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Classification: Statoil Internal

Status: Draft

Rules and Regulations enforced by Petroleum Safety Authority Norway (PSA) at the Norwegian Continental Shelf
Sverre Haver, Statoil, January 2008 Presentation is to a large extent based on presentations held by Geir Lland, Statoil, at several occasions.

Design of Structures an illustrative overview





A sufficient knowledge of rules and regulations are necesssary to ensure that the designed structure fulfils overall requirements regarding health, environment and safety

HSE regulations aims towards preventing:

Norwegian regulation hierarchy

Acts / Laws Regulations Guidelines Standards Company internal requirements

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HSE regulation hierarchy

Petroleum act Working env. act Pollution act Health care acts Other acts.


Management reg.

Information reg. Appendixes Guidelines

Facility reg.

Operation reg.

International and national standards Company requirements

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Framework reg. 1 Purpose

The purpose of these regulations are to a) further a high level as regards health, environment and safety in the
petroleum activities,

b) achieve a systematic implementation of measures to fulfil the

requirements and reach the objectives set out in the legislation relating to health, environment and safety,

c) further develop and improve the level as regards health, environment

and safety ..

These regulations encompass safety, working environment, health, the external

environment and economic assets (including production and transport regularity operational availability)

Framework reg. 3 Use of maritime legislation in the petroleum activities

With regard to mobile facilities registered in a national register of shipping, and which follow a maritime operational concept, relevant technical requirements contained in rules and regulations of the Norwegian Maritime Directorate in the form following the amendments in 2003, together with supplementary classification regulations issued by Det norske Veritas, or international flag state rules with supplementary classification rules achieving the same level of safety, may be used as an alternative to technical requirements laid down in or pursuant to the Petroleum Act, with the following specifications and limitations:

a) this section only comprises provisions on matters of a maritime nature which are not directly connected with the petroleum related function which the facility is intended to carry
out. The section does not comprise provisions on

drilling and process equipment, universal sound and light alarms, equipment used for transportation of personnel and requirements to transportation of personnel
on the drill floor,

other provisions on the working environment, the activities to be carried out in the petroleum activities, b) the facility must be used in a way that makes it possible to use a flag and or classification practice
implying a calendar based recertification, including five-yearly main survey,

c) the operational assumptions on which design, fabrication and operation are based shall be clarified,

Definition of ship versus mobile units versus permanent facilities

Ship: Example shuttle tanker Follow Maritime Regulation ..

Mobile units: Drilling rigs, well intervention vessels etc operating at a location for a limited time May follow a recognized maritime regulation

Permanent installations, e.g. floating production units:

Follow PSA regulation


Improving of safety
In Section 8 it is stated: A high level of health, environment and safety shall be established, maintained and improved.

This is an important message to the operators when it comes to adequate maintenance of their structures and not the least in connection with major modification work done on the installations. Over the operational life of a structure a number of modifications of various scales will typically be done. It is important to ensure that such modifications are in conflict with the text of section 8 of the Framework Regulation.


FR 9 Principles relating to risk reduction

Harm or hazard to people, the environment or to financial assets shall be prevented or limited in accordance with the legislation relating to health, the Management environment and safety, including internal requirements and acceptance ALARP criteria. Over and above this level the risk shall beregulation: further reduced to the 6 Acceptance criteria extent possible. Assessments on the basis of this provision shall be made in
all phases of the petroleum activities.

In effectuating risk reduction the party responsible shall select the technical,
operational or organisational solutions which according to an individual as well as an overall evaluation of the potential harm and present and future Facility reg. 8 use offer the best results, provided the associated costs are not significantly Qualification and disproportionate to the risk reduction achieved.


use of new technology If there is insufficient knowledge about the effects that use of the technical, and new methods

operational or organisational solutions may have on health, environment and safety, solutions that will reduce this uncertainty shall be chosen. environment or to financial assets in the petroleum activities shall be replaced by factors which in an overall evaluation have less potential for injury, damage or nuisance.

Precautionary principle Substitution principle

Factors which may cause injury, damage or nuisance to people, the


Facility regulation: 8 Qualification and use of new technology and new methods
Where the petroleum activities entail use of new technology or new
methods, criteria shall be defined with regard to development, testing and use in order to accommodate the requirements to health, environment and safety.

The criteria shall be representative of the relevant operational

conditions, and the technology or the methods shall be adapted to already accepted solutions.

Qualification or testing shall demonstrate that applicable requirements

can be met by using the relevant new technology or new methods.





Management reg. 1 Risk reduction

..In risk reduction as mentioned in the Framework Regulations Section 9 on principles relating to risk reduction, the party responsible shall choose technical, operational and organisational solutions which reduce the probability that failures and situations of hazard and accident will occur.

In addition barriers shall be established which a) reduce the probability that any such failures and situations of hazard
and accident will develop further,

b) limit possible harm and nuisance. Where more than one barrier is required, there shall be sufficient
independence between the barriers.

The solutions and the barriers that have the greatest risk reducing effect shall
be chosen based on an individual as well as an overall evaluation. Collective protective measures shall be preferred over protective measures aimed at individuals




Design of facilities


CHAPTER I INTRODUCTORY PROVISIONS 1 Definitions 2 Systems and other equipment for manned underwater operations from vessels CHAPTER II GENERAL PROVISIONS 3 Choice of development concept 4 Design of facilities 5 Design of simpler facilities without overnight stay possibility 6 Main safety functions 7 Safety functions CHAPTER III MULTIDISCIPLINARY PROVISIONS III-I MULTIDISCIPLINARY COMMON REQUIREMENTS 8 Qualification and use of new technology and new methods 9 Plants, systems and equipment 10 Loads, load effects and resistance 11 Materials 12 Handling of materials and transport routes, access and evacuation routes 13 Ventilation and indoor climate 14 Chemicals and chemical exposure 15 Flammable and explosive goods 16 Instrumentation for monitoring and recording 17 Systems for internal and external communication 18 Communication equipment III-II DESIGN OF WORK AREAS AND ACCOMMODATION SPACES 19 Ergonomic design 20 Man-machine interface and information presentation 21 Outdoor work areas 22 Noise and acoustics 23 Vibrations 24 Lighting 25 Radiation 26 Equipment for transportation of personnel 27 Safety signs III-III PHYSICAL BARRIERS 28 Passive fire protection 29 Fire divisions 30 Fire divisions in living quarters 31 Fire and gas detection systems 32 Emergency shutdown systems 33 Process safety systems 34 Gas release systems 35 Fire water supply 36 Fixed fire-fighting systems 37 Emergency power and emergency lighting 38 Ballasting systems 39 Open drainage systems



III-IV EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS 40 Equipment for rescue of personnel 41 Material for action against acute pollution 42 Standby vessels 43 Means of evacuation 44 Survival suits and life jackets etc 45 Manual fire-fighting and fireman's equipment III-V ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS 46 Electrical installations CHAPTER IV SPECIFIC SUPPLEMENTARY PROVISIONS IV-I DRILLING AND WELL SYSTEMS 47 Well barriers 48 Well control equipment 49 Compensator and disconnection systems 50 Drilling fluid system 51 Cementing unit 52 Casings and anchoring of wells 53 Equipment for completion and controlled well flow 54 Christmas tree 55 Remote operation of pipes and work strings IV-II PRODUCTION PLANTS 56 Production plants IV-III MAIN LOAD BEARING STRUCTURES AND PIPELINE SYSTEMS 57 Main load bearing structures 58 Pipeline systems IV-IV LIVING QUARTERS 59 Living quarters 60 Health department 61 Emergency unit 62 Supply of food and drinking water IV-V MARITIME INSTALLATIONS 63 Stability 64 Anchoring, mooring and positioning 65 Turret IV-VI DIVING SYSTEMS 66 Systems and equipment for manned underwater operations IV-VII OTHER SUPPLEMENTARY PROVISIONS 67 Loading and discharging facilities 68 Waste 69 Exhaust ducts 70 Lifting appliances and lifting gear 71 Helicopter decks 72 Marking of facilities 73 Marking of equipment and cargo 74 Lifts CHAPTER V IMPLEMENTATION OF EEA LAW 75 Simple pressure vessels 76 Personal protective equipment 77 Aerosols 78 EMC 79 Ex-equipment 80 ATEX 81 Pressure equipment not comprised by the Facilities Regulations 82 Machinery and safety components not comprised by the Facilities Regulations CHAPTER VI ENTRY INTO FORCE 83 Entry into force


Section 3 Facilities Regulations

Section 3 Choice of development concept In choosing a development concept the following shall be taken into consideration: a) Major accident risk, b) Form of operation, c) Risk of pollution, d) Geographical location, e) Location conditions, f) Reservoir properties, g) Requirements to regularity, h) Life time, i) Subsequent removal, if any, j) Need for development of new technology.


Facility reg. 4 Design of facilities

Facilities shall be based on robust and the simplest possible solutions and shall be designed so that

a) withstand loads . b) ALARP c)single component failure d) maintain main safety functions e) safe material handling f) working environment g) operational limitations h) health and hygiene i) lowest possible risk of pollution, j) satisfactory maintenance.

Fire and explosion strategy. Area classification Green water (places where people can stay shall not be hit with annual
probability of 10-2)



Robust design shall contribute such that the facilities can withstand unknown dangers.

Safety factor We are focusing on the known dangers

Known dangers

Unknown danger


Facility reg. 6 Main safety functions

The main safety functions shall be defined unambiguously in respect of each
individual facility in order to ensure the safety for personnel and to limit pollution. functions shall be maintained in the event of an accident situation:

With regard to permanently manned facilities the following main safety a) preventing escalation of accident situations so that personnel outside
the immediate vicinity of the scene of accident, are not injured, until the facility has been evacuated,

b) maintaining the main load carrying capacity in load bearing structures c) protecting rooms of significance to combating accidental events, so that
they are operative until the facility has been evacuated, cf. Section 29 on fire divisions, facility has been evacuated,

d) protecting the facilitys safe areas so that they remain intact until the e) maintaining at least one evacuation route from every area where
. personnel may be staying until evacuation to the facilitys safe areas and rescue of personnel has been completed.



Section 10 Facilities regulations

Section 10 Loads, load effects and resistance The loads that may affect the facilities or parts of the facilities, shall be determined. Accidental loads and environmental loads with an annual probability grater than or equal to 1x10-4 shall not cause the loss of a main safety function, cf. section 6 an main safety functions. When loads are determined, the effects of seabed subsidence above or in connection with the reservoir shall be taken into account. Functional and environmental loads shall be combined in the most unfavourable way. Facilities or parts of facilities shall be able to withstand the design loads and the probable combinations of these loads at all times.

Section 10 is rather general and functional, in guidelines one will find references to other standards.


Section 43 Facilities Regulation

Section 43 Means of evacuation It shall be possible to carry out quick and effective evacuation of personnel on facilities to a safe area in all weather conditions, cf. the Activities Regulation Section 68 on handling of situations of hazard and accident litera d. The choice of means of evacuation, their placing and protection shall be based on the defined situations of hazard and accident, cf. the Activities Regulations Section 64 on establishing emergency preparedness. As means of evacuation in respect of evacuation to sea, free-fall lifeboats supplemented by escape chutes and associated life rafts shall be used. Separate assessments of the need for and selection of equipment for hyperbaric evacuation may be carried out. Hyperbaric evacuation units shall be designed so that they can be towed and lifted out of the water in the weather conditions relevant for use of such evacuation units.

NB! Note the first sentence of this section!!



NORSOK N-001 Structural Design

Limit state design method Limit state:
This term refers to a state of the structure where the structure or a part of the structure no longer fulfils the requirements ensuring that the structure performs according to the design specifications.

Limit state conveniently controlled by an equation on the form:

Permanent loads Variable loads Environmental loads Capacity

p x p + v xv + e xe
Partial safety factors



NORSOK N-001 Structural Design

Serviceability Limit State (SLS)
Ensuring functionality of equipments and comfort for crew members.

Ultimate Limit State (ULS)

Basic design limit state ensuring a sufficient margin against foreseen loads.

Characteristic loads given by designer/operator

Load with 10-2 annual probability of exceedance

Capacity: 5% value of elastic component capacity Material factor for steel: 1.15



NORSOK N-001 Structural Design

Fatigue Limit State (FLS)
Important limit state ensuring a proper margin against fatigue failures. Limit state formulation: Fatigue Life Calculated > nf * Structural Design Life nf = 1, 2, 3 or 10 depending on severity of a fatigue failure. 10 is used for cases with large consequences which additionally is difficult to inspect. NB! If a safety factor of 10 is found for a detail where inspection can be made, one can not skip inspections.


NORSOK N-001 Structural Design

Accidental Damage Limit State (ALS)
The purpose of the accidental damage limit state is to ensure that a given accidental scenario does not lead to a complete loss of the integrity of the structure. Partial safety factors are in most cases set equal to 1.0, the characteristic accidental load shall correspond to an annual exceedance probability og 10-4, and the capacity used may utilize plasticity and system effects. Minor local damage is permissible within ALS. In damaged condition, structure shall withstand 10-2 annual probability enviromental loads. For Norwegian Continental Shelf, rare environmental loads (10-4 annual probability loads) shall be used in controlling the accidental limit state.



When will ALS be governing?

(see Ch. 4 in S.H.: Prediction of Characteristic Responses for design purposes)

xALS-bbp Load level

Bad-behaving problem


xALS-wbp xc
Well-behaving problem

- log (annual exceedance probability)

If we are dealing with a problem of a bad-behaving nature, ALS maybe governing.


NORSOK N-001 Structural Design

Sound design principles according to N-001 are:

N-001 States that: The Principal Standard regarding loads is N-003