IS, : 801 - 1876

Indian Standard

Rcdii

1995 )

CODE OF PRACTICE FOR USE OF COLD-FORMED LIGHT GAUGE STEEL STRUCTURAL MEM’BERS IN GENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTION (

First Revision )
1998

Seventh Reprint DECEMBER

( Incorporating Amendment No. 1 )

UDC

624014.2

: 693.814

: 69tOOl*3

BUREAU
MANAK

OF
BHAVAN.

INDIAN

STANDARDS
ZAFAR MARG

9 BAHADUR SHAH NEW DELHI 110002

Gr 8

January 1976

IS : 801-1975

Indian Standard
CODE OF PRACTICE FOR USE OF COLD-FORMED LIGHT GAUGE STEEL STRtJCTURAL MEMBERS IN GENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTION

(First Revision)
Structural Engineering Sectional Committee, SMBDC 7
Chairman DXECTOR STANUARDS (CIVIL) Representing Ministry of Railways

Members Industrial Pasteners Association of India, Calcutta SHRI L. N. AGRAWAL SHRI M. M. MURARKA (Alternate) Metallurgical and Engineering Consultants (India) SHRI A. K. BANERJEE Ltd, Ranchi SHRI S. SANKARAN(Alternate) Department of Transport (Road Wing), Ministry SHRI P. C. BHASIN of Shipping & Transport SHR~ .4. S. BISHNOI(Alternatej Government of West Bengal ;; ; p C$TJEE Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute . . . (CSIR), Durgapur Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur DR P. DAYARATNA~I Ail. N. Dastur & Co Pvt Ltd, Calcutta SHRI D. S. DESAI Irrigation & Power Department, Government of DIRECTOR (MERI) Ma!rarashtra, Bombay RESEARCHOFFICER (Alternate) Central Water & Power Commission (Power DIRECTOR (TCD) Wing), New Delhi SHRI P. V. N. IYENGER (Alternate) Central Public Works Department, New Delhi EXECUTIVE ENGINEER (CENTRAL STORESDIVISIONNo. II) Stewarts & Lloyds of India Pvt Ltd, Bombay SHRI M. M. GHOSH S~IRI S. C. GHOSH (Alternate) Bridge & Roof Co (India) Ltd, Howrah SHRI A. G. GONSALVES SHRI S. S. BOSE (Alternate) Public Works Department, Government of West Sam SAILAPAT~GUPTA Bengal, Calcutta (Con&ed (9 Copyright OF INDIAN 1982 on page 2)

STANDARDS This publicatign is protected under the Indian Copyright Act (XIVof 1957) and reproduction in *hole or in part by any means except with written permission of the publisher shall be deemed to be an infringement of copyright under the said Act.

BUREAU

ls

I

801- 1975

(Conlinued jrom page 1)
Members Representing The Hindustan Construction Co Ltd, Bombay Snm G. S. IYER SHRI S. M. GULATEE (Al&a&) DR 0. P. JAIN Institution of ‘Engineers (India), Calcutta JOINT DIRECTORSTANDARDS (B&S) Ministry of Railways DEPUTY DIRECTORSTANDARDS (B&S)-11 (A!fernalc) Bombay Municipal Corporation, Bombay SHRI S. D. KALE SHRI M. K. R. SHARMA(Allentale) . _ Electrical Manufacturing Co Ltd, Calcutta SHRI CLu GHOWA SHRI S. N. SINGH (Alternafe) Engineer-in-Chief’s Branch, Army Headquarters, PROF K. D. MAHAJAN New Delhi PROF 8. V. RAMASWAMY (Alternate) National Buildings Organisation, New Delhi SHRI G. c. MA~WJR Srmr K. S. ~RISIVASAN (Aitcrnatc) SHRI P. K. MALLICK Jessop & Co Ltd, Calcutta SH~I A. P. KAYAL (Allernalc) Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur DR S. K. MALI.ICI( Mantons (Bangalore) Prt Ltd, Bangalore SHRI N. V. MANAY Hindustan Steel Ltd, Durgapur SBRI A. K. MITRA Braithwaite & Co (India) Ltd, Calcutta SHRI P. K. M~KHEHJEE SHRI P. T. PATEL (Alfrmafe) SHRI P. R. NATAR.~JAN Struc~o~~hetrgineering Research Centre (CSIR), DR J. PURUSHOTHAM
DEPUTY DIRECTOR (GATES & DESIGN) (Alternate)

Central Water & PowerCommission New Delhi Richardson

(Water Wing),

REPRESENTATIVE SIIRI P. V. NAIK (Alfcmate)

& Cruddas Ltd, Bombay

Burn & Co Ltd, Howrah KEPRE~ENTATIVE Jadavpur University, Calcutta PROF P. K. SonI Indian Roads Congress, New Delhi SHRI T. N. SUBBA RAO DR D. JOHNSON VICTOR (Altemati) SUPERINTENDING EN G I N E E R (PLANNING& DESIGNCIRCLE) E~EC~TIVIZ ENGINEER DIVISION) (Ahnafe)
(RUILDXNC. CENTRE MAJ R. P. E. VAZIFDAR

Government

of Tamil Nadu, Madras

SHRI K. VEERARAO~VACHARI SHRI S. N. VOHRA Snar S. N. BA~U (Alkrnatc)
SHRI L. D. WADHWA SHRI B. B. NAO (Alternate) SHRI C. R. RAMA RAO,

Bombay Port Trust, Bombay Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd, Tiruchirapally Inspection Wing, Directorate General of Supplies & Disposals (Ministry of Industries & Civil Supplies) Engineers India Ltd, N,ew Delhi Director General, BIS (Ex-n@io Member) Secretary

Director (Strut & Met)

Assistant Director

SHRI S. S. SETH1

(Strut & Met),

BIS

(Continued on page 37)

2

commercial and industrial structures. and Where sub-assemblies of such plant. for example. plug or slot welds.3 This type of construction is appropriate more of the following conditions: a) and economical under one or Where moderate loads and spans make the thicker. members can be prefabricated in the to a minimum of simple operations.and two-storey residential. with its great versatility of shape variation. etc. reducing site erection for example. purlins.1 This Standards Structural Structural Council. roXtrusses. iioor panels and roof decks. joists. 0. bolts. while smaller quantities of special shapes are most economically produced on press brakes.IS : 991-1975 Indian Standard CODE OF PRACTICE FOR USE OF COLD-FORMED LIGHT GAUGE STEEL STRUCTURAL MEMBERS IN GENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTION ( First Revision) 0. for example. Indian Standard (First Revision) was adopted by the Indian Institution on 31 January 1975. standardized package shed-type b) c) 3 . by screw. complete framing for one. mostly installed without any shoring and wall panels. makes this type of conrtruction’as adaptable to special requirements as reinMembers are connected by spot. panel framing up to 3 x 4 metros and (a). generally not thicker than 12. Where it is desired that load-carrying members also provide useful surfaces. cold ‘rivets or any other special devices. The latter process. girts.5 mm. FOREWORD 0. hot-rolled shapes uneconomical. forced concrete is in its field of use. For repetitive mass production they are formed most economically by cold-rolling.2 Cold-formed steel structural members are cold-formed in rolls or press brakes from flat steel. after the draft finalized by the Engineering Sectional Committee had been approved by the and Metals Division Council and Civil Engineering Divicion 0. fiilet. sub-assembly of more for structures listed in utility buildings.

SCQPE 1.as that of the specitied vali~c in this standard. of which boLh edges parallel to t&e direction of stress sre stif‘fened by a web.2.0 For the purpose of this code. 2.5 For t!le purpose: of tim~din~ wldiet~ standard i.?r thr: clr.. members’ _i~uhlished by An7crican Iron a~1 Steel Jnstitute. for example. The number of significa IT pLact:s reixined in the rounded off value should be the sami. Whi!e revlsmg the Tndian Standards. flange stiXening lip.tl of? in accnrdancc \virh IS : 2-i%O+.uitabl.2 Steels other than the one co\fered in 2. ol~crvcd or calcolatcd. 4 .1 Structural steel sheet or strip steei rhall conform to IS : 1079-19737. MATERIAL 2.2. 3. or between a web and a stiffened edge.An element that is stiflened between webs. other than baildine allowances are made for dynamic effects. flat element which is 3.2. DEFINITIONS 3. provided appropriate 2.2.>:ion. the Sectional Committee decided that it should be. sheet or strip steels used for load carrying It may also be used fijr structures.iicd \\rith.1 This code applies shape from carbon or purposes in buildings.for this type of conwuction. intermediate stiffener. coz-ty. 3.A fiat compression e!ement. of stress. as this has been the accepted practice in :hir i-ountry and most . brought in line with the 19X edi.. a particular rq:lir. a plane compression flange of a flexural member or a plane web or flange of a compression member. the followicg definitions shall apply.igrl uf cokl fmrd steel str7lcrural New York. tspecification for hot rolled carbon sted sheet and strip (third revi&j. .1 Stiffenedi Compression Elements --.3 Mubiple Stiffened Elements .4 This standard was fiirst published in 19% and \vac mainly based on 1935 edition of ‘Specification !. stiffeners or between web and intermediate stiffener or between edge and intermediate stiffener.. 1.ion of the AlST pul& .Is : 801” 1975 0. 3.cmctnt 01‘ Ihij 0. *Rules for rounding off numerical values (w&A). by means of intermediate stiffeners which are parallel to the direction of’strcss and which conform to A sub-element is the portion between adjacent the requirements of 5.2.2 Unstiffened Compression stiffened at only one edge parallel Elements --A to the direction to the design of structural rnembcrs cold-formed 10 low-alloy.1 may be used provided such steel conforms to the chemical and mechanical repuirements of IS : 107%1173t and its weldability is guaranteed. the final valtw. expressing thp resl71t of a test rJr analysis. shall be rounci~. or the like conforming to the requirements of 5.

3.Yroperties of se&ions (cross-sectional area. W.4 Flat-Width Ratio . section modulus. DESIGN PROCEDURE as to the various loads to be taken into account reference should be made to IS : 800-1962* 4 5. . IS : 875-19647.IS : 84M .16 Stress -.Where the M-width. the width exclusive of fillets of the flange.Force per unit area.8 Point Symmetric Section -A (centroid) such as a . to the thickness t. 3.1 and 5.2.1975 3. .1 For general guidance in the design of structures. w. the reduced design width b is termed the effective width or the effective design width.6 Thickness -. T channel and 5 shaped w is the width of the flat projection of flange from web.c section .ode. of a is the ratio of the flat-width. Fy section symmetrical equal flanges.The flat-width ratio. 4. 3.2.of. the exclusive of fillets. The thickness t of any element or section shall be the base steel thickness. such as hat: 0’ or box width w is the flat-width of flange between adjacent webs.5 Effective Design Width -. single ffat clement. exclusive of coatings. In shape sections.2. In the case of sections.9 Yield Point. radius of gyration.having 3. and of any stiffening lip that may be at the outer edge the case of multiple-web sectuons. and ix determined in accordance with 5. 5.2 Properties of Sections . deflection and the like shall be in accordance with conventional methods of structural design except as otherwise specified herein. is required by the provisions of 5. moment of inertia.5. sections. or eflective design width. stress. 3.7 Torsional Flexural Buckling--A mode of buck!ing pression members can bend and twist simultaneously. expressed in kilogram centimetre. abbreviated throughout as kgf/cma.practice for use of structural steel in general building construction (reuise. force per square 3. exclusive of edge fillets. etc) shall be determined in accordance with conventional methods of structural design. LOADS 4. Pro_ perties shall be based on the full cross section of the members (or net section where the use of’s net section is applicable) except where the use of a reduced cross section. w/t. such as I. tcode +t.1 and 5.Q of practice for structural safety of buildings: Loading standards (m&f). of an element is reduced for design purposes.5.in which about com- a point It shall mean yield point or yield strength.2. 5.1 AlI computations for safe load.

The effective design widths of compression elements which are not subject to the provisions of 5.2/7 for flanges with w/t 1 _I (w/t)li. or 0.1.2.2 shall be determined from the following formulae* : For load determination: Flanges are fully effective (b = w) up to (zu/t)m.6. 435/d’ For flanges with w/t larger 1 Exception: Flanges effective larger 6 of closed square (b=w) than 2 120 C ‘and up to (w/t)ll..5 where applicable.1..1. dctcrmined in accordance with the provisions of 5.2.75 times the stress caused by wind or earthquake plus gravity loads. the effective design width b shall be determined for 0.2. 6 .75 times the stress caused by wind or earthquake loads alone.1 or 6.1. 420 t -=z (w/t) d7 1 1. = than (w/t)llm 600 (w/t) z/f For flanges with w/t larger 1 *It is to be noted that where the flat-width exceeds (lu/l). as hereinafter defined shall be considered as being reduced l‘or design purposes to an effective design width b or b.IS : sol . For deJection &termination: Flanges are fully effective up to (w/t)lf. since the stress and the effective design width are interdependent.2.1) for compression members.1 Progerties of St$ened Compression Elements .1..850/d/f When members or assemblies are subject to stresses produced by wind and earthquake forces.In computing properties of sections of flexural members and in computing values of Q (see 6.2.1975 5.1.1 or 5i2..2. and subject to the limitations of 5.2 whichever is applicable. 5. when use is made of the increased allowable stress permitted in 6. the propertics of the section shall frequently be determined by successive approximations or other appropriate methods. t!le flat-width w of any stiffened compression element having a flat width ratio larger than (w/t)n.. That portion of the total width which is considered removed to arrive at the effective design width shall be located symmetrically about the centre line of the element. rectangular tubes are fully 1 540 = .2.1.2.=l than (w/t)li.1 Elements without intermediate st$sners .

Where such flat-width ratio exceeds 60. of the sub-element the following formula*: where be -=-_t flat-width ratio b= be = b t O*lO (5 - 60) w/t ” of sub-element or element.2 for limitations on number of intermediate stiffeners which may be considered effective and their minimum moment of inertia. b. tScs 5.1. 8 = 4 At [1_$]y than element stiffened zit one edge by other than a simple lip.3(a) for limitations on the allowable flat-width ratio of a compression 7 . [ 1 - (w/t) d-y 1 w/t = flat-width b = f = effective design width in cm.2 Multiple st$ened elements and ride stiflened elements with edge stz~encrs .2. *See 5.ls Exception: Flanges of closed square and rectangular 990/# 545 for : 8019 1975 fully rujt tubes are flanges with effective up to (w/t)rtm=l larger than (rci/t)rtm 2 710 b --=_ t where z/f ratio. and effective design width of sub-element in design computations in cm. the area of stiffeners (edge stiffener or intermediate stiffeners?) shall be considered reduced to an effective area as follows: For w/t betlveen 60 and 90: where 4 = (3 For w/t greater 2 be/w) 90: -4.1.1.. of such sub-element or element shall be determined in accordance with the provisions of 5. the effective or element shall be determined from design width.1 in cm. in accordance or element witn the to bc used effective design width determined provisions of 5.2. and actual stress in the compression element computed basis of the effective design width in kgf/cm2. on the 5. be.2.2. = (be/w) At A.2. For computing the effective structural properties of a member having compression sub-elements or element subject to the above reduction in effective width.Where the flat-width ratio of a sub-element ofa multiple stiffened compression element or of a stiffened compression element which does not have intermediate stiffeners and which has only one longitudinal edge connected to a web does not exceed 60.2.1. the effective design width.

3.2. by means of intermediate stiffeners parallel LOthe direction of stress.2.gle~ to the stirencd.2 Zntevxediate stiffemrs . width of the sub-element.In order that a Aat compression clement may be considered a multiple stiffened element: it shall be stiffened between webs. and ratio of stiffened element.2. or other stiffening means.22 Sta$kers j0r Com~ressiim Hemcnts 5. the required overal ! tlcptlr &ln of su’ch lip may be determined as f@ilows: ---_ &n.2.8 t ~(. and the moment of inertia of the stiffener about its own ccntroidal axis shall 1~ that of the full section of the stiffener. 5. or between a web and a stiffened edge. only one intermediate stiffener shall be considered effective.2. a) If the spacing of stiffeners between two webs is such that the flatwidth ratio of the sub-element between stiffeners is larger than (w/t)lim in 5. 203/F. but not less than 9. = 2.1.2. element.2. but not less than 4. If the spacing of stiffeners between a web and an edge stiffener is such that the flat-width ratio of the sub-element between stiffeners is larger than (w/t)Iim in 5.~~~j&rs--. having 5. = minimum allowable moment of inertia of stiEener (of any shape) abotit its own centroidal axis parallel to the stiffened elem~:nt in cm4.21. only two intermediate stiffeners (those nearest each web) shall be considered efTective.c~/t)s-281 200/F.+ relk wly to the area of the stiffener section.1 E&e .2.8 t A simple lip shall not be used as an edge stiffener for any element a flat-width ratio greater than 60. having the following minimum moment of inertia: &$ln -== 1.83 t4 z/~-281 where 1bfr. lip. it shall be stitlked along each longitudinal edge parai!el to the direction of stress by a web.113 the above expressions. Only for the purposes of computing the flat-width ratio of the entire multiple-stiffened 8 b) c) . If intermediate stiff&ers are spaced so closely that the flat-width ratio between stiffeners does not exceed (w/t)iim in 5. excluGve of any portion of a~lja~cns elements. and the moment of inertia of each such intermediate stiflener shall be not less than twice the minimum allowable moment of inertia specified for edge stiffeners in 5. The centmid of the stiffener is to be ccnsidered located at the centroid of the fkll acea of the stiffcnttr.In c~&r that a flat compression element may be considered a strricned compression element.. ---_.2 t* w/t = fhat-width Where the stitfencr consists of a simple lip bent at right nn. A ef and A.1 where w is the The following limitations shall also apply: . all the stiffeners may be considered effective.

and t= d= Cf = *l’he amount of curling that can be tolerated will vary with different kinds of sections and shall be estab!ished by the designer. Lkusually wide jlazges --.2. and whose equiva!et. depth of beam. the other stiffened by: 60 Simple lip 90 Any other kind of stif&ner bl Stiffened compression element with both longitudinal edges connected to other stiffened elements comuression element c) Unstiffened 500 6i‘ NOTE Unstiffencd compression elements that have flat-width ratios exceeding approximately 30 and stiflened compression elements that have fi:at-width ratios exceeding approximately ‘250 are likely to develop noticeable dct’ormation at the full allowable working stresses. d . or haif of the distance between webs for box. including centroidai axis. either stiffened or unstiffened: where zur = the width of flange projecting beyond the weI>. cl. shall be as follows: Stiffened compression element having nne longitudinal Ri edge connected to a web or flange element. Amount of curling in the order to 5 percent of ths depth of the section is usually nat considered rxcessive. = moment of inc:-tia element. .d member ii unusua!iy wide and it is desired to limit :he maximtrn amount of curling or movement of the flange towards the neutral asis.element.or U-type beams. the amount of curling*. without affecting the ability of the mcmb~r to carry design loads.3 Maximm Allewaiilc Oaerall Flat-Width Ratios . about iis own 5.Where a flange of a 9~xur. flange thickness. such clement shall be without intermediate stiffeners between webs or from web to thickness ts is determined as ts = where I.Maxinulm alio~vable overall flat-width ratios ZU// disregarding intermediate stitfeners and taking t as the actual thickness of the element. Stifl‘ezed elements having flat-width ra:ios larger than 500 may be used nith safety to support loads.r follows: -__ 3’12 I.-ws of the f1111area of the m-uitil)lc-stiEcncd tne intermediate stiffeners. considered as replaced by an element whose width ZQ is the W!JO~ xvidt!l edge stiffener. but substantial deformation of such elements under load may occx and may render inapplicable the design formulae given in this code. the following formula applies to compression and tension flanges.

Where the span of the beam is less than 30 wt (wr as defined below) and it carries one concentrated load or several loads spaced farther apart than 2 wi. or the distance between inflection points for continuous beams. (1) 14 12 10 8 6 RATIO (2) 0. the h/t ratio shall be computed for individual sheets.86 L/w. 10 . or twice the length of cantilever beams in cm. 5. whether in tension or compression.89 0. 5..5.91 0.4 Maximum Allowable Web Depth . TABLE 1 MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE RATIO OF m DESIGN WIDTH TO ACTUAL WIDTH L/WI (1) 30 25 20 18 16 I.or U-type sections in cm. 5. shall be limited to as given in Table 1. the effective design width of any flange.1975 fa. ZQ = width of flange projection beyond the web for I-beam and similar sections or half the distance between webs of box. = the average stress in the full. Where a web consists of two or more sheets. unreduced flange-width in kgfl ems *(where members are designed by the effective design width procedure.67 0.2.82 0.25 Unusually Short Spans Supporting Concentrated Loads .55 full span for simple spans.2. wl shall be taken as the sum of the flange projection beyond the web plus the depth of the lip.1 For flanges of I-beams and similar sections stiffened by lips at the outer edges.78 0.96 0. RATIO (2) 140 0. the average stress equals the maximum stress multiplied by the ratio of the effective design width to the actual width).73 0.The ratio h/t of the webs of flexural mcmbcrs shah not exceed the foilowing limitations: a) For members with unstiffened webs: (h/t)Mlrr = 150 b) For members which are provided with adequate means of transmitting concentrated loads or reactions or both into the web: (h/t)Max = 200 where h = clear distance between Ranges measured along the plane of web. and t = web thickness.IS : sol.

6. or (3) computed as follows: Q=l.1. where Fy is the specified minimum yield point. the basic design stress shall be determined as follows: F == 0.1 Utilizntion uf Cold Work of Forming .Allowable stresses shall be based upon the specified minimum properties of the unformed steel.60 Fla where F.1 Basic Design Stress .1 Methods and limitations shall be on the following basis: a) The Utilization of cold work of formin! point of axially loaded compression mqmbers whe the flanges of flexural members whose proportions ar such that when treated as compression members the quantity 1 (see 6. of any increase in steel strength that results frorr a cold-forming operation is permissible provided that the methods and limitations prescribed in 6.1.3.0 General DESIGN STRESS allowable stresses to be used in design shall The maximum be as given in 6.1. shill be determined on the basis of eithr (1) full section tensile tests [see 9.1 to 6.1) is unity. When the increase in steel strength resulting from cold work of forming is utilized in accordance with 6..1(a)].1.3. except as otherwise specifically provided herein: F = OXiQ F. is the average yield point <the full section. Utilization. or (2) stub column tes [see 9. Values of the basic allowable design stress F as defined above for some of the grades covered in IS : 1079-1973* are given in Table 2.and yield F.1...= C Fyc +(l -C)Fy. 11 .1 are observed and satisfied.1975 6. *Specification for hot rolled carbon steel sheet and strip (third revision). and tension and compression on the extreme fibres of flexural membersshall not exceed the value F specified below.1.1..1(b)]. 6.IS : Sol. TABLE 2 BASIC ALLOWABLE STRENGTH DESIGN STRESS F F MINIMUMYlrrm 21 21 30 3G kgf/mm2 kgf/cm’ 1 250 1 450 1800 2 16Q 6. ALLOWABLE 6. for design purposes.1. 6.8.Stress on the net section of ttmion members.

/F. c) The yield point of axially loaded tension members shall be determined by either method (1) or method (3) prescribed in (a) above. and/or maximum included angle exceeds 120”.9 (F. or (3) the weighted avera. R/t exceeds 7. F.:ompression members the quantity Q (see 6.0.3. B.79. (6.2 or virgin yield point if tests are not made. = tensile yield point of virgin steel* specified in 2.8./F. ratio of the total corner area to the total cross-sectional area of the full section of compression members. & = 3.1. may be taken a.IS 1 881-1975 where F.192 (F.7).2). and 7) Wall Studs (8./(R/t)m. tSpccification for hot rolled carbon steel sheet and strip (thirdreuirion).69 (&IFy) . = ultimate tensile strength of virgin steel specified in 2.s (1) the tensile yield point of thevirginsteel* specified in IS : 1079-1973t.2. 2) Compression on Unstiffened Elements (6. 6) Cylindrical Tubular m Compression or Bending (6. The formula does not apply where Fu/Fy is less than 1. *Virgin steel refers to the condition (that is coiled or straight) of the steel prior to the cold-forming operation. or full flange sections of flexural members.3.3.3. 12 . tensile yield point of corners. F.0468. Rms inside bend radius.1(a) shall be confined to the following: 1) Basic Design Stress (6.6).1 or established in accordance with 9.2. = C= average tensile yield point of the full section of compression members.1.1) is less than unity.3. Fyc = Fn = weighted average tensile yield point of the flat portions established in accordance with 9. b) The yield point of axially loaded compression members withQ less than unity. 3) Laterally Unbraced Beams (6. or (2) the tensile yield point of the virgin steel established in accordance with 9.3.8). 4) Axially Loaded Compression Members (6.3. 5) Combined Axial and Ben$~m~. or full flange sections of fiexural members.ge tensile yield point of flats established in accordance with 9.1. d) Application of the provisiOns of 6.0.1).) .6. and the flanges of fiexural members whose proportions are such that when treated as .sses.. .1 or established in accordance with 9.3)...1.1). and F.3.)* .

* : (3.1.1975 Application of all provisions of the code may be based upon the properties of the flat steel before forming or on 6. = 0. Earthquake. be proportioned for stresses 33i percent greater than those specified for dead and live load stresses.15/104) (w/l)z/~&-j but not greater than 25*: than 1 210/.& the yield and 25: point of steel is less than 2 320 kgf/cm* then for w/t ratios between .Members and assemblies subject only to stresses produced by wind or earthquake forces may.2.1 J(b) or (c) as applicable. gravity live load (if any) and ponding.2 Combined forces . e) 6.1. The effect on mechanical properties of any welding that is to bc applied to the member shall be determined on the basis of tests of full section specimens containing within the gauge length such welding as the manufacturer intends to use.2 Wind. b) For w/t ratio greater than 530/4z I.Members and assemblies subject to stress produced by a combination of wind or earthquake and other loads may be proportioned for unit stress 333 percent greater than those specified for dead and live load stresses. A corresponding increase may be applied to the allowable stresses in connections and details.c = Fy rO.2.767 c) For w/t ratio greater but not greater than 1 21 O/~/F./FY Fc = 562 000/(w/tj2 *When 530/.1 Wind or earthquake only . provided the section thus required is not less than that required for the combination of dead load and live load. provided the section thus required is not less than that required for the combination of dead load and live load. For primary and secondary members of roof assemblies and roof deck. 6.. and Cimbined Forces 6.IS : 801. 6. the allowable stresses may be increased by 33$ percent for combined stresses due to dead load. Any necessary allowance for such effect shall be made in the structural use of the member.2 Compression on Unstiffened kgf/ cm2 on flat unstiffened elements: a) For w/t not greater than 530/&$ Elements Compression Fc in : F. Corresponding increases may be applied to the allowable unit stresses in connections ‘and details.1.60 r.1.

_. or channel-shaprd flexural members (not including nnritiplc-web deck.4. on extreme fibres of laterally unsupported straight flexural memherst shall not exceed the allowable stress as specified in 6.r. The pro:Gsior:s of this Section do not apply to laterally unbraced compression flanges of otherwise h~rerally stable sections.-f. sections C. bent about the centroidal but less than ?” z E cb Y For point-symmetrical Z-shaped axis perpendicular to the web: is greater than G. is greater than 0. U-and closed-box type members and curved or arch members). =0.1 or 6. Z-.is equal . but less than 1’8 “y Y cb Fb=fFY- 5. t’I2. the maximum co!npression stress Ft.6 r2 E c. w/t is the flat-width 6.Ist 8ol-1975 cl) For wit ratio from 25 to 60*: For angle struts: Fc = 562 OOO/(w/t)s For all other sections: Fc = I 390- 20 w/t ratio as defined in 3. m b) 1.2 nor the following maximum stresses: a) When bending is about the centroidal axis perpendicular to the web for either I-shaped sections symmetrical about an axis in the plane of the web or symmetrical channel-shaped sections: when ---n I.. = 0. mately 60 distortion of the flanges is iikeiy to be SO pronouncrd as to render the section structurally undesirable unless load and stress are limited to such a degree as to render such use uneconomical.to or greater than d &c I.3 d&c *Uns:ifTened compression eiements having ratios of rq’t exceeding approximately 30 may show notiLeab!e distortion of the free edges uncier allowable compressive stress without detriFor ratios of w/t exceeding approximcnt to the ability of the member to support load.~ when L2 sx. 1x1 the above formulae. 14 ..36 rr2 E FY C..!89E --_. L2 s.3 Laterally Unbraced Beams -To prevent lateral buckling...e provisions of this Section apply to I-.’ ry Y ” FI..8n2Ecb FY d&c.Y when * YC is equal to or greater ti Ectiiz than ‘.

3 ($):but not morethan2. s. For members subject to combined axial and bending S~RSS (sue6. shall be 1. 1975 I. or calculated from: Ct.4 AlIowalle modulus of elasticity = 2 074 000 kgf/cm*. = 1.taken as unity. the ratio Ml/MS shall be.7). and depth of section.75 + 1*05(z) + 0. When the bending moment at any point within an unbraced length is larger than that at both ends of this length. E = d = 6.4. = Compression section modulus of entire seclion about major axis.1 Shcor Stresses in Webs -The maximum average shear stress F. = yield point in kgf/cma. A = clear distance between flanges measured along the plane of web.. have the same sign (reverse curvature bending) and negative when they are of opposite sign (single curvature bending). = the moment of inertia of the compression portion of a section about the gravity axis of the entire section parallel to the web.. Ix divided by distance to extreme compression fibre. on the gross area of a flat web shall not exceed: a) For h/t not greater than 4 590/1/T F Y _1275dG with a maximum of 0. and F.40 Fy h/t b) For h/t greater than 4 59O/dFT F = -” 5 850 000 (h/t)’ where t = web thickness. taken about the strong axis of the members. Ct. Stresses in Web of Beams in 6. Where Ml is the smaller and MI the larger bending moment at the ends of the unbraced length. the ratio of end moments is positive when MI and M.3.. kgf/cm”. 15 . Gb = bending coefficient which can conservatively be taken as unity.. and where MI/MS.IS : solwhcrc L== the unbraced length of the member.

.4.4. and allowable shear stress as specified of 04 Fy shall not apply.For webs subject to both bending and shcar stresses.22 . a) Beams having single unreir$orced webs: (1) For end reactions or for concentrated loads on outer ends of cantilevers: For inside corner radius equal to or less than the thickness of sheet: P ~~~ = 70 12 [98 + 4. shall not exceed F nor shall it cxcerd: FbW = 36 560 000 (h/Q2 kgf/cms 6.5 (h/t)] (h/t) x [I.0.4.33 . in 6./2 320)-j (Fyi2 320) f.30 (X/tj 0.4.1 except that the limit 6.009 (. the member shall be so proportioned that such stresses do not exceed the allowable values specified in 6.The compressive stress Fb.011 (h/t)] x [I.33 (F..0. 6. in the Aat web of a beam due to bending in its plane.022 (A-/t) (h/k) . .3 Combined Bending and Shear Stresses in Webs .20(.15 -0.X/t) . (h/l)2 . in kgf/cm2. actual compression 36 560 000 FhW == I___ kgf/cms. that is.15 R/t).or other corner radii up to 4 t. the value ~~~~ given by the above formula shall be multiplied by (I..0.IS : 801~ 1975 IL’herc the web consists of two or more sheets these shall be consider-cd as separate members carrying their share of the shear. shear force per web divided F.4. Webs of beams for which the ratio h/t is greater than 150 shall be provided with adequate means of transmitting concentrated loads and reactions directly into the web.2 and that the quantity where fbw =I 2/(fhW/FbW)” + (f.To avoid crippling of unreinforced beam webs having a flat-width ratio h/t equal to or less than 150. = bv webs area.0./FVJ2 does not exceed unity: stress at junction of flange and web.22 (Fyi2 320)] iFy/2 320) 16 .fv = actual average shear stress. concentrated loads and reactions shall not exceed the values of PM&~ given below.5 Web Crippling of Beams .Llt) .0.2 Bending Stress in Ltkhs .1 and 6. (2) For reactions of interior supports or for concentrated loads located anywhere on the span: For inside corner radius equal to or less than the thickness of sheet: Phiax = 70 t2 [305 + 2.

66 + = ll46m) In all of the above.6 Axially 6. FY = yield point. than 1. tests shall be made in accordance with 9.6.by (1.nearest edge of load bearing is larger Otherwise provisions of6. _V = actual length of bearing. In the above formulae.the value of Nshall not be taken greater than h. closed cross-sectional shapes or cylindrical sections.IS : 801- 1975 For other corner radii up to 4 t.06 . For webs consisting of two or more such sheets. the value Pwax given by the above formula is to be multiplied . For loads located close to ends of beams. except that in the above formulae . provisions of 6. h = clear distance between flanges measured along the plane of web . PM*~ represents the load or reaction for one solid web sheet connecting top and bottom flanges. ~~~~ shall be computed for each individual sheet and the results added to obtain the allowable load or reaction for the composite web.6.06 R/L). (6. (4. the average axial stress P/A. ~MMSX = t = web thickness . 6.1 (a) For doubly-symmetric shapes.5h.44 (2) For loads on the outer ends + 0. provided that for cantilevers the distance from the free end to the nearest edge of bearing.0. and any other shapes which can be shown not to be subject to torsional-flexural buckling. and R = inside bend radius. and (b) (2) apply. and for a load close to an end support the clear distance from edge of end bearing to. and for members braced against twisting.558d. allowable concentrated load or reactions .5(a) (1). such as I-sections made by welding two angles to a channel: (1) For end reactions or for concentrated of cantilevers: PMsX = t2 F. (3) For corner radii larger than 4 t.5(a) (2) and (bj (2) apply.N/t) loads reactions of interior supports or for concentrated located anywhere on the span: PMvlax t2 F. in compression members shall not exceed the following values of 17 .1 Loaded Compression Members Stress Shapes not subject to torsional-Jlexural buckling 6. b) For I-beams made of two channels connected back to back 07 fo7 similar sections which provide a high degree of restraint against rotation of the web.1.

M7~ F*I except as otherwise permitted by 6. shall be determined by a ratiovtal method and shall not be less than the actual t t~ nbraced length. shear w@. Fal := allowable average compression stress under concentric hwling. K = Hective length factor*. L =. e VT G (K [. unless analysis shows that a smaller value may bc used. as determined from the effective design widths of such elements.accnt structure having adequate lateral stability. and Q= a factor determined as follows: (1) For members composed entirely of stifEened elements. Q is the ratio between the effective design area. attachment to an ad.isthe ratio between the allowable compression stress Fe for the weaktstelement of the cross section (the clement having the largest flat-width ratio) and q IK1frames where lateral stabiIity is provided by diagonal bracing. unbraced length of member. P == total load. and the full or gross area of the cross section.l = 23 (K J!+}z 10680000 <Q = WI. in a fkaxne which depen& upon its own bending stifhws for lateral yt. Q. 18 . unreduced cross section.6.IS : S01 .ati]li y.l(b) ! K Lfr less than cc —— %“2 &=23 Q&-= 12 0“5!22 QF.l. radius of gyration of full. F: ~ yieid point of steel..4 = fidl tmreduced cxoss-sectional area of the member. 3( QFy)2 A-L ~ 23 nz E ()— ‘ QFV K~r – ——— ( i2 500 ) K L/r equal to or greater than “12 #E F./r)’ = ~2 nz E/F. E =:: modulus of elasticity = 2074000 kgf/cm2.d in trusses the effcctire length factor K for the compression members shall be taken as unity. a . .. or by floor slabs or roof decks secured horizon WILY by walls or bracing sysmrns paraUel to the plme of the fiamc. The effective knt@ KL of comprcs~ion mernbem. The effective design area used in determining $Qe~i~6*msed upon the basic design stress F as entirely of unstifleneti elecomposed (2) For membem ments.

Fy2 7. where F.: Faa = 0.2 and F is as defined in 6.6.5 F. = 0522 For orro90. F.p .522 uTFo F. b) When the factor Qis equal to unity.For singly-symmetric or nonsymmetric shapes of open cross section or intermittently fastened singlysymmetrical components of built-up shapes having Q=l ..O which may be subject to torsional-flexural buckling and which are not.1 or F. and UTF(-J = elastic torsional-flexural buckling stress under concentric loading which shall be determined as follows: a) Singly-symmetric shapes . (3) For members composed of both stiffened and unstiffened elements the factor Q is the product of a stress factor QB computed as outlined in (2) above and an area factor Q8 computed as outlined in (1) above.)2 Far = 5 3 (K L/r) L---.67 UTFO where Fas = allowable average compression stress under concentric loading.5 Fp: F.2 Singly-symmetric and nonsymmetric shapes of open cross section or intermittently fastened singly-symmetrical combonents of built-up shakes having Q= 1 . is defined in 6.IS : 861- 1975 the basic design stress. the steel is 2.1. braced against twisting. 0~~0 is less than both ueX and ut and is equal to: 1 UTFO = r8 (“ex + “t) d(Uex + Ut)2 4/3‘Jex ‘Jt 1 19 . except that the stress upon which Qa is to be based shall be that value of the stress FB which is used in computing Q.-1 3 8 (Cc) 1 mm or 1 FY (X L/r)3 8 (Cc)3 6.29 more in thickness and K L/Tis less than Cc: (KL/r)z -2(c. and the effective area to be used in computing (La shall include the full area of all unstiffened elements.1.O whick may be subject to torsionalfi?xural buckling .For members whose cross sections have one axis of symmetry (x-axis)..1. the average axial stress P/A shall not exceed Fal specified in 6.6. given below: For UTro70...

the 3 = St Vcnant torsion constant of the cross section. . by QFY in 6. and . On the cross section of axially when L/r ratio exceeds 120. For thin walled sections composed of n segments of uniform thickness.1. ti T= strel thickness 11 = length L. or nonsymmetric symmetrical components of built-up shapes having Q< 1 .6. . L = unbraced length of compression member. + l&.0 which are subject to torsional-Jexural buckling .Compression members composed of singlyshapes or intermittently fastened singlysymmetric. the *A secondary member is one upon which the integrity of the structure as a whole does For this case. either about an axis or about a point.3 Singly-symmetric or nonsymmetric shapes or intermittently fastened sing+symmetricaZ components of built-up shapes having Q< I. i.6.6. . Nonsymmetric shapes . + l&3).1. of cross Z/Y. .Shapes whose cross sections do not have any symmetry. 0~~0 shall be determined by rational analysis. x. 3 = C.warping of the member for segment of middle constant line of segment of torsion of the cross section.2 + $2 -+ X02 = poiar radius of gyration section about the shear centre. 20 . rY = radii of gyration of cross section about centroidal principal axes. Members members*.6. X is taken as unity. 6. x0 = distance from shear centre to centroid along principal x-axis. compression members composed of such shapes may be tested in accordance with 9. cm4. Alternatively. i.2 Bracing and Secondary loaded bracing and secondary not depend. . X = effective length factor. Qis defined in 6. . .2 or their strength may be determined by tests in accordance with 9. E = modulus of elasticity = 2 074 000 kgf/cm*.h!~lJ2. 6. A = cross-sectional Y0 = I area.1.1.O which are subject to torsional-flexural buckling and which are not braced against twisting can be conservatively proportioned by replacing F. G = shear modulus = 795 000 kgf/cm2.IS : 801- 1975 where sex = (X $:)z B = 1 . b) (l/3) (&3 + 12t23 + .

B = F.1.7 Combisud Arirl and Bending Stresses 6. the following formula may be used in lieu of the above two formulae: The subscripts ‘x’ and ‘y’ in the above formulae indicate the axis of bending about which a particular stress or design property applies.1.7. the maximtim stress by 6.When subject to both axial compression and bending.15.7. 6.1 Doubly-Symmetric Shapes ok Shapes .rionalFlexural Buckling -. 1. K L/r shall not exceed 300.6.The slenderness ratio he L/r of compression members shall not exceed 200. 1975 loading I. shall be determined 6.6. 6.. except that during construction only.2 whichever is applicable.bending a plied in the plane of symmetry shall be proportioned to meet the following P our requirements as applicable: a> 21 .3 *&r F.Singly-symmetric shapes subject to both axial compression and.2 Singly-Symmetric Shafis or Intermittently Fastened Singly-Symmetric Components of Built-Up Shapes Having Q .0 W’htch May Be Su!@ct to Tor.1 or 6.6.Not Subject to 7orsional or TorsionalFlexural Buckling .I.Bs shall be deter- In the above formula.3 Maximum SIrnderness Ratio .IS : 891allowable compression mined as follows: stress under concentric F. doubly-symmetric shapes or shapes which are not subject to torsional or torsional-flexural buckling shall be proportioned to meet the following requirements: <l.O when 6 &I < 0.

. then the average compression stress f. that is.15..0 F... then the average compression stress fs shall also not exceed F. = 0. then the average compression stress f. and ii Fnr is larger than F.5 F. given below: W nrr >0. if e is negative.522 OTF 22 . given below: Fa = ha + 2) -$ P’ao. shall also not exceed F. then the average compression stress f.Fa. given below: Fa = Far + -& (FOE Fa...5 F..and unsymmetric I-sections with negative eccentricities: 1) If the point of application of the eccentric load is between the shear centre and the centroid. F.) If the point of application of the eccentric load is located on the Gde of the shear centre opposite from that of the centroid. and if F.T c) Except for T-or unsymmetric I-sections.5 where on shall be determined according to the formula: = 1. 0.: F.5 Fy: r. that is.522 Fy For 0~~40.) d) For T.T F2 767 Vr-. Fa = 0.IS : sol.. if the point of application of the eccentric load is between the shear centre and the centroid.7. shall also not exceed Fa given below: For qr >0..1975 when fa & 0.67 UTF 0~~0.‘. the following formula may be used in lieu of the F al above two formulae: b) If the point of application of the eccentric load is located on the side of the centroid opposite from that of the shear centre.522 Fy . shall also not exceed F. =. = O-522 (J-~. if c is positive. is larger than Faa.

. and (2) for members whose ends are unrestrained. = 0. M ’ is positive when the member is bent in reverse ‘M. However. unbraced in the plane of bending under consideration. in lieu of such analysis. the value of C. x and y are centroidal axes and the x-axis is the axis of syrnmetry whose positive direction is pointed away from the shear centre. C. M c) For compression members in frames braced against joint translation it the plane of loading and subject to transverse loading between their supports. For restrained compression members in frames braced against joint translation and not subject to transverse loading between their supports in the plane of bending C.7: c.4 2 is the ratio of the smaller to larger moments Ms at *the ends of that portion of the memt _.7. = a coefficient a) b) whose value shall be taken as follows: to joint translaFor compression members in frames subject tion (sideway) C.2. C. 2 but not less than 0. where -1 Ms = 0.O. the following values may be used : ( 1) for members whose ends are restrained.4 2 f to larger moments Cm = a coefficient a) b) M is the ratio of the smalier 23 . = 1 .85.ls : 891-1975 m shall be determined according to the formula: In 6.6 0.4 2.85. For restrained compression members in frames braced against joint translation and not subject to transverse loading between their supports in the plane of bending cm = 0% where 0. In 6. curvature and negative when it is bent in single curvature.85. = 0. whose value shall be taken as follows: For compression members in frames subject to joint translation (sideway) CTF = 0. may be determined by rational analysis.

1. in the plane of bending under consideration.2 maximum bending stress in compression that is permitted by this code where bending stress only exists (SIC6. 6. that is.1 for L = 0 allowable compression stress under concentric loading according to 6.6.2) 127raE (mayb e increased one-third in accordance with 23 (K Lb/rb)’ 6.1 for buckling in the plane of symmetry allowable compression stress under concentric loading from 6.1975 at the end of that portion of the members.7.l!s : 801.1. the calculated values off.1 and 6.1. G= unbraced in reverse in single is bent is bent distance from the centroidal compression stress. that is. MI is positive when the member K curvature and negative when it curvature.6.7.2(a) if the point of application of the eccentric load is at the shear centre.6. noting that for members having stiffened compression elements the section modulus shall be based upon the effective design widths of such elements F ac = FSE = F a0 = Fa. and FS for c = x0 average allowable compression stress determined by requirements 6.7. for e = x0 allowable compression stress under concentric loading determined by 6.2(d)(2) if the point of application of the eccentric load is at the shear centre.2) axial stress = axial load divided by full cross-sectional area of member P/A maximum bending stress = bending moment divided by appropriate section modulus of member M/S.2(a) and 6. the calculated value off.1.3) maximum bending stress in compression permitted by this code where bending stress only exists and the possibility of lateral buckling is excluded (J& 6.2 and 6. = Fa.1. negative when on the shear centre side of the centroid maximum average compression stress average allowable compression stress determined by both requirements 6. = Fb = Fbl = F)e = fa = fb = 24 . negative centre side of the centroid depth of section Uris to the hbre with maximum when the fibre is on the shear d= d= Fa = eccentricity of axial load with respect to the centroidal r?xis.

.1975 lxC = II = moment of inertia of the about its axis of symmetry moment of inertia compression about portion they-axis of a section of the section j = & 2%”dA + py” dA Y where x is the axis of symmetry h.2(q/a.. = maximum compression with unequal flanges UJbe may be approximated n2. maximum compression bending stress caused by A& by For I-sections with unequal flanges 0b.r may be approximated L2 SW e---c ‘Jbl = UTF 2 TY - maximum by llrr compression bending stress in the section ub2 = caused m-7 v2 x0 c TY ae = E (fiCJm = Lb/rb)’ average elastic torsional-flexural buckling stress. axial load at which torsional-flexural buckling occurs dividr.)] on the shear = elastic critical moment side of the centroid caus- rxc = radius of gyration about axis of bending radius of gyratio. [j . that is.dj” + r..1 about the centroidal axis parallel to the web of that portion of the I-section which is in compression when there is no axial load section modulus of entire section about axis normal to axis of symmetry.c L2 SW UbT = MT c -r ZY yr2 Ed I./distance to extreme compression fibre of the shear centre. by the full cross-sectional area of member 25 . = effective length factor in the plane of bending actual unbraccd length in the plane of bending ing compression ing tension -Auex [j + v’j2 + (0 tl uex)] = elastic critical moment causon the shear centrc side of the centroid centre yo2 1 -Au. I..= 1 _ xg and y is orthogonal to x Lb = MC = MT = r. negative bending stress caused by MC by Mcc - SYC= compression x0 = x coordinate UbC = For I-sections 1.Ed I.1s : sol..3.

2.Singlysymmetric shapes subject to both axial compression and bending applied out of the plane of symmetry shall be designed according to 9.1. but not greater than 914 000/F.0 Which May Be Subject to TorsionalFlexural Buckling . coNNEcTXoNs 7.4 Sing&Symmetric Shapes Which Are Nonsymmetrically Loa&d .Up Shapes HaGng Q< 1.Connections shall be designed to transmit the maximum stress in the connected member with proper regard ior eccentricity. the compression stress shall not exceed the basic design stress F. uex.7.399 F> For compression members the allowable stress P/A under axial load shall also not exceed F81 as prescribed by 6. 4 4 6.1.2.7. the compression stress shall not exceed F r = 46 540 olt + 0.8 Cylindrical Tubular Members in Compression or Bcndfng For cylindrical tubular members with a rati? D/t of mean diameter to wall thickness not greater than 232 000/F.Fusion welds shall be proportioned so that stresses therein do not exceed the following values: SpeciJied Minimum Yield Point of Lowest Strength Steel Being Joined kgf/cms Q 2 500 > 2 500 but 93 500 > 3 500 26 Permissible Stress* in Shear on Throat of Fillet or Plug Welds kgf/cma 955 1 100 1 250 . or their strength may be determined by tests in accordance with 9.2.6.If Q< 1. 6. 7.1.6. ut.O singly-symmetric shapes or intermittently fastened singly-symmetric components of built-up shapes subject to both axial compression and bending applied in the plane of symmetry can be conservatively proportioned by replacing FY by QFY in 6. 6.7..3 Singly-Symmetric Sha@es or Intermittently Fastened Singly-Symmetric Cornfmnents of Built.1 General . In the case of members subject to reversal of stress.1.1 Fusion We&is . rr. UTFO are as defined in 6. Q is defined in 6.6.IS t sol-1975 ‘0. For cylindrical tubular members with a ratio D/t of mean diameter to wall thickness larger than 232 000/F.2 Welds 7.1 for Q = 1. 7. except if caused by wind or earthquake loads.2. the connection shall be proportioned for the sum of the stresses.

15 5. The above values may also be applied to medium carbon and low alloy steels.ermediate thicknesses may be obtained by straight line interpolation. issued by the American Welding Society.25 1.60 Allowable Shear Strength per spot (2) kg 23 1:: 159 239 330 by spot welding the allowable Allowable Shear Strength per spot (2) kg 489 625 750 909 1 818 Thickness of Thinnest Outside Sheet (1) mm 2. In all cases welding shall be performed in accordance with IS : 819-1957*.25 0. however.5 applied to selected values from AWS C-1. for resistance spot welding for light assemblies in mild steel.2 Resistance Welds -In sheets joined shear per spot shall be as follows: Thickness of Thinnest Outside Sheet (1) mm 0. &fax joining two channels to form an f-section shall be: a) For Compression Members: Y L Max = where L *Code or” practice L rev 2 r1 = unbraced length of compression members. provided the welds are of full penetration type and the yield strength of the filler metal is equal to or greater than the yield strength of the base metal.00 2. Stresses due to eccentricity of loading.80 3. they may require special welding conditions.The above values are based upon A WS C.Is : 801-197s The allowable stress in tension or compression on butt welds shall be the same as prescribed for the lower grade of the base metals being joined.3.1. and are based on a factor of safety of approxtmately 2.The maximum permissible longitudinal spacing of welds or other connectors.50 0. Values for in.50 2.1-66 Tables 1. and apply to pulsation welding as well as spot welding.2. Stresses in a fillet weld shall be considered as shear on the throat for any direction of the applied stress. If any.00 NOTE .1-66 ‘Recommended practices for resistance welGng’.oo 1. shall be combined with the primary stresses. 27 .1 and 1.80 1 . and the combined stresses shall not exceed the values given above.3 Connecting Two Cliannels to Form an I-Section . They are applicable for all structural grades of low carbon steel. 7. 7. Neither plug nor slot welds shall be assigned any value in resistance to any stresses other than shear. Spot welds in such steels give somewhat higher s&ear strengths than those upon which the above values are based.

is Pm/2 g 7-S = 28 . depth of channel overall depth or beam. vertical distance between the two rows of connections near or at top and bottom flanges. distance of shear centre of channei from mid-plaue of the web. and about its centroidal radius of gyration of I-section about the axis perpendi&lar to the direction in which buckling would occur for the given conditions of end support and intermediate bracing.1 The intensity of load Q is obtained by dividing the magnitude of For beams designconcentsateii ioads or reactions by the length of bearing. lips at the outer edges.3. the intensity q shall be taken equal If tL three times the intensity of the uniformly distributed design load. s. of connection in tension.1975 r CI = Yl = radius of gyration of one channel axis parallel to web. 7. ed for a uniformly distributed load. the required strength of the welds or connections closest to the load or reaction P. and (see 7. for sin. if any.3. = moment of inertia of one channel axis normal to the web.1).ls : 801.) For Flexural Members: Sax = L/6 In no case shall the spacing exceed the value \vllcrc LS g” span of beam. or shall be taken as the width of the wider flangej. the length of bearing of a concentrated load or reaction is smaller than the weld spacing. and about its centroidal of lip. projection of flatrges from inside face ol‘ web (for channels with flanges of unequal Lvidth.ithout stiffening lips at the outer edges. d= dI = z. ( dS)] ¶== intensity of load on beam For C-shaped channels with stiffening I m= where wr = wl n dt xC wldf2d. I. m= Ts = strength m = WI2 2 wi f d/3 .ple channels :\.

if uniform intensity of the load directly at the connection. unless (b) above. if the value of Fc permitted in the unstiffened element is grtater than 0. or the beam according Reinforcing cover plates may be welded to the flanges at points The strength in shear of the where concentrated loads occur. or bolts cover plate or sheet to a non-integral stiflener exceed: a) that which is required to transmit the shear between the connected parts on the basis of the design strength per connection specified in 7. In all other cases the spacing shall be tabn as centre to centre distance between connections. also the distance from the centre of any bolt to that end or other boundary of the connecting member tcnciards which the pressure of the bolt 29 .5 Bolted Connections .1 Minimum Spacing and Edge Distance in Line of Stress .3.54 FY or 1910 t/dFy if the value of Fc permitted in the unstiffened element is 0.The following requirements connections of cold formed steel structural members. depends upon the Therefore. spacing of connections is used over the whole length of the beam.1975 7.d/r. rivets. Excepion: The requiremel n* of this clause do not apply to cover sheets which act only as sheathing. it shall hc In cases where determined at the point of maximum local load intensity. nor 1 680 t/d’ w h ere t is thickness of cover design stress in cover plate or sheet. this procedure would result in uneconomically close spacing either cf the following methods may be adopted: a) b) The connection to the variation spacing may be varied along of the load intensity. Thr spacing connecting a compression or other element shall not 7.5. and f is b) c) three times the flat width w of the narrowest unstiffened compression element in that portion of the cover plate or sheet which is tributary to the connections.. 7.material and are not considered as load carrying elements.2 The required limited spacing of connections &t&. connections joining these plates to the flanges shall then be used for TS and g shall represent the depth of the beam.4 Spacing of Connections in Compression s in line of stress of welds. closer spacing is required under (a) cr In the case of intermittent fillet welds parallel to the direction of stress the spacing shall be taken as the clear distance between welds plus 13 mm.. but need not be less than 1 590 t/.2.The clear di&ance between bolts which are arranged in rows parallel to the direction of force.54 Fy or less. nor plate or sheet.IS : 801. Elements -. govern bolted 7.

5 d nor less than P/(0.5. ?.Is i 801-1975 shall not be less than 1.9 0. BRACING 970 kgf/cms 820 kgf/cme 1 060 kgf/cms REQUIREMENTS 8. and of thinnest where transmitted is directed yield point. 8.5. and The bearing stress on the area area spacing of bolts perpendicular of a single bolt.5.51 and 7. s is equal d and F.= P = t = F. t) d .1.The safe load-carrying capacity of a stud may be computed on the basis that wall material or sheathing (attached to the stud) furnishes adequate lateral support to the stud in the plane of the wall. b) The maximum spacing of attachments of wall material to the stud being braced shall not exceed ahfax as determined from the formula: *If the ratio of tensile strength to yield point is less than 1. under dead and live load. = diameter force thickness of bolt. the force transmitted by the bolt or bolts at the section considered.5.35 shall be used instead ofF. shall not exceed the following values: Precision and semi-precision bolts Black bolts Steel conforming to property class 4.1 Wall Studs . The following provisions cover certain special cases and conditions.5. provided the wall material and its attachments to the stud comply with the following requirements: a) Wall or shea.2.0 Structural members and assemblies of cold-formed steel construction shall be adequately braced in accorda.6 F. S= 7.4 Shear Stress on Bolts . 30 .9 r + 3 rd/s) 0. it may be taken equal to zero . connected sheet. In the case to the width of sheet.6 FY nor shall it exceed: where r= (1. 7.6 F.nce with good cnginecring gractice.5. 7.Net Section .3.3 Bearing Stress in Bolted Connections (d x t) shall not exceed 2. a stress equal to the specified minimum tensile strength of the material divided by 1.35.Shear stress on the gross cross-sectional of bolt. are defined in 7. in applying the provisions of 7. to lint of stress.The tension stress on the net section of a bolted connection shall not exceed 0.. divided by the tension force in the member at that section.6 of IS : !367-1967t 8.2 Tension Stress on . tTcchnica1 supply conditions for threaded fasteners (first r&ion). by bolt.1.1 Fy*.thing shall be attached to both faces or flanges of the studs being braced. If r is less than 0.

vClar F 2 Tl The minimum modulus of elastic support AeW be exerted laterally to by the wall material and its attachment in order to brace the stud. P. area of cross section of stud. rl = radius of gyration of stud about its axis parallel to wall r2 = = 1/I.1975 The slenderness ratio of the stud betlveen the spacing of attachment> attachments air. &is the modulus actually provided as determined from tests. In paragraphs (b) and (d). L/240 PMln= *E I2 KW/a-Ps In the above formulae: actual spacing of attachments of wall material to stud a= measured along the length of stud (a = 1 for continuous attachment) . L= length of stud. ’ P* = design load on stud. moment of inertia of cross section of stud about its axis parallel to wall. = P/e wkre P is the force which produces an elongation of e in a strip of wall material of width a and of length equal to the distance between adjacent studs. of stud about its axis perpendicular to wall 31 . KW is the minimum required for a given spacing of attachments. yield point of steel in stud. = a E I. K. exceed that sp:cified above nor shall it exceed: L rz a. In paragraph (c). modulus of elasticity = 2 074 000 kgf/cm?. shall shall not not exceed L S . This is. The lateral force in kg which each single attachment of the wall material shall be capable of exerting on the stud in the plane of the wall (in order to prevent lateral buckling of the stud) shall not be less than rr. modulus of elastic support of wall material (on each side of stud) and its attachments.IS : 801. Therefore.lA. moment of inertia of cross section of stud about its axis perpendicular to wall. shall not be less than Fy2 a A2 hT. radius of gyration = &a.

b) For concentrated loads P1 . 8. and (b) such members are loaded in the plane of the web*.1.5 a each side of the brace. and Z-sections: = distance from concentrated load 1 length of bracing interval. For Z-sections: K’ = IxyjIx where ITv = IX For channels x a product of inertia of full section axis parallel and perpendicular -1 moment of inertia of full section axis perpendicular to web.0 ET’ times the concentrated Ioad P within a distance 0. bracing may or may not be needed to prevent twisting of the member._. shall be designed to resist a lateral force Pi determined as follows: a! For a uniformly loaded beam PI = 1.2. of channel and Z-sections used as beams apply only when: (a) neither flange is connected to dzck or sheathing material in such a manner as to effectively restrain lateral deflection of the connected flange.2 Design OJ” Braces .2 Channel and ZSecdons Used as Beams .3 a each side of the brace.entroidal to web. at top and bottom flange. ph+ ( > for each such concentrated load P located farther than 0. 32 .3.Each intermediate brace.2. and about rentroidal P to brace. 8.The following provisions for the bracing against twist.I.Is : 801-~1975 8..3 c but not farther than 1 . and *When only one Range is connected to a deck or sheathing material to effectively restrain lateral deflection of the connected flange. - 1 -.5 K’ times the load within a distance 0. depending upon the dimensions of the member and span and upon whether the unconnected flange is in compression or tension.O ~1 from the brace. plus :. In the above fcbrmulae: For channels: K’ = m/d e where m -= distance from shear centre to mid-plane of the web. about c.1 ~S$ZC~TZ~Braces -Braces of shall be attached both to thr top and bottom flanges of the sections at the ends and at intervals not greater than one-quarter of’ the span length in such a manner as to prevent tipping at the ends and laterai deflection of either flange in either direction at intermediate braces. as specified in 7. and d = depth of channel. If one-third or more of the total load on the beams is concentrated over a length of one-twelfth or less of the span of the beam. an additional brace shall be placed at or near the centre of this 1Gaded length.

1.13 Tests for determining mechanical properties of flat elements of formed sections and representative mechanical properties of virgin steel to bc used in 6.1.beams intermediately braced according to the requirements of 8.1 Where the composition or configuration of elements. 9. their structural performance shall be established from tests and evaluated as specified in 9. 9.2 and 9.3.1 they shall be evaluated in accordance with the following procedure?: a) Where practicable.2. or details of cold-formed steel structural members are such that calculation of their safe load-carrying capacity or deflection cannot be made in accordance with 5 to 8 of this code.1.1 shall be made in accordance with the provisions of 9.1.2 the maximum compression stress sha!l be that specified in 6.1 shall be made as specified in 9.1. the code provides generally a slrfety factor of 5/S. TEST FOR SPECIAL CASES 9.3. evaluation of test results shall be made on the basis of the mean values resulting from tests of not fewer than three identical specimens.For closed box type sections used as beams subject to bending about the major axis.1. a.6 Tensile testing procedures shall be according to 15 : 1608-1972*. in the formulae of 6.4 The provisions of 9 do not apply to light gauge steel diaphragms.3.5 Tests shall be made by an independent testing laboratory or by a manufacturer’s testing hboratcry.1.1.1 General 9. Braces shall be designed to avoid local crippling at the points of attachment to the member. except that the length of the bracing interval. 8. 9.2. If such deviation from the mean exceeds 10 percent *Method for tensile testingof steel products other than sheet.2.1.3. assemblies.IS : 801- 1975 End braces shall be designed for one-half of the above forces. 8.2 Tests fat determination of mechanical properties of full sections to be used in 6.2 are not applicable to for the latter. $‘I’hetat evaluation procedures and load factors specified in 9.2 Evzhation of Tests for Determining Strnctwal Performance Where tests are necessary for the purposes defined in 9. 33 tests of members and assemblies whose properties can be caiculated accordiq ti6rmatory to 5 to 8 .3.3 Laterally Unbraced Box Beams . provided the deviation of any individual test result from the mean value obtained from all tests does not exceed IfI percent. 9. 9.2. 9. 9. wire and tube. shall be used instead of the length L...1.1. the ratio of the lateraliy unsupported length to the distance between the webs of the section shall not exceed 175 700/F. strip.3 Allowable Stresses -For channels and Z.3.1 and 8.

whole or part to wind.hr: purposes defined in 9.1.Is : 8Ql.2. Consideration shall also be given to any variation or difference which may exist between the design thickness and the thickness of the specimens used in the tests.1 Full Section Tests . or combined forces.1. The average of the three lowest values of all tests made shall then be regarded as the result of the series of tests. due consideration shall be given to any differences that may exist between the yield point of steel from which the tested sections are formed and the minimum yield point specified for the steel which the manufacturer intends to use. Furthermore.3 Tests for Determining of Flat Material Mechanical Properties of Formed Section 9. equal to twice the live load plus one-and-a-half the dead Where the governing design load is due in load without failure. including the weight of the test specimen. determine mechanical properties shall be conducted in accordance with the following: a) For tensile yield point determinations refer to 9.3. harmful local distortions which interfere with the proper functioning of the member or assembly or its connections shall not develop during the test at a total load. b) Compressive yield point determinations shall be made by means of compression tests* of short specimens of the section and shall be taken as the smaller value of either the maximum compressive strength of the section divided by the cross-sectional area or the stress defined by one of the following methods: 1) For sharp yielding steel the yield point shall be determined by the autographic diagram method or by the total strain under load method.2 percent ofiet method.6. earthquake loads. including the weight of the test specimen. or connection shall be capable of sustaining a total load.2. b) Determinations of allowable load-carrying capacity shall be made on the basis that the member. Tests to the use of test procedures instead of the usual design calculations. +sU Appendix A for recommendations regarding details of compression testing. 34 . c) In evaluating test results.These provisions are intended to apply only to the determination of the mechanical properties of full formed sections for They are not to be construed as permitting .1975 at least three more tests of the same kind shall be made. assembly. the foregoing load factors shall be reduced by dividing by 14 in accordance with 6. equal to the dead load plus li times the live load. 2) For gradual yielding steel the yield point shall be determined by the strain under load method or by the 0.1. 9.

In determining such yield point tests shall be made on specimens cut from the scctioil. Each such specimen shall consist of one . or one test from each lot of less than For this purpose a lot may be defined 30 tonnes of each section.1.3 Acceptance and Control Tests for Mechanical Properties of Virgin Sled provision applies to steel produced to other than IS : 1079-19737 when used in sections for which the increased yield point and ultimate strength of the steel after cold forming are computed from the virgin steel properties according to 6.1. . e) At the option of the manufacturer. as that tonnage of one section that is formed in a single production run of material from one heat or blow.IS : 801-1975 When the total strain under load method is used. The methods described above shall agree in general with IS : 160%1972*. If the actual virgin yield point exceeds the specified minimum yield point.3. the yield point of the flats FYI shall be adjusted by multiplying the test values by the ratio of the specified minimum yield point to the actual virgin yield point.2 percent offset method. provided the manufacturer demonstrates that such tests reliably indicate the yield point of the section when subjected to the kind of stress under which the member is to be used. The exact number of such coupons will depend on the shape of the member. there shall be evidence that the yield i’oint so determined agrees substantially with the yield point which would be determined by the 0. The weighted average shall be the sum of the products of the average yield point for each flat portion times the ratio of the cross-sectional area of that flat portion to the total area of flats in the cross section.acceptance and control purposes. For acceptance and control This *Method for tehsiletesting of steel products (Jirrl feuision).2 Tests of Flat Elements of Formed Sections .3. c) Where the principal effect of the loading to which the member will be subjectecl in service will be to produce bending stresses. the yield fGnt shall be determined for the flanges only. on the number of flats in the cross section. d) For acceptance and control purposes. two full section tests shall be made from each lot of not more than 50 tonnes nor less than 30 tonnes of each section.complete flange plus a portion of the web of such flat-width ratio that the value of Q for the specimen is unity. At least one tensile coupon shall be taken from the middle of each flat. 9. tSpecification for hot rolled carbon steel sheet and strip 35 (did recision). 9.The yield point of flats Fvr shall be established by means of a weighted average of the yield points of standard tensile coupons taken longitudinally from the flat portions of a representative cold-formed member.1. either tension or compression tests may be used for routine . that is.

Technical memoranda No. For further information regarding be made to the following publications: compression testing. A-2.1975 lot as of the taken of the purposes. 2 and 3 of the Column Research Council. the length of 15 times the least radius of gyration.1(d) for the establishment of the representative values Specimens shall be virgin tcnjile yield point and ultimate strength. longitudinally from the quarter points of the width near the outer end coil. 36 .3. in making compression tests.ls : 801. 1966. ‘Kotcs on Compression Testing of Materials’ and Procedures’ reprinted in the Column Research Design Criteria for Metal Compression Members. that care be exercised in centering the specimen in the testing machine so that the load is applied concentrically with respect to the centroidal axis of the section. mens It is important.3) tests be made on flat-end ~pecitimes the largest dimension of the than 20 times the least radius of are to be used to check yield point the section should not be less than It is recommended that stud column whose length is not less than three section except that it shall be not more gyration. If tests of ultimate compressive strength for quality control purposes. APPENDIX. at least four tensile specimens shall be taken from each defined in 9. ‘Stub-Column Test Council Guide to 2nd Ed. reference may ASTM E9 Standard method of compression testing of metallic materials at room temperature issued by the American Society for Testing and Materials. COMPRESSION A TESTING (Cluuse A-L 9.

N.(-dPran pcr~ 2) Panel for Use of Light Gauge Cold Formed Sections in Structural Engineering. Madras Tata Engineerin & Locomotive Co. DAS REPRE~~~I~AT~VE Rejwescnting Research Design Lucknow & Standa& Organization. BALAWQRAMANIAN Members SHRI B. REPSSBNTATIVE Tube Products of India. Jamshedptir Integral Coach s actory. Perumbur 37 . SMBDC 7 : P-26 ConwIur SHUNC.

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