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Compass Rule • • • • The compass or Bowditch rule which was named after the distinguished American navigator Nathaniel Bow ditch (1773-1838), is a very popular rule for adjusting a closed traverse The compass rule is based on the assumption that all lengths were measured with equal care and all angles taken with approximately the same precision It is also assumed that the errors in the measurement are accidental and that the total error in any side of the traverse is directly proportional to the total length of the traverse The compass rule may be stated as follows: The correction to be applied to the latitude (or departure) of any course is equal to the total closure in latitude (or departure) multiplied by the ratio of the length of the course to the total length or perimeter of the traverse. These correction are given by the following equations: cl = CL (d/D) and cd = CD (d/D)

where: cl = correction to be applied to the latitude of any course cd = correction to be applied to the departure of any course CL = total closure in latitude or the algebraic sum of the north and south latitudes (Σ NL + Σ SL) CD = total closure in departure or the algebraic sum of the east and west departures (Σ ED + Σ WD) d = length of any course D = total length or perimeter of the traverse • • To determine the adjusted latitude of any course the latitude correction is either added to or subtracted from the computed latitude of the course A simple rule to remember is: If the sum of the north latitudes exceeds the sum of the south latitudes, latitude corrections are subtracted from the north latitudes and added to the corresponding south latitudes. However, if the sum of the south latitudes exceeds the sum of the north latitudes, the corrections are applied in the opposite manner

The rule is based on the assumption that the angular measurements are more precise than the linear measurements and that the errors in traversing are accidental The transit rule may be stated as follows: The correction to be applied to the latitude (or departure) of any course is equal to the latitude (or departure) of the course multiplied by the ratio of the total closure in latitude (or departure) to the arithmetical sum of all the latitudes (or departures) of the traverse These corrections are given by the following equations cl = Lat (CL)/(Σ NL . respectively. Transit Rule • • • The method of adjusting a traverse by the transit is similar to the method using the compass rule The main difference is that with the transit rule the latitude and departure corrections depend on the length of the latitude and departure of the course respectively instead of both depending on the length of the course The transit rule has no sound theoretical foundation since it is purely empirical.Σ SL) where: cl = correction to be applied to the latitude of any course cd = correction to be applied to the departure of any course CL = total closure in latitude or the algebraic sum of the north and south latitudes (Σ NL + Σ SL) CD = total closure in departure or the algebraic sum of the east and west departures (Σ ED + Σ WD) • Since the north latitudes are positive quantities and south latitudes are negative quantities.Σ WD) • • .2. and cd = Dep (CD)/(Σ ED . the arithmetical sum of all latitudes is obtained if the summation of south latitudes is subtracted from the summation of north latitudes. Similarly. the arithmetical sum of all departures is obtained if the summation of west departures is subtracted from the summation of east departures since east and west departures are positive and negative quantities.

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