridor and as many as forty pairs of express, mail and passenger train pass through it. The state government has also established an airstrip to facilitate smaller aircraft landing but no domestic air service has been started yet. HISTORY & GROWTH The historical development of Surat dates back to 300 BC. Surat was colonised by Brigus or the King from Sauvira on the bank of river Tapi. Surat region during this period was known as “Lata”. In Skandapurana it is known as “Suryapur”, “Brahmpur”, “Tapipur”etc. The region was under the power of Hindu rulers upto 1194 AD. In 1373 AD, the emperor Firoz Tughlak (1351 to 1388) is said to have built a fort for the first time at Surat to protect the town against Bhils. During 15th century, Muzzafar Shah was governor of Surat. During this period Rander was popular port town known for trade and merchandise. In about 1496 to 1521, a rich Hindu trader called “Gopi” settled in Surat and he attracted other rich traders in the city. He built large houses, a garden and a small lake.(Gopipura, Ranichakla, etc. are named after him).Portuguese chronicles describe Mallik Gopi as Governor of Surat. He could have mentioned 'Suryapur' or 'Suraj' as it was as bright as the Sun and he asked for the permission to the Sultan for the naming city as 'Suraj'. Sultan did not like Hindu name and by referring Kuran-e-sharif gave slight change in the name and named as 'Surat'. In 1512, shortly before Barbosu was in Gujarat, Surat is said to have been burnt by the Portuguese. In 16th century, Surat became a victim of various raids, the Portuguese raided Rander and Surat during 1512-1535. Annoyed by the destruction of Surat, the king of Ahmedabad, Khudawandkhan gave order for building a strong castle.(1546). In 1559-60 A.D. Changiz Khan came to Surat and Portuguese sent him back. In 1572 A.D. Surat fell into the hands of Mirza, who rebelled against emperor Akbar. In January 1573, Akbar marched on to Surat and after a vigorous siege for six weeks, the fort was

* Reader, Faculty of Science, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara ** Research Scholar and Urban Planner in the same University.

surrendered. During this period, Surat district comprised of 993 towns or villages and yielded annual tax revenue of Rs. 0.4 million. In Akbar's times (1590) Surat was also called as emporium or first class port. During Jehangir’s period, Surat acquired the distinction of being made the seat of royal mint. During Mughal regime, Surat enjoyed peace and was one of the leading and prosperous cities of India. However, during 49 years of Aurangzeb's regime (1658 to 1707), Surat's prosperity was checked by :(i) Maratha raids, headed by Chatrapati Shivaji (1664 to 1685), (ii) by growing importance of Bombay (1677 to 1707) and (iii) 27 years of increasing disorders by local governors. The events of importance in the history of Surat was in the beginning of 17th century with the arrival of European merchants. The first sign of opposition to Portuguese influence on Surat waters was in August, 1608 when an English ship arrived at river Tapi and commander Captain Hawkins brought message of His Majesty for emperor Jehangir, who later allowed English people to trade through this port. In between 1608 to 1615 AD many battles were fought between English and Portuguese sailors for control over Surat waters. In 1624, first trade with Holland was negotiated through Surat with export cargo of Indigo. During first half of 17th century (1608 to 1658), principal cargo of export from Surat was cloth, both silk and cotton. The cloth was used by people from Cape of Good Hope to China. French arrived in Surat for the first time in 1620 AD and started international trade with a modest beginning. After Portuguese, English and Dutch, they became the fourth European community to settle and commence trading relations with this historically prosperous city. Outbreak of great plague affected social life of the city very badly from A.D.1684 to 1690. Since centuries, Surat has been popular for gold based "Jari" (Yarn) business and weaving, in addition to providing an export outlet for agro based products from Magdalla port. Surat also participated in anti government agitations in 1860 and 1878 for protesting against unjustified tax. The municipality of Surat was established in 1852 and since then civic amenities like hospitals, public gardens, etc. have gradually grown. In the field of Textiles, first major steps was taken by Zafarali Mills which started operations in 1861. In 1873, first Gin press was commissioned by Shree Pestonji Bejanji and Shree Gokuldas Sheth.By 1891, Surat had one weaving mill, one spinning mill, four gin presses, one Iron factory and one paper mill. The first news paper in Surat, "SurtMitra", was published on 13th September, 1853 ; its name was later changed to Gujarat Mitra. In 1877 the Britishers constructed a bridge across the Tapi at a cost of Rs.8,13,000. It is known as Hope Bridge and it further facilitated communication with Bharuch and its neighbouring area in North. For the first time in India, a public enterprise was established for generating and distributing electricity in year 1883 (The Surat Electricity Co.Ltd.).

Shree Premchand Raichand started first bank in Surat in 1864,viz.'Bank of Surat'. In the next year, 'The Bank of Gujarat' commenced operations in this historic city". During middle and last half of 19th century, Kavi Narmad carried out various activities for upliftment of society. The holding of the historic 23rd session of the Indian national congress in Surat in 1907 A.D. was an event of great importance. In year 1915, Branch of Home Rule League was established by Sir Annie Besant in Surat. Sir Ferdunji Sorabji Parekh donated Rs.46,000/- in 1915 (about Rs.2,500 million at today's price) to the Government of Surat for development of educational and cultural activities. Sarvajanik Education Society was established by Shree Chunilal Ghelabhai Shah and associates in 1914. This institution manages many educational organisations even today Smt. Naniben Gajar and Smt.Bajigauri Munshi established Vanita Vishram in 1907 for woman rights and charities. Colleges for Law, Commerce and Ayurveda were started in 1935, 1942 and 1946 respectively. After Indian independence in 1947, Surat has witnessed socio-political roller coster rides. During the post- independence period, Surat has experienced considerable growth in industrial activities (especially textiles) along with trading activities. Concentration of these activities combined with residential development has resulted in considerable expansion of the city limits.

Figure 1: Fort on River Tapi

the bends enclosed by its walls stretching for about a mile and a quarter along the a Bank. where is course swerves suddenly from the north. the city forms an arc of a circle.Figure 2: High School (1879) Figure 3: The SMC Building (erstwhile Mugal Sarai 1875 AD) TOPOGRAPHY The cities lie at a bend of the River Tapi. the ground rises slightly toward the north. With the walled city at its centre. From the right Bank of a river.east to southwest. But the .

.44 degree c. This rapid growth in a very short time span is actually the hallmark of Surat’s demographic trends. The growth rates have been one of the highest in the country.fold population rise.78 degree c to 44. Surat city has seen an unprecedented growth in last four decades recording one of the highest growth rates in the country and a 10. Coupled with this the spillover of population into periphery has also been observed. From time to time jurisdictional limits of SMC have also been extended to include the outgrowth. It became a metropolis in 1991.5 degree c.height above the mean sea level is only 13 meters. The City now ranks the 9th largest in the Country. by crossing the with population of more than one a million. which is clear from the comparative chart given below depicting the population growth in three cities of Gujarat. The river controls the topography and the general slope is from northeast to southwest. DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTIC Surat is India’s twelfth and Gujarat’s second most populous city (2001). Along with this the needs for infrastructure the needs for infrastructure the needs augmentation have also rapidly. The winters are not very cold but the temperature in January range from 10 degree c to 15. The climate is pleasant during the monsoon while autumn is temperate. At present SMC area is about 6. along with eleven other major cities across the country. TEMPERATURE AND RAINFALL The summers are quite hot with temperatures ranging from 37. Surat Urban Agglomeration The city has been experiencing rapid growth in population during three decades.population mark.50 lakh people (2001) reside in the immediate periphery of the city. Surat has experienced very rapid population growth during the last 20 years. This consistently high rate of growth over three successive decades has been a major feature in the city growth. The average annual rainfall of the city has been 1143mm.

A Rajkot U. .22 2001 112.09 percent in 1991-2001 suggest that the Surat City region has to be planned in a broader perceptive and making it possible for the city to capitalize on its thriving economic development. the city is growing rapid pace.05 63.Year 2001 AhmedabadU.65 35211 13934 13977 915 887 857 Surat Urban Agglomeration 493001 913806 85.85 55. Since the inception of SUDA (Surat Urban Development Authority) in late 70s.A Vadodara U.16 1498817 93 13489 839 1518950 66.44 85.09 The literacy rate has gone up from 63 percent in 1991 to 83 percent in 2001 and the figures are well above that of the state.A Surat U. An exceptional decadal population growth rate of 85. though the development in the peripheral area was not that rapid until 2001.27 2433785 62. It clearly suggests that Surat agglomeration has highest decadal population growth rate and lowest sex radio directing towards tremendous increase in the male migration in the city in last decade. Rapid inflow of population has continued. The sex ratio has dropped down to an alarming figure of 774in 2001 from 839 in 1991. Surat City has seen an unprecedented in last three decades and along with that the municipal boundaries have been increasing. Table: Surat Municipal Areas 1961 1971 1981 8.09 32.12 Sex Ratio 885 760 905 906 The table given above places Surat along with other urban agglomerations in the Gujarat state.18 33.A Population 4519278 2811464 1492398 1002160 Growth Rate 36.56 288026 471656 776583 29. it the density of core city areas increased which were the part of the municipal corporation.36 Area (sq km) Population Growth rate Density Sex ratio Population Growth rate 1951 8. on the contrary.75 64.44 53. Decadal population growth rate between 1991-2001 did not result in the horizontal urban sprawl.18 223182 27284 916 - 1991 111.38 21677 774 2811464 85. This may have happened due to employment opportunities in the manufacturing and other sector in Surat.

Reliance. The entire industrial sector put together a gross revenue income of Rs. and shell. The textile and diamond units of Surat region contribute to : • • • • • • • 42 percent of the world’s total rough diamond cutting and polishing 70 percent of the nation’ total rough diamond cutting and polishing 40 percent of the nation’s total diamond export 40 percent of the nation’s total man made fabric production 28 percent of the nation’s total man made fibre production 18 percent of the nation’s total man made fibre exports 12 percent of the nation’s total fabric production Today Surat is one of the major industrial city contributing major shares of output especially in diamond and textiles sector. Its entrepreneurial skills are worth nothing. Rs. trade. The evolution of the power loom and handloom sector led to gradual growth of textile industries gradually. 18118 million in Excise .18 21. ESSAR. However the wages are also lower and the worker are generally deprived of the social and other benefits.46 6.40 13.76 55. Surat is known for its textile manufacturing. Another important addition since the 1950’s is the diamond cutting and polishing industry.77 11. The city without a dingle location advantage successfully host as vibrant diamond industry. chemical industries and the gas based industries at Hazira established by leading industries houses such as ONGC.56 111.60 million to SMC in 1997-98. diamond cutting and polishing industries.scale industries have come up in Surat and its peripheries. intricate zari works.85 21. In the last to decades.80 1664 1707 1963 1971 1986 1994 Inner Wall Area Outer Wall Area SMC Area SMC Area SMC Area SMC Area ECONOMIC BASE Surat’s economy is characterized by large number of small and medium unorganized industries. The industrial base in labour intensives. The city has made an important position in the world and national economy.60 Area Added (sq.Expansion of city limits (SMC) Area Year Area Total Area (SQ. As a result the level of unemployment is also low.95 33. 1078 8. especially during the eighties large.

The contribution.000 units) in the city region and the sector provides for over 0.5 lakh meter of Sari and dress material every day.0 crore.000 to 1. The Indian’s Government ‘s policy since 1956 providing incentives and protection to smallscale industries boosted the power. It adds to about 30 percent of country’s exports earning while adding about 7 to 8 percent of the gross import bill. and dyeing textiles. with a turnover of nearly Rs.2715 million in Income Tax and Rs.4 million in Sales Tax. Surat is one of the largest centers in the world for production of synthetic fibre fabrics.loom industry in the city.7 millions job in Surat. 5. employments generation and thus to national income.45 million power-looms (about 45. At present. The traditional handloom weaving industry has given way to power-looms printing. Each unit. mainly nylon and polyester. Rs. problems and prospect of each of these sectors have been briefly summarized: Table: Work Force Characteristics (1991) Work Force Population Cultivators 2508 Agricultural labourers 4240 Live stock/ forestry/ fishing etc. Textiles processing units are the major backbone of the Surat city economy. . there about 0. produces about 35. 4215. An estimated 4 percent of GDP is contributed from the sector.Tax. Surat is a dominant player in textile sector. 2720 Mining & Quarrying 875 Manufacture & processing in HH 11325 Industries Manufacture & processing other than 283568 HH Industries Construction Activities 17097 Trade & commerce 95844 Transportation / storage & 23028 communication Other services 65659 Primary sector 9468 Secondary sector 295768 Tertiary sector 203628 Main worker 508864 Marginal worker 3462 Non worker 986491 Total Population (Census 1991) 1498817 (a) Textile Industry: Textiles are one of the oldest industries in the country and continue to be a significant contributor to value of industrial production. Weaver took advantages of the incentives and converted their handlooms into power-looms.

various governmental policies aimed at increasing the exports of polished diamond aided the growth of such units in the city. Like textiles. An Apparel Park has been planned in the city for production and exports facilities to be under one roof and to give a facelift to the textile industry.200 units employing 20. the number of cutting and polishing units increased. Initially the industry began largely as an initiative of few individuals belonging to a particular community.50. providing employment to more than 100. In the early 1990’s.000 workers. Under the import Replenishment Scheme introduced by the Government of India in 1958. which has know expanded to large section of the society. the number of units was estimated at 13.000 workers. diamond export received a further impetus and consequently.s there were about 1. Major industrial concentrations within the city are found in the east and south zones of the corporation. Even majority of the entrepreneurs are from outside. During the 60. Added support came from the encouragement offered to small-scale industries during this time.45 million 400 6610 326 130 200 0.000. India’s first private Special Economic Zone has been functioning near Sachin in Surat since November 2000.01 million 56 300 (b) Diamond cutting polishing Surat is one of the world’s largest centers for diamond processing. Major Industries (city) Textiles Texturising units Power looms Process Houses Zari units Dyeing & printing mills Dyes & chemicals Plastic units Diamond units Food products Information & technology Number 500 0. The emergence of the industry in the region which did not have raw material.s exports in polished diamond grew 14 times in the early 1970. Textiles n specific acts as a major generator of employment and income.5 million workers about 10. diamond traders were allowed to import roughs from Diamond Trading Corporation.000 workers of 50 percent of 0.000 units operating with in the city limits.s about 100 diamond cutting and polishing units has been set up of the Gems and Jewelry Exports Promotion Council in 1966. trading activity in general. over . London and other sources abroad and exports cut and polished diamonds. diamond cutting and polishing is also labour intensive industry employing about 2.Textiles units mainly depend on ground water for it’s processing and withdraws about 700 to 1000 cubic meter of water every day. Coupled with ease of establishing small-scale industries. By the late 1950. markets or worker base is a significant feat. With about 60 thousand shops establishment. Still the industry has flourished. From household industry base.

000 million. 110 million in 1966-7 to 32. heavy water and space research are also under implementation.610 zari units that employ approximately 15.000 million in 2002-03. KRIBHCO. there has not been any significant increase in jobs. However. as a result. a major port at Hazira. Textiles chemical and diamond are major units located in these .000 workers. Sachin and Bhestan. Although these are capital-intensive industries.s the industry got some boost due to growing exports. These industries. Difficulties in availability of skilled labour . Export valued increased from a mere Rs. and weaving of textiles in Surat have a 300 year old history. Since the 1980. embroidery. Projects in the field of nuclear.500 persons. petrochemical. The industry requires a low capital base. high on employment generation and is a leading contributor to foreign exchange reserve. with a total investment of about Rs. NPTC etc on the outskirts of the city in Hazira industrial complex has changed the industrial scenario in the region. though output increased 5 times during the last 10 years. steel plants etc. Technical advancement have also contributed to improved productivity.00. ONGC. their employment potential is limited. natural gas. However.. the structure of industry has changed to small. is non-polluting. Innovation through improvements in technology. 1. GIDC Industrial Estates There are several industrial estates established by the Gujarat Industrial Development Corporation (GIDC) in around the city like Pandesara. Katagram. the ancillary industries and other related activities are likely to exacerbate further pressure on the infrastructure and services in Surat. Development at Hazira The establishment industrial of large industrial giants like Reliance. refinery. high of cost of raw material. alternative product design and development may enable long-term sustenance of the industry. cement. are together estimated to employ only about 5. medium and large-scale units. There about 6. outdated technology and changing preferences of the consumers have led to a severe contraction of the industry. c) Zari Indusries The silver and gold brocade (zari) industry. These industries have come up in and around Surat for example. ESSAR Steel. The latest development in the city is Liquefied Natural Gas Terminal at Hazira near Magadalla Port.the years.

which were included within the SMC limits on February 2. which was started in the year1664. Athwa and Fulpada during the beginning of the 20th century. The development plans of the Rander and Adajan. Industrial location with in SMC area along the main railway line from Mumbai to Ahmedabad has attracted major residential development during the past two decades and new industrial development on the southern side near Sachin has also been vital in the growth of the city in the southern direction. the Dacca Dwara or Custom House Water gate. The activities were concentrated with in the inner wall. the Mecca and Badshahi gates and along the riverfront.Industry Type Small scale Medium & large scale In the pipeline URBAN PLANNING Number 27238 386 133 Investment (millions) 835. km. were sanctioned by the government as in 1961 and 19969 respectively With the establishment of the Surat Urban Development Authority (SUDA) the development plan for its entire area (including SMC’s area) was prepared.0 Employment 145685 90000 14234 Urban Sprawl The city was originally established on the southern bank of the river Tapi with a castle on the eastern bank of the river. Since the 90’s the city has been growing rapidly on the eastern. 1970.28 sq. south. southern and southwestern sides where in large chunks of residential localities were developed unfer the SUDA area. The physical expansion of the town was radial and rapid along five major corridors on the north.Jahangirabad and Jahangirpura of West Zone. The area of the city at this time with in the wall was 178 hectares. Presently. east. west and south-west till the end of 80’s. The development plan of the city was then revised for the additional area included in the city limits at a later stage. Construction. Mirbehar and Lati gate. Surat witnessed the development of its suburbs Udhana.5 126335. The construction of the entire wall was completed in the year 1707 enclosing an area of 736. The entrance to the walled city area was though twelve gates: ton the south were the Navsari and Manjura gates on the west. The growth pattern is clearly demarcated with the industrial locations. as provided . Surat covers an area of 112. Surat today is an outcome of the expansion of the city’s limits at various intervals.9 11220. Planning Scheme for the area under its jurisdiction based on the development plan prepared by SUDA. The Land Use pattern of the city indicates large parcels of agriculture lands in the Ved area of North Zone and in the wards. Development Plans Formal urban planning was started for the city in 1960 when the first Development plan of Surat was prepared. A customhouse was on the southern side of the castle.

71 100.0 0 1561.4 1 55156.0 0 1661. Randeradajan – Olpad corridor. which was sanctioned on 2/9/2004.21 garden and open space Transport & 790. Dindoli corridor.43 6 7 8 9 10 11.96 2.00 256.92 Communication Agriculture Urban Area Non Area Total 1550.0 0 72200.61 57.40 540.40 579. 1976. Nana – Varachha – Kamrej corridor etc. This plan was sanctioned in 1986. solid waste collection and disposal.0 0 12.00 1550.55 0. The urban sprawl has already been started outside of Surat city limits.93 21.55 11.00 0.93 100.74 3.00 2784. including water supply systems.00 46.0 0 58967. along the radial roads and different corridor such as Udhana corridor.09 14. The planning area besides the area within the SMC includes 148 villages of Choryasi.92 8. The revised development plan for the SUDA area was submitted to the government in 1998. No Type of Zone SUDA % Area in 1978 2695.60 141.86 72200.63 1 2 3 4 5 Residential Commercial Industrial Educational public purpose Recreation 22.5 7 72200.44 17.72 3023.44 SUDA % Area in 2004 9806.00 58.00 6.43.40 0.00 13233.00 39. Kamrej Palsana and olpad taluka. The development of the city and its infrastructure has not kept pace with the increase in population and inadequate planning has resulted in haphazard growth in the fringe areas.72 22.18 415.54 2.30 1006.09 100.00 Urbanize 65453.00 6746.82 106.00 170.77 1. Sanitation and drainage facilities.under the Gujarat Town Planning and Urban Development Act.04 5. The Surat Municipal Corporation id responsible for provision and maintenance of the entire range of civic infrastructure and services in the city. .00 735.41 1550.33 SUDA % Area in 1975 6189.0 0 URBAN INFRASTRUCTURE Services and Infrastructure Before 1994 The rapid population growth in Surat ha caused several management problems for the city government.16 9.

61 95. by the plague. The plague of 1994 broke out in the out skirts of Surat.Jahangirabad. however. which afterwards become a part of the city. sewerage. While the condition of the entire city with regard to basic amenities is quite poor. WATER SUPPLY The Surat Municipal Corporation is serving about 97 percent of its total populated area and 95 percent of its population. which will make 100 percent populated area coverage of the city under water supply network. The covered drainage system introduced in 1957 was meant to served only 33 percent of the city’s population. Apart from these the area still to be covered with piped water supply are part of Nana Varachha. The area. Adajan and a part of Limbayat. Jahangirpura. consequently. Dabholi. the government undertook a massive clean-up as well as administrative reform exercise. the disease was bound to spread and assume epidemic proportions. a remarkable turnaround in state of affairs was observed.00 . The work of laying pipeline network has already been started in these places. both by the flooding and. However. as a result of a series of initiative taken by the elected council and the civic administration. Barmoli. Table: Water Supply Head/ Year Total area of Surat (sq. Only two zones out of six have treatment facilities and the remaining sewage flows untreated into the disposal site.y demand of the floating population. three months of constant rain followed by flooding caused water logging in many parts of the city. which will ensure that there would be no distruption of water supply in any part of the city. Since the plague was a manifestation of the incapacity of the civic authority to manage the plague was a manifestation of the incapacity of the civic authority to manage the basic services.Less than 35 percent of the city’s population has access to pied water supply. The sewerage network covers less than 30 percent of the city’s area. it is the fringe areas.90 97. is mostly made up of agricultural land with in the SMC limits.. the work of laying remaining pipeline network is either progress at present or would be starting soon. Ved.00 26. At present gross 195 Iped is being supplied to the population od the vity. given the solid waste situation all over the city. a reality in coming years.274 108. Due to the construction of Rander Water Works. The corporation also caters to the water supp. which is not served. Just prior to the plague. water supply pipeline gris has been formed. These area at present being served by warter tankers owned by SMC. which are the worst off access to water supply. Since May 1995. etc. Slums and squatter settlements in low-lying areas with no access to proper drainage were the most affected. and drainage and solid waste management facilities. and the amount of water supplied per capita is only about 75 litres per Area covered by piped water supply % of area served Population coverage lakh % of total population sered 2005 112.

To harness the river basin for flood control. A weir at Singapore was constructed in 1995 to prevent seawater intrusion into the river and to create body a pondage for ensuring water supply during lean periods. This is far below the city’s future requirement. was initiated in 1954. a weir at Kakrapar in the lower basin and the Ukai dams on the upper basin were constructed in the year 1954 and 1972. The Tapi meets the Arabian Sea at a distance of about 17 km from the city. The main source of water for the city is the river Tapi. onw on the right bank. The effect of the high tides is observed up to 30 km from the mouth of river. out of which the allocation for industrial requirement is about 50 MLD.1. All these tube wells are not being used now they have become obsolete as maintenance of these has become far more expensive as compares to their output. there are 25 tube wells. 65 km long and the other on the left bank. GROUND WATER POTENTIAL In Choryasi taluka of Surat district. It is observed that the groundwater level generally rises to 2-5 meters below ground level . The total number of tube wells for water supply in the city is 4. The Ukai Dam is situated about 100 km upstream of the city. At Sarthana water works. 100 km long. The lower Tapi project that comprised a masonry weir Kakrapar and two canals.Total water supply capacity (ground and 5732 surface) ( MLD) Total water supplied (ground and surface) 580 (MLD) Gross daily supply (Ipcd) 195 The city exploits both ground and surface sources of water. but 90 percent of the gross daily water supply is from surface sources. The main sources of water for the city if river Tapi. both having a command area of 214490ha. Water supply – Existing situation Purpose Quantity supply (MLD) Domestic 505 Commercial 20 Industrial Institutional 55 Stand Posts Total 58 The general practice of using ground water in addition to the municipal supply has lead to the existence of bore wells in almost every dwelling unit of the city. total groundwater recharge amounts to 330 MLD. respectively. irrigation and power generation.

discharge their untreated affluent directly into the river thereby affecting the quality of water drawn from the surface water sources. the problems of low pressure in water supply persists due to the existence of an aged network especially in central zone. Pollution of river water behind the weir by adjacent villages The villages like Amroli. This situation requires action from other government agencies as they are outside the jurisdiction of SMC. Apart from these. The contribution from the ground sources is only about 10 percent in the daily total water supply to the city.91 lakhs water supply connections. Varachha. 82 67 80 The installed capacity of surface water sources is mostly utilized at present. The system of ground water sources has become old now and the main reason for the reduced yield of ground water appears to be silting of ground water sources after the construction of the Singapore weir. the ground water level droops down to below 5 meters and even up to 10 meters at some locations. The population coverage is approximately 95 % with about 2. Increasing population has also added to the already existing woes. the use of GI pipes for household connections lead to .Except during the monsoon (June to October) in the rest of the year. Cap. It has become a need of the hour now to recharge the rain water to the maximum possible extent in order to lift the depletd ground water lenel and to improve the quality. etc. It is estimated that transmission and distribution losses account for 30 % of the total supply. Water tables in the city which has 18 meters below ground level in 1991. Average yield & Installed Capacity (20050 Source Surface Sources Ground sources Total Installed Capacity Average (MLD) (MLD) 628 520 90 60 718 580 yield Yield /inst. The yield of French well no.1 has substantially reduced and it is under maintenance. Emerging Issues System (transmission and distribution) losses and unaccounted for water The gross average supply in the city is 195 Iped. Leakage and contamination of house hold connection Although rehabilitation of old pipeline has been taken up during the past five years. Mota. Chaprabhata. At present surface water sources contribute 90 percent of the daily water supply. located upstream oe weir. Studies are required to check these figures and also amount of water unaccounted for. Average Yield and installed capacity of Various Surface Sources (2005). has gone down to 20 meters in 2000.

Domestic water demand covers the use of water for drinking.274 sq km of area.leakage and contamination of water in several areas of the corporation.6 90. Increased water supply is expected to result in a corresponding increase wastewater generation.19 % of the habitable area has a comprehensive sewerage system.54 13. as also the unaccounted for water. industries fire fighting. This was 24. Water Demand Water demand is normally classified as domestic water demand and non.6 2011 100 100 100 100 100 100 1000 2021 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 . Table: Sewerage Network (Coverage %) Zone Central North East West South South-East South. A separate leak detection cell with latest equipments and sufficient trained staff will be set up shortly. Non. swimming pools.domestic water demand. distribution losses are bound to increase.8 74. washing.63 21. The wastage may be due to system losses and unaccounted for water. SMC). bathing.86 19. Of the total 112.70 8. The overall net treated water demand for the city for the year 2011 and 2021 is 956 MLD and 1241 MLD respectively (excluding losses as per the water supply master plan.642 connections being metered.domestic water demand includes the water demand for educational institution. though reduced drastically still persists and wastage of water at the consumer level has been increasing.96 2005 100 95.38 connections of the 291.60 14.10 % at present within a span of eight years. wastage of water due to intermittent water supply etc. For the purpose SMC had to master plan prepared for the augmentation of the wastewater disposal system in 1997. Wastage of water at consumer level is increasing due to intermittent water supply Inconsistency in water supply timings. hospitals. and Bhesan. There are six sewerage treatment plants serving each of six zones of the city.9 98. km) 8. further increasing the maintenance cost. religious institutions.95 % in 1997.jhangirabad. leakage of contamination of water apart from low pressure in water supply.0 96. The number of sewage pumping stations have also been increased from 18 in 1996 to 28 in 2005 with another two proposed at Pisad.West Area( sq.The augmented sewerage system under seven drainage zones has also resulted in the increase of population coverage from 56 % to 97. 92. With only 65. flushing etc. commercial establishments. pollution of river water behind the weir by adjacent villages. SEWERAGE SYSTEMS SMC is present augmenting the existing water supply scheme.18 20.0 96.

Rainfall during this period can be extremely intense. 1542 lakhs. large amount of sewage are let out illegally into the storm water drains. which s inclusive of 1. The gentle slope of the city has greatly aided in the natural storm water drainage.Total 112. . the SMC has laid an extensive network of storm water drains in the entire city. 5. Upstream of Surat city . The work of embankment / sluice regulators at village Chhaprabhata.85 km on both banks. Flooding of Tapi river During the floods of 2006 about 10. After the ravaging flood of the River Tapi in 1968. The Tapi embankment scheme was designed for a 10 lakh causes flood.19 100 100 Source: Master Plan (SMC) STORM WATER DRAINAGE Due to its location of the River Tapi near the estuary of the Arabian Sea. Variav and Tunki were not completed. The closed drains of the city amount to only 20.5 lakh cuses discharge. the backwater entry of sea water as well as over flow of the Ukai Dam disastrous floods played major role in submerging the many low laying area of Surat city. Due to this. 85 % of the city is covered with a storm water drainage network. but well built leader lines to support the natural system are lacking in most part of the town except in the welldeveloped areas. Generally. the storm water flow through un-built open surface drains and joins the nearby Khadi or the River Tapi. the government of Gujarat had decided to have a flood protection scheme to protect surat city and its adjoining area. contributed from the catchment between the Ukai Dam which is about 80 km.25 lakh cusecs.25 (2004) and 7. The monsoon in the region is seasonal and is active between the months of June to December. Emerging Issues Mixing of Sewer and storm water drains With a very number of sewerage connections in the city. meting the River Tapi. Hence. The flood protection works consists of raising of both bank of the river by construction of an earthen embankment/ brick masonry retaining walls with / without river slope pitching and also by constructing sluice regulators across natural / creeks / drains etc. the city is witnesses frequent flooding of roads during the monsoon. during the monsoon months.0 lakh cusecs (1998). Solid waste is also dumped into the natural drains of the city in many areas near the slums. many areas of Surat city suffered temporary flooding and blockage of storm water. It was planned to provide flood protection for a total of 46.3 % of the total length of surface roads. But delay in completion of the project proved fatal during the floods of 1994 and 1998. While in 2006 it submerged more then 80 percent of the city from 2 feet to 25 feet of water The River Tapi is perennial one and it drains a total catchment of 65.274 92.000 sq. km. The major part of the scheme was executed by the Government of Gujarat from 1971 to 1995 at a total costs of Rs. the land drainage in Surat City is relatively poor and in the past.

. Silting of ‘Khadis’ or natural drains and open storm water drains The city has the advantage of a good natural drainage pattern. This long delay on the part of the Government of Gujarat proved fatal during the floods of 1994 and 1998.5 tonnes (4. when 1278 MT and 1550 MT of solid waste is expected to be generated everyday in the city. Combustible waste accounts for 22.75 % of the total and organic waste is nearly 42 %. till which time the existing fleet is deemed sustainable. thus causing them to spill into neighbouring areas. Wheelbarrows of 0. exploited properly. Just over 30 % of the total waste generated is recyclable. To cater to the needs of the population in 2011 and 2021. the corporation manages 98 % i. This comprises of paper. Never has there been an attempt to desilt and clean the natural drains of the city. Silting and construction due to uncontrolled solid waste dumping and encroachments by the poor on the banks have interrupted the flow of wastewater and storm waters. a new fleet of vehicles should be obtained from 2007-08. The need of the day is maintenance of the system in an efficient manner.m capacity should also be acquired. shops and other commercial establishments. This is collected by SMC. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN SMC AREA: The Surat Municipal Corporation has been efficient in collecting the solid waste from all over the city and maintaining cleanliness. with sewerage water getting mixed with them at places. At present there are 4503 sweepers engaged in the collection of waste across the seven zones of the city. collection and transportation vehicles. metal. starting 2006-07.m in size with a capacity of 1.e. . As part of augmentation of the system. Waste storage and transfer station should also be added from the year 2007-08.5 cu. Doorstep bins are roadside cradle types and are 314 in number. About 70 % of the waste generated everyday is contributed by households. additional containers. it is required that the collection and disposal systems be upgraded. private contractors and the rag pickers. and infrastructure at the new waste disposal site at Khajod are the immediate requirements.m)/ dustbin and cover the entire population of the city. plastic. Surat generates 400gms per capita per day of waste amounting to roughly 1000 metric tons. For this purpose. waste storage and transfer stations. The open storm water drains are in similar condition. which is not. The spacing between waste storage depots is about 100m. unfortunately.60 cu. A large portion of the scheme failing under the city limits is still pending and is largely dependent on the availability of funds with SMC as the reimbursement from the Government is expected to come only at large stage. Waste Generation & Collection Everyday.Delay in implementation of the flood protection scheme The flood protection scheme of the River Tapi that started in 1971 is still under progress. These are mainly 405cu. brick stone and glass primarily. The total number of waste collection bins is 1170. Of the total waste collected. 980 tons/ day while the rest is collected by rag pickers.

km.44 WBM 19677 174 Concrete 1. The grid-Iron pattern is also observed with some radial links in the walled city area. 4409.Dumas Road was selected. This was made possible through a complete revamping of the entire solid waste management system.250 4. Lack of effective technology for scientific disposal of solid as well as bio.Navsari Road and Kadodara road.39 m.29 sq. the total cost of this work will be Rs.37 km. The other roads selected in this year are: Surat. In the first phase. The Surat.6 Total length of road 1133. road wider than 24.3 Black topped 1059 93.. A grid-Iron pattern is observed mostly in the case of local streets and minor roads. Of this. The system is working efficiently and effectively at present. The road encircles the eastern and southern sides of the walled city.medical waste.37 100 Source: SMC (2004) A radial pattern of roads is the characteristic of the city. which is about 25 % of the total area of SMC. The outer ring road lacks continuity at certain areas and is still to be constructed at several parts. Road Network in Surat Roads Length Percentage Surfaced roads 1080. . Bhatar waste disposal site is at present the only serving site and this site has reached the end of its life span now. wherein private sector is involved. In the next phase.96 million. the site right within the city limits has exposed the entire process to the open air and life threatening parasites.1 Un-surfaced road 53. important link roads.319 0. ROADS Recent efforts at management of the road network in the city have resulted in effective widening of the main corridors of the city. RING ROADS The Ring Road is one of the major road in the city and channalises the traffic from the congested roads of the walled city to other parts of the city.5 % of the road are surfaced mostly with asphalt. are proposed to be changed to RCC roads. major ring roads and corridors. Moreover. So far 80 % of the area of the city has been effectively connected through a total length of 1133. of road network. 93. The roads in the city cover an area of 28. The conversion of asphalt road into RCC Roads has been started in the city since 2004.Emerging Issues The havoc of plague in Surat helped to convert the city into the cleanliest of the country.12 95.

two fly over bridges are on the Ring road. BRIDGE AND FLY.OVERS At present there are 37 major and minor brdges and two underpass way in the city. The north –south flow of traffic is predominant. Recently Completed a) Bridge across Khadi near Puna. The rest of the six are major roadway bridges. one at Athwa gate junction and another from Lal Darwaja junction to Sahara Darwaja. Another roadway bridge is proposed to be constructed on the River Tapi near Dabholi. There is one over bridge above L. Dumbhai (2003-04) c) Bridge Across Koyli Khadi near Model Township (2003-05) Under progress a) R. Of them eight bridge are across river Tapi at various locations. In SUDA area there are about 170 km of existing roads category. At present one fly over at Majura Gate junction on ring road and one road over bridge above Railway Culver No. NH. These radial roads are significant because regional bus trips from all these corridors enter thee cit y area near the railway station.B across Railway Culvert No. SH.O. 436 AT Dindoli are under construction. 436 (2003-07) b) Fly over on Ring road near Majura &Udhana Gate (2005-08) c) Bridge across Mithi Khadi near Limbayat (2005-07) d) Bridge Across Kankara Khadi nrar Althan (2006-07) .Kumbhariya (2002-04) b) Construction of minior bridge Khadi near FP 80. There are three fly over bridges in the Surat city. One of them is a weir cum causeway and another is a railway bridge. 146 on Sumul Dairy Road. ODR etc.No. Another fly over bridge is on Varacha road. MDR.OTHER ROAD Roads leading away from the walled city gates bifurcate into radial roads extending to the urban areas that have developed outside the city walls. Of these.C.

WBm. illegal parking and other activities. After every monsoon. The general housing condition in the city of Surat has shown great improvement during the decade 1981-91. While nearly 80 % of the city area is well connected. during the decade . However. The black cotton soil of the region (with its high shrinkage and swelling characteristic) has made the road with an asphalt/ bituminous top highly susceptible to damages. concrete and unsurfaced roads cover 8. the extension and widening process of these roads is hampered. east south and south –west zones have grown considerably. The corporation area accounting for a per capita road length of 0. western and Southern peripheral areas. Only 94 % of the existing network is surfaced mainly with asphalt. leaving the corporation and maintenance costs. Several other major roads in the north. the occupancy rates came down to less than five person per house and matched the household size at 4. west. This could be mainly constraint posed by the rent control Act. HOUSING AND URBAN POOR The housing condition in the city of Surat has reached saturation levels with the vacancy rates lingering around 15 % during the two last decades. and south zones are also discontinuous leading to major traffic movement on other roads and minor roads in residential areas. Major operation and maintenance cost of road The city receives rainfall during the monsoon. the connectivity of these road with the main corridors is inadequate. During this decade. Hence there is a need for incorporating the Outer. the rest lack good linkages.EMERGING ISSUES The current network of roads in the city comprising asphalt. Improper connectivity in peripheral areas While the peripheral areas in the west. No consideration for future growth patterns in planning for roads outside SMC The growth pattern of the city clearly indicates major growth cluster towards the Eastern.46 per sq.On average.90. The area covered by the present network is around 25. Encroachment and informal activities on the major corridor of the city The margins of major road and the footpath are encroached upon in several sections by small time street vendors.20 % of the total area of the corporation. With no margins left. Discontinuity in Ring Road and Major Roads The Ring Road from Lal Darwaja to Ved Darwaja on the periphery of walled city is discontinuous. km. the roads have to be re-laid.40 m.Ring Road concept into the TP schemes of these areas in the SUDA limits. The lack of a comprehensive planning outlook will make these area improperly connected when they are merged within the corporation at a future date. which dissuades owner from renting out properties.

five slums were relocated and in 1999. carting and other such possibilities have attracted rural poor to the city.5 in all six zones.32 %. The total number of slum thus stands at 312 at present.1991-2001.32 %.6 % in 1992 to an annual average of 1.2001 while the same for females stood at 55.24 % of the total population in the city lives. During the year 2000. The city presents a wide range of possibilities of absorption in industrial.96 Occupancy rate 5. This clearly indicates the shifting of population from the walled city to other areas of the city for residential purpose.55 471656 5.16 1498817 4.56 persons per house. Sixty three and a half % of the houses in the city are being used wholly for residential purposes while 19. which has resulted in the formation of slums.83 Occupancy rate is going below Household size.5 % of the city’s population during 1992. The other possibility could be the large number of bachelors occupying individual houses. which were not considered earlier as slums.2 % of the houses are entirely under uses other than residential. were added along with new slums that developed. The Central zone with the highest density has a house hold size of 5. Within the city occupancy rates have come down to below 4.56 776583 size 1971 33.location and development programme after the havoc of the plague in 1994. allied as well as service sectors. hawking.78 4. Owing to rapid industrialization in and around the city.39 % during 1991.28 2433785 4. the occupancy rate went down well below the household size as is represented in the adjacent graph.90 3. Occupancy Rates and Household Sizes Years Areas Population Household (sq.14 1981 55.90 2001 112. through the rate has been constant at 15 5 since 1981. Growth of the slum population has also decreased considerably from an annual average of 14. retailing .16 1991 111.54 but the occupancy rate has come down to 3. This is also indicated by the composition of population growth was 68. those settlements. which is a clear indicator of high incidence of male migration into the city. During 1995-98. This figure was 27. This is against a total of 41600 houses being put to other uses than residential purpose. Development of new slums could not . There are a total of 312 slums in the city of Surat in which 19.42 5. This achievement on the part of SMC is due to the effectives implementation of various slum re. a large influx of migrants has been observed. while the same for females stood at 55.46 % in 2001. This indicates a large vacancy rate. scope of employment in trade and business activities.

4 20.ft in area. muck.87 21. Migrant labourers often share a single room on a shift basis.69 1.7 42. drainage lines stone paved foot paths. the increasing number of slums has made such efforts in adequate.2 9.24 Status of Land of Slum settlements Slums locations have been determined mainly by nearness to work sites and availability of patches of land along the roads and rail tracks.24 4.2 8. While slums with in the city wall have access to piped water avoided by the SMC due to the easy access to open spaces in the south and southeastern area of the city.1. 124 are within and around the city wall and other 85 are along transport corridors.3 1982 15. pay-and-use toilet. road with carpet. low lying areas and canal banks. The condition of public utilities and services is dismal. Growth Tend In Slums Population Growth trend Total city population Annual growth rate Total slum population (lakh) Annual growth rate (%) Slum population as % of total population 1983 9.46 27.7 7. Though efforts to provide the slum with better amenities were carried out. 4373 9.4 1992(% ) 37. Ownership of land Private Government Municipality Others 1973(%) 43.2 1. Subsequent to the plague in 1994. Of the 312 slums in the city.34 6. hepatitis B. adjacent to factory walls.7 4.46 20. typhoid.41 5. un cleaned filth.30 20.34 1. hand pumps.14 2005 28.49 19. Lack of drainage. individual .3 . garbage.4 2001 (%) 26.0 8. gastro enteritis etc.3 41. all basic services like water supply. Housing Condition and Basic Amenities It was reported way back in 1997 that 86 % of the dwelling units in the slums of Surat are one room units and 58 % of them are less than 100 to 200 sq.5 2001 24. chocked gutters. A significant number (51) of slums exist in the interior area of the wards.8 4. the rest of the slums are not covered by such network.91 1. making them congested and unhygienic. pigs and stray dogs together make many of these locations easy prey to water borne disease like malaria.87 The density in all the slums that existed before 1994 is significant high.13.00 1.

toilet. Location of slums in the city Locations Number Within the city wall 92 Outskirt of the city wall 32 Along transport corridor 85 Along or near river banks 19 Near old settlement 28 Interior areas of wards 51 HOUSING FOR URBAN POOR Slum Upgradation Surat Municipal Corporation is providing basic infrastructure facilities like water supply. Besides this. Around 48 slums pockets were covered under the ‘’ National Slum Development Programme.4 27. stand posts. each toilet block has 8 WCs. nutrition.15/ per month or Rs. Men pay Rs. Percent 30. SMC had lunched the construction of toilets and till sate 136 such complexes have been constructed by two NGOS. Upto this day about 70-80% of slums have been provided all the basic services. It is estimated that about 125 crore of rupees has been spent for this mission Water Supply in Slum Areas Almost 70% of the total hutments in the slum area created through piped water supply network and remaining hutments are served either by stand posts or tanker at present. The municipality sweepers clean these every day.6 . Urban Community Development (UCD) anf Urban Basis services for the poor (UBSP).0.50 per use and the facility is free for women and children below 12 of year of age. 20 crore. Functioning o the basis of ‘ Pay and use’.1 16. Balwadis. After the plague. SMC is also administering a few centerally sponsored programme for uplift of the poor and slum dwellers under the Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS). The under-usage of these block calls for an awareness campaign regarding cleanliness and sanitary habits. In 1995.0 10. have been provided in a majority of the slums as part of the slum improvement programme. By 196. since many years. 10% of municipal budget is allocated by every year under section 63/2 for providing the basic infrastructure in slum area.. street lights. viz. roads.2 9. formal education. Sulabh and Paryavaran. surface drains were constructed in all the slum and dare cleaned every week.7 6. The remaining area is planned to be covered under pipeline network at an approximate cost of Rs. The Gujarat Municipal Finance Board has been sanctioning loans/grant under this programme to upgrade the existing environment in slums. SMC had paved 75 % of the internal roads in slums with Kota stone. provision of clean potablr water and disposal of waste. But the reach of most of these programmes gad been limited so far. 4 baths and 4 urinal separately for men and women. nursery schools etc. storm water lines etc.The major thrust of the Ubsp programme is on health. streetlight. drainage.

The built house approach for the rehabilitation of slum dwellers is carried out for three categories such as LIG. subsidy is provided by the government.000 households have been rehabilitated up to june 2005 on 21 various sites with the total expenditure of Rs. It is estimated that about 55.e.W.U. Bath and balcony.C.S Category is ground + Three Storied RCC framed structure. Against it. W.e. Planning is under process of remaining units. is 22. The average housing density is 376 DUs/ Hector (i.00 sq. Against which the Surat Municipal Corporation has constructed 7616 dwelling units on 24 different sites.U. While for the post earthquake projects. The total Built up area of single D. there are four dwelling units. The unit has single room. LIG Housing Under Government of India’s 20 point program the Government has given target to constructed about 65 dwelling units. The cost of land and infrastructure is borne by SMC. On each floor.for the project to 26 Jan .88 sft.G Category is Ground + Three Storied RCC framed structure. kitchen. The housing design for E. m (i. The hutments. VAMBAY Housing (BPL Housing) The Central Government subsidized scheme Valmiki Ambedker Awas Yojana began in 2002-2003.066 household are living . Total Built up area of single D. The cost of the single dwelling unit is approx Rs 200000 including land.e.0m multiple by 5. 68000/. 58000/.m. 2001 .I. 241. The slum pockets located on important public road as well as on important public land required for te city development was vacated by removing the hutments. W.(i.60 crore Built House Programme Surat Municipal Corporation construct RCC Pucca house for the slum beneficiaries. Bed room. 408. 57.0m size with all basic infrastructure facilities.C.00 sqft. The effected hutments were shifted to oher SMC land by providing them individual open plot of 3. Per D. such affected slum household are provided the built houses.). os 38. there are four dwelling units.Rs. The construction cost of the single dwelling units was Rs. which are compulsorily required to shift from its original place to place because of the city development works.SLUM REHABILIATION Site & Services Scheme Surat Municipal Corporation stared the site & serviced scheme on large scale from the year 1994. About 12.. construction & infrastructure cost. 1880 PPH) EWS Housing The Government has given target to construct about 7754 dwelling units including target for the year 2005-2006. The housing design for L. EWA & BPL housing.). the building design was revised and the construction of single dwelling units rise to Rs. SMC has constructed 113 dwelling units on different sites. The units has living room .45 sq. washing place and balcony. This is the scheme specially design for the families those who are living in slums and below poverty line. On each floor.U. kitchen.

The Gujarat Pollution Control Board is responsible fro monitoring water and air quality it includes under its purview. EMERGING ISSUES Unregulated and Speculative Land and Real Estate Market Lack of implementation of T. The Government has recommended to provide the housing unit with 15 sq m. .P.for Surat.gradation Cell. have to be relocated as infrastructure cannot be provided in such areas and the amount of land available with the corporation is not adequate to relocate such a large number of slums. which are either along water bodies or transport corridors. This is in turn determined by the water and air quality. Insecure tenure.000/.000 per dwelling unit will be in form loan components. Increasing in the number of slums While 5 new slums were added increased during 2000-2005. The VAMBAY Housing Schemes is directly benefited to these families. of built –up area.below poverty line in Surat city. Growth of slum in isolated locations has also led to poor living condition and poor service availability in such areas. 50. Scheme and inadequate infrastructure in the newly developed areas has led to a speculative land market wherein there is no differential pricing for developed and undeveloped areas. The cost celling per dwelling house is Rs. The Central Government will provided Rs. 25. Lack of land within the corporation area for slum relocation Several slums. Lack of information on services availability in slums Though the corporation has set up a separate Slum Up. rent control act. pricing and taxation have all perpetuated the issue. urban productivity. it has been observed that the relative location of the slum is along water bodies or transport corridors. Urban Environment The environment of a city is critical determinant of the health of its inhabitants and consequently.subsidy per dwelling unit. inappropriate regulation. And Rs 25. lack of complete information on service availability in all the 312 slums in the city has been hampering the implementation of slum improvement/ rehabilitation programmes. testing of both surface water and ground water and testing the ambient air quality. The concentration of such slums is very high in the east and south zones.000/.

2 The SPM levels have always remained above the prescribed limits for residential and rural areas. IT has been observed that ther has been a rise in the COD levels at all three olocation during the last six years. SVR Engineeting Collage and BRC Udhan (industrial ). Old Civil Surat. thereby rendering the surrounding area susceptible to infectious and communicable diseases. Tapi water at Ukai Dam and at Mandvi were upgraded to Class A (drinking water source without treatment but after disinfection) in 1997 from class B ( usefull for outdoor bathing only) in 1991. either into the near by drains or dub-bores as polluted the surface as well as ground waters. GIDC Pandesara and GIDC. The monitoring station at Sachin GIDC was reopened during 1998-99. The NOX levels have always been below the CPCB prescribed standards but during the year 1998-99 there was mjor rise in the values at all three location SO2 levels. The letting of out of waste water by several small scale industries in the east and south zone. the lack of comprehensive sewerage systems has led to large quantities of untreated waste water being drained in to the River Tapi. Encroachment along the major natural drains of the city resulting in obstruction in natural flow of water.WATER The water quality of the River Tapi is tested analyzed ever month by GPCB. Monitoring station were also set up at Dumas Surat Station. Obvious results of all the above mention reasons are health risks to the citizen of the city. It has been stated by CPCB that the stretch of the River Tapi that passes through the city of Surat is moderately polluted. Till recently. AIR Ambient air quality is being monitored by GPCB regularly at three location in Surat. Several reasons can be attributed to the pollution of the water bodies in the city. with values alarmingly higher than the prescribed standards. This has led the degradation of ground water too. Ukai Dam Mandvi and Kathor Bridge. DOD faecal coliforms and total coliforms. which were earlier above the prescribed limits have come down significantly and are now below the limits. three locations are selected for sampling viz. hthe waters at Kathor Bridge after entering the city are put under class B. The stretch of the Tapi after it leaves the city near Hazira village has been dangerously polluted with OCD.Sachin from wher monitoring was done during 1993-94 but was later discontinued from the succeeding year. This result in flooding and stagnation of water. This can be mainly attributed to the high concentrations of dust and other 2 GPCB Report 1995-99 and 2002-2005 . There are no monitoring stations to estimate the and assets the quantity and quality of waste water being generated in the city. They are: Air India Building. Surat and the nearby industrial areas account for 89 of the 563 large and medium water polluting industries listed by the inventory of the Central Pollution Control Board ( CPCB). Over the years.

There are schools and colleges in the city but most of them lack an environment conducive to learning. A new super specialty cardiac center was set up in the year 2000. Surat will have to depend on professional from outside though this trend is changing recently. educational facilities in Surat are provided by a host of agencies.increasing population in the city is expected to put pressures on the existing health facilities. the city got a new lease of life thanks to SMC’s efforts increasing and improving the health facilities . A considerable number of the secondary / higher secondary schools are also under the management of private institutions. the city has emerged in recent year as an example for other civic agencies to follow. A new civil hospital has come up along with a new medical college. The ever. HEALTH From decay to resurgence. The department of Business Administration under the university acts as a professional institute and offers a Master in Business Economics. Apart from these. state government and local government to the agencies aided by the state government as well as private institutions. There are around 650 trained nurses in the hospital. At lowest level. Because of this materials in most pars of the city. people of Surat prefer the family business or setting up new business soon after finishing high school. Though the city is cleaned almost twice a day by the sand on the roads (which lack proper margins and footpaths are he main reasons for the particulate mater in high concentrations. Even today. despite its potential for economic growth. Medical College) has 1040 beds in 32 wards looked after by 250 medical teaching staff. Professional Institutes located in the city are S.V. Devastated by the plague in 1994. Regional Engineering College. over 40 in terms and PG students. The city has 596 primary school of which 258 schools are run by SMC and as many as 332 school are under management of private institutions. Government Medical College and the SMC Medical College. which are either affiliated or selffinanced. The SMIMER with medical college has 750 beds while the Civil Hospital (attached to a Govt. anganwadis. dispensaries. The South Gujarat University is also located in the city act as a research institute. ranging from the central government. SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT EDUCATION From primary school to research level. etc . there are 22 colleges. there are basic health centers.

EMEGING ISSUES Lack of educational facilities A spatial disparity is observed in the educational facilities with most of the primary secondary and higher secondary schools in the city located in and around the central zone. which is of grave concern. For a city with a phenomenal growth rate the number of the colleges and professional institution is very low. . The number of multi-disciplinary and super specialty hospital are also Apart from the Civil Hospital there is only one cardiac super specially hospital that has been recently set up in the city. Lack of recreational facilities There has been a continuous decrease in the amount of open space present in the city over the past decade. Efficient management of health facilities after the plague have helped to tackle the needs of present city population but without additional facilities the future appears bleak.9 lakh of slum population. there is a clear inadequacy in the number of schools available in the city. there are only 22 health centers. In the past. SMC runs 13 hospital of which are in the central zone. At one primary/ secondary / higher secondary schools for every 425 students. At present these are not sufficient to carter to the recreational needs of the population. Inadequacy of health facilities to carter to the needs of population in 2011 and 2021. The Civil Hospital is also lacking in the number health programmes in the city especially in the slums. the green belts. An average of one school for every 300 student is the necessity. which has considerably smaller area than the other zones but it is most densely populated. For a city with about 4. 46 % of the hospital are with in the central zone. gardens and park were put to different urban uses.There are a total of 513 hospital in the city that are registered with the SMC. Of these as many as 475 (92. On the whole. The Civil Hospital is not easily accessible for a large number of slums spread throughout the city. It has also been observed that the number of HIV positive cases in the city is growing gradually. Educational facilities in the slum localities of the city are also inadequate .59 %) hospital are run by private organizations. These is also a need for research institutions.

Further. The Gujarat Municipal Finance Act. repeal of Urban Land (Ceiling & Regulation) Act-1976 (ULCRA) etc. Several initiatives have been taken up at national level like 74th Constitutional Amendment Act and model municipal law. The governance of urban local bodies assumes importance in the wake of the 74th Constitution Amendment Act which delegate’s mandatory elections and greater devolution of power and function to the city corporations. At present. ELECTED WING The elected wing consists of Corporations elected by the citizens of SMC and the actual number of Councillors is related to the total population. The hydraulic Department under SMC is responsible for water supply and sewerage schemes in the city. A deputy Mayor and is elected from amongst the corporators. RECENT MANAGEMENT REFORMS Urban reforms are the focus of good governance and service delivery to the inhabitants of the urban areas. These committees are responsible for assisting the council in the planning and execution of development works at the zonal level. The political wing is an elected body of councilors headed by a Mayor. Ward committees operate at the zonal level and consists of elected corporator of the respective wards and are headed by a chairperson. The Commissioner. SMC performs obligatory and discretionary functions. This theme outlines the present structure of the elected and administrative wings of the corporation related to management functions. The Commissioner takes the decision on behalf of the Board or the Standing Committee formed from the elected Councillors. the Corporation consists of 102 Corporators elected from single member constituencies on an adult franchise. as incorporated in the said Acts. at State level Govt. The city is divided into seven zones with a total of 34 election wards and 102 ward constituencies. operations and reforms under the amendments GOVERNING STRUCTURE OF SMC The governing structure of SMC consists of both political and administrative wings.URBAN GOVERNANCE AND MANAGEMENT The Gujarat Municipal Act of 1963 and the Bombay Provincial Municipal Corporation Act. while performing the duties of the Corporation. 1949. . is for a perid of five years. from the IAS cadre. The term of both the mayor and his deputy. heads the administrative wing is responsible for the strategic and operational planning and management of the corporation. govern the functioning of Surat Municipal Corporation. routes the loan and grant money and central aid provided by the State and Central Government to the ULBS. of Gujarat has taken up several initiatives like creating investor friendly environment.

66 million/ annum g) Alternative street lighting during low traffic period : Energy saving of Rs. 7. In Lacs Recovered (Rs. 16.6 million/ annum f) Power Factor Rebate: Rs.At ULB Level Surat Municipal Corporation had taken up several reforms and many of these are first of kind in country. Saving realized: Rs 27. Following are the reforms done by S.52 million/ annum c) Energy Audit (External) d) Saving Identified: Rs 7. Saving realized : Rs.C User Charges Services Cost (Rs.Governance & GIS f) Biometric attendance system Energy Reforms a) Energy Audit (Internal) b) Economical channel in water Supply Grid Demand Rationalization. Energy Bill Monitoring etc. 5 million/ annum .M.) In Lacs Recovery Target Time Frame 5yr 4yr 4yr 2003-04 Water 5882 Supply Conservancy 8554 Roads & 2138 illuminations 2004-05 7042 10500 2549 2003-04 2992 3342 1188 2004-05 3563 3591 1677 Financial & Taxation Reforms a) Accrual Based Double entry Book keeping Accounting b) Out sourcing of Services PPP c) Total Computerization Of Accounts With Balance Sheet d) Approaching Debt Free Financial Administration e) User Charge f) Efficient Tax Collection g) Life time Vehicle tax Administrative & Technological Reforms a) Vision – 2020 Plan and city Corporate Plan b) Micro and Marco.56 million/annum e) Use of electronic ballast & hi=lumen fluorescent lamps. ISO certification SCADA and induction of modern gadgets c) DCR Revision d) Transparency in administration e) E.

peoples’ willingness to accept other people belonging to different culture and sustained growth over for decades. provided by the opportunity provided by the local administration to enhance quality of life of the residents makes the city enterprising by creating conditions for a safe living and business friendly environment. COMPLAINTS MONITIORING SYSTEM At the ward level. The standing committee meets once in a week every afternoon between 3 to 4 pm (headed by the standing committee chairman) Municipal measure if possible. Large proportion of the population lives in slum in Surat as cost of living is quite high. These complaints can be made between 7am to 6 pm either in a person or on the phone. Additional support from ULB towards urban poor is a necessity. Its strength lies in its diverse economic base. Complaint mitigation is carried out within a specific period.9 million/ annum Disaster Management a) Disaster Preparedness and Municipal Response Plan b) Strengthened relief & rescue system CONTINUOUS MONITORING SYSTEM Monitoring within SMC is done at four levels. As following statement reflects the current state of affairs: . zone level. While Surat is seen as an alternative to Mumbai as a place of residence. entrepreneurial skill of people. all complains are lodged in a register and a complaint lodger is given a white card for sanitation purposes and red card for engineering and public works. The recent development and growth petrochemicals and gas-based industries in the city region should be considered as an opportunity for further growth. ward Level and on the field. at same time it is also a weakness that it is located in between two metro cities namely Mumbai and Ahmedabad. At the same time. Potential for demand in term of trade and transit services should be trapped for sustainable urban growth. namely corporation level. a minimum of 24 hours with the upper limit as a week.h) Energy generation from biogas produced at Anjana STP: Expected saving Rs.0. Its distinct social and economic character is its major strength. with the permission of the municipal corporation Commissioner. City Assessment: Strengths and Opportunities The resourceful and inclusive city of Surat with a dynamic local authority thrives for excellence to become a dominant player in the national and global scenario. The major weakness of the city is lack of educational institutions to respond to local institutional demand. is done on daily basis. conductive environment for industrial growth provided by responsive local administration. Complaint register maintained at the ward level and mitigation carried out within a period of minimum of 24 hours and a maximum of a week. The divisional head has been given the authority to sanction works up to a value of Rs 2 lakh. the opportunity.

2001. Lack of available transport system. . has left the city with a crumbling face.5 lakh vehicles. which earned Surat the tag of beings one of the cleanest cities of the country.” Surat Forum: Times of India. May 22.“The contours of the city landscape underwent basic and cosmetic changes in the mid 1990s along with growth of infrastructure facilities. business travels abroad still mean taking a flight from Mumbai or Ahmedabad. For industrialists. In the absence of any traffic planning over7. The public transport services have remained as they were years back need for a proper system to cater into the growing population is felt overwhelming. leave the city road gasping for space. with lack of an airport in the second largest city of the state.

1998. Surat Seher Sudhrai. Surat Municipal Corporation. Surat City Guide Map (2005). Surat: Vision 2020. (1952) Surat Seher Sudhrai Shatabdi Granth.References Mimeo. S. Surat Jagdishan. (edt). Thakore R. Surat Municipal Corporation Desai. (2004). Surat Itihas Darshan-Prachin Kal thi 1800 AD Sudhi. Surat Municipal Corporation. Surat .