TIA/EIA (DRAFT

)
Structural (Draft) for Steel Gin Poles Used for the Installation of Antenna Towers and Antenna Supporting Structures

TIA/EIA-PN-4860-Gin Poles

Telecommunications Industry Association Electronic Industries Association TR14.7 Sub-committee Safety Facilities Task Group

DRAFT
STRUCTURAL STANDARDS FOR STEEL GIN POLES USED FOR THE INSTALLATION OF ANTENNA TOWERS AND ANTENNA SUPPORTING STRUCTURES TABLE OF CONTENTS
SECTION OBJECTIVE SCOPE 1.0 1.1 1.2 2.0 2.1 2.2 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 GENERAL Definitions Reference Standards GIN POLE OPERATION AND USE Scope Gin Pole LOADS Scope Classification of Gin Poles Combination of Loads PAGE NUMBER 4 4

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4.0 ANALYSIS 4.1 Scope 4.2 Analysis Models 5.0 DESIGN 5.1 Scope 5.2 Design Method 5.3 Effective Slenderness Ratios for Compression Members 5.4 Connections 6.0 RIGGING EQUIPMENT 6.1 Scope 6.2 Rigging Equipment Strength Requirements 6.3 Daily Inspection 6.4 Wire Rope Requirements 6.5 Wire Rope End Connections 6.6 Chains 6.7 Hooks and Shackles 6.8 Rooster Head

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DRAFT
7.0 Load Chart 7.1 Scope 7.2 Standard Gin Pole Chart 7.3 Special Engineered Lift 8.0 MANUFACTURING 8.1 Scope 8.2 Steel 8.3 Test Reports 8.4 Fabrication 8.5 Straightness 8.6 Finish 8.7 Identification 9.0 Inspection and Repair 9.1 Field Tolerances 9.2 General Items for Gin Pole Inspection 9.3 Minimum Inspection Frequency 10.0 11.0 Repair and Modification Examples and Figures 22 23 24 25 26 27

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Figures 2-1 and 2-2 Figures 2-3 and 2-4 Figure 3-1 Figure 3-2 Figures 7-1 and 7-2 ANNEX A Procurement and User Guidelines ANNEX B Guide for Engineering Design 1.0 Scope 2.0 Gin Pole Capacity 3.0 Gin Pole Overall Effective Length Factor “K” 4.0 Gin Pole Lift Considerations Chart B-1 ANNEX C Evaluation of Existing Poles 1.0 Scope 2.0 Data for Engineering Evaluation and File Documentation 3.0 Written Inspection Report for gin Pole 4.0 Independent Inspection by a Qualified Firm 3

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The information contained in this standard was obtained from sources as referenced and noted herein and represents the accepted industry practices for minimum standards for the design of steel gin poles used for the installation of antennas and antenna supporting structures. antenna towers and antenna supporting structures. which could exist in a particular situation.DRAFT OBJECTIVE The objective of this standard is to provide minimum criteria for design and use of steel gin poles for installation of antennas. 4 Rev 16 GLL 08/21/02 . and applicability. towers and antenna supporting structures. This standard is not intended to cover all conditions. SCOPE This standard describes the requirements for design of steel gin poles that are used for the installation of antennas. While this standard is believed to be accurate. suitability. a licensed professional engineer should not rely upon this information for any specific application without competent professional examination and verification of its accuracy. This standard covers the use of a cantilever gin pole in the vertical or near vertical position only.

tag line. Basket Slings: are slings attached to the bottom of the gin pole. Impact Load: a dynamic condition to account for a momentary vertical acceleration or braking of the load. Engineered Lift: a lift outside the limits specified by a specific load chart prepared by an engineer. antennas or equipment into position. Bridle Support: the upper support that restricts the gin pole from moving in any horizontal direction. Load Chart: a chart used to determine the lifting capacities of the gin pole under specified parameters. This includes the weight of the lifted object. 5 Rev 16 GLL 08/21/02 . This temporary device allows headroom above the highest fixed point of the tower or structure. showing external forces. the load line. Load Line: a wire rope used to raise and lower the load. Free Body Diagram: (FBD) a representation of an object in equilibrium.0 1. Cantilever: the projection of the gin pole above the bridle. and any other attachments.DRAFT 1. headache ball. Gross Load: the total load to be lifted. providing vertical support.1 GENERAL Definitions: ASD: (Allowable Stress Design) is a method of analysis in which the design strength of the structure is equivalent to its ultimate strength divided by a specified factor of safety. or dangerous to employees and who has the authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them. Jump Line: a wire rope used to raise and lower the gin pole. Competent Person: one who is capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards. This can also be referenced as the collar. moments and support reactions. Headache Ball: a counterweight attached to the end of the load line to return the load line to the ground. Gin Pole: a device unique to the telecommunications industry used to raise successive sections of tower steel. which are hazardous. Bridle: the upper most support point of the gin pole that attaches to the structure.

which allows the load line to pass through it and rotate 360 degrees. Rooster Head: is a sheave assembly located at the top of the gin pole.DRAFT LRFD: (Load & Resistance Factor Design) is a method of analysis in which the limit state condition of the structure is evaluated with a load increased above the actual load used. by possession of a recognized degree or certificate of professional standing. Should: indicates an advisory practice. strap or chain for supporting. rooster head and any other additional sheaves or pulleys. Slings: a looped wire rope. This increased load is then compared to the strength of the structure. Panel Connection Point: the point where the horizontal and diagonal bracing members intersect the vertical leg member of a gin pole or tower structure. has successfully demonstrated his/her ability to solve and resolve problems related to the subject matter and work. 6 Rev 16 GLL 08/21/02 . Shall: indicates a mandatory practice. training and experience. Mid-Level Support: the support between the bridle and the basket that restricts the pole from movement in all horizontal directions. Qualified Person: a person who. Rigging: are the items used to support or secure the gin pole and to lift or control the load. Track: a device or system used to guide and support some gin poles during the raising and lowering of the gin pole. Qualified: means the pole meets the parameters of this standard and/or is used within the guidelines and specifications put forth in this standard. Reeving: is the act or method of passing a wire rope through the pole. Tag Line: a method of applying a force to control a load. cradling or lifting an object. or who by extensive knowledge.

1:2000 American Welding Society “Structural Welding Code-Steel” TIA/EIA-222-F-1996 Structural Standard for Antenna Supporting Structures and Antennas NATE National Association of Tower Erectors “Gin Pole Procedures” SSTC 2001 Steel Structures Technology Center. 1995 “Specifications for Offshore Cranes” AWS D1. April 3. and its Specification Appendix – 1997 AISC-LRFD-94 American Institute of Steel Construction “Load and Resistance Factor Design Manual” API Specifications 2C Fifth Edition.DRAFT 1.2 Referenced Standards: AISC-ASD 9th Edition American Institute of Steel Construction “Allowable Stress Design Manual” AISC “Guide for the Analysis of Guy and Stiffleg Derricks” 1974 AISC Hollow Structural Sections “Connections Manual”. Inc. “Structural Bolting Handbook” OSHA CFR 1926 Construction Industry Occupational Safety and Health Standards for the 7 Rev 16 GLL 08/21/02 .

and tag line. Although small poles may be of single or built up solid shapes. track. When designing the gin pole. goes through a block at the base of the tower. attachment points.2. most gin poles are constructed of triangular or square lattice shapes. 2-2 2. this standard is directly applicable to only the positions described and referenced herein. 2. Sheave diameter and groove shall be designed for the load line size intended. It is attached to a structure in an arrangement as shown in Fig. The main parts of the gin pole are the steel mast.2. The load line leaves the hoist at ground level.2 Rooster Head The rooster head is located at the top of the gin pole. basket sling attachment points. The mast may have tapered sections at the bottom and top to help reduce the potential of objects catching on the pole and to allow room for rigging equipment while turning the section. then up through the middle of the pole. 2-1. loading conditions. Refer to Fig.4 Load Line The load line is used to raise and lower the intended load. and pertinent lifting arrangements associated with use of a particular gin pole. The distance between the sheave edge and the side plate shall not exceed 25 percent of load line diameter. jump line.3 Track Tracks used to guide and support gin poles during the jumping process shall not be used as a bridle or mid-level support unless specifically designed for such use. bridle sling attachment points.2. 2. consideration shall be given to the possibility of personnel climbing the pole to perform rigging functions and for provision of tie off points to accommodate fall protection equipment.2. It is critical that the user and engineer have a common understanding in the exact positioning. 8 Rev 16 GLL 08/21/02 . 2. The side plates shall have bolts or pins with spacers around the sheave so the load line is held in place and side plate distance is controlled. with its upper portion cantilevering above the tower top.1 Scope This section describes the use and positioning for a gin pole to be used in tower and antenna work. rooster head. Although other arrangements are possible.2 Gin Pole A gin pole is a lifting device used in the vertical or near vertical position.0 GIN POLE OPERATION AND USE 2.1 Steel Mast The gin pole mast shall be made from steel. load line. 2.DRAFT 2. through the rooster head and back down to the ground to pick up the intended load.

Bridle and basket slings shall be attached at tower panel points and gin pole panel points. 2-3. 3. 4.000-pound gross load over 5. A straight tag is attached directly to the load. a tag line angle of 60 degrees. There shall be a mechanism in place to prevent the pole from tipping during the jumping process. 2. cantilever height of 25 feet. Two common methods of tagging are the straight tag and the trolley tag. 3. These methods are shown on Fig. a 3 degree load line angle. 3.5 Jump Line The jump line is used to reposition the gin pole by raising and lowering the gin pole to the desired location.DRAFT 2.2. The trolley tag connection point shall be below the rooster head. up through a block on the tower. 2.6 Tag Line Tag lines are used to help control the load during the lifting process. goes through a block at the base of the tower. A trolley tag may be attached to the gin pole. kL3 / EI = 100 (see annex B).1 Scope This section provides minimum load requirements for gin pole structures.7 Tower Attachment Gin pole attachment to the tower is typically with bridle and basket slings as shown in (Fig. 5.000-pound gross load 9 Rev 16 GLL 08/21/02 . The jump line leaves the hoist on the ground.2 Classification of Gin Poles The class of the gin pole is based on its gross load capacity determined by using the following parameters: 1. 2-4). pole attached at bridle and basket only.2. without internal horizontal load line restraint between the basket and bridle points (see annex B). then through a series of blocks or directly to a specific location on the gin pole. They shall be positioned to minimize loading forces produced on the tower members to which they are attached.000 to 5. Class A Class B Class C 0 < 2.0 LOADS 3.000-pound gross load 2. 2.2. 6.

3.0D+1. FS = factor of safety. 1.2.35 3.0W 3. Service Load Conditions For the purposes of calculating deflections and factor of safety on rigging. 3. to help account for unpredictable deflection.2.4.2 LRFD Design Gin pole structures shall be designed so that their design strength equals or exceeds the load effects of the factored loads in the following limit state combination. Im = Impact loading.3.1 Impact Factors (Im) The following impact factors shall be used with either design method. Class A 1. Class C 1. ASD design may be used with the following load combinations: 1. typically used on smaller structures.3.3 ASD Design As an alternative to LRFD design.6W Gin poles shall be analyzed with the following load case to determine anticipated deflections. (1.2.0L) The resistance factors φ (PHI) for the strength of the gin pole components shall be in accordance with the AISC LRFD manual.3.0D + 1. For LRFD the following load combinations shall be used: 1.0(L x Im)+1. the following load combinations shall be used.3 3.3D + 1. Class B 1.0L 10 Rev 16 GLL 08/21/02 . 3.45 2.3. 1. W= wind force applied to the cantilever portion of the gin pole.0D+1.3. 3.1 Combination of Loads Symbols D= dead load (weight) of gin pole and fixed rigging attachments. L= live load is the gross load.6(L x Im) +1.2.25 3.2 Design Loading Requirements It is the intent of this standard to specify an impact factor for both LRFD and ASD design. which may occur in the structure during a lift. These impact factors are increased for smaller gin poles.DRAFT 3.

forces and distances associated with load and tag lines.DRAFT 3.00256 x Kz x Gh x V2 x (Cf x Ae) (lbs) W = .3. These figures show the pick load. Figure 3-1 describes a straight tag arrangement and Figure 3-2 a trolley tag arrangement.mph ) force coefficient for the gin pole structure effective projected area of the gin pole structure – sq.3. Forces and Reactions for Gin Pole Lifts The free body diagrams in Figures 3-1 and 3-2 describe the typical loading associated with a gin pole in the vertical and near vertical positions.0 Gh = 1. Cf and Ae shall be calculated in accordance with the TIA/EIA-222-F-1996 standard. and reactions at tower and tag connection locations. The direction of the wind force shall be the direction which applies maximum forces and reactions. if appurtenances are attached to the gin pole their shape factor times their associated wind area shall be added to the Cf x Ae portion of the above equations. ft. The wind force calculated shall be for a constant 30 mph effective wind speed from the following equation: W = .4 Wind Loading Gin poles shall be designed with a minimum 30-mph effective wind speed applied to the cantilever portion while in the loaded condition.3 Loads.613 x Kz x Gh x V2 x (Cf x Ae) (N/(m2)) where: Kz = 1. 3.0 V = 30 Cf = Ae = (velocity pressure coefficient) (gust effect factor) (effective wind speed . 11 Rev 16 GLL 08/21/02 . Symbols and notations are noted in the nomenclature portions of the diagrams.

The overall gin pole effective length factor. K.DRAFT 4.0 ANALYSIS 4. An elastic 3-dimensional truss model made up of straight members. pin connected at joints. This analysis shall be a second order (P-delta) analysis with enough cycles to assure a stable response of the deflected pole under load. 3. 4. shears and axial forces in the pole with 2nd order (P-delta) effects considered by one of the following methods: a. This shall be a second order (P-delta) analysis with enough cycles to assure a stable response of the deflected pole under load. A first order analysis with AISC prediction for 2nd order effects (moment magnification). An elastic 3-dimensional frame-truss model where continuous chord (leg) members of the gin pole are modeled as 3-dimensional beam elements producing both moments and axial forces. 12 Rev 16 GLL 08/21/02 . producing only axial forces in the members. b 2.3. For all analysis models joint eccentricities at connections shall be considered. In using this method a prediction of the overall gin pole critical load capacity is required. An elastic beam-column model produces moments.2 Analysis Models Minimum acceptable models of analysis for prediction of a gin pole configuration’s structural response to loading are: 1.1 Scope This section defines minimum acceptable analysis methods to be used for gin pole design and load chart development. for this calculation shall be taken from Section 5. A second order (P-delta) computer analysis with enough cycles to assure a stable response of the deflected pole under load.2 in this Standard or from Charts B-1 located in ANNEX B. while bracing members may be modeled as 3-dimensional truss elements. 4.

0 DESIGN 5. 3. position and tension of the load line passing through the gin pole.3. flexibility of the tower. overall gin pole length. This requirement is referenced in section 1.1 Lattice Gin Poles The effective slenderness ratio. 5. mounting arrangement to the tower. Otherwise. shall be taken as 0.0 (between support points) To qualify for the use of these effective length factors K.2 Design Method The provisions of AISC-LRFD-94 or AISC-ASD-9th Edition shall be used for the basis of design.0 shall not be allowed due to potential vulnerability issues during normal use affecting the initial straightness of individual components. bracing detail shall be such that the lines of action of bracing members meet at a point within the diameter or width of the leg member. 4.DRAFT 5.1 Scope This section relates to the strength of gin pole structural members and their connections. 2. KL/r. when the actual wall thickness is unknown. for lattice gin pole members shall be provided as follows: Leg members Bracing Members K = 1.2 of the AISC “Specification for Design of Steel Hollow Structural Sections”. 5. The design wall thickness to be used in calculations involving tubing and pipe. 5.0 (between bracing members) K = 1.3. cantilever length above the bridle. Reduction in K values below 1.2 Overall Stability of Gin Pole The overall stability of the gin pole shall be investigated using the axial compression and moment loading of the gin pole The effective length factor (K) for the entire gin pole depends upon these conditions: 1. a combined axial and bending stress analysis shall be required. geometry of the gin pole.3 Effective Slenderness Ratios for Compression Members 5. 13 Rev 16 GLL 08/21/02 . 5. 6.93 times the nominal wall thickness.

3 3.0 50% 3. 5-1 can be used for gin pole overall effective length factors (K) or values from Chart B-1 in ANNEX B shall be used.7 3.0 2.0 4. Chart No.4 Connections 5.0 2. 5-1 Overall Gin Pole Effective Length Factors (K) K Factor over Cantilever Height .3 Bearing Type Connections Bolts tightened to a snug-tight condition are permissible for use in bearing-type connections.3 3.% Cantilever # Supports 2 2 3 3 Load Line Restraint No Yes No Yes 20% 5. 5.8 30% 3.7 3.4 Minimum Connection Tension Capacity The connections at ends of tension or compression members shall have sufficient tensile capacity to develop the force due to the design load. shall be provided with a nut-locking device.2 Nut Locking Bolts. 5.DRAFT Chart No. Details concerning acceptable overall stability checks for a particular gin pole arrangement are provided in Section 1.4 5. but not be less than 50% of the member’s compression capacity. 14 Rev 16 GLL 08/21/02 . and also as referenced in the AISC “Load and Resistance Factor Design” manual – 2nd edition. Bolts or threaded rods with tensile strengths of 150 KSI or greater (such as A490 bolts) shall not be hot-dip (or mechanically) galvanized.0 3.6 40% 3.4.9 3. unless fully tensioned in accordance with AISC requirements. 5.7 For cantilever lengths between the above values. linear interpolation may be used to determine the appropriate K factor.4. 5.4. ASTM A36 threaded rods and ASTM A307 bolts shall not be used unless specifically accepted for such use by the engineer.4.2 5. Bearing-type connections shall not be used with oversize or slotted holes.9 3.1 Bolts Bolts and/or threaded rods shall comply with ASTM Reference Table 1-C in the AISC ”Allowable Stress Design” manual – 9th edition.3 of ANNEX B entitled “Gin Pole Overall Stability Check”.

1-2000.DRAFT 5. to be used more than once shall be of black iron steel (non-galvanized). Size ¾” 7/8” 1” 1 1/8” Above 1 1/8” A325 Bolt Torque (Ft. Other materials may be reused for fasteners upon the approval of the engineer.4. or threaded rods. Bolts shall be checked each time they are to be reused by a hand-threading test. e. the following criteria shall be met: a. Bearing stress on the projected area of the bolt and its connection material shall be limited to the criteria for the design of bearing for pin-connected members in accordance with AISC Specifications. by an appropriate AISC defined method. d. If a bolt smaller than ¾ inch is to be reuesd the engineer must specify an appropriate procedure and test for reuse.-Lbs. 5. 15 Rev 16 GLL 08/21/02 . a reasonable physical limit for field tightening) Note: It is the intent of this standard not to allow reuse of bolts less than ¾ inch in diameter.5 Re-Use of Gin Pole Bolts If bolts are to be reused for gin pole connections in the field. it is the responsibility of the user to verify. This shall be accomplished by running the nut up and down the entire length of bolt threads by hand. This test is required as a specific field test to determine if bolts or nuts have yielded from previous tightening or loading.) 100 175 250 325 350 (or. Bolts shall be limited to torque values which would not produce tensile strength stress values in excess 40% of the bolts ultimate strength (48.000 psi for A325 bolts up to 1 inch in diameter).4. who shall describe an acceptable method for bolt reuse based upon materials specified. the bolt shall not be reused. The following chart provides estimated torque conditions for well-lubricated assemblies. b. Acceptable materials are ASTM A325 and A449. Bolts shall be provided with suitable locking devices that do not damage the threads when in use or when nuts are removed.6 Welding Welded connections shall conform to the design requirements of the “American Welding Society Structural Welding Code Steel” AWS D1. However. bolt torques for the actual application. If nuts cannot be easily run throughout the threaded length. c. Bolts.

rotating rooster heads. frictional losses.1 and 3. etc. used to attach the gin pole to the tower and/or to attach loads to lifting or tagging lines shall not exceed the manufacturer’s safe working load limits. Gin Pole Attachment Points: Lugs or other devices for lifting or attaching the gin pole in position shall be designed with load and resistance factors. Adequate consideration for inefficiencies such as end fitting losses. shall be considered. b.2. 6.2 Rigging Equipment Strength Requirements The following safe working load limits shall be applied for gin pole lifts: a. In addition. shackles. shall have a nominal breaking strength of no less than five (5) times the static load applied. In addition. 16 Rev 16 GLL 08/21/02 . hooks. links. etc. each individual component.3. End fitting losses and actual positioning of connecting parts shall be taken into consideration. each component shall have a nominal breaking strength of no less than five (5) times the static load applied.DRAFT 6.0 RIGGING EQUIPMENT 6. as specified in clauses 3. Attachments: Wire rope slings. used in the gin pole lifting process shall meet the manufacturer’s safe working load limits.2.. If personnel are to be lifted by a gin pole and its’ associated equipment.. chains. the complete unit capacity shall be reduced by one half. or factors of safety.3. turnbuckles. c. and for clarification. etc. d. Lifting Personnel: The load factors and factors of safety referenced in this standard are for lifting of loads only.1 Scope This section outlines the requirements for equipment associated with a lifting operation and common equipment used to attach the gin pole to the tower. Moving Equipment: Wire rope. as well as an attachment assembly. blocks.2. sheaves.

6.7 Hooks and Shackles Only quenched and tempered hooks. Basket slings shall have heavy-duty thimbles in the eyes.1 and 3. etc.2.3. etc.DRAFT 6.3. The sheave and block diameter shall be of the proper size as referenced by the wire rope manufacturer with a minimum of 18:1 ratio. hooks. 6. The sheave manufacturer shall be consulted for the type of bearing to be used depending on the intended load lift weight and line speed.2.4 Wire Rope Requirements Wire rope used for rigging shall be as follows: a. 6.2. c. along with the following system component considerations: a. An appropriate percentage of strength reduction for wire ropes shall be taken into consideration based upon the end connection type. 17 Rev 16 GLL 08/21/02 . shackles.6 Chains Only alloy chains marked with an 8. c. slings. shall be used. sockets. Flemish eyes (Molly Hogan) shall contain appropriate heavy-duty thimbles and have a minimum tail length of one rope lay secured with a properly torqued clip at its end. b. The sheave groves in the rooster head and hoisting blocks shall be compatible with the size of wire rope being used. The strength capacity of the sheave assembly shall equal or exceed the strength capacity of the wire rope to be used with the sheave. Defective equipment shall be removed from service.8 Rooster Head The design for the rooster head assembly shall be for the load combinations specified in 3. rated for lifting shall be used. Wedge sockets shall have a minimum tail length of one rope lay with a properly torqued clip attached to prevent accidental disengagement.). 6. The manufacturer’s load rating shall be stamped on the product.5 Wire Rope End Connections End connections shall be terminated per industry and manufacturer specification such that: a. shackles. shall be inspected daily before use. b. 6. T or A. Have a steel wire rope core.3 Daily Inspection All rigging equipment (cables.

Straight tag or trolley line angle at grade alpha (α) at 60 degrees from the horizontal. 18 Rev 16 GLL 08/21/02 . 2. Note: L. 4. c. Gin Pole charts shall contain the following information at a minimum: 1. 7. 10. and covers special engineering lift considerations. 30%.2 Standard Gin Pole Chart A gin pole chart shall be provided for each pole. usually taken at 2 degrees greater than load line angle. The bearing for turning the rooster head at the top of the pole shall meet or exceed the requirements of the Specification for Offshore Cranes. Identification number or other reference. Trolley tag line angle gamma (γ) attached at pole.0 Load Chart 7. 5. A warning that the load chart is for lifting loads. 7. Capacities shall include the weight of the gross load. and instructions to reduce the safe lifting capacity by one half when lifting personnel. 13. Supported in two locations. and 40% of the gin pole length. 15. Reaction forces at gin pole attachment points. 6.2. API 2C.1. 12. The main body of the pin shall remain in a ductile condition.1 and 7.1 Scope This section outlines information to be included in gin pole load capacity charts. Overall gin pole length (L). If hardening of the pin is desired for improved wear. which shall be clearly defined on the chart. Section 8 for Swing Mechanisms. Load line through the pole not held from horizontal movement (consider as “not tied”). 3. Type of tag being used. 11. 8. 7. only the surface shall be hardened. A 30 mph effective wind speed at the elevation of the gin pole. 7. Load line angle theta (θ) considered at a minimum of 3 degrees from the vertical. A table to convert degrees to a field measurement. La. Sample charts are provided in Figures 7-1 and 7-2.2.DRAFT b. 14. α. Gin Pole Description. and γ are described in Figures 3. The pin holding the sheave shall be designed with strength capacity to equal or exceed the maximum strength capacity of the wire rope to be used with the sheave. Cantilever projection (La) of 20%. Lifting capacities based on gross load. 9. θ. 3.

which is not specified in standard gin pole load charts shall only be allowed at the direction of a qualified engineer. such as proper mid-level supports provided between the bridle and basket attachments locations. load line and tag line forces. which can qualify for higher gin pole capacities than charted values due to. the engineer shall specify the minimum allowable load line angle to be used in standard gin pole charts. Any lift or lifting to be allowed on a special basis. The following is a list of conditions in which the engineer may allow lifts within the parameters of a “Special Engineered Lift” condition: a. “Special Engineered Lift” procedures shall apply. b. c. when vertical. d. Examples of items to consider for field monitoring during special engineering lifts are. wind conditions. In the case of extended rooster heads. increased stiffness of structures in which the gin pole is mounted to. impact factors and factors of safety as detailed in this standard must be met in order to allow improved lifting capacities. which can qualify for higher gin pole capacities than charted values due to horizontally restraining of the load line as it passes from the rooster down through the pole. shall be provided and used in the field during all “Special Engineered Lifts”.3. Lifts. which extend the load line several inches out from the gin pole edge. lifted weights. Lifts. 7. All applicable strength factors.1 Field Monitoring and Measuring Requirements Special monitoring and measuring conditions. load line and tag line angles (usually converted to allowable and controllable distances of movement from the no load condition). to clear the gin pole sides by only a few inches. and/or additional gin pole supports to the structure. In general this 3-degree load line angle considers a rooster head sheave which allows the load line. The complete procedure shall be approved by a qualified engineer with specific instructions provided to the user. monitoring of gin pole support conditions.3 Special Engineered Lift It is the intent of this standard for lifts to be within the ratings allowed in the “Load Chart” as defined by this standard. as specified by the engineer. If capacities are increased above these charted values by use of lower load line angles. Lifts which allow an increased gin pole capacity by calculating load line angles (theta “?”) that are less than 3 degrees shall be considered special. gin pole deflections and mounting structure deflections 19 Rev 16 GLL 08/21/02 . Other arrangements of additional support for the gin pole that will allow improved lifting capacities above charted values can constitute a “Special Engineered Lift” condition.DRAFT 7.

Each gin pole shall be permanently marked with an identification number that references a specific load chart. 2. as applicable. 8. or in Table 1-1 of AISC Hollow Structural Sections Connections Manual.4 Fabrication Fabrication shall be in accordance with AISC-LRFD-95 Chapter M and welding shall conform to fabrication procedures of the “American Welding Society Structural Welding Code Steel” AWS D1.DRAFT 8. specifications. 20 Rev 16 GLL 08/21/02 . 8.0 MANUFACTURING 8.3 Test Reports Certified mill test reports conforming to ASTM A6 or A568. and/or individual member lengths. shall be provided to the purchaser to verify steel used in construction of new gin poles.6 Finish Gin poles that are not galvanized should be painted with a matte finish to prevent corrosion.1-2000. shall not deviate from straightness by more than one part in five hundred (1/500).5mm) over the members length. For proper assembly.2 Steel Structural steels applicable for gin poles shall conform to one of the steel materials listed in Table 1-1 of AISC-LRFD-95. but not more stringent than 1/16”(1. and corrosion control applicable for gin pole structures. each section of the gin pole shall be marked in a specified sequence.1 Scope This section outlines the structural steel material requirements. Galvanized gin poles shall be hot dipped galvanized in accordance with ASTM 123 unless otherwise specified by an engineer.1997 unless otherwise specified by the engineer. 8. The overall assembled length.5 Straightness The gin pole shall be manufactured within straightness requirements specified. 8.7 Identification Markings for Gin Poles shall be as follows: 1. fabrication 8. 8. Straightness requirements shall be met for the individual members of the pole as well as for the overall assembled length.

When re-using bolts. 9. cracks and rust. h) Inspect all attachment hardware. including rigging.DRAFT 9. and bearings for proper lubrication and movement.3 Minimum Inspection Frequency Minimum inspection criteria for gin poles shall include the following: a) A detailed written inspection annually. deformed or bent structural members. c) Check members for rust or pitting or loss of cross sectional area. c) After any abnormal occurrences a complete and thorough inspection shall be made. cracks and rust. deformation. b) A general visual inspection during assembly prior to use on a specific project shall be made. wear.1 Field Tolerances The designer/engineer specified straightness tolerances shall be used for inspection. g) Ensure proper section order and placement. f) Check rooster head side plates for distortion or damage. b) Welds shall be visually inspected for quality. d) Check sling attachment points for distortion.0 INSPECTION 9.2 General Items for Gin Pole Inspection A detailed visual inspection by a competent person shall be completed covering at a minimum the following items: a) Kinked. 10. 21 Rev 16 GLL 08/21/02 . or within one year prior to being placed in service.0 Repair and Modification The modification or repairs of a gin pole shall be made with like or similar materials to meet or exceed the original specifications. e) Ensure that proper splice bolts are utilized and associated hardware is in good condition. confirm that the bolts are in good condition as specified by this standard. shall be preformed and kept on file. 9.

0 Reference Examples and Figures Fig 2-1 Fig 2-2 22 Rev 16 GLL 08/21/02 .DRAFT Section 11.

4 23 Rev 16 GLL 08/21/02 . Fig 2. Bridle Slings 45 deg.DRAFT Straight Tag Trolley Tag Fig 2-3 Basket Slings 45 deg.

DRAFT Fig 3-1 24 Rev 16 GLL 08/21/02 .

3-2 25 Rev 16 GLL 08/21/02 .DRAFT Fig.

DRAFT Fig 7-1 Fig 7-2 26 Rev 16 GLL 08/21/02 .

9. 6. Specify the number of parts in the load line to be used. 8. Specify the increments of cantilever height needed on the load chart. If a higher wind speed than 30 mph is required. a shop-applied coat of primer paint or a greater protection in galvanizing. 4. 3. 27 Rev 16 GLL 08/21/02 . Specify the type of finished coating you want on the pole. experience and ability to understand the proper use and procedures of the gin pole. Under certain conditions section splice bolts can be reused: Specify if you intend to replace the section splice bolts after each use or if you want to reuse the bolts. 2. 5. Indicate the maximum lowest temperature condition the pole may be used in. It is not an exhaustive list of conditions. The following list was created to aid in this consideration. Designers of gin poles or persons charged with evaluating gin poles for specific uses must rely on the end user to develop the different configurations and ultimately the intended use and capacity of the gin pole. antenna towers. If a trolley tag is selected its attachment location on the gin pole shall be specified. This shall be based on the lowest anticipated service temperature in which the pole will be used.2. it shall be specified. including heat-treatment if required. to be used for structural members in new poles. Specify the size and strength of load line and jump line to be used.DRAFT ANNEX “A” Procurement and User Guidelines The individual or entity desiring to purchase a gin pole for use in constructing antennas. 10. 11. 7. Specify method of tag to be used with the gin pole. or antenna support structures must have the proper knowledge. 1. Indicate the normal operating condition under which the gin pole will be used. Specify the maximum cantilever height above the bridle with its associated gross load capacity. but is intended to provide guidance in the type of considerations to be included when specifying a gin pole. Purchasers should specify the toughness of steel and special welding procedures. Determine the maximum lifting capacity under which the gin pole will be used. based upon Section 3.

and the “Specification for Offshore Cranes”.0 Gin Pole Capacity In evaluating safe and reliable gin pole capacity. and erection experience. This guide is limited to the design of tower erection gin poles used in the vertical. they do not fully address all concerns unique to tower gin pole support and loading conditions. AISC “Guide for the Analysis of Guy and Stiffleg Derricks” 1974. Acceptable criteria for evaluation of each of these items are provided below. The current available design specifications.0 Scope 1.1 History The design and development of steel gin poles for tower erection has evolved from a combination of sound engineering principles. 28 Rev 16 GLL 08/21/02 . position. its member analytical capacity and its overall stability need to be considered. While many aspects of these standards and guides are relevant for tower erection gin poles.DRAFT ANNEX B: Guide for Engineering Design 1. API Specification 2C Fifth Edition.2 Research The Gin Pole Committee has completed specific research and testing work directly related to vertical positioned gin poles. 2. This annex is a review of relevant findings and is intended to be an engineering guide for designing and analyzing gin poles. The following two standards. or near vertical. judgment. but has been without the benefit of uniform design standards. the gin pole analytical response to loading. and for “Special Engineered Lifts. developed primarily for buildings. 1. are specialized standards offering guidelines for design and use of derrick and offshore cranes. April 1995. It contains what the committee believes to be acceptable engineering methods for gin pole design for the development of load chart capacities. bridges and towers do not address themselves to the unique problems of tower gin pole design.

DRAFT 2.1 Individual member capacity of the gin pole shall be determined by an evaluation in accordance with Section 5. A second order (P-delta) computer analysis with enough cycles to assure a stable response of the deflected pole under load.1.1 Gin Pole Analytical Response The minimum acceptable models of analysis for prediction of a gin pole configuration’s structural response to loading are: 2. shears and axial forces in the pole considering 2nd order (P-delta) effects by one of the following methods: a. producing both moments and axial forces.1. This shall be a second order (P-delta) analysis with enough cycles to assure a stable response of the deflected pole under load. This shall be a second order (P-delta) analysis with enough cycles to assure a stable response of the deflected pole under load. axial forces and shear forces at any point in the gin pole mast. For a first order beam-column model analysis. 2.1. In addition the following shall apply: a. individual member forces will be computed by static’s from knowledge of the moments. In using this method a prediction of the overall gin pole critical load capacity is required.1.1.2.b the forces in the gin pole chords (legs) shall be computed using the magnified moment as determined in the moment magnification computation. pinned connected at joints. For the analysis model described in Annex B Section 1. producing only axial forces in the members.3. b. 2. A first order analysis with AISC prediction for 2nd order effects (moment magnification). this calculation shall be taken from Section 5.0 of this Standard.2 An elastic 3-dimensional truss model made up of straight members.2 in this Standard or from Chart B-1. The overall gin pole effective length factor K.1 An elastic beam-column model producing moments.3 An elastic 3-dimensional frame-truss model where continuous chord (leg) members of the gin pole are modeled as 3-D beam elements.1. Annex B Section 1.1. 2.2 Gin Pole Analytical Capacity of Individual Members 2. 29 Rev 16 GLL 08/21/02 . while bracing members may be modeled as 3-D truss elements.

and section modulus “S = I/c” shall be computed with “c” being the distance from the center the gin pole to the centroid of the chord (leg) members.3. provisions in Chapter H in the AISC “Allowable Stress Design Manual . e. 2.3 Gin Pole Overall Stability Check Based upon research and testing it has been found that it is difficult to model all of the variables that influence the overall stability of the gin pole system. A (cross sectional leg area) and r (radius of gyration) for use in AISC strength equations. Consideration for loading across the pole shall be given in the direction which will put one chord (leg) member in its highest potential compressive and/or tension loading. If these. an acceptable check to satisfy the overall stability requirement will be to verify that the gin pole as a unit can satisfy the combined stress provisions in Chapter H in the AISC “Load and Resistance Factor Design Manual . g.ASD” 9th Edition. For the LRFD method.0) c. Both Mn and S shall consider the worse case direction of loading for the gin pole section.1 For all analysis methods. f. For this reason an overall stability check is required. The overall gin pole effective length factor K. or similar. d. For this stability check the maximum overall pole moment. and its associated axially loading shall be used. S (section modulus). conditions exist appropriate consideration shall be given in calculations for determining I (moment of inertia).2 in this Standard or from Chart B-1. A gin pole may not be symmetrical in its cross sectional geometry or have equal strength chord (leg) members. with a F of 0.85. For these computations the following provisions shall apply: a. For the ASD method the allowable bending stress “Fb” shall be equal to the allowable compressive stress “Fa” in one chord (leg) member between bracing points. for use in the appropriate equations of these provisions shall be taken from Section 5. usually at the bridle. b. the nominal flexure strength “F Mn” shall be taken as the moment in the section which will develop the nominal compressive strength “F Pn” of the chord (leg) member between bracing points. 30 Rev 16 GLL 08/21/02 .3. The moment of inertia “I” of the gin pole cross section shall be taken from the centroid of the gin pole chords (legs). Members may change in size through the gin pole and the pole may be tapered in one or more sections. Or.LRFD” 2nd Edition.DRAFT 2. (Cm = 1. The coefficient applied to the bending term in the interaction equation Cm. shall be unity.

and the buckling mode shapes of a straight vertical gin pole with a pinned support at its base and either one lateral support above the base or with two lateral supports above the base support. 3. can become unstable under axial compressive loading prior to any single member in the column reaching its yield strength limit. The number and position of gin pole supports. 3-1 and 3-2) c. The structural relevant properties of the gin pole: I. The Gin Pole Committee’s research included a combination of theoretical evaluations with computer models. for a particular gin pole arrangement. The research work included calculating and verifying the critical load capacity. e. The following information in this sub-section results from this research work and details the required method of selecting the overall gin pole effective length factor K. and E b.DRAFT 3. The spring stiffness of the gin pole supports. Once this instability occurs the gin pole system can be subjected to large lateral deflections. d. Due to past gin pole engineering practices it was decided to base this K value over the cantilever projected length of the gin pole configuration. with both small scale and full scale gin pole load testing. The problem is in correctly predicting this potential unstable condition.0 Gin Pole Overall Effective Length Factor “K” A slender column. This condition can result in overstressed members and ultimately collapse. if restrained from lateral movement at a location at or below the bridle down to the basket region. A.2 • • • • k = spring stiffness of the tower or structure the pole is mounted to (kip/inch) L = overall length of the gin pole from basket attachment to its top (feet) E = modulus of elasticity of the gin pole chord steel (kip/square inch) I = overall moment of inertia of the gin pole cross section (inches^4) 31 Rev 16 GLL 08/21/02 . The critical lengths of a gin pole: L. La. including a slender lattice column. the following dimensionless ratio must be estimated: a) kL^3/EI 3. The load line.1 The critical load capacity of a gin pole configuration must be determined by considering the following conditions: a. Ncr. which in turn will be used to establish allowable lift loads with appropriate margins of safety. From knowledge of the critical load capacity the effective length factor K. or if considered as unrestrained In order to determine the appropriate effective length factor K. for the overall gin pole structure. can be calculated. and Lb (see Figs.

Calculate a spring constant by dividing this bridle applied horizontal load in kips. the following nomenclature is used: a) 2 Supports – A gin pole only supported at the basket and the bridle. K.5 32 Rev 16 GLL 08/21/02 . If more than three parts are used in the load line the portion of Chart B-1 which does not consider the load line as being a support shall be used. b) 3 Supports – A gin pole supported at the basket. in inches.4 The gin pole overall effective length factor. Calculate the relative horizontal deflection of the tower. b. c) Load Line Tied – Considers that the load line running down through the middle of the gin pole is restrained from moving in the lateral (horizontal to the ground) direction during the lift. and in particular when the top of the gin pole begins to deflect laterally during a lift. from the charts.DRAFT 3. in inches (kips/inch). Calculate “k” from field measured data under the direction of an engineer by using a tag line with a tension determining device connected at the bridle location on the tower. Measurements may be taken from the ground with a transit and recording the deflections at the intended bridle and basket locations with the engineer’s specified applied loadings. at the bridle. 3. or other supporting structure. by the calculated relative deflection between the bridle and basket. In selecting a gin pole overall effective length factor K. The spring constant can be calculated by dividing the horizontal load applied at the bridle in kips.3 In determining the spring constant “k” one of the following two methods is recommended: a. and at/or near the mid-point between the bridle and the basket. 3. shall be determined from Chart B1. (kips/inch). between the bridle and basket location by applying a horizontal load at its bridle location. by the calculated relative deflection between the bridle and basket.

a) The free body diagrams in Fig 3-1 & 3-2 display typical forces and reactions for gin pole lifts with two specific mounting arrangements. When the gin pole deflects under load. The additional second order effects of increased pole deflection shall be considered in the strength evaluations of a particular lifting arrangement. Then. It is recommended that the engineer provide the user the calculated tip deflection at the top of the gin pole under a specific lift condition. 4. d) The position of the basket support is typically off-centered. and shall be considered essential for field monitoring of a “Special Engineering Lift”. c) The angle from true vertical the load line makes from the back side of the rooster head sheave shall be taken as the angle between the vertical and a straight line from the rooster head sheave down to the sheave block where it returns to the load line winch unless there is a positive means to support the load line as it runs through the bridle and basket area of the pole. located on one side of the gin pole. and reactions associated with a particular gin pole lifting arrangement. In relation to a centered basket support condition this offset support can produce loading on the pole which can reduce the deflection of the pole top in the direction away from the basket connected side. while not all-inclusive. forces. b) The load line angle. including its attachment method and exact loading conditions for a particular lifting arrangement.0 4. This can be helpful in verification that loads are as the chart ratings intend. and increase the deflection of the pole top on the basket connected side.2 33 Rev 16 GLL 08/21/02 . this load line angle can be considered a straight line between the back side of the rooster head sheave down to this fixed horizontal support. the load line angle will decrease as long as the load line is maintained within the above described distance from the no load position. is considered as the angle the load line makes from the vertical in the no load position. They do not relieve the engineer and/or the user from the responsibility of accounting for all loads. theta . This angle shall be converted into a horizontal distance at the bridle and at grade. It is the intent of this standard to limit the load line within the horizontal distances calculated from the no load condition. The following.T . The load line shall not exceed this horizontal distance as the load is lifted.DRAFT 4. are items for consideration in regards to the preparation of a free body diagram for a particular lift arrangement.1 Gin Pole Lift Considerations It is critical that the engineer and user of the gin pole system have a clear understanding of the method in which the gin pole will be used.

40 2.13 3.81 2.73 2.85 3.75 2.33 2 Part 4.98 2.77 2.85 2.31 5.27 5.24 3.65 1 Part 2.91 3.39 2.76 4.80 Cantilever 40% of Total Gin Pole Length kL/EI 2 3 Supports Supports 2 Supports Load Line Tied 3 Supports Load Line Tied 50 100 200 400 800 3.73 2.48 2.58 3.61 3.72 3.17 2.70 3.95 2.52 2.63 3 Part 3.82 4.23 5.60 3.67 3.02 2.83 2.28 5.34 34 Rev 16 GLL 08/21/02 .09 3.43 2.20 5.11 2.16 5.64 3.58 3.92 2.91 2.24 3.90 3 Part 3.84 2.34 3.00 2.38 3.01 2.26 5.95 3.57 2.51 3.20 1 Part 4.33 2.07 3.78 3.00 4.60 2.66 1 Part 3.66 2.95 1 Part 2.39 3 Part 4.82 2.57 3.19 5.66 2.65 4.02 2.48 2.56 3.31 3.96 2.29 5.08 2.12 2.51 Cantilever 50% of Total Gin Pole Length kL/EI 2 3 Supports Supports 2 Supports Load Line Tied 3 Supports Load Line Tied 50 100 200 400 800 3.40 2.53 4.47 3 Part 3.71 3.59 2.55 2.84 2.68 3.37 2 Part 3.21 5.30 3.69 2 Part 3.92 2.25 2.50 1 Part 5.80 3.58 3.94 2.70 3.58 2.58 3.22 5.00 2.28 3 Part 2.84 3.DRAFT Chart B-1 Cantilever 20% of Total Gin Pole Length kL/EI 2 3 Supports Supports 2 Supports Load Line Tied 3 Supports Load Line Tied 50 100 200 400 800 5.15 5.49 3 Part 2.77 3 Part 3.14 5.31 3.52 2.42 Cantilever 30% of Total Gin Pole Length kL/EI 2 3 Supports Supports 2 Supports Load Line Tied 3 Supports Load Line Tied 50 100 200 400 800 3.78 2.75 2.83 3.83 2.49 1 Part 2.96 2.58 2.66 3.76 3.93 3.18 3.46 2.00 2.37 5.18 2 Part 2.50 2.09 3.22 5.76 2.64 2.91 2.41 3.37 2.56 2.88 2.92 1 Part 3.19 5.80 2 Part 3.10 3.49 2.63 3.72 2.62 2.07 2.43 2.35 3.77 3.18 3 Part 5.85 2.56 2 Part 3.63 2.14 5.38 2 Part 2.55 1 Part 2.13 2 Part 5.70 2.66 3.45 3.

then a procedure acceptable to the engineer shall be used to collect this data. Sketches with AWS weld symbols are helpful.1 Provide sketches of each gin pole section. with section markings. 2. The following criteria are suggested for qualifying a gin pole.2 The dimensions of individual leg and bracing members.0 Data for Engineering Evaluation and File Documentation: The following is a list of items to cover when evaluating a pole and providing specific data for a gin pole chart. If some or all of this information is not provided.0. should be specified.0.3 Specific details of all welded connections should be provided. including thickness. face widths. type of structural shapes. dimensions of weld leg sizes along with their lengths can be given. grade and yield strength of steel. 2. with verification of its authenticity. cross section shape. 2.0. showing length. If possible this information should come from the original design or fabrication plans when available. if available. should also be provided.0 Scope The purpose of this section is to provide guidelines to develop the basic information necessary from an owner to an engineer to complete an analysis on an existing gin pole to develop a gin pole load chart. An overall sketch of all sections bolted together.DRAFT ANNEX C: Evaluation of Existing Poles 1. and bracing patterns. Typical Welds 35 Rev 16 GLL 08/21/02 . As an alternative to exact weld symbols. 2.

8 Design details for sheaves and bearings should be provided. end and edge distances.5 If the gin pole has a track. 2. 36 Rev 16 GLL 08/21/02 . along with their width. 2. base flange and reinforcing gussets. including the manufacturer’s model and serial numbers. A sketch showing pertinent details should be provided. Bolted connection details including the grade of bolts should be provided. 2.0. with their location in reference to the overall pole length. length and thickness should be provided.4 A description of the attachment plates.0.6 Section connections should be shown in detail with size and grade of bolts.0. along with safe working load capacities if available. bolt spacing.DRAFT 2.9 Sketches C-1 and C-2 are example forms that could be used to accumulate data for a gin pole analysis. This information is necessary to describe how the gin pole will be attached to a supporting structure. bolt hole diameters. similar sketches and details for the track and its proposed rigging arrangement should be provided as described above for the gin pole. 2. 2.0.7 Full details of the rooster head should be provided giving the grade of steel and weld descriptions for the side plates.0.0. steel thickness and grade of material being bolted together.

DRAFT Evaluation of a Triangular Pole Evaluation of a Square Pole 37 Rev 16 GLL 08/21/02 .

0. their heat affected zones.2 If steel chemistry is in question. Spark testing can be used to get an estimate of carbon percentages in the steel.DRAFT 3.0.0 Independent Inspection By a Qualified Firm: It is recommended to have an existing gin pole inspected by an independent nondestructive inspection firm. dye penetrant testing or ultrasonic testing of welds may be necessary for further verification. 38 Rev 16 GLL 08/21/02 . If directed by the testing professionals and approved by the engineer. 4. a spectrometer can be used to determine basic compounds in the steel. removal of specific coupons for more exact material verification can be arranged.3 Hardness testing of the welds. and the base metal is recommended to verify that unusual and/or undesirable conditions are not present. 4. Below is a list of items to consider for this type of inspection: 4. If improper welds or cracks are found magnetic particle testing. Pictures of gin pole sections along with specific items in question should be submitted with this report. including details of any discrepancies found. The inspection and testing needs will be different for each individual gin pole.0.1 A visual inspection should be completed by a competent welding inspector.0 Written Inspection Report for Gin Pole: A gin pole inspection report covering the items described in Section 9.0 of this standard should be included with the design data. The above documentation is not intended to be an exhaustive list of items to be covered and is only a guideline. The records of the inspected items should be provided to the engineer. 4. The type of testing necessary should be determined and directed by the professional engineer completing the analysis.

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