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Redpaper

Alex Osuna William Luiz de Souza

IBM System Storage N series and Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Hyper-V
Introduction
This IBM Redpaper publication walks you through the steps required to set up Microsoft Windows 2008 Hyper-V and failover clustering on IBM System Storage N series. This configuration merges the high availability and data protection features of IBM System Storage N series with the virtualization and clustering features of Windows 2008.

Copyright IBM Corp. 2009. All rights reserved.

ibm.com/redbooks

Overview
Virtual infrastructures are a fantastic solution to the challenges of a distributed server architecture. In recent years, just about every company with an information systems department has begun some form of consolidation and virtualization effort with the goal of increasing asset utilization while reducing management and infrastructure costs. The virtualization marketplace is filled with solutions from just about every traditional vendor and a bevy of startups. However, the native storage virtualization capabilities shipped with Microsoft Hyper-V do not provide the same benefits and hardware reductions as those seen in the server space. Many customers have experienced an increase in storage requirements after implementing their virtual infrastructure. The reasons for this increase are many, including but not limited to a requirement for a shared storage platform, inefficiencies in the multiple layers of storage virtualization, over provisioning, and challenges with backups that can lead to inefficient disk-to-disk backup solutions. This book demonstrates how integrating N series technologies in a virtual infrastructure can solve the unique challenges inherent with Hyper-V deployments in the areas of storage utilization, fault tolerance, and backups. With N series virtualized storage and data management solutions, customers can make dramatic gains in these areas. The Hyper-V role enables you to create a virtualized server computing environment using a technology that is part of the Windows Server 2008 operating system. This solution is provided through Hyper-V. You can use a virtualized computing environment to improve the efficiency of your computing resources by utilizing more of your hardware resources. The failover clustering feature enables you to create and manage failover clusters. A failover cluster is a group of independent computers that work together to increase the availability of applications and services. The clustered servers (called nodes) are connected by physical cables and by software. If one of the cluster nodes fails, another node begins to provide service (a process known as failover). Users experience a minimum of disruptions in service.

IBM System Storage N series and Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Hyper-V

This book shows you how to use these two technologies together to make a virtual machine highly available. You will do this by creating a simple two-node cluster and a virtual machine, and then failing over the virtual machine from one node to the other (Figure 1 and Figure 2).

Figure 1 Scenario before failure

2008 IBM Corporation

Figure 2 Scenario after failure

IBM System Storage N series and Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Hyper-V

Requirements for testing Hyper-V and failover clustering


To test the Hyper-V role on a failover cluster with two nodes, you must have the minimum hardware, software, accounts, and network infrastructure described in the sections that follow.

Hardware requirements for Hyper-V


Hyper-V requires an x64-based processor, hardware-assisted virtualization, and hardware data execution protection. You can identify systems that support the x64 architecture and Hyper-V by searching the Windows Server catalog for Hyper-V as an additional qualification. The Windows Server catalog is available at the Microsoft Web site: http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=111228

Hardware requirements for failover cluster


There are some requirements for the cluster service installation. The requirements are: Administrative rights are necessary on each cluster node. There should be enough disk space on the system drive and on the share device for cluster service installation. The appropriate Network Interface Cards (NICs) drivers should be installed. The NICs should have the proper TCP/IP configurations. The file and print sharing for Microsoft networks should be installed on each node. The nodes should have the same hardware and device drivers levels. Each node should belong to the same Active Directory Domain. The domain accounts should be the same on each cluster node. A cluster must have a unique NetBIOS name. You should use a Microsoft Windows version that allows cluster installation. The system paging file should have enough space for performance. Analyze the system logs before and after the cluster service installation. Before adding any new nodes, certify that the current ones are working perfectly. You can use the Performance Monitor to troubleshoot virtual memory issues.

IBM System Storage N series and Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Hyper-V

Figure 3 shows a typical cluster configuration.

Figure 3 Typical cluster configuration

Additional hardware-related information for the cluster service installation is listed below: If you are using Fibre Channel Protocol (FCP), all shared drives should be attached to each cluster node. If you are using Internet Small Computer System Interface (iSCSI), all share drives should be mapped to each cluster node. The NTFS file system should be used to format the shared disks. The shared disk should be in basic mode. The SCSI drivers and each adapter cannot use the same SCSI ID. Each node should have a minimum of two NICs. The storage host adapter for Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) or Fibre Channel should be separated. An external drive that has multiple redundant array of independent disks (RAID) configured drives must be connected to the servers of the cluster. The N series storage system must belong to the same domain or Active Directory. The cluster nodes must belong to the same domain. Note: For further information regarding Microsoft Cluster Service requirements and other useful information see: http://www.microsoft.com/windowsserver2003/technologies/clustering/resources.mspx

IBM System Storage N series and Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Hyper-V

Disk layout
When you determine the disk storage layout, you evaluate the type of data to be stored and the number of volumes that you want to create. For the quorum disk there is not too much to design. However, when you have Microsoft Hyper-V there are several best practices to achieve high performance, manageability, and data protection.

Sizing
Before you install Microsoft Cluster Service, you must configure your N series storage system so that the operating system and cluster service have two separate physical devices for cluster usage. At a minimum, you must create at least one LUN for the quorum disk. The drive must be formatted as NTFS.

Quorum configuration
The quorum resource plays a crucial role in the operation of the Microsoft Cluster. In every Microsoft Cluster a single resource is designated as the quorum resource. A quorum resource can be any resource with the following functionality: It offers a means of persistent arbitration. Persistent arbitration means that the quorum resource must allow a single node to gain physical control of the node and defend its control. For example, SCSI disks can use reserve and release commands for persistent arbitration. It provides physical storage that can be accessed by any node in the cluster. The quorum resource stores data that is critical to recovery after there is a communication failure between cluster nodes. We recommend that you configure the quorum disk size to be 500 MB. However, we use a 1024 Mb partition for the quorum since this is the minimum N series LUN size. We also recommend that you configure some form of fault tolerance at the N series hardware level to be used for the quorum drive. The N series uses two types of RAID: RAID-4 RAID-DP (Double Parity) Note: We recommend RAID-DP for better protection. Refer to IBM System Storage N series Implementation of RAID Double Parity for Data Protection, REDP-4169-00, for further information.

IBM System Storage N series and Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Hyper-V

The quorum device in a cluster is used to ensure that there is only a single management process for the cluster. This is intended to prevent split-brain syndrome. Split-brain syndrome is where more than one node claims ownership of some critical resource. The quorum resource belongs to only a single node of a cluster at a time. The first node to create the cluster takes ownership of the quorum resource. Since the clusters described in this document make use of a shared disk as the quorum resource, the way in which the node takes ownership and maintains ownership of the quorum resource is through SCSI commands. When using a disk as a quorum resource, the drive must be a physical disk resource and not a partition, since changing ownership of the quorum involves moving the entire resource to another cluster node. Both nodes can access the drive but not at the same time (Figure 4).

Node 1

Node 2

Quorum

IBM N series
Figure 4 Quorum access diagram

In a Microsoft cluster the first node in the cluster becomes the initial quorum owner. The quorum owner issues a reserve request for the quorum disk, and so long as it continues to be the quorum owner, it will continue to issue a reserve request every three seconds. Should the cluster enter a regroup event, the quorum owner will be forced to defend its ownership of the quorum through a challenge/defense mechanism. When a regroup event is initiated, all nodes issue a device or bus reset. This reset releases the reservation held by the quorum owner. Once a non-owner has issued a reset request, it waits 10 seconds before checking to see whether the quorum resource is available. If the quorum owner is functioning correctly, it regains its reservation (through its regular three-second reservation request) and thus defends its ownership of the quorum resource.

Software requirements
The Microsoft Cluster build is a complex mix of hardware and software requirements and configurations. There are some software requirements on the N series and Windows Server portions. We cover these in the following sections.
IBM System Storage N series and Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Hyper-V

Software requirements for Hyper-V and failover clustering


The following are the software requirements for testing Hyper-V and failover clustering: Windows Server 2008 Enterprise or Windows Server 2008 Datacenter must be used for the physical computers. These servers must run the same version of Windows Server 2008, including the same type of installation. That is, both servers must be either a full installation or a server core installation. The instructions in this book assume that both servers are running a full installation of Windows Server 2008. If you do not want to install Windows Server 2008 Enterprise or Windows Server 2008 Datacenter on the virtual machine, you will need the installation media for the operating system. The instructions in this guide assume that you will install Windows Server 2008 on the virtual machine.

Microsoft iSCSI software initiator


For companies that do not have an FCP infrastructure in place or for those that want to access storage using their Ethernet infrastructure and knowledge, iSCSI can be used as the access protocol for communication between the Microsoft Cluster Server and IBM System Storage N series storage system. In case there are no iSCSI adapters on your planned environment, the iSCSI Initiator software can be used to provide the same connectivity to the IBM System Storage N series storage system. The use of multipaths is also recommended when using a hardware-based or software-based iSCSI solution, as shown in Figure 5.

Figure 5 Multipathing configuration for Windows Server using iSCSI

In Figure 5 on page 8, there are two interfaces on the server (either iSCSI hardware-based or Gigabit Ethernet cards) that connect to two different LAN switches. For performance and

IBM System Storage N series and Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Hyper-V

reliability reasons, we recommend that the LAN segments and switches are other than the public ones. The IBM System Storage N series storage system will have two of its adapters also connected to both switches. Assuming that all the infrastructure is already in place and working and that you are not using HBA iSCSI-enabled adapters, Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator must be installed on the server. After installing and configuring it, SnapDrive should be installed and configured as well so that the LUNs can be created. Note: Despite the fact that the LUNs can be created from the IBM System Storage N series storage system, the recommended procedure is to create the LUNs from the Windows Server using SnapDrive.

SnapDrive software
The IBM System Storage N series SnapDrive feature provides a number of storage features that enable you to manage the entire storage hierarchy, from the host-side application-visible file, down through the volume manager, to the storage-system-side logical unit numbers providing the actual repository. In addition, it simplifies the backup of data and helps you decrease the recovery time. SnapDrive provides a layer of abstraction between an application running on the host operating system and the underlying IBM System Storage N series storage systems (Figure 6). Applications that are running on a server with SnapDrive use virtual disks (or LUNs) on IBM System Storage N series storage systems as though they were locally connected drives or mount points. This allows applications that require locally attached storage, and several others applications, to benefit from the N series technologies, including Snapshot, flexible volumes, cloning, and space management technologies.

Figure 6 Example of a typical SnapDrive deployment

IBM System Storage N series and Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Hyper-V

SnapDrive includes all the necessary drivers and software to manage interfaces, protocols, storage, and Snapshot copies. Snapshot copies are nondisruptive to applications and functions on execution. Snapshot backups can also be mirrored across LAN or wide area network (WAN) links for centralized archiving and disaster recovery.

Benefits of SnapDrive
Most of todays enterprises use business-critical applications, and their storage management team faces a number of challenges. They must: Support new business initiatives with a minimal increase in operating budget. Protect data from corruption, disaster, and attacks. Back up data without any performance degradation, quickly and consistently, without any errors. SnapDrive addresses these challenges by providing simplified and intuitive storage management and data protection from a host/server perspective. The following list highlights some of the important benefits of SnapDrive: It allows hosts and applications administrators to quickly create virtual disks with a dynamic pool of storage that can be reallocated, scaled, and enlarged in real time, even while system are accessing data. Dynamic on-the-fly file system expansion: New disks are usable within seconds. Snapshot copies provide rapid backup and recovery capability with minimal resource and capacity requirements. Supports multipath technology for high performance. Enables connections to existing Snapshot copies from the original host or a different host. It is independent of underlying storage access media and protocol. SnapDrive supports FCP, iSCSI, and Network File System (NFS) as the transport protocols. (NFS supports only Snapshot management.) Robust and easy-to-use data and storage management feature and software.

SnapDrive requirements
IBM System Storage N series SnapDrive is a licensed feature. There are some general requirements for SnapDrive: Host operating system and appropriate patches Host file systems IP access between the host and storage system Storage system licenses FCP Host Utilities or iSCSI Host Utilities required software Note: For security reasons, we recommend a separate user account on IBM System Storage N series storage server. The operating system requirements and additional information about SnapDrive can be found in the IBM Network-attached Storage (NAS) Support Web site: http://www.ibm.com/storage/support/nas

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Data ONTAP
The IBM N series storage system is a hardware-based and software-based data storage and retrieval system. It responds to network requests from clients and fulfills them by writing data to or retrieving data from its disk array. It provides a modular hardware architecture running the Data ONTAP operating system and Write Anywhere File Layout (WAFL) software. With a reduced operating system, many of the server operating system functions that you are familiar with are not supported. The objective is to improve performance and reduce costs by eliminating unnecessary functions normally found in the standard operating systems.

Data ONTAP Storage Microkernel

g n i r o t i n o m d n a n o i t a r t s i n i m d A m e t s y S

Fibre Channel mass storage

WAFL Protection (RAID & Mirroring)


NV RAM Journaling

WAFL Virtualization

Snapshots SnapMirror

File Semantics

LUN Semantics

File Services
NFS, CIFS, HTTP, FT P,

Block Services
FCP, iSCSI

TCP/IP
10/100 & GbE (Fibre & Copper) GbE TCP/IP 2 Gbps Fibre Channel Future

7/29/2008

NetApp Confidential -- Do Not Distribute | Subject To Change Without Notice

Figure 7 Data ONTAP storage microkernel

Data ONTAP provides a complete set of storage management tools through its command-line interface, through the FilerView interface, through the Operations Manager interface (which requires a license), andfor storage systems with a Remote LAN Module (RLM) or a Baseboard Management Controller (BMC) installedthrough the RLM or the BMC Ethernet connection to the system console. Data ONTAP provides features for: Network file service Multiprotocol file and block sharing Data storage management Data organization management Data access management Data migration management Data protection system management AutoSupport

Network file service


Data ONTAP enables users on client workstations (or hosts) to create, delete, modify, and access files or blocks stored on the storage system.
IBM System Storage N series and Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Hyper-V

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Storage systems can be deployed in network-attached storage and storage area network (SAN) environments for accessing a full range of enterprise data for users on a variety of platforms. Storage systems can be fabric-attached, network-attached, or direct-attached to support NFS, Common Internet File System (CIFS), HyperText Transmission Protocol (HTTP), and File Transfer Protocol (FTP) for file access, and Internet SCSI for block-storage access, all over TCP/IP, as well as SCSI over FCP for block-storage access, depending on your specific data storage and data management needs. Client workstations are connected to the storage system through direct-attached or TCP/IP network-attached connections, or through FCP, fabric-attached connections. For information about configuring a storage system in a network-attached storage network, see the Data ONTAP Network Management Guide, GC52-1280. For information about configuring a storage system in a storage area network fabric, see the Data ONTAP Block Access Management Guide, GC52-1282.

Multiprotocol file and block sharing


Several protocols allow you to access data on the storage system (Figure 8): NFS: Used by UNIX systems Personal Computer NFS (PC-NFS): Used by PCs to access NFS Common Internet File System: Used by Windows clients FTP: Used for file access and retrieval HTTP: Used by the World Wide Web and corporate intranets FCP: Used for block access in storage area networks iSCSI: Used for block access in storage area networks

N series Gateway Supported Topology Options


SAN
Enterprise Departmental Enterprise

NAS
Departmental

FCP
Target Side

iSCSI

Dedicated Ethernet
Target Side

Fibre Channel

Target Side

Corporate LAN

SAN (Block)
Target Side

Host Side

NAS (File)
IBM N series Gateway

Figure 8 N series protocols

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IBM System Storage N series and Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Hyper-V

Files written using one protocol are accessible to clients of any protocol, provided that system licenses and permissions allow it. For example, an NFS client can access a file created by a CIFS client, and a CIFS client can access a file created by an NFS client. Blocks written using one protocol can also be accessed by clients using the other protocol. For information about NAS file access protocols, see the Data ONTAP File Access and Protocols Management Guide, GC27-2207-00. For information about SAN block access protocols, see the Data ONTAP Block Access Management Guide, GC52-1282-00.

Data storage management


Data ONTAP stores data on disks in disk shelves connected to storage systems. Disks are organized into RAID groups. RAID groups are organized into plexes, and plexes are organized into aggregates.

Data organization management


Data ONTAP organizes the data in user and system files and directories, in file systems called volumes, and optionally in logical unit numbers (LUNs) in SAN environments. Aggregates provide the physical storage to contain volumes. For more information see the Data ONTAP Storage Management Guide and the Data ONTAP Block Access Management Guide, GC52-1282-00. When Data ONTAP is installed on a storage system at the factory, a root volume is configured as /vol/vol0, which contains system files in the /etc directory.

Data access management


Data ONTAP enables you to manage access to data. Data ONTAP performs the following operations for data access management: Checks file access permissions against file access requests. Checks write operations against file and disk usage quotas that you set. For more information see the Data ONTAP File Access and Protocols Management Guide, GC27-2207. Takes Snapshot copies and makes them available so that users can access deleted or overwritten files. Snapshot copies are read-only copies of the entire file system. For more information about Snapshot copies see the Data ONTAP Data Protection Online Backup and Recovery Guide, GC27-2204.

Data migration management


Data ONTAP enables you to manages data migration. Data ONTAP offers the following features for data migration management: Snapshot copies Asynchronous mirroring Synchronous mirroring Backup to tape Aggregate copy Volume copy FlexClone

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Data protection
Storage systems provide a wide range of data protection features such as aggregate copy, MetroCluster, NDMP, NVFAIL, SnapLock, SnapMirror, SnapRestore, Snapshot, SnapVault, SyncMirror, tape backup and restore, virus scan support, and volume copy.

System management
Data ONTAP provides a full suite of system management commands that allows you to monitor storage system activities and performance. You can use Data ONTAP to perform the following system management tasks: Manage network connections. Manage adapters. Manage protocols. Configure pairs of storage systems into active/active pairs for failover. Configure SharedStorage storage systems into a community. Manage storage. Dump data to tape and restore it to the storage system. Mirror volumes (synchronously and asynchronously). Create vFiler units. For information about vFiler units, see the Data ONTAP MultiStore Management Guide, GC52-1281. For information about all Data ONTAP commands, see the Data ONTAP Commands: Manual Page Reference, Volume 1, GC27-2202, and the Data ONTAP Commands: Manual Page Reference, Volume 2, GC27-2203.

AutoSupport
AutoSupport automatically sends AutoSupport Mail notifications about storage system problems to technical support and designated recipients.

N series licenses
Several things must be done when preparing an IBM N series storage system host to create a reliable system with optimal performance. You must license all of the necessary protocols and software on the storage system. NAS requires the NFS (UNIX) and CIFS (Windows) licenses to be activated, and SAN requires a FCP license with FCP services up and running. For SAN configuration using iSCSI, an iSCSI license must be enabled and the iSCSI service must be running. Verify that the licenses for SnapDrive, ISCSI, and CIFS are enabled and that CIFS and iSCSI services are running on the IBM N series storage devices. Before creating a network share, verify that a CIFS license is enabled and the CIFS setup is complete. On our test setup, we used a clustered N5500. Based on your company policy, you must prepare the storage. If the CIFS protocol is used, configure the CIFS setup and have the necessary CIFS shares available. Note: Refer to the latest SnapDrive and SnapManager administration guides to ensure that the proper licenses and options are enabled on IBM N series storage regarding the license requirement.

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IBM System Storage N series and Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Hyper-V

Active Directory requirements


There are some domain requirements that must be checked to install the Microsoft Cluster.

Verifying domain membership


All nodes in the cluster must be members of the same domain and be able to access a domain controller and a DNS server. They can be configured as member servers or domain controllers. You should have at least one domain controller on the same network segment as the cluster. For high availability another domain controller should also be available to remove a single point of failure. In this paper all nodes are configured as member servers.

Setting up a cluster user account


The cluster service requires a domain user account that is a member of the local administrators group on each node, under which the cluster service can run. Because setup requires a user name and password, this user account must be created before configuring the cluster service. This user account should be dedicated only to running the cluster service and should not belong to an individual. The cluster service account does not need to be a member of the domain administrators group. For security reasons, we do not recommend granting domain administrator rights to the cluster service account. The cluster service account requires the following rights to function properly on all nodes in the cluster. The Cluster Configuration Wizard grants the following rights automatically: Act as part of the operating system. Adjust memory quotas for a process. Back up files and directories. Increase scheduling priority. Log on as a service. Restore files and directories.

IBM System Storage N series and Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Hyper-V

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You can configure these settings on the Security Policy MMC Console (Figure 9).

Figure 9 Security settings console

Note: For additional information, see the 269229 How to Manually Re-Create the Cluster Service Account article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base.

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N series and Active Directory support


Microsoft's Active Directory service allows organizations to efficiently organize, manage, and control resources. Active Directory is implemented as a distributed, scalable database managed by Windows 2000, Windows 2003, and Windows 2008 domain controllers. N series storage systems can join and participate in mixed-mode or native-mode Active Directory domains. Mixed-mode domains support a mix of Windows NT 4.0, Windows 2000 Server, and Windows 2003 Server domain controllers for directory lookups and authentication. Native-mode domains consist of Active Directory domain controllers only, and do not emulate Windows NT 4.0 domains for previous generation computers. N series storage systems adhere to the environment in which they are installed and support both Active Directory and previous generation computers. Note: Both domain styles support previous generation computers. The difference lies in how the previous generation computers interact with Active Directory.

Name resolution
Similar to Windows 2000, Windows 2003, and Windows 2008 computers in an Active Directory environment, N series storage systems query Domain Name System (DNS) servers to locate domain controllers. Because the Active Directory service relies on DNS to resolve names and services to IP addresses, the DNS servers that are used with N series storage systems in an Active Directory environment must support service location (SRV) resource records (per RFC 2782). Note: Microsoft recommends using DNS servers that support dynamic updates (per RFC 2136), so that important changes to SRV records about domain controllers are automatically updated and available immediately to clients. When using non-Windows 2000 DNS servers, such as Berkeley Internet Name Domain (BIND) servers, verify that the version that you use supports SRV records or update it to a version that supports SRV records.

Locating domain controllers


An N series storage system attempts to sense automatically the type of domain that exists on the network when one of the two following events occurs: You run a CIFS setup, the process that prepares the N series storage system for CIFS. CIFS restarts on an N series storage system. It accomplishes this by identifying the type of domain controllers that are available. The N series storage system searches first for an Active Directory domain controller by querying DNS for the SRV record of an Active Directory domain controller. (This is the same method used by Microsoft Windows-based computers.) If the N series storage system cannot locate an Active Directory domain controller, it switches to NT4 mode and then searches for a Windows NT 4.0 domain controller using the Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) and NetBIOS protocol or by using b-node broadcasts. If the N series storage system can locate an Active Directory domain controller, the following conditions apply: Clients obtain their session credentials by contacting a domain controller/Kerberos Key Distribution Center (DC/KDC). NetBIOS is not required to access an N series storage system in a native-mode domain where NetBIOS-over-TCP/IP has been disabled.
IBM System Storage N series and Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Hyper-V

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CIFS/SMB is supported on TCP port 445. Registering with WINS servers is optional and can be turned on or off for each network interface. If the N series storage system is configured in or switches to NT4 mode, the following conditions apply: N series storage systems can register each interface with WINS. (WINS registration can be turned on or off for each interface.) N series storage systems authenticate incoming sessions against a Windows domain controller using the Windows NT LAN Manager (NTLM) authentication protocol.

Active Directory site support


Active Directory sites are used to logically represent an underlying physical network. A site is a collection of networks connected at local area network (LAN) speed. Slower and less reliable wide area networks (WANs) are used between sites (locations) that are too far apart to be connected by a LAN. N series storage systems are Active Directory site-aware. Therefore, N series storage systems attempt to communicate with a domain controller in the same site instead of selecting a domain controller at a different location. It is important to place the N series storage system in the proper Active Directory site so that it can use the resources that are physically close to it.

Authentication
N series storage systems can operate in a Windows workgroup mode or use Kerberos authentication. Workgroup authentication allows local Windows client access and does not rely on a domain controller. With Kerberos authentication, the client negotiates the highest possible security level when a connection to the N series storage system is established. During the session-setup sequence, Windows computers negotiate which authentication methods support standalone Windows NT 4.0, Windows 2000, Windows 2003, and Windows 2008 computers. Those that are not part of an Active Directory domain use only NTLM for authentication. By default, Windows 2003, Windows XP, and Windows 2000 computers that are part of an Active Directory domain try to use Kerberos authentication first and then use NTLM. Windows NT 4.0, Windows NT 3.x, and Windows 95/98 clients always authenticate using NTLM. Data ONTAP includes native implementation of the NTLM and Kerberos protocols. Therefore, it provides full support for the Active Directory and existing authentication methods.

Kerberos authentication
The Kerberos server, or KDC service, stores and retrieves information about security principles in the Active Directory. Unlike the NTLM model, Active Directory clients that want to establish a session with another computer, such as an N series storage system, contact a KDC directly to obtain their session credentials.

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Using Kerberos, clients contact the KDC service that runs on Windows 2000 or Windows 2003 domain controllers. Clients then pass the authenticator and encrypted Kerberos ticket to the N series storage system, as shown in Figure 10.

N series

Figure 10 Kerberos authentication workflow

Network requirements
The network requirements are: A unique NetBIOS name. Static IP addresses for all network interfaces on each node. Note: Server clustering does not support the use of IP addresses assigned from Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) servers. Access to a domain controller. If the cluster service is unable to authenticate the user account used to start the service, it could cause the cluster to fail. We recommend that you have a domain controller on the same local area network as the cluster to ensure availability. Each node must have at least two network adaptersone for connection to the client public network and the other for the node-to-node private cluster network. A dedicated private network adapter is required for HCL certification. All nodes must have two physically independent LANs or virtual LANs for public and private communication. If you are using fault-tolerant network cards or network adapter teaming, verify that you are using the most recent firmware and drivers. Check with your network adapter manufacturer for cluster compatibility. Note: The network adapter teaming is not recommended for the heartbeat NICs.

IBM System Storage N series and Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Hyper-V

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Setting up networks
Each cluster node requires at least two network adapters with two or more independent networks, to avoid a single point of failure. One is to connect to a public network and one is to connect to a private network consisting of cluster nodes only. Microsoft requires that you have two Hardware Compatibility List (HCL) signed Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) network adapters in each node. Communication between server cluster nodes is critical for smooth cluster operations, so to eliminate possible communication issues, remove all unnecessary network traffic from the network adapter that is set to Internal Cluster communications only. Configure one of the network adapters on your production network with a static IP address and configure the other network adapter on a separate network with another static IP address on a different subnet for private cluster communication. The private network adapter is used for node-to-node communication, cluster status information, and cluster management. Each node's public network adapter connects the cluster to the public network where clients reside and should be configured as a backup route for internal cluster communication. To do so, configure the roles of these networks as either internal cluster communications only or all communications for the cluster service. See a configuration example in Figure 3 on page 5. To verify that all network connections are correct, private network adapters (this adapter is also known as the heartbeat or private network adapter) must be on a network that is on a different logical network from the public adapters. This can be accomplished by using a cross-over cable in a two-node configuration or a dedicated dumb hub in a configuration of more than two nodes. Do not use a switch, smart hub, or any other routing device for the heartbeat network. Note: For additional information, see the 258750 Recommended private "Heartbeat" configuration on a cluster server article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base.

SAN requirements
The IBM System Storage N series storage system must be configured prior to running the Microsoft Cluster server on it. The aggregates, volumes, LUNs, and Snapshots must be created and configured to support the Microsoft Cluster server environment.

Aggregates
An aggregate is a collection of physical disks from which the space is allocated to the volumes. When creating the aggregates on the IBM System Storage N series storage system, there are some considerations: On each aggregate, one or more flexible volumes can be created. Each aggregate has its own RAID configuration and set of assigned physical disks. The available space on the aggregate can be increased by simply adding disks to the existing RAID group or by adding new RAID groups. Performance is proportional to the number of disk spindles on the aggregate.

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For detailed information about aggregates, the WAFL file system, and Data ONTAP V7.3, refer to the document IBM System Storage N series Data ONTAP 7.3 Storage Management Guide, GC27-2207.

Creating aggregates
When creating the aggregate, a name should be defined. There are some naming conventions for the aggregate name. The name should: Begin with either a letter or an underscore. Contain only letters, digits, and underscores. Contain no more than 255 characters. After you have the name, size, and disk configurations planned, these are the steps to create an aggregate: 1. Open the FilerView for the IBM System Storage N series storage system where you want to create the aggregate. 2. On the FilerView, select Aggregates Add. This brings up the Add New Aggregate window, as shown in Figure 11. Click Next.

Figure 11 Add new aggregate window

IBM System Storage N series and Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Hyper-V

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3. The aggregate name window appears (Figure 12). Type in the name for the aggregate that you are creating. Select whether this aggregate will be a mirrored aggregate (check box Mirror checked) or an unmirrored aggregate (check box Mirror unchecked). The parity should also be defined in this window. As mentioned earlier, we are creating a RAID-DP-based aggregate, so select the Double Parity check box. If the Double Parity check box is unchecked, the aggregate will be created using RAID 4. Click Next.

Figure 12 Aggregate name window

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4. In the RAID Parameters window (Figure 13) select the number of disks that will be used on each RAID Group created for the aggregate. The recommended number of disks per RAID group is 16. If you are using fewer than 16 disks per RAID group, protection against disk failure is increased, but performance will decrease because there will be fewer disk spindles for accessing the data. If you are using more than 16 disks per RAID group, performance will be increased (more disk spindles to access the data), but protection against disk failure will decrease. Click Next.

Figure 13 RAID parameters window

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5. In the Disk Selection Method window (Figure 14) select the method that should be used to identify the disks used on the aggregate. The default method is automatic so that the IBM System Storage N series storage system will automatically select the disks based on your choices for the size and number of disks from the next windows. If for any reason you need to select specific disks to compose the RAID groups, click Manual and select the number and size of disks to be included on the aggregate. Click Next.

Figure 14 Disk Selection Method window

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6. If you select the automatic method selection for the disks, the Disk Size window will be shown (Figure 15). Select the disk size from the available options or select Any Size and click Next.

Figure 15 Disk Size window

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7. Select the number of disks of the selected size to be used on the aggregate in the Number of Disks window (Figure 16). Click Next.

Figure 16 Number of Disks window

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IBM System Storage N series and Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Hyper-V

8. Review your selection in the Commit changes window (Figure 17) and click Commit.

Figure 17 Commit changes window

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9. The last window is just a confirmation (Figure 18). In our test environment it took about 50 minutes to create the aggregate. That time it takes depends on how many disks you selected. Click Close.

Figure 18 Confirmation window

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10.The aggregate will be created. In the FilerView, select Aggregates Manage and a list of the existent aggregates will be shown, along with their status, RAID level, size, available size, and other information (see Figure 19).

Figure 19 Manage aggregates window

Volumes
Volumes on the IBM System Storage N series storage system can be designated as traditional volumes or flexible volumes. Traditional volumes are tied to the physical disks on the aggregate on which they are created. This means that the disks used on a traditional volume cannot be used on a different volume, whether it is a traditional volume or a flexible volume. Traditional volumes do not allow much flexibility and the only way to increase the size of a traditional volume is to add disk spindles to the volume array. This type of volumes does not allow downsizing. On the other hand, flexible volumes created on aggregates can use disks from and share disks with different flexible volumes. This is due to the fact that flexible volumes are not tied to the physical disks on which they are created but to the aggregate collection of disks. That is why using a flexible volume is always the best option. Flexible volumes provide more management flexibility and allow for dynamic volume size expansion and shrink without impact on the host client. For the Microsoft Cluster Quorum disk this is not a useful feature since what is important is the disk availability, not the storage capacity. But for the Microsoft Hyper-V disks, this is a very useful feature.

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In this scenario, one volume and only one aggregate is necessary so that the Microsoft Cluster quorum files can be moved to different paths on the IBM System Storage N series storage system.

Creating volumes
Every volume on the IBM System Storage N series storage system must be created on an aggregate. The volume name must follow these naming conventions: Begin with either a letter or an underscore. Contain only letters, digits, and underscores. Contain no more than 255 characters. To create the volume on the aggregate: 1. Open the FilerView for the IBM System Storage N series storage system where you want to create the volume. 2. In the FilerView, select Volumes Add. This brings up the add new volume window, as shown in Figure 20. Click Next.

Figure 20 Add new volume window

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3. The Volume Type Selection window appears (Figure 21). Select Flexible for flexible volumes or Traditional for traditional volumes. The recommended type for Microsoft Cluster Server is FlexVol. Click Next.

Figure 21 Volume Selection Type window

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4. In the Volume Parameters window (Figure 22), type in the volume name and select the language used on the volume. By default, the root volume language is selected. Click Next.

Figure 22 Volume Parameters window

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5. In the FlexVol parameters window (Figure 23), select the aggregate on which you want to create the volume. Select the type of space guarantee to be used. The default, which we recommend, is volume. This option pre-allocates the entire volume size on the aggregate. Other options are file space guarantee and none. Click Next.

Figure 23 FlexVol parameters window

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6. In the FlexVol volume size window (Figure 24), select the size type Total Size for the entire volume size (including SnapShots and other features) or Usable Size to ensure that the volume size available will be the specified. Type in the volume size in KB, MB, GB, or TB, and set the SnapShot Reserve percentage. Click Next.

Figure 24 FlexVol size parameters window

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7. Review the selections in the Commit changes window (Figure 25) and click Commit.

Figure 25 Commit changes window

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8. The last window is just a confirmation. Click Close.

Figure 26 Confirmation window

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9. The volume will be created. In the FilerView, select Volumes Manage and a list of the existing volumes will be shown, along with their status, RAID level, size, available size, and other information (Figure 27).

Figure 27 Manage volumes window

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After the volume is created for the Microsoft Cluster server, it must be shared. This is done by using the CIFS option on the FilerView. In the FilerView, select CIFS Shares Add. The Add a CIFS Share window appears (Figure 28). Type in the following information: Share Name: This is the name that will be used to access the volume for the LUN creation on the Microsoft Cluster server. Mount Point: The path to connect to this volume on the N series storage system, such as /vol/Vol_clu_q. Share Description: General description for the share. Max. Users: Maximum number of concurrent users at a time on the share. Force Group: Not used for volumes accessed by Windows hosts. 10.Click Add.

Figure 28 Add a CIFS share window

LUNs
Logical unit numbers are the logical units of storage. They are created on the volumes and appear to host systems (in this case, the Microsoft Cluster Server) as SAN disks. The LUNs are virtual disks that will be accessed by the hosts. The recommended way to create LUNs is using the SnapDrive utility on the Microsoft Cluster server.

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The team that wrote this IBM Redpaper publication


This paper was produced by a team of specialists from around the world working at the International Technical Support Organization, Tucson Center. Alex Osuna is a Project Leader at the International Technical Support Organization, Tucson Center. He writes extensively and teaches IBM classes worldwide on all areas of storage. Before joining the ITSO three years ago, Alex worked in the field as a Tivoli Principal Systems Engineer. Alex has over 30 years of experience in the IT industry and holds certifications from IBM, RedHat, and Microsoft. William Luiz de Souza is a System Management Engineer at the Brazil's Wintel Global Resources Team, Brazil SDC. He works at third-level support for severity ones and infrastructure projects. Before working for the BR Wintel GR Team two years ago, he worked as Wintel Primary for Brazil's USF. William has more than eight years of experience in the IT industry and focused on Microsoft technologies. He holds certifications from IBM, Microsoft, Citrix, and ITIL.

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Notices
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Copyright International Business Machines Corporation 2009. All rights reserved. Note to U.S. Government Users Restricted Rights -- Use, duplication or disclosure restricted by GSA ADP Schedule Contract with IBM Corp.

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This document REDP-4496-00 was created or updated on February 5, 2009. Send us your comments in one of the following ways: Use the online Contact us review Redbooks form found at: ibm.com/redbooks Send your comments in an email to: redbooks@us.ibm.com Mail your comments to: IBM Corporation, International Technical Support Organization Dept. HYTD Mail Station P099 2455 South Road Poughkeepsie, NY 12601-5400 U.S.A.

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