This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Edited by Woraphot Wattanaphan
Among the preparatory processes of weaving, warp sizing can be regarded as the most important process.
It has a great impact on the production efficiency of weaving looms, operation cost and quality of the woven fabric.
A properly sized warp achieves already half the goal of a good weaving operation.
Functions of Sizing
1. Spun yarn ( natural fiber ) ● Increased yarn strength - size film ● Glue down protruding fibers – less hairy ● High and stable viscosity – less penetration easy removal ● Low friction and good extensibility 2. Filament yarn ● Bind all filaments together (need penetration for better adhesion) ● Antistatic – no repulsion between single filaments ● Even add – on to the whole beam 3. Blends of synthetic and natural fibers ● Hydrophobic nature of synthetic fiber – adhesion ● Suppleness ● Smoothness ● Antistatic
Not support mildew growth. Flexible. Good extensibility. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● . Easy to remove.General requirements of a good size ● Tensile strength. Inexpensive. Abrasion resistance. Good adhesion.
Warp Sizing Agents Natural Vegetative origin Animal origin Grease Starch Seaweed Natural gums Gum Arabic Animal protein Bone glue Dry oil Potato. corn. wheat. sago. tapioca Linseed oil .
roasted starch. α starch Starch acetate Phosphated Starch Cationic starch CM starch CE starch HE starch Methyl cellulose Ethyl cellulose CMC Hyroxylethyl cellulose Sodium alginate .Warp Sizing Agents Natural derivative Processed starch Starch derivative Cellulose derivatives Electrolyte Soluble starch.
Warp Sizing Agents Synthetic Sizes Vinyl Vinyl copolymer Acrylic Petroleum PVA Mod PVA PVAc acrylic acid Polyacrylamide Polyacrylester Polyolefin Partially hydro' PVA Fully Hydro' PVA PVA ester PVM .
Natural sources of starches applied in sizing: ● ● Tapioca starch Potato starch x300 Wheat starch x300 Rice starch x300 Maize starch x40 .Starch ● Historically. starches and flours are the traditional film former of the sizing process. Starches are flours with the gluten (gummy substance) removed.
Sources of starches used in textile sizing Corn (maize) ● Tapioca ( cassava) ● Wheat ●Sweet potato ● Sago ● Rice ● Yucca ● Potato ● Chemical constitution of starches .
Chemical constitution of starches Starch polymers are carbohydrate composed of repeating anhydroglucose units linked together by an alpha glucosidic linkage. Amylose is a linear polymer. Branching can occur when an acetal linkage between the -1.000 to 300.position of another.bond between adjacent chains making it difficult to re-solubilize. it will form strongly H .6M). Amylopectin is the major component of starch and comprises the outer sheath of the granule. Highly branched polymers are called Amylopectin. MW range 100. .000 found in the interior of the starch granule and account for 19 – 26% of the weight. This gives rise to linear polymer called Amylose. when the solution is cooled. The alpha linkage is an acetal formed by the linkage of the hydroxyl group at the -1.position with the -4position of another. It is soluble in hot water. less water soluble than amylose. however .position of one ring forms with the -6. A highly branched high MW polymer (1.
000 Several hundreds 20% Soluble in warm water Blue easy happen low influence Amylopectin branched 1.000 10.600.Properties of amylose and amylopectin Amylose Structure Molecular weight Average DP Content % Solubility Test paper Enzyme Retrograding Viscosity Oil influence linear 100.000 ~ 300.000 ~ 80% Less soluble in warm water Red purple difficult Not happen high Not influence .
The viscosity of the solution increases as the granules swell. Typically the starch granules are stirred in cold water and kept suspended by high speed mixing. to many times of their original dimensions. and stabilized if the temperature is kept there. Prolonged heating and mechanical shearing rupture the swollen granule membrane allowing the solubilized amylose to spill into the bulk of the solution. as more and more water diffuses in. .Starch solution Natural starches are not very soluble in cold water. reaching a maximum at the point where the swollen granules press against each other. The granules swell. At this point the viscosity begins to fall off. As the temperature is raised. The starch solution can be considered as solubilized amylose molecules intermingled with ruptured swollen fragments of the amylopectin membrane. Cooking is necessary to get the starch granules to form a homogenous solution. water penetrates through the amylopectin membrane to solubilize the amylose.
HT amylopectin 115 ~ 120C . of 90 ~ 95C. swelling Gelatinizing phase Rupture of membrane Establish paste stability Keep temp to avoid retrograding Ripening phase Stabilizing phase Temperature of 55 ~ 60C gelatinization Viscosity change Temperature 100 75 50 25 0 > 85C rupture General 88C.Preparation of starch solution Gelatinization process Change of starch particle Initial swelling phase Water in. penetration start Main Swelling phase Amylose dissolve.
higher cooking temperature is needed to optimize the gelatinization.4 +/. ● 1.04 +/. Cooked solution of corn starch cannot be kept for too long without decay but corn starch is still the most extensively used. about 60% to 65% corn starch.005% < 0.0 +/.5% 4.100 < 0. Adhesion is strong. uniform penetration and resilient makes a good sized yarn. is more rigid and more difficult to be desized.In warp sizing. But the sizing.01% < 0.20% Corn starch general specification .5 ~ 4.0.8 1700 +/.35% 98.1. and about 25 to 30% wheat starch were used. Its quality specifications are as follows: Item Moisture content % Crude protein Whiteness pH Viscosity cps Sulfite residue Soluble protein Crude fat Specification 12.0% < 0. otherwise long time is needed. High pressure cooking can compensate this inconvenience.0. on compared with other starch. Corn starch: Very hard particles.
good film smoothness. oxidized starch. Strong adhesion but viscosity not stable as wheat starch. Other features in between that of potato starch and wheat starch . Mostly applied in mixture with corn and wheat starch. 6 Processed starches: also known as modified starch. tends to foam during gelatinization. Film strength weaker than the other starches. dextrin. Elongation similar to corn starch and potato starch. 3 potato starch: flexibility and abrasion resistance of film are excellent. Good penetration of the starch solution. but more stable. Rapid increase in viscosity when cooking. 5 Wheat flour starch: Wheat flour contains bran protein (9 ~ 14%). altogether about five categories. use in mixture with synthetic sizes. Need to be boiled for more than 2 hours to obtain stable viscosity. namely: thin boiling starch. due to not so good film forming and extensibility. . better penetration. but then gradually drop into unstable state. mildew grows easily. and starch ether. British gum.2. 4 Wheat starch: viscosity lower than corn starch. Sweet potato starch: viscosity varies with different sources.
and highest viscosity temp.Size and shape of starch particle Starch type Corn Wheat Sweet potato Potato Particle size 14 µ 21 µ 30 µ 40 µ Particle shape polygon Spherical. polygon oval oval Gelatinizing temp. of starches (7%) Starch type Corn Wheat Sweet potato Potato Rice Tapioca Gelatinizing temp 71C 83C 68C 58C 65C 66C Highest viscosity temp 92C 95C 84C 69C 95C 73C .
Ratio of amylose and amylopectin in various starches source and types Example 1 Amylose Corn Wheat Potato Rice 25 12 3 24 Amylopectin 75 88 97 76 10 32.5 Adhesiveness Index of various starches Starch type Rice Corn Wheat Potato Adhesiveness Index 100 85 75 68 .5 27 31.5 Example 2 Amylose Amylopectin 90 67.5 73 68.
less strength Transparent. strong and soft Similar to potato but more brittle Better than corn. not so brittle as starches Evenness. good strength. colorless. rough. brittle Uneven thickness.Properties of various sizing films Film type Potato starch Corn starch Sweet potato starch Soluble starch CMC PVA fully hydrolysed 2300 Partially hydrolysed 1800 Film properties Transparent. good extensibility but with sticky feeling .
The acid cleaves the polymer at the glucosidic linkage thereby lowering the viscosity of the solution. Their solutions still retrograde 2. Thin boiling starch Thin boiling starches are made by adding a small amount of acid to a starch suspension that is held just below its gel point. Dextrin Dextrin are made by heating dry starch with a mineral acid. Hydrolysis occurs within the granule without breaking the granule. Mostly corn starch is used to make thin boiling starches. Hydrolysis of starch .Processed starches 1. White dextrin is made by heating at moderate temperature and yellow dextrin is made by heating at higher temperature with less acid. The degree of hydrolysis is higher than thin boiling starch so dextrin solutions have lower viscosity.
The granular structure is retained and films from oxidized starch are better than those formed from thin boiling starch. . British gums are more water soluble and produce higher solution viscosity.Processed starches (cont'd) 3. British Gum British gums are made by dry heating starch granules at 180oC without acid. Sodium bisulfite is added to destroy excess hypochlorite. Some of the 1-4 acetal linkages are broken and 1-6 are formed. They are mainly used as thickeners. Oxidized starch Starch granules are oxidized with sodium hypochlorite which converts the 2-3hydroxyl into -COOH groups breaking the ring at that point. lower molecular weight product is formed with more reducing end groups. 4. Five to seven -COOH groups per 100 anhydroglucose are introduced. A more highly branched.
Processed starches (cont'd) 5. Starch ethers Starch ethers are made by reacting the hydroxyl groups in the anhydro glucose ring with appropriate reagents. thus modifying solution and dry film properties . These reactions increase the hydrophilic nature of the starch and decrease the ability to form hydrogen bonds between polymers.
7 5.9 1.0 25 Not even Stable low vary Not good 43.4 Processed Starches various – – even Usually low Usually great good 23.4 15.9 3.8 0.6 18.3 1. of fold) 16.2 13.3 9.13 21 Not even Stable low 52 Usually Not good 48.9 3.7 5.7 Wheat Wheat Flour 12.4 3.9 45.1 3.6 `` 30.83 45 Not even unstable 218 good 39.1 21.3 .6 – 15 even Stable medium 100 good 25.20 17 even Stable high 105 good 40.General Properties of Starches Sweet potato Moisture content % Protein content % Particle volume µ Particle size distri~ Viscosity Penetration mm Film forming Tenacity (g) Extension % Flexibility (no.9 Potato Corn (Maize) 13.3 7.4 17.
0% 7. ● 5. before cooking.Swelling of starch particle Soaking the starch.0% 7.13 Effect of Soaking temp and swelling of starch Conditions: wheat starch 7g / 50ml water Water temp 12oC Swelling temp Room temp 40 o C 45 o C 50 o C 55 o C 60 o C Swelling 6. Approximately one hour is needed for fully gelatinizing the starch suspension and bring it to a stable viscosity.0% 7.5% 10.5% 40.0% . allowing full swelling. can shorten the time of gelatinizing of the starch suspension.
oiling D 0.161g Water temp 16oC Temp of oiling 60oC 70oC 80oC 90oC 100oC Temp of starch 38oC 42oC 48oC 52oC 55oC Swelling 24% 30% 35% 38.14 Effect of temp of oiling added to swelling of starch Conditions: wheat starch 7 g / 50ml.5.5% 48.5% Addition of oiling facilitates swelling of starch .
5.15 Effect of oiling type and temp of swelling of starch Conditions: wheat starch 7g / 50ml Oiling 0.5oC Swelling temp 40oC 50oC 55oC 60oC Swelling volume Oiling A 21mm 24mm 28mm 46mm Oiling B 21mm 22mm 26mm 41mm Oiling C 23mm 25mm 29mm 46mm Oiling D 21mm 24mm 30mm 51mm Different oiling type has effect on swelling of starch .525g. water temp 12.
5.5mm 20mm 18% 12.16 Effect of oiling quantity on swelling of starch Conditions: Wheat starch 7g / 50ml .5mm 15mm 8mm 20mm Increase in oiling quantity decreases swelling volume of starch .5mm 18mm 17mm 21mm 12.5% 19mm 18mm 21mm 18mm 21mm 10% 17.5% 15mm 11mm 15mm 14mm 21mm 15% 15mm 11mm 13mm 10.5mm 10. Water Temp: 14oC Oiling quantity Oiling A Oiling B Oiling C Oiling D Oiling E 7. 51oC ~ 52oC Oiling 91oC.5mm 13.
Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA. POVAL) Manufacturing process of polyvinyl alcohol hydrolysis .
Industrial manufacturing method of PVA Polyvinyl acetate is dissolved in methanol to form a 20% solution. methanol and catalyst is chopped-up. The gel. methyl acetate. Commercial PVA comes in grades which reflect the molecular weight and degree of hydrolysis. three grades are mainly used. a gel is formed. For textile size applications. Degree of hydrolysis Fully hydrolyzed Intermediately hydrolyzed Partially hydrolyzed 98 ~ 99% 95% 85 ~ 90% Solution temp Boiling water 60oC 49oC . the catalyst neutralized with acetic acid. The solution is poured onto a conveyor and passed through a gelling zone. Sodium methoxide is added while the solution is being stirred by a high speed mixer. The solids are dried and pulverized into relatively pure polyvinyl alcohol. consisting of polyvinyl alcohol. squeezed to remove the excess liquids and the solids purified by washing with more methanol. Polyvinyl alcohol is not soluble in methanol so as the hydrolysis proceeds.
1. ● When acetate ester groups remain. as the number of acetate groups are converted to the corresponding -OH group. Fully hydrolyzed polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) form strong hydrogen bonds with neighboring chains. However -OH groups are able to form hydrogen bond with water.Properties of PVA Water solubility. ● ● ● ● White powder Specific gravity: 1.295 fully hydrolyzed. the hydrophilic nature of the polymer increases up to a point where 88 % of the ester groups are hydrolyzed. Being linear. a balance between the number of hydrophilic groups and chain separation is struck for optimum water solubility. Beyond this. therefore. This allows water molecules easier access to the -OH groups and at 88 % hydrolysis. solution viscosity and film properties are influenced by the molecular weight and degree of hydrolysis. Higher energies are needed for water molecules to penetrate the network so fully hydrolyzed grades require very hot water to solubilize them. the hydrophilic nature drops off rapidly as the polymer nears the fully hydrolyzed state. the polymer does not have hydrophilic groups to assist in water solubilization. the chains can align themselves to form a tightly packed array. As the acetate ester.275 partially hydrolyzed Water solubility: varies according to DP and degree of hydrolysis . the ability of the polymer chains to form H-bonds is interrupted by the pendant nature of the ester group.
very stable viscosity A.87–89 mol% hydrolyzed. D. 78–81 mol% hydrolyzed. 98–99 mol% hydrolyzed. DP = 500–600. DP = 2000–2100. DP = 1700–1800 . C. 98–99 mol% hydrolyzed. B. DP = 500– 600.● Viscosity: low viscosity group.
The solubility of partiallyhydrolyzed PVA is thus high at room temperature while fully-hydrolyzed PVA is essentially insoluble in water at the same situation.For PVA of a certain molecular weight. and the solute-solvent hydrogen bonding are mainly determined by the degreeof hydrolysis of PVA and the solution temperature . On the other hand. For PVA of low % hydrolysis. in the solution of higher temperature. the extent of both inter and intra chain hydrogen bonding.due to the bulky size and hydrophobic character of the remaining acetate groups in the molecules. the solubility of highly-hydrolyzed PVA increases dramatically . As a result. OH groups on neighboring chains are prevented from getting close enough to form inter chain hydrogen bonds [12.17]. the extent of inter and intrachain hydrogen bonding is disrupted by the higher mobility of the molecules and the ones between PVA and water are thus enhanced.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.