) 3.8 – 11.0 10^3 / mm3 (Female) 3.8 – 11.0 10^3 / mm3 (Male) 14 – 18 g/dL (Female) 11 – 16 g/dL (Male) 39 – 54% (Female) 34 – 47% (Male) 4.2 – 5.6 10^6 / µL (Female) 3.8 – 5.1 10^6 / µL 50 – 81% Clinical Significance • If low WBC, there is a risk for infection. • An increase WBC indicates infection. • Low hemoglobin can cause fluid overload, anemia, and recent hemorrhage • Low Hct indicates anemia. • High Hct indicates DHN • A low count of RBC indicates anemia • An increase number of RBC indicates polycythemia • Increase neutrophil indicates bacterial infection • Decrease may indicate viral infection • Lymphocytes are increase by some viral infection, diseases that affected the immune system. • Decrease is caused by malnutrition and long term illness. • Increased monocytes caused by infection of a virus. • This can be increased by allergies and reaction to some medication. • This can be decreased by severe stress. • Can be increased by poorly functioning thyroid gland • Decreased by severe stress.



14 – 44%

Monocytes Eosinophil

2 – 6% 1 – 5%


0 – 1%

General chemistry Test Normal values Clinical Significance Increased: primary hyperthyroidism, parathyroid hormone secreting tumors, vitamin D excess, metastatic bone tumors, chronic renal failure, milk-alkali syndrome, osteoporosis, thiazide drugs, pagets disease, multiple myeloma, sarcoidosis. Decreased: hypoparathyroidism, insufficient vitamin D, hypomagnesemia, renal tubular acidosis, hypoalbuminemia, chronic renal failure (phosphate retention), acute pancreatitis


8.8 - 10.3 mg/dl

parathyroid diseases. severe dehydration. malnutrition. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. hypothyroidism. acromegaly. Decreased: hyperthyroidism. Fanconi's syndrome. Decreased: drugs (allopurinol.Magnesium 1. Normal Values: (Urinalysis) Tests Normal values Clinical Significance • Cloudiness may be caused by excessive cellular material or protein in the urine or may reflect from crystallization or precipitation of salts upon standing at room temperature or in the refrigerator.5 . and malabsorption states. Color Pale yellow to amber .6 mg/dl Creatinine 0. hypophosphatemia. nasogastric suctioning. chemotherapy. Increased: gout. hungry bone syndrome. ampho B). Increased: renal failure including prerenal. Addison's disease.8 mg/dl. lactic acidosis. probenecid.2. hyperalimentation. hyperthyroidism. FBS aPTT 60-110mg/dl 21 – 35 seconds Lipid Profile Tests Cholesterol HDL cholesterol LDL cholesterol Triglycerides Normal values <200mg/dl 30-70mg/dl 65-180mg/dl 45-155mg/dl (<160) Clinical Significance • Increased cholesterol leads to cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis • Decrease HDL can be a risk for coronary heart disease • Increase LDL can be a risk for atherosclerosis • Decreased serum triglycerides are seen in abetalipoproteinemia. others). drugs (diuretics. Decreased: loss of muscle mass. others). female: 2-7 mg/dl Increased: renal failure. malabsorption.hyperglycemia • Decreased glucose results to hypoglycemia The aPTT is commonly used to monitor heparin therapy an screen for coagulation disorders. intracellular shifts with respiratory or metabolic acidosis.1. • Increased glucose can result to diabetes mellitus. renal tubular acidosis. others). hypothyroidism. drug-induced (aminoglycosides. cisplatin. aldosteronism.4 mg/dl Uric Acid Male: 3 . antacids. lithium intoxication. drugs (aminoglycosides. chronic dialysis. Wilson's disease. pregnancy. vancomycin.6 . renal failure. diuretics.

035 on a random sample should be considered normal if kidney function is normal.Turbidity Clear to slightly hazy Specific Gravity 1. a drug. Urine having a specific gravity over 1. the urine is acidified. depending on the acid-base status. contains very high levels of glucose. • Normal total protein excretion does not usually exceed 150 mg/24 hours or 10 mg/100 ml in any single specimen. or the presence of either hemoglobin (from the breakdown of blood) or myoglobin (muscle breakdown).0. However. which is most sensitive to albumin but detects globulins and BenceJones protein poorly. urinary pH may range from as low as 4. consumption of beets.035 is either contaminated.002 and 1. Bromphenol blue.5-8.015-1. • Glycosuria (excess sugar in urine) generally means diabetes mellitus. • A positive nitrite test indicates that bacteria may be present in significant numbers. starvation). • A positive leukocyte esterase test results from the presence of white blood cells either as Negative .025 pH 4. betahydroxybutyric acid) may be present in diabetic ketosis or other forms of calorie deprivation (e.4 to about 6 in the final urine. or the patient may have recently received high density radiopaque dyes intravenously for radiographic studies or low molecular weight dextran solutions. Proteinuria greater than 3. Gram negative rods such as E.0 Glucose Negative Ketones Negative Protein Negative Nitrate for Bacteria Leukocyte Esterase Negative • A red or reddish-brown color could be from a food dye.5 to as high as 8. • Specific gravity between 1. • Ketones (acetone. More than 150 mg/day is considered proteinuria. Dipsticks detect protein by production of color with an indicator dye. in other words. aceotacetic acid.007 to 1. coli are more likely to give a positive test.5 gm/24 hours is severe and indicates the nephrotic syndrome. • The initial filtrate of blood plasma is usually acidified by the renal tubules and collecting ducts (microscopic structures in the kidneys of which there are millions) from a pH of 7.g.010 indicates hydration and any measurement above it indicates relative dehydration. Any measurement below 1.

tyrosine crystals with congenital tyrosinosis or marked liver impairment. or the external urethral meatus (opening) in men and women may contaminate the urine. or long distance running for example). upper and lower urinary tract infections. although albumin and some globulins are also part of it.g. Even with injury causing increased glomerular permeability to plasma proteins with resulting proteinuria. acute tubular necrosis. renal infarcts. • Pyuria refers to abnormal numbers of leukocytes (white cells) that may appear with infection in either the upper or lower urinary tract or with acute glomerulonephritis. most of the matrix (glue) that cements urinary casts together is TammHorsfall mucoprotein. e.Casts Occasional hyaline casts Red Blood Cells Negative or rare Crytals Acid Urine: Amorphous urates Uric acid Calcium oxalate Sodium acid Urates Alkaline Urine Amorphous phosphates Calcium phosphate Ammonium blurate Triple phosphates Calcium carbonate whole cells or as destroyed cells. the WBC's are granulocytes (a type of white cell which includes neutrophils and eosinophils). • Renal tubular (the microscopic tubes in the White Blood Cells Negative or rare Epithelial Cells Few . White cells from the vagina. Usually. urinary tract stones. in the presence of vaginal and cervical infections. glomerular damage. • Urinary casts are formed only in the distal convoluted tubule (DCT) or the collecting duct (distal nephron). Rarely crystals of cystine (in urine of neonates with congenital cystinuria or severe liver disease). nephrotoxins. or leucine crystals in patients with severe liver disease or with maple syrup urine disease. and physical stress (like a contact sport. • Common crystals seen even in healthy patients include calcium oxalate. kidney trauma. The proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) and loop of Henle do not produce casts. • Hematuria is the presence of abnormal numbers of red cells in urine due to any of several possible causes. A negative leukocyte esterase test means that an infection is unlikely. Hyaline casts are composed primarily of a mucoprotein (Tamm-Horsfall protein) secreted by tubule cells. tumors which erode the urinary tract anywhere along its length. triple phosphate crystals and amorphous phosphates.

or cystic fibrosis. Less than 2 milligrams per gram (mg/g) of certain sugars called reducing factors are present in the stool. testing may be done to determine the presence of rotaviruses in the stool. However. pus. The presence of undigested meat fibers in the stool may indicate pancreatitis. fungi. or parasites are present in the stool. and well-formed in consistency. Abnormal: Increased volume of stool may indicate poor absorption of fats. reflecting its passage through the colon. fungi. Reducing factors levels between 2 and 5 mg/g are considered borderline. Rotaviruses are a common cause of diarrhea in young children. mucus. viruses. An abnormal pH may indicate poor absorption of carbohydrates or fat. Low levels of certain enzymes (such as trypsin or elastase) may be present. The shape of the stool is tubular. Crohn's disease. Stool Exam Stool analysis Normal: The stool appears brown. The presence of white blood cells in the stool may indicate bacterial diarrhea. Levels greater than 5 mg/g are abnormal. the number sloughed into the urine is increased. Low levels of certain enzymes (such as trypsin or elastase) may indicate digestive complications of cystic fibrosis or pancreatic insufficiency. bacteria. a type of white cell which includes neutrophils and eosinophils) contain a large round or oval nucleus and normally appear in the urine in small numbers. Abnormal values may mean • • • • • • • High levels of fat in the stool may indicate chronic pancreatitis. or parasites are present in the stool. pus. mucus. with nephrotic syndrome and in conditions leading to tubular degeneration. Normal pH of stool is about 6. A specific organism may be identified. . bacteria. viruses. No blood.kidneys which lead to the drainage system) epithelial cells which are usually larger than granulocytes (again. If diarrhea is present. Blood. The presence of blood in the stool indicates bleeding in the digestive tract. sprue. soft.

PCO2 35-45 PO2 80-100 HCO3 22-27 BE (-2)-(+2) O2sat 80-100 . • A low O2 indicates that the patient is not respiring properly. and is hypoxemic. A low HCO3 indicates metabolis acidosis. • The base excess indicates whether the patient is acidotic or alkalotic. • A high PCO2 (respiratory acidosis) indicates under ventilation. A negative base excess indicates that the patient is acidotic. • The HCO3 ion indicates whether a metabolic problem is present (such as ketoacidosis). a high HCO3 indicates metabolic alkalosis. the patient is at risk of death and must be oxygenated immediately. PCO2 levels can also become abnormal when the respiratory system is working to compensate for a metabolic issue so as to normalize the blood pH. Supplemental oxygen should be administered. HCO3 levels can also become abnormal when the kidneys are working to compensate for a respiratory issue so as to normalize the blood PH. At a PO2 of less than 26 mm Hg. • This is the sum of the oxygen solved in plasma and chemically bond to hemoglobin.45 Clinical Significance • Metabolic acidosis is indicated by a low pH.• High levels of reducing factors in the stool may indicate a problem digesting certain sugars (especially sucrase and lactase). At a PO2 of less than 60 mm Hg. • Metabolic alkalosis is indicated in a higher pH.35-7. Arterial Blood Gases Tests pH Normal Values 7. A high positive base excess indicates that the patient is alkalotic. a low PCO2 (respiratory alkalosis) hyper or hypoventilation.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.