InternationaI Labour Conference, 92nd Session, 2004

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Towards a fair deaI for migrant
workers in the gIobaI economy

Sixth item on the agenda


InternationaI Labour Office Geneva
ISBN 92-2-113043-6
ISSN 0074-6681


First edition 2004






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Formatted by TTE: reIerence ConIrep-Report VI-2004-03-0012-1
Printed in Switzerland ATA


iii
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Page
Ìntroduction ...................................................................................................................... 1
Chapter 1. Labour migration in a globalizing world .......................................................... 3
1.1. Ìntroductory remarks......................................................................................... 3
1.2. Growth of labour migration................................................................................ 5
1.3. Driving forces.................................................................................................... 8
1.4. Diversity of migrant flows .................................................................................. 9
1.5. Ìrregular migration............................................................................................. 11
1.6. Future flows of migrants.................................................................................... 12
(a) Decent work deficit .................................................................................... 13
(b) Economic disparities ................................................................................. 13
(c) Population density..................................................................................... 14
(d) The demographic deficit ............................................................................ 14
1.7. The decline of bilateral migration management................................................. 15
1.8. Preliminary conclusions .................................................................................... 16
Chapter 2. Migration and its consequences..................................................................... 17
2.1. Ìntroductory remarks......................................................................................... 17
2.2. Ìmpact of migration on countries of origin.......................................................... 18
(a) Reducing population pressure and unemployment .................................... 19
(b) Emigration of skilled persons ÷ The brain drain......................................... 19
(c) Social costs............................................................................................... 23
(d) Flows of remittances ................................................................................. 23
(e) Transnational communities and home country development ..................... 25
(f) Return migration........................................................................................ 26
(g) Migration and trade ................................................................................... 27
(h) Migration and overall economic performance............................................ 28
2.3. Ìmpact of immigration on destination countries ................................................. 30
(a) Ìmpact on employment and wages............................................................ 31
(b) Fiscal impact of immigration...................................................................... 34
(c) Social consequences of immigration ......................................................... 36
2.4. Preliminary conclusions .................................................................................... 40
Chapter 3. Conditions of work and treatment of migrant workers..................................... 41
3.1. Ìntroductory remarks......................................................................................... 41
3.2. Scope and criteria of working conditions........................................................... 42
3.3. Factors affecting conditions of work .................................................................. 42
(a) Evidence of disparities .............................................................................. 42
(b) Reasons for differences in working conditions........................................... 44
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
iv
Page
3.4. Conditions of work in selected sectors and occupations .................................. 48
(a) Agriculture................................................................................................. 48
(b) Construction.............................................................................................. 53
(c) Manufacturing: Sweatshops and migrant workers ..................................... 55
(d) Services .................................................................................................... 56
3.5. Most vulnerable groups of workers .................................................................. 58
(a) Women domestic workers ......................................................................... 58
(b) Migrant workers in irregular situations ....................................................... 60
(c) Trafficked persons..................................................................................... 62
3.6. Occupational safety and health issues.............................................................. 64
3.7. Ìntegration of migrant workers in host countries................................................ 67
3.8. Preliminary conclusions .................................................................................... 69
Chapter 4. Ìnternational regulation of migrant workers and migration .............................. 71
4.1. Ìntroductory remarks......................................................................................... 71
4.2. Current international regulation......................................................................... 72
Ìnstruments developed by the ÌLO .................................................................... 72
Ìnstruments developed by the United Nations................................................... 81
Ìnstruments developed by the WTO.................................................................. 83
Regional agreements........................................................................................ 83
Bilateral agreements......................................................................................... 84
4.3. Relevance and impact of international regulation.............................................. 85
Current situation ............................................................................................... 85
Protecting the rights of specific groups of migrant workers................................ 86
The impact of international regulation ............................................................... 92
4.4. Preliminary conclusions .................................................................................... 95
Chapter 5. ÌLO activities with governments and social partners....................................... 99
5.1. Ìntroductory remarks......................................................................................... 99
5.2. A core agenda .................................................................................................. 99
(a) Building the knowledge base..................................................................... 100
(b) Promotion of norms................................................................................... 101
(c) Social dialogue.......................................................................................... 101
(d) Technical cooperation ............................................................................... 101
(e) Capacity building....................................................................................... 103
(f) Special action programmes....................................................................... 103
(g) Building international cooperation.............................................................. 104
5.3. An integrated programme within the ÌLO........................................................... 105
5.4. Preliminary conclusions .................................................................................... 107
Chapter 6. Managing migration ....................................................................................... 109
6.1. Ìntroductory remarks......................................................................................... 109
6.2. Choosing policy directions ................................................................................ 110
6.3. Towards greater policy coherence .................................................................... 110
Flexibility in administering policy ....................................................................... 111
6.4. The value of social dialogue.............................................................................. 112
6.5. Aligning foreign labour admissions with economic needs.................................. 113
Establishing quotas........................................................................................... 114
6.6. Path dependence in migration policy ................................................................ 115
6.7. Making temporary migration schemes work ...................................................... 118
Contents
v
Page
6.8. The need for a comprehensive approach to irregular migration......................... 119
6.9. Regulating labour migration in countries of origin.............................................. 123
Protecting workers against recruitment fraud and abuses................................. 125
6.10. Advantages of inter-country cooperation........................................................... 126
Aid and remittances .......................................................................................... 127
6.11. Multilateral processes ....................................................................................... 128
6.12. Bilateral migration agreements ......................................................................... 130
6.13. Regional economic integration and the free movement of labour ...................... 131
6.14. Towards liberalizing trade in services................................................................ 134
6.15. Preliminary conclusions: A complex policy challenge........................................ 135
Chapter 7. The way forward ............................................................................................ 139
7.1. Ìssues for discussion for a plan of action........................................................... 140
Annexes
Ì. Summary of replies to the Ìnternational Labour Migration Survey, 2003 ..................... 143
ÌÌ. Ratifications of relevant instruments (as at March 2004)............................................. 166
ÌÌÌ. Texts of the ÌLO instruments on migrant workers........................................................ 169


1
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1. The Governing Body oI the ILO decided at its 283rd Session in March 2002 to
place on the agenda oI the 92nd Session (2004) oI the International Labour ConIerence a
general discussion on migrant workers based on an 'integrated approach¨. Its agenda is
to include:
„ labour migration in an era oI globalization;
„ policies and structures Ior more orderly migration Ior employment; and
„ improving migrant worker protection through standard setting.
2. This was a most timely decision since the growing cross border movements oI
labour have emerged as a central issue Ior the international community. Two recent
global reports, one by the World Commission on the Social Dimension oI Globalization,
and the other by the Global Commission on Human Security, have placed migration
issues squarely at the top oI their recommendations Ior a global policy agenda. These
reIlected the gathering momentum Ior international action Ior a new migration order. In
2003, two independent initiatives, The Declaration oI the Hague on the Future oI
ReIugee and Migration Policy oI the Society Ior International Development (Netherlands
Chapter), and the Swiss Government`s Berne Initiative also urged Ior partnerships in
incorporating humanitarian principles in managing migration. At the beginning oI 2004 a
new Global Commission on Migration was established at the instance oI several
governments.
1
In 2006 the High-Level Dialogue oI the United Nations General
Assembly will be devoted to the issue oI migration and development.
3. In practically every region the rising mobility oI people in their search Ior decent
work and human security has been commanding the attention oI policy-makers and
prompting dialogues Ior multilateral cooperation on how to better manage the Ilows in
the interest oI protecting human rights, maximizing migration`s contribution to growth
and development, and preventing clandestine Ilows and traIIicking. This report has been
prepared with these in mind. It links the ILO`s concerns with those oI other recent
initiatives in the Iield, incorporates new research and data, and synthesizes the lessons
that can be drawn Irom the experience oI both origin and host countries in seeking to
manage migration to improve the treatment and conditions oI migrant workers and
members oI their Iamilies. The analysis oIIered by the report can hopeIully provide a
basis Ior Iormulating sound recommendations Ior Iuture action and Ior the active
engagement and participation oI the ILO`s constituents in their realization.
4. With regard to many issues addressed in the report, much light has been shed by
the replies oI the ILO`s constituents to the International Labour Migration Survey, which

1
The Governments oI Australia, Brazil, Canada, Egypt, India, Italy, Mexico, Morocco, the Philippines and the
United Kingdom comprise an open-ended core group oI countries behind the Commission chaired by Switzerland
and Sweden.
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
2
was undertaken by the OIIice as part oI the preparations Ior the ConIerence. Through
this Survey the ILO obtained Irom some 93 member States the latest inIormation on
trends in migration and conditions oI migrant workers, the state oI law and practice,
impact oI migration, and the experience with structures and policies Ior regulating
migration and employment oI migrant workers. While it had not been possible to Iully
integrate all the Iindings in the body oI the report owing to the late arrival oI some
replies, the most important Iindings have been cited in relevant sections. Annex 1 oI the
report also contains a summary oI the replies. A more detailed presentation and analysis
oI the replies will be published as a separate report.
5. Because oI the uneven availability oI published inIormation on migration in
diIIerent regions, it has not always been possible to present a Iully global picture oI
certain aspects oI labour migration, much less to discuss them in their Iull complexity,
especially in countries or regions where governance capacities are particularly limited.
On the treatment and conditions oI employment oI migrant workers, Ior example, the
report had to rely heavily on studies and reports available only in a Iew industrialized
countries. The same is true oI the discussions on best practices Ior addressing widely
shared problems oI irregular migration, discrimination and unequal treatment, and
making temporary labour migration schemes work. However, every eIIort has been
made to include in the report those issues that are oI common concern to most iI not all
policy-makers dealing with migration questions. It is hoped that by bringing together in
this volume the lessons that may be drawn Irom experience with policy successes as well
as policy Iailures, the report will have Iacilitated the work oI the General ConIerence in
deciding what the whole Organization can contribute to the establishment oI a Iair deal
Ior migrant workers in the global economy.
6. In preparing this report the ILO greatly beneIited Irom the advice and inIormation
received Irom many institutions and individuals. Special acknowledgement should be
made oI the contributions oI the other members oI the Geneva Migration Group
(UNHCR, UNHCHR, UNCTAD, UNODC, and IOM), the UN Population Division, the
OECD, WHO, UNESCO and the European Commission.


3
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Labour migration in a gIobaIizing worId
1.1. Ìntroductory remarks
7. Migration has emerged as a central issue oI our times. Each year millions oI men
and women leave their homes and cross national borders in search oI greater human
security Ior themselves and their Iamilies. Most are motivated by the desire Ior higher
wages and better opportunities, but some are Iorced to leave their homes on account oI
Iamine and poverty, natural disasters and environmental degradation, and violent conIlict
or persecution. Most migration is between neighbouring countries, but greater access to
global inIormation and cheaper transport mean that geography now poses less oI a
barrier to movement. More and more countries are now involved with migration, either
as origin, destination, or transit countries, or all oI these simultaneously.
8. The world has experienced migration Ior human betterment, and the Iactors
motivating migration in the past are present today,
1
and perhaps exert greater Iorce than
beIore as they are accompanied by technological changes that have dramatically reduced
the cost oI inIormation and communication. Rising economic and demographic
diIIerences between nation States make the transIer oI people over borders a 'natural
response¨ in a globalizing world.
9. While international migration can be a productive experience Ior most people,
many migrant workers suIIer poor working and living conditions. Their terms oI
employment may be better than in their home countries, but they oIten Iace conditions
Iar inIerior to those available to nationals in host countries. Despite international
standards to protect them, their rights as workers are too oIten undermined, especially iI
they are unauthorized.
10. The challenge conIronting the global community is to manage migration so that it
can serve as a Iorce Ior growth and development, and not lead to clandestine movements
and the dangers these pose Ior established institutions and the respect oI labour standards.
Various initiatives to develop a global consensus on the rules and principles to govern
migration began soon aIter the demise oI bilaterally arranged migration in the mid-1970s,
but success has been elusive.
11. Ten years ago, at the 1994 International ConIerence on Population and
Development (ICPD) in Cairo, the need Ior a new migration regime was discussed; the
Programme of Action adopted at that ConIerence called on origin and destination States
to cooperate to protect the rights oI migrants, reduce clandestine or irregular migration,

1
National Bureau oI Economic Research: What fundamentals drive world migration?, by T.J. Hatton,
J.G. Williamson, NBER Working Paper 9159 (Cambridge, MA, Sep. 2002), p. 3.
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
4
and combat racism and xenophobia.
2
This raised hopes Ior giving speciIic Iorm to the
actions needed at national and multilateral levels to establish a more orderly migration
regime in which migration would be mutually beneIicial. However, subsequent
developments appear to have weakened the ability and the resolve to establish
cooperative agreements between origin and destination States to manage migration.
Even beIore 11 September 2001, the growth oI reIugee Ilows and various Iorms oI
irregular migration, the dilemmas posed by the nexus between asylum and migration,
and in some cases the Iailure oI existing legal systems to protect the basic rights oI
migrants, combined to move migration beyond the 'comIort zone¨ Ior many policy-
makers in origin and destination countries. DiIIiculties with the social integration oI
some migrants and the complex dilemmas raised by integration in many receiving States
suggest that a much greater understanding oI the contemporary migration phenomenon is
needed to enable the international community to Iashion the tools and instruments Ior
better managing migration.
12. Migration issues today occupy the centre stage in national and international public
policy debates. Migration was addressed at the World Summit Ior Social Development
in Copenhagen in 1995, at the Fourth World ConIerence on Women in Beijing (1995), at
the Second United Nations ConIerence on Human Settlements in Istanbul in 1996 and at
the World ConIerence against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related
Intolerance in Durban in 2001. As a Iollow-up to the ICPD, a Technical Symposium on
Migration and Development was organized in 1998 in the Hague, and later echoed by
similar technical meetings at regional levels organized by the United Nations Economic
and Social Commissions Ior Latin America, AIrica, and Asia. New mechanisms Ior
temporary migration under the Iramework oI the General Agreement on Trade in
Services (GATS) have been launched.
13. At regional levels, inter-country dialogues on reIugee and migration issues and the
speciIic problems oI traIIicking notably the Barcelona Process and the Puebla Process
serve as vehicles Ior consultation and Ior achieving greater cooperation among States
in the area oI migration governance. In the European Union several conIerences, under
the auspices oI the Presidency, have also been organized to review, among other things,
the experience with harmonization oI policies on migration and social integration and the
various approaches to de-linking reIugee and migration outcomes.
14. Other initiatives aimed at developing ideas Ior an international Iramework Ior
migration governance include the 'Berne Initiative¨, sponsored by the Federal OIIice Ior
ReIugees oI Switzerland, and the 2003 'Declaration oI The Hague on the Future oI
ReIugee and Migration Policy¨ the contribution oI the Netherlands Chapter oI the
International Society Ior Development. Two international commissions, the Commission
on Human Security and the World Commission on the Social Dimension oI
Globalization, have argued Ior better management oI global migration. At the initiative
oI Sweden and Switzerland, a Global Commission on Migration was launched in
December 2003 with a mandate Ior placing international migration on the global agenda
and analysing gaps in current approaches. On a more inIormal basis there are regular
consultations between international agencies concerned with migration such as the ILO,
IOM, UNCTAD, UNHCHR, UNHCR and UNODC and in what has been called the
Geneva Migration Group.

2
United Nations: Report of the International Conference on Population and Development, A/CONF.171/13/Rev.1,
New York, 1995.
Labour migration in a globalizing world
5
15. In response to the low and declining rate oI ratiIication oI the ILO`s existing
standards on this subject, the Committee oI Experts on the Application oI Conventions
and Recommendations was requested by the Governing Body at its 267th Session
(November 1996) to undertake a General Survey on the state oI law and practice with
respect to migrant workers.
3
The Committee oI Experts clearly saw the need Ior a
general discussion on the subject at a Iuture session oI the International Labour
ConIerence, with a view to reviewing and possibly revising the instruments. This was
endorsed by the members oI the Governing Body, which also saw the need Ior
discussing the subject on this basis oI an 'integrated approach¨.
16. For these reasons the general discussion on migrant workers based on an integrated
approach at the 92nd Session oI the International Labour ConIerence (2004) acquires
special signiIicance. Within the larger context oI identiIying the principles Ior
establishing a more sustainable migration order, this discussion aims to identiIy the areas
oI consensus on ways in which migration Ior employment might be managed to
contribute to a better world Ior all.
1.2. Growth of labour migration
17. The migration oI workers Irom developing countries to the industrialized countries
has been on the rise Ior the last Iew decades; however, in 1998 migrants still represented
no more than 4.2 per cent oI the industrialized countries` total workIorce. The United
States absorbed the bulk oI the increase (more than 81 per cent oI the new migrants Irom
developing countries), while Canada and Australia accounted Ior another 11 per cent. In
the European Union, migrants were also heavily concentrated in Iour countries France,
Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom. Throughout the 1990s the number oI those
coming Irom developing countries grew signiIicantly Iaster than those originating Irom
other OECD countries, so that by 1998 they had become the bigger group, representing
some 57.8 per cent oI all migrant workers in the organization`s member countries.
18. Close to halI oI all reported migrants move Irom one developing country to another.
Indeed, considerable migration Ior employment takes place between and among
countries where diIIerentials in wages are not very large. For example there have been
large movements oI workers Irom Haiti to the Dominican Republic, Irom Burkina Faso
to Côte d`Ivoire, Irom Egypt to Jordan, Irom Indonesia to Malaysia, or to Argentina
Irom neighbouring countries. Some 2 million Asian workers leave their countries every
year to work in other countries within and outside the region under short-term
employment contracts.
4


3
ILO: Migrant workers, Report III (Part IB), International Labour ConIerence, 87th Session, Geneva, 1999.
4
See M. Abella: 'Driving Iorces oI labour migration in Asia¨, in World Migration 2003 (IOM, Geneva, 2003).
6



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Migrants as percentage of totaI popuIation by country, 2000
More than 10% More than 5% and less than 10% More than 1% and less than 5% Less than 1%
Source: UN PopuIation Division: International Migration 2002 (New York, 2002).
Labour migration in a globalizing world
7
19. The Iull global magnitude oI these Ilows is hard to ascertain because not all
countries monitor, and Iewer still report on, labour migration Ilows, but the phenomenon
is undoubtedly signiIicant and growing.
5
It is estimated that there are today over 86
million economically active migrants the world over, oI whom some 32 million are in
the developing regions. Even this Iigure is likely to be an underestimate since there are
considerable diIIiculties with migrant population data in almost every country and
particularly in some regions.
TabIe 1.1. ILO estimates of migrant workers by region, 2000 (provisionaI)
Reg|on* H|grants** H|grant workers
!
|nc|ud|ng refugees Exc|ud|ng refugees
!
|nc|ud|ng refugees
H||||ons 7 d|st. H||||ons 7 d|st. H||||ons 7 d|st.
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20. Today`s migrant workIorce includes workers with a variety oI skills. At the upper
end are the proIessionals and managers who move within the internal labour markets oI
transnational corporations in the course oI expanding trade or direct Ioreign investments.
These so-called 'intra-company transIerees¨ have become a ubiquitous presence in the
more dynamic regions oI the world, where they are the purveyors oI new production
techniques and managerial know-how. Three out oI every Iour transIerees move Irom
one rich country to another, especially across the Atlantic, while the rest largely move to
and Irom one oI the more successIul newly industrializing countries in East Asia and
South America. Outside oI movements within these internal markets, there are larger
movements oI proIessionals and highly skilled labour in multiple occupations such as
ICT, medicine, teaching, sea and air navigation, journalism and communications, and
entertainment. Some oI these movements oI individuals may Iall within the so-called
'Mode 4¨ negotiations on trade in services.

5
Most countries have diIIerent systems Ior compiling statistics to suit their particular needs. This makes
comparisons across countries diIIicult. When estimating migrant numbers, some countries gather statistics only
on Ioreign citizens and thus do not count those immigrants who have naturalized; others gather statistics on the
'Ioreign born¨. There are also diIIerences in administrative capacity. Countries with better statistical systems
would have better coverage oI migration statistics. In many parts oI the world, migrants Irequently cross borders
without being included in any migration records.
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
8
21. Nonetheless, contemporary migration Ilows are still dominated by workers moving
to Iill unskilled jobs in those segments oI the labour market vacated by native workers
who move on to better jobs. However the signiIicance oI migrant labour in these
segments is not uniIorm across regions, especially in the OECD countries where recent
Ilows are increasingly becoming more skilled. Labour and immigration policies
inIluence the absorption oI migrant workers in diIIerent economic sectors, so that
migrant Iarm workers are more important in the United States than in Western Europe.
22. By 2000, around 175 million people were residing outside their country oI birth or
citizenship 3 per cent oI the world`s population.
6
Over the last decade their numbers
increased by about 6 million a year, representing a rate oI growth Iaster than the growth
oI the world`s population. However, world trade has been growing at more than twice
the rate oI growth oI world gross domestic product since 1990, while net private capital
Ilows to developing countries have grown by more than eight times the level oI such
Ilows in the mid-1980s. Nevertheless, iI international migrants were considered together
they would account Ior the world`s IiIth most populous 'country¨.
23. Many countries are both sources and destinations Ior migrants. Canada, Ior
example, is a traditional destination Ior migrants but also sends signiIicant numbers oI
people, particularly the highly skilled, to the United States. Similar phenomena have
emerged in Asia. Thus, Thailand receives many unskilled immigrants Irom Myanmar,
Cambodia, and the Lao People`s Democratic Republic, but also sends its own people to
other countries including Israel, Japan, and Taiwan (China).
1.3. Driving forces
24. The Iorces driving migration are many and complex, and global explanations may
not apply to individuals. Poverty, wars, Iamine and repression are certainly among the
major causes oI migration, but there are other Iactors as well. Reasons individuals cite
Ior crossing national borders include population pressures on scarce natural resources,
wage or income inequality between the poor and rich countries, growing urbanization,
reduction in the cost oI transport and communications and increasing interactions among
societies, civil conIlict and absence oI human rights, and establishment oI migration
networks by earlier migrants. It is generally recognized, however, that both increasing
diIIerences between countries and the lack oI gainIul employment, decent work, human
security and individual Ireedoms help explain much contemporary international
migration.
7

25. Civil conIlicts in many parts oI the world have dislocated many Irom their homes
and Iorced them to seek temporary protection, oIten in neighbouring countries. During
the last decade the number oI reIugees globally peaked at an estimated 18.2 million but
has since declined to about 12 million. The growth in the number oI asylum claimants
nevertheless has raised anxieties among the signatories to the 1951 Geneva Convention
and the 1967 Protocol relating to the Status oI ReIugees about their capacity to host
more reIugees, since many reIugees and asylees work in host countries. Other Iactors
in particular political instability and population displacement related to the consequences
oI global warming promise more migration pressures. While the Iocus oI this report is

6
United Nations, International Migration 2002, op. cit.
7
P. Martin and J. Widgren: International migration. Facing the challenge (Washington, DC Population
ReIerence Bureau, Population Bulletin), 2002, Vol. 57, No. 1.
Labour migration in a globalizing world
9
not on reIugees, those reIugees that actually work in destination countries are considered
migrant workers (though oIten in the capacity oI irregular workers). The world`s
population oI 6.3 billion is growing by about 84 million every year oI which 97 per
cent are in the developing countries. Some 100 million new entrants join the world`s
labour market every year, most oI them in developing countries, aggravating the already
serious problem oI unemployment estimated at no less than 1 billion unemployed or
underemployed.
26. For a variety oI demographic, political and other reasons, the economic gains Irom
the progressive integration oI the global economy have yet to materialize Ior many oI the
world`s poor countries. Despite the gains made by the more populous developing
countries, such as China and India, in raising incomes over the past two decades, the gap
in per capita incomes between the rich and the poor countries has remained large, and a
recent ILO study shows that inter-country inequality as measured in GDP per capita has
increased.
8
In the words oI the ILO Director-General, Juan Somavia, '. II you look at
the global economy Irom the perspective oI people, its biggest structural Iailure is the
inability to create enough jobs where people live¨.
9

27. Globalization may yet narrow the income gaps between nation States. History
shows that the movement oI goods rather than the movement oI people has been the key
Iactor in the success oI some developing countries catching up with the more advanced
ones. The East Asian economic miracle was based on a comparative advantage in low-
cost labour to manuIacture goods that were exported; it has since spread to China, where
per capita incomes have doubled in less than a decade. However, the general
replicability oI this model has been in dispute in other developing countries with weaker
capacities to produce manuIactures or where other conditions Ior successIul management
oI the development process are not present.
28. Some low-income countries dependent on a Iew agricultural exports such as cotton
and maize have suIIered Irom increased competition with subsidized exports oI the same
commodities by the more developed countries. A recent general equilibrium analysis oI
trade policies Ior low-income countries like those in sub-Saharan AIrica indicates that
trade liberalization by a low-income country only generated increased emigration
because liberalization led to a sharp Iall in the real exchange rate.
10

1.4. Diversity of migrant flows
29. There are many ways oI categorizing migrant workers based on motivations, skills,
age, occupation or distance Irom origin; the categories most commonly used are based
on anticipated duration oI stay, reIlecting the Iact that control over entry and stay is a
core aspect oI national sovereignty. Most migrant workers enter other countries through
one oI three channels:
Permanent migration, primarilv for highlv skilled migrants, familv unification and
refugee resettlement.

8
ILO: Trade and international labour mobilitv, by A.K. Ghose, ILO Employment Papers, 2002/33 (Geneva,
2002).
9
Statement to the International Co-operative Alliance General Assembly (Oslo, 3 Sep. 2003).
10
See R. Faini, J.M. Grether and J. de Melo: 'Globalization and migratory pressures Irom developing countries:
A simulation analysis¨, in R. Faini, J. de Melo and K.F. Zimmermann (eds.): Migration. The controversies and
the evidence (London, Cambridge University Press, 1999).
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
10
Temporarv migration for all tvpes of emplovment. This door allows the entry oI
migrants, commonly known as guest workers, to Iill vacant jobs that persist, such
as nursing positions.
Temporarv migration for time-bound emplovment. Allows the entry oI migrants to
Iill seasonal jobs jobs that will end with the completion oI a project, e.g. a
construction and service providers, trainees and students.
30. Although migrants Irom developing countries work in almost every type oI job,
they tend to concentrate at the bottom and the top oI the employment ladder. The
majority oI migrants are at the bottom oI the ladder and oIten do the dirty, dangerous and
diIIicult '3-D¨ jobs that, once they become 'migrant jobs¨, tend to remain migrant
jobs.
31. At the other end oI the scale are millions oI proIessional workers who travel to
other countries in search oI higher wages or greater opportunities The majority oI
migrant proIessionals three out oI Iour move Irom one rich country to another,
especially across the Atlantic, while many oI the rest move between the more successIul
newly industrializing countries in East Asia, among the countries oI Central and Eastern
Europe, as well as between countries in South America. A signiIicant number also
migrate to poorer countries, oIten accompanying Ioreign investment, thus helping to
accelerate economic development.
32. Most countries welcome the arrival oI proIessionals Irom other countries. Australia
and Canada, Ior example, have points systems that make it easier Ior proIessionals Irom
developing countries to enter as immigrants. The United States also makes it relatively
easy Ior proIessionals to immigrate or to enter with temporary visas iI a United States
employer requests them. During the 1990s, many developed countries recruited Ioreign
health proIessionals; consequently nearly one-third oI doctors and 13 per cent oI nurses
in the United Kingdom are Ioreign born, and halI the extra staII employed by the
National Health Service over the past decade qualiIied abroad.
11
From 1995 to 2000 in
the OECD countries, the Ioreign labour Iorce grew by 3-4 per cent per year; however,
the highly educated migrant workIorce grew much Iaster on average 35 per cent
annually in the United Kingdom over the past Iive years, and 14 per cent a year in the
United States.
33. Women account Ior an increasing proportion oI international migrants Irom 47
per cent in 1960 to 49 per cent in 2000 reIlecting the rising importance oI Iamily
uniIication, especially in more developed countries. However, more women are
travelling on their own as their Iamily`s primary income earner, a consequence oI a
number oI social and economic transIormations. In the more developed destination
countries, populations are ageing, which increases the demand Ior Iemale health workers.
Another contributing Iactor is rising prosperity: in some oI the Iaster growing developing
countries, such as Malaysia and Chile, as Iamilies become wealthier they employ Ioreign
domestic help.
34. At the same time there has been a general Ieminization oI the workIorce,
particularly in labour-intensive manuIacturing industries and in many services. Thus,
garments manuIacturers in the industrialized countries may employ women migrants
directly to take the place oI local workers who move on to better jobs.

11
D. Walker: 'Statistics show immigration beneIicial to economy¨, in The Guardian (London), 29 Jan. 2001.
Labour migration in a globalizing world
11
35. This Ieminization oI migrant workers is most evident in Asia, where hundreds oI
thousands oI women emigrate each year in both unskilled and skilled proIessions the
majority in domestic service and entertainment and, to a lesser extent, in nursing and
teaching. The main source countries are Indonesia, Philippines, Sri Lanka and Thailand,
while the main destinations are Hong Kong (China), Malaysia, Singapore and the Middle
East. In the case oI the Philippines, women accounted Ior about 61 per cent oI all new
hires oI overseas land-based contract workers in 1998; as Ior Indonesia, they accounted
Ior around 78 per cent oI oIIicially reported emigrants in the 1996-97 period. In Sri
Lanka, in 2000, oI the estimated stock oI 858,000 emigrants, 590,420 were women the
majority oI whom went to work as housemaids and 90 per cent oI whom went to the
Middle East.
12

1.5. Ìrregular migration
36. People who enter or work in countries without legal authorization have been
labelled illegal, clandestine, undocumented or irregular. 'Illegal migrants¨ were once a
residual category, but illegal has a normative connotation and conveys the idea oI
criminality. Thus, the 1994 International ConIerence on Population and Development
recommended the term 'undocumented¨; but this is incomplete, since it does not cover
migrants who enter the host country legally with tourist documents but later violate their
conditions oI entry by taking a job. Furthermore, migrants moved by traIIickers over
borders may have Ialse documents; this prompted an International Symposium on
Migration in Bangkok in April 1999 to recommend the term 'irregular¨. Irregularities in
migration can arise at various points departure, transit, entry and return and they may
be committed against the migrant or by the migrant.
37. InIormation obtained Irom regularization programmes and other sources suggests
that 10 to 15 per cent oI migrants are irregular.
13
In the United States, there were an
estimated 7 to 8 million irregular migrants in 2000. In Europe, at that time, irregular
Ioreigners who had been regularized accounted Ior 4 per cent oI total migrants in France,
14 per cent in Portugal and Spain, and 25 per cent in Greece and Italy.
14
That same year,
there were 22 million Ioreign nationals resident in Western Europe. II the number oI
irregular migrants were equivalent to, say, 15 per cent oI the Ioreign population, the total
number in irregular status would be 3.3 million which is in the range commonly quoted.
An estimate oI Ilows has also been made by Europol, which believes that there is an
annual inIlow to the European Union (EU) oI around halI a million undocumented
workers.
15
In the Russian Federation the Interior Ministry in September 2003 estimated
that there were 5 million Ioreigners whose legal status was unclear, oI whom 1.5 million
were 'clearly unauthorized¨.
16
Several countries in Central Europe like Poland, Hungary
and the Czech Republic are now Iaced with problems oI dealing with thousands oI

12
D. Malsiri and R. Jayasundere: Sri Lanka. Good practices to prevent women migration workers from going
into exploitative forms of labour (Geneva, ILO, Gender Promotion Programme Working Paper No. 9, 2000).
13
NBER: T.J. Hatton; J.G. Williamson, op. cit.
14
J. Salt: Current trends in international migration in Europe (Council oI Europe, CDMG (2002), 26 Dec.
2002).
15
European Commission: Communication from the Commission to the Council and European Parliament on a
Communitv Immigration Policv (Brussels, COM 757, 2000).
16
Migration News (University oI CaliIornia, Davis), Oct. 2003, Vol. 10(3).
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
12
migrants Irom other regions who are seeking eventual entry to one oI the Western
European countries.
38. Irregular migration is not conIined to the developed countries. In Argentina, Ior
example, it was estimated in 2004 that there were 800,000 irregular migrants, mainly
Irom the bordering countries. Many parts oI Asia, AIrica and Latin America have long
and porous borders that people commonly cross without going through immigration
posts, as with the Democratic Republic oI the Congo in AIrica and the border between
Myanmar and Thailand. Indeed in many oI these regions, most oI the migratory Ilows
might better be considered as inIormal, since the authorities are Irequently aware oI them
but tolerate them either because they do not have the capacity to police borders
adequately or because they recognize that immigrants serve a useIul purpose Ior certain
interest groups and communities.
39. Asia is thought to have several million irregular migrants. The largest numbers are
likely to be Nepalese and Bangladeshis in India, AIghans in Pakistan and the Islamic
Republic oI Iran, Indonesians and Filipinos in Malaysia, and Burmese in Thailand. In
2001 there were 255,000 overstayers in the Republic oI Korea and 224,000 in Japan.
40. The extent oI the Ilows oI irregular workers is a strong indication that the demand
Ior regular migrant workers is not being matched by the supply, with migrants serving as
the buIIers between political demands and economic realities. II they have to travel long
distances, irregular migrants oIten pay Ior the services oI smugglers, who might conceal
them in trucks or ships or supply Ialse documents, or bribe immigration oIIicials.
17

Smugglers can charge US$200-300 to get migrants across a land border, or about
US$30,000 to transport them Irom East Asia to North America or to Europe.
41. According to the Protocol against the Smuggling oI Migrants by Land, Sea and Air,
supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime
(2000), the 'smuggling oI migrants¨ is the procurement oI the illegal entry oI a person
into a State oI which the person is not a national or a permanent resident, in order to
obtain, directly or indirectly, a Iinancial or other material beneIit. Smugglers provide
services to willing customers acting as extra-legal travel agents. TraIIicking, on the
other hand, involves the use oI violence, coercion or deception to exploit workers
essentially treating people as commodities, and does not require crossing an international
border, although the same people or gangs are oIten involved in both smuggling and
traIIicking. TraIIicked migrants are the victims, and should not be liable to criminal
prosecution.
1.6. Future flows of migrants
42. The Ilow oI migrants over borders may be attributed to various diIIerences between
countries demographic or economic and to a lack oI employment, decent work and
human security. DiIIerences are growing and conditions oIten worsening; this promises
more migration in the Iuture.

17
P. Taran and G. Moreno-Fontes Chammartin: Getting at the roots. Stopping exploitation of migrant workers
bv organi:ed crime (Geneva, ILO, International Migration Programme, Paper 1E, 2002).
Labour migration in a globalizing world
13
(a) Decent work deficit
43. In a number oI countries, Ireer trade has replaced or undercut domestic industrial
and agricultural industries displacing workers, while Structural Adjustment Programmes
(SAPs) have restricted government spending to cushion unemployment. Job creation in
some countries under SAPs has lagged behind the increased number oI unemployed, and
a net result oI these job losses due to trade and structural change has been large numbers
oI people without opportunities Ior decent work in their homelands.
(b) Economic disparities
44. Economic diIIerences are also widening. Globally, per capita GDP in 2003 was
around US$5,000 a year, but at the country level per capita GDP varied Irom US$100 in
Ethiopia to US$38,000 in Switzerland. Moreover the gaps appear to be widening
(table 1.2). In 1975, incomes in the high-income countries were 41 times greater than
those in low-income countries, and eight times greater than those in middle-income
countries. Meanwhile, very Iew low- and middle-income countries have been joining the
high-income ranks.
18

TabIe 1.2. GIobaI incomes, popuIation and migration, 1975-2000
Year H|grants wor|d
popu|at|on
H|grants as
a proport|on
of wor|d
popu|at|on
Average
annua|
|ncrease |n
number of
m|grants
|ncome group by C0P (U8$} Rat|os
H||||ons ß||||ons Per cent H||||ons Low H|dd|e h|gh h|gh-
|ow
h|gh-
m|dd|e
(,/-! 0-! .*(! 2*(! (! ! (-3! /-3 )!233! .(! 0
(,0-! (3-! .*0! 2*2! 2! ! 2/3! (!2,3 ((!0(3! ..! ,
(,,3! (-.! -*+! 2*,! (3! ! +-3! 2!223 (,!-,3! -)! ,
(,,-! ().! -*/! 2*,! 2! ! .+3! 2!+,3 2.!,+3! -0! (3
2333! (/-! )*(! 2*,! 2! ! .23! (!,/3 2/!-(3! ))! (.
A6:81R![%G$';:1!'$8!=8#%;8=!'1!78$16;1!65:1%=8!:>8%$!&65;:$H!6#!@%$:>!6$!&%:%\8;1>%7!#6$!(2!<6;:>1!6$!<6$8*!C>8!81:%<':8!#6$!(,,3!P'1!$'%18=!#$6<!
(23! <%DD%6;! :6! (-.! <%DD%6;O! D'$G8DH! :6! $8#D8&:! :>8! @$8'NV57! 6#! :>8! IJJFO! :>65G>:! <';H! 6#! :>818! '==%:%6;'D! <%G$';:1! =%=! ;6:! <6L8]! :>8H! P8$8O! #6$!
8^'<7D8O!F511%';1!&6;1%=8$8=!#6$8%G;8$1!%;!41:6;%'*!
J65$&81R!I;%:8=!A':%6;1!M675D':%6;!K%L%1%6;!';=!X6$D=!W';N!K8L8D67<8;:!S;=%&':6$1]!(,/-!%;&6<8!=':'!'$8!:>618!#6$!(,/)*!
45. Another economic Iactor that could encourage migration Irom developing countries
is the plight oI Iarmers. In 2000 around 43 per cent oI the world`s workers were
employed in agriculture, and in the poorer countries they are usually worse oII than
urban dwellers a result in part oI the high cost oI Iarm inputs and the low prices they
receive Ior their crops. This is the reverse oI the situation in the more developed
countries where Iarmers are oIten heavily subsidized. These gaps encourage rural-urban
migration; indeed, between 1980 and 1999 the urban share oI the population rose Irom

18
P. Martin and M.I. Abella: Globali:ation and guest workers. Migration for emplovment in the 21st centurv
(Iorthcoming).
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
14
32 to 41 per cent in low- and middle-income countries.
19
Many industrial countries had a
'great migration¨ oII the land in the 1950s and 1960s, and similar movements are
evident today in many major source countries, including China, Mexico and Turkey.
46. This trend has several implications Ior international labour migration. First, ex-
Iarmers everywhere are more likely to accept dirty, dangerous, and diIIicult ('3-D¨) jobs
in urban areas. This is happening in China, where internal rural-urban migrants Iill many
oI the '3-D¨ jobs in the coastal cities. Second, many ex-Iarmers, who make physical as
well as cultural transitions when they arrive in cities, may Iind it just as easy to emigrate
overseas iI there is a recruitment or migration inIrastructure to help them. Once an ex-
Iarmer moves to a city, it is usually Iar easier to obtain visas and documents Ior legal
migration, or to make arrangements Ior irregular migration. Mexicans leaving southern
Mexico, or Turks leaving eastern Turkey, when Iaced with the prospect oI integrating
into a large city, may Iind it just as easy to adapt to Los Angeles or Berlin.
(c) Population density
47. The population oI the more developed regions oI the world is rising at an annual
rate oI 0.25 per cent, while that oI the less developed regions is increasing nearly six
times as Iast, at 1.5 per cent annually; these diIIerences will largely persist until around
2050.
20
Population density is already higher in developing than in developed countries
51 persons per square kilometre in low- and middle-income countries, compared with 29
in the high-income countries. In broad terms it might thereIore be expected that just as
the nineteenth century was marked by migration Irom densely populated Europe to more
sparsely populated America and Oceania, so migration in the Iirst halI oI this century
might similarly respond to diIIerences in population density.
(d) The demographic deficit
48. There is a contrast between the ageing populations oI the more developed countries
and the more youthIul populations oI developing countries. Although populations are
ageing to some extent almost everywhere, the process has gone much Iurther in Europe
and Japan, with Iertility so low that deaths exceed births. On present trends, between
2000 and 2050 the population oI Italy, Ior example, is projected to drop by 22 per cent
and by 52 per cent in Estonia and 44 per cent in Latvia.
21
Low Iertility and rising liIe
expectancy mean that, Ior Europe as a whole, the proportion oI the population older than
65 years oI age will rise Irom 15 to 28 per cent between 2000 and 2050, and in Japan
Irom 17 to 36 per cent.
49. In its report, the United Nations Population Division concludes that iI immigration
were the only means oI maintaining current labour Iorces, it would need to be much
higher. The big Iour EU countries France, Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom
account Ior two-thirds oI the EU population and 88 per cent oI its immigrants. II their
1995 populations were to remain constant, given current Iertility rates, immigration
levels would have to triple, Irom 237,000 to 677,000 a year. However, iI the objective
were not just to maintain the 1995 population but also the 1995 workIorce, and to
maintain the dependence ratio, the big Iour alone would have to accept 1.1 million

19
ibid.
20
United Nations Population Division: World Population Prospects. The 2002 Revision (New York, United
Nations, 2003).
21
ibid., Vol. II: Sex and age distribution of the world population (medium variants).
Labour migration in a globalizing world
15
immigrants a year. Immigration on this scale is unlikely, but there is no doubt that
immigration at some level will make an important contribution. Chapter 2 discusses this
issue Iurther.
1.7. The decline of bilateral migration management
50. Most migration reIlects individual or Iamily initiatives, as people leave home to
take advantage oI opportunities overseas. This is in marked contrast to earlier eras when
a signiIicant proportion oI migration took place under the aegis oI bilateral agreements
between governments.
51. One oI the earliest bilateral recruitment programmes was the Bracero programme,
which Irom 1942 to 1966 admitted around 5 million workers Irom Mexico to the United
States. It was eventually halted because unions, churches, Mexican-American leaders
and others concluded that having Bracero workers in the Iields slowed the upward
mobility oI Mexican-Americans.
52. During the 1950s and 1960s a number oI European countries also established
programmes that actively recruited workers overseas and ratiIied the Migration Ior
Employment Convention (Revised), 1949 (No. 97) which aimed to regulate such Ilows.
In the 1950s, France, Ior example, encouraged the long-term settlement oI workers
arriving Iirst Irom southern Europe then Irom North AIrica. In the 1960s, the West
German Government Iollowed France`s lead and set up recruitment oIIices in the major
source countries Italy, Greece, Turkey and Yugoslavia initially looking Ior seasonal
workers and then Gastarbeiter to work on short-term contracts. There were similar
schemes in other countries such as Belgium and the Netherlands.
53. What distinguished these movements was the role played by States in organizing
and closely supervising recruitment, employment, and return. Employers seeking Ioreign
workers sent their request to local public employment oIIices, which then relayed it to
public employment authorities abroad, where workers were recruited, tested, and
selected. Between 1960 and 1966 the Gastarbeiter programme brought some 3.6 million
Ioreign workers to West Germany, and 3 million returned home as expected.
22

54. By the mid-1970s this bilateral system collapsed. The global recession that
Iollowed the oil shock oI 1973 reduced the demand Ior immigrant workers, and
governments applied more restrictions to guest workers to encourage their departure,
although only 10 per cent leIt.
23
Large-scale organized labour migration to Europe
through bilateral agreements came to an end in the late 1970s, and the labour migration
that occurred as growth resumed involved migrants entering via Iamily reuniIication
channels, or as tourists, asylum-seekers or students or clandestinely with the help oI
smugglers and traIIickers.
55. Most labour migration policies today are unilateral, in the sense that destination
countries normally announce programmes to admit migrants without seeking bilateral
agreements with source countries. There is growing recognition that cooperative

22
H. Werner: From guests to permanent visitors? A review of the German experience (Geneva, ILO,
International Migration Papers No. 42, International Migration Programme, 2001).
23
J.-P. Garson and A. Loizillon: Changes and challenges. Europe and migration from 1950 to present, Paper Ior
the European Commission/OECD ConIerence on the Economic and Social Aspects oI Migration, Brussels, 21-22
Jan. 2003.
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
16
migration management can better achieve goals Ior both sending and receiving countries,
and there has been an upsurge in bilateral memoranda oI understanding (MOUs) and
agreements; however, most programmes to admit Ioreign workers are unilateral. For the
source countries, unilateral action means trying to manage the process oI emigration.
Some oI the major Asian source countries, including Indonesia, the Philippines, and Sri
Lanka, closely regulate and supervise the recruitment oI their nationals Ior employment
in Ioreign countries.
56. Multilateral action has been most successIul in establishing international norms.
The ILO pioneered two Conventions: the Migration Ior Employment Convention
(Revised), 1949 (No. 97), and the Migrant Workers (Supplementary Provisions)
Convention, 1975 (No. 143); in 1990, the United Nations General Assembly adopted a
new Convention on the Protection oI the Rights oI All Migrant Workers and Members oI
their Families, which entered into Iorce in 2003.
1.8. Preliminary conclusions
57. Economic, political and demographic Iactors suggest that we are in an age oI
growing migration pressures. Every year many millions oI young men and women enter
the labour Iorce in developing countries where jobs are not created Iast enough to absorb
them; meanwhile populations are ageing in the more developed regions, where scarcities
oI labour are emerging in many sectors. Other developments that add to migration
pressure include rising diIIerences that motivate or cause people to move over borders,
and new technologies that allow more people to acquire the inIormation they need to
access the global labour market.
58. Migration has historically been beneIicial to most migrants as well as countries oI
destination and origin. However, eIIorts to build an acceptable multilateral Iramework
Ior regulating movements to ensure that labour migration yields mutual beneIits have so
Iar not seen much evidence oI success. The number oI migrant workers in an irregular
situation is rising rapidly, Iuelled to some extent by the growing commercialization oI
migration processes, including smuggling and traIIicking but also by the growth oI
inIormal Iorms oI employment in destination countries. Unless the international
community acts, this situation is likely to worsen, with worrisome implications Ior the
protection oI migrant workers` rights until such time as migration pressures are reduced
by Iaster economic development.

17
*12#&"%'4'
Migration and its consequences
2.1. Ìntroductory remarks
59. Since human beings Iirst emerged Irom the AIrican continent many thousands oI
years ago, every part oI the world has been subject to overlapping waves oI immigration.
It has thus been a central part oI human history shaping and reshaping societies,
cultures and economies. The twenty-Iirst century is no exception. The millions oI
migrants who circulate around Asia or AIrica, or who travel Irom developing to
developed countries today, are just the latest bearers oI an age-old tradition.
60. Even so, migration, and particularly immigration, has oIten been a controversial
issue; indeed, the descendants oI previous generations oI immigrants, the 'natives¨, look
askance at the arrival oI newcomers whom they consider a threat to their jobs or their
culture. Even the United States, a country populated almost entirely by immigrants, has
at times raised higher barriers to immigration, typically on the grounds that the
contemporary generation oI immigrants was in some way inIerior to those who arrived
20, 50 or 100 years ago objecting at various times to the arrivals oI Irish, Ior example,
or Chinese, or Eastern Europeans.
61. There have usually been Iewer problems with emigration. Relatively Iew
governments have objected to the departure oI their citizens, and have done so on
political rather than economic or social grounds. More oIten they have viewed
emigration as a Iorm oI saIety valve, allowing, sometimes encouraging, discontented or
disadvantaged people to seek their Iortunes elsewhere.
62. What impact does immigration have on national development? In some ways this is
the wrong question. Migration, whether within or between countries, is better thought oI
as a part or an aspect oI development more signiIicant at some times and in some
countries than others, sometimes a cause oI events, sometimes a consequence oI them,
but always an integral part oI the development process. Nevertheless, as with many
aspects oI development, there are both positive and negative consequences. Table 2.1
lists some oI the potential advantages oI migration at three diIIerent levels Ior the
migrants themselves, Ior enterprises, and Ior the country as a whole.
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
18
TabIe 2.1. PotentiaI advantages and disadvantages of emigration and immigration
Em|grat|on |mm|grat|on
Potent|a|
advantages
Potent|a|
d|sadvantages
Potent|a|
advantages
Potent|a|
d|sadvantages
_6$!<%G$';:1O!
6$!#6$!%;=%L%=5'D1!!
4<7D6H<8;:! K%1&6;:%;5%:HO!!
D611!6#!18;%6$%:H!
! J8$L%&81!:>':!#$88!P6<8;!
:6!8;:8$!D'@65$!#6$&8!
?6<78:%:%6;!#6$!`6@1]!
<'$G%;'D%\':%6;!6#!!
D811!1N%DD8=!
! Y$8':8$!%;&6<8! W'=!P6$N%;GZD%L%;G!
&6;=%:%6;1!
! ?>8'78$!G66=1!!
';=!18$L%&81!
96P8$!D6&'D!P'G81!
! C$'%;%;G!6$!8=5&':%6;! 96P8$!1:':51!P6$N]
D611!6#!1N%DD1!
! ! ?$6P=8=!1&>66D1!
! A8P!&5D:5$'D!
8^78$%8;&81!
F'&%1<!6$!!
=%1&$%<%;':%6;!
! F%&>8$!&5D:5$'D!D%#8! J:$';G8!D';G5'G81!
';=!&51:6<1!
! [88:%;G!;8P!7867D8! J87'$':%6;!#$6<!
#'<%DH]!!
'=L8$18!%<7'&:!!
6;!&>%D=$8;!
! 98'$;%;G!'@65:!!
6:>8$!&65;:$%81!
!
_6$!8;:8$7$%181! JN%DD1!6#!$8:5$;%;G!
<%G$';:1!
961%;G!1N%DD8=!
P6$N#6$&8!
! ?>8'78$O!<6$8!!
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2.2. Ìmpact of migration on countries of origin
63. While there can be many motivations behind individual decisions to migrate, it is
evident that lack oI satisIactory opportunities at home is the main driving Iorce behind
the contemporary growth oI migration pressures. In the developing countries decent jobs
Migration and its consequences
19
are not being created Iast enough to absorb the growing numbers oI people joining the
labour Iorce every year. The ILO estimates that at the end oI 2003, the number oI
working people earning US$1 or less a day remained constant at the 2002 level oI
around 550 million.
64. The Iailure oI the global economic system to generate jobs where there are people
has put the onus oI adjustment on the Iamily and its members. In poor countries Iamilies
have to make the hard decisions oI sending a Iamily member abroad to be able to cope
with threats to their security which originate Irom many sources natural calamities,
external economic shocks, rapidly declining agricultural commodity prices, privatization
and downsizing oI state enterprises, currency devaluations, and bank Iailures. This
explains why many migrate, oIten knowing it will involve great personal sacriIice,
working in diIIicult conditions, and spending very little oI their earnings so that they can
send most oI their savings home to their Iamilies.
65. Policy-makers in most developing countries seem to conclude, however, that in
the short term at least migration has had a Iavourable net eIIect on their countries.
Migration has absorbed a considerable number oI young people entering their labour
markets, while also generating large Ilows oI remittances. Set against this primarily is
the anxiety that they are losing some oI their brightest young people in the Iorm oI a
'brain drain¨. But Ior the major migrant source countries, emigration is generally seen as
making a net contribution to development.
(a) Reducing population pressure and unemployment
66. Emigration may be perceived as helping to ease population pressures, but Ior most
countries it can at best only have a modest impact. Even Ior the major sending countries,
the proportion oI the population leaving is relatively small. The largest transIer is Irom
Mexico to the United States. OI the 108 million people alive today who were born in
Mexico, around 8 million now live in the United States eIIectively reducing Mexico`s
annual population growth rate Irom 1.8 to 1.5 per cent.
1
For most other countries, such
as China and India, the proportions are oI course much lower.
67. The same is true oI the impact oI emigration on unemployment or underemployment
in most countries oI origin. Certainly iI all the emigrants suddenly returned home there
would be a serious problem as was evident aIter the Iirst GulI War in 1990, when around
2 million Ioreign workers were driven out oI Kuwait and Iraq and tried to Iind work in
their countries oI origin. Indeed, some oI the countries with high net emigration rates are
also the ones with intractable unemployment problems.
(b) Emigration of skilled persons ÷ The brain drain
68. Since the early 1990s the international mobility oI highly skilled workers has been
increasing
2
with the rising global demand Ior skills, alongside advances in globalization
and phenomenal growth in inIormation and communications technologies (ICT). The
impact oI this 'brain drain¨ on sending countries is still unclear; it obviously varies
according to the characteristics oI the country oI origin (e.g., size and level oI

1
P. Martin and M. Teitelbaum: Emigration and development. Focus on West-Central Mexico, Report oI the
Eighth Migration Dialogue Seminar, Guadalajara, Mexico (2000).
2
B.L. Lowell and A.M. Findlay: Migration of highlv skilled persons from developing countries. Impact and
policv responses Svnthesis report (Geneva, ILO, International Migration Paper IE, 2002); OECD: International
mobilitv of the highlv skilled (Paris, 2002).
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
20
development), the type oI sector or occupation concerned, the mode oI Iinancing
education (e.g., public or private) and the type oI migration (e.g., temporary, permanent,
circular).
3

69. ProIessionals move Ior many reasons, including higher wages, better Iacilities, and
more opportunities Ior advancement. Receiving States also promote proIessional
immigration through recruitment drives and selection systems that Iacilitate their entry.
These selection systems are eIIective in attracting the best and brightest Irom developing
countries, so that immigrants in the United States in 1990 Irom many developing
countries had twice as much education as their compatriots at home. Table 2.2 shows
that there were 3.7 times more Jamaicans with tertiary education in the United States
than there were at home in 2000, while Ior every ten El Salvadorian college graduates at
home there were Iour in the United States. The IOM has estimated that, Ior 40 per cent
oI AIrican countries, at least one-third oI college graduates are living abroad.
TabIe 2.2. Migrants to the United States by IeveI of educationaI attainment in
reIation to simiIarIy educated cohorts remaining at home, 2000 (%)
Educat|ona| |eve|
6ountry Tota| Pr|mary or |ess 8econdary Tert|ary
Easr /s|a !! !! !!
! ?>%;'! 3*(! 3*(! 3*2! 2*2
! S;=6;81%'! 3*(! 3*(! 3*(! 3*/
! M>%D%77%;81! +*)! 3*)! 2*2! ((*/
Easrern Europe, 0enrra| /s|a
! ?$6':%'! (*2! 3*.! (*2! .*/
! C5$N8H! 3*2! 3*(! 3*.! (*+
lar|n /mer|ca ano rne 0ar|ooean
! W$'\%D! 3*2! 3*(! 3*-! (*(
! ?6D6<@%'! 2*(! 3*.! .! ,*,
! K6<%;%&';!F875@D%&! (2*,! -*+! .2*.! 2.*0
! 4D!J'DL'=6$! 2.*+! (2*.! ((.*0! +,*-
! Y5':8<'D'! /*)! +*0! 2,*,! 2-*0
! e'<'%&'! ++*+! .*/! .3*,! +)/*)
! [8^%&6! (+*+! (3*0! (/*2! ()*-
! M8$5! (*0! 3*+! 2*-! .*2
V|oo|e Easr, horrn /lr|ca
! 4GH7:! 3*+! 3*(! 3*2! 2*+
! C5;%1%'! 3*(! 3*(! 3*2! (*+
$ourn /s|a
! W';GD'=81>! 3*(! 3*(! 3*+! 2*+
! S;=%'! 3*2! 3*(! 3*2! 2*0
! M'N%1:';! 3*+! 3*(! 3*-! )*.
! J$%!9';N'! 3*2! 3*(! 3*(! -*)

3
ILO and OECD: One step forward for the international mobilitv of highlv skilled workers. Summarv of main
issues, ILO/OECD inIormal brainstorming meeting on 'Migration oI the highly skilled. Practical proposals Ior a
more equitable sharing oI the gains¨, Geneva, May 2003.
Migration and its consequences
21
Educat|ona| |eve|
6ountry Tota| Pr|mary or |ess 8econdary Tert|ary
$uo-$anaran /lr|ca
! J5=';! 3*(! 3*(! 3*+! +*.
A6:8R! S<<%G$';:1! =8#%;8=! '1! #6$8%G;V@6$;! 7675D':%6;! %;! :>8! I;%:8=! J:':81! 'G8! 2-! H8'$1! 6$! 6L8$]! 7$%<'$H! 8=5&':%6;! 6$! D811!
&6$$8176;=1!:6!3V0!H8'$1!6#!1&>66D%;G]!18&6;='$H!:6!,V(2!H8'$1!6#!1&>66D%;G]!';=!:8$:%'$H!:6!<6$8!:>';!(2!H8'$1!6#!1&>66D%;G*!
M8$&8;:'G81! $87$818;:! $':%6! 6#! ;5<@8$1! D%L%;G! %;! :>8! I;%:8=! J:':81! 6L8$! :>618! D%L%;G! ':! >6<8! P%:>! 1'<8! 8=5&':%6;'D!
'::'%;<8;:*!
J65$&8R!F87$6=5&8=!#$6<!:'@D8!-O!F*a*!"='<1R lnrernar|ona| V|grar|on Rem|rrances ano rne 3ra|n 0ra|n. / sruo, ol 24 |aoour-
exporr|ng counrr|esO!X6$N%;G!M'78$!A6*!+3),O!2/!['H!233+*!
70. The brain drain can set in motion vicious circles that slow development. For
example, the emigration oI AIrican doctors and nurses leads to poorer health care in
AIrica at a time when there is a greater need Ior it because oI HIV/AIDS and recent
initiatives to improve immunization rates. Emigration especially leaves rural areas with
Iew health care staII, increases the work load on remaining staII, and may slow changes
in the health-care system. Countries such as Jamaica and Ghana have more doctors
trained locally outside the countries than inside them.
71. One estimate suggests that there are at least 400,000 scientists and engineers Irom
developing countries working in research and development in the industrial countries
compared with around 1.2 million still working at home.
4

72. Student migration is a precursor to the brain drain. The OECD reported that in
2000 there were some 1.5 million Ioreign students pursuing higher studies in member
States, oI which over halI came Irom non-member countries. In the United States there
were 475,000; in the United Kingdom 223,000; in Germany 187,000; and in Australia
105,000. Most aim to stay only Ior the duration oI their study but a signiIicant proportion
end up staying as permanent migrants. Around 47 per cent oI Ioreign-born PhD
graduates remain in the United States, although the ratio varies between diIIerent source
countries: between 1990 and 1999 the stay rates oI Ioreign science and engineering PhD
graduates were higher among migrants Irom China (87 per cent), India (82 per cent) and
the United Kingdom (79 per cent), than among those Irom Taiwan, China (57 per cent)
or the Republic oI Korea (39 per cent).
5

73. How damaging is this brain drain? There are both costs and beneIits.
6
One cost is
that those who leave their countries oI origin are oIten the best and the brightest so
their departure reduces the country`s capacity Ior long-term economic growth. For
countries that lose a signiIicant part oI their skilled labour Iorce this could lower the
returns to capital. Local Iirms that invest in training people will also Iind it hard to
recoup their investments iI these trained workers regularly leave. The emigration oI
highly trained people given that it tends to have cumulative eIIects may make it very
diIIicult to create a critical mass oI know-how necessary Ior product development and
Ior adapting imported production technologies to local conditions. The history oI
industrialization points to the importance oI internalizing knowledge and developing a
capacity at enterprise levels Ior process and product innovation. Such possibilities are

4
J.-B. Meyer and M. Brown. Scientific Diasporas. A new approach to the brain drain (Discussion Paper No. 41
prepared Ior the World ConIerence on Science, UNESCO-ICSU, Budapest, June-July 1999).
5
OECD: International Mobilitv of the Highlv Skilled (OECD Policy BrieI, Paris, 2002).
6
For an illustrative balance sheet oI positive and negative impacts, see P. Wickramasekara: Policv responses to
skilled migration. Retention, return and circulation (Geneva, ILO, International Migration Programme, Paper 5E,
2002).
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
22
lost when the best workers and technicians are the Iirst to take advantage oI emigration
opportunities.
74. The migration oI the more highly skilled people might also aIIect capital
movements. There could be an impact on Ioreign direct investment (FDI) since
companies would take into account the skills and personnel available locally and might
be discouraged Irom investing in a country that loses its most qualiIied people. In
addition, migrants not only depart with their education, they also leave with signiIicant
amounts oI capital. Again the destination countries encourage this. The United States
immigrant investor programme, Ior example, permits 10,000 investors and members oI
their Iamilies a year to obtain immigrant visas iI they invest at least US$500,000 in the
United States and create or preserve at least ten jobs. New Zealand oIIers visas to people
who arrive with at least US$630,000. For Canada, the corresponding sum is around
US$300,000.
75. Nevertheless, the outIlow oI educated people is not necessarily a damaging loss.
7

ILO research on skilled emigration has shown that the net impact oI skilled emigration
Irom developing countries is a balance oI direct and indirect eIIects. The most direct
eIIect oI skilled emigration is a reduction oI human capital stock, which is critical to
productivity and economic growth, but it also sets in play a number oI Iorces that can
promote economic growth through major Ieedback eIIects. Return migrants, in particular,
bring back their skills and work experience Irom abroad, thus boosting productivity. The
promise oI higher incomes through migration may itselI encourage more investment in
education, public and private, than might otherwise have been the case. Expatriates who
remain abroad contribute Iunds via remittances. They also transIer knowledge,
technology, and investments to countries oI origin, which boost productivity and
economic development. A central challenge Ior developing countries would be to engage
appropriately in the exchange oI skills taking place in the global labour market.
8

76. The large-scale emigration oI IT workers Irom Asia, particularly India, has had a
number oI salutary eIIects on source countries in the Iorm oI skills transIer, outsourcing
arrangements and investment Ilows. This has been described as a virtuous circle, in
contrast to the vicious circle described above in the case oI emigration oI health
workers Irom countries such as South AIrica. Aside Irom remittances, there have been
Iew beneIits Irom the latter Ior the home countries.
9
In the Philippines, the high salaries
oIIered abroad Ior nursing graduates is even enticing some medical doctors to leave their
jobs and apply Ior nursing jobs. The potential negative impact oI emigration on the
supply oI human capital also needs to be seen in the overall context oI employment in
the country oI origin. In many cases, expatriated proIessionals would have had Iew
opportunities to work at home in their Iield. Many developing countries have more
graduates in certain subjects than they need. In Bulgaria, Ior example, some 818,000 (or
19.3 per cent oI its population) were graduates oI tertiary education, a proportion much
higher than those oI other countries with per capita incomes more than two and a halI
times its own like the Czech Republic.
10


7
B.L. Lowell and A. M. Findlay, op. cit.; P. Wickramasekara, ibid.
8
Lowell and Findlay, ibid.
9
P. Martin: Professional migrants and development, Paper presented at the GTZ ConIerence on Migration and
Development, 20-21 October 2003, Berlin.
10
A. Gächter: The ambiguities of emigration. Bulgaria since 1988 (Geneva, ILO, International Migration Paper
39, 2002).
Migration and its consequences
23
(c) Social costs
77. The social costs oI labour migration in terms oI Iractured Iamilies and communities
are without a doubt at least as signiIicant as those related to the more measurable
economic costs. The eIIects are almost never gender-neutral. In parts oI South AIrica,
when a man leaves to work on mines and plantations, the wiIe leIt behind eIIectively
becomes the head oI a one-parent Iamily. Similarly, in Kerala in India, there are around
1 million 'GulI wives¨. On the other hand, when it is the mother who migrates, the
consequences Ior the Iamily can be even more serious. In Sri Lanka, more than halI a
million women work in the GulI and elsewhere. This has many implications Ior the
Iamily and community leIt behind particularly Ior the children. OIten the children oI
migrant women workers drop out oI school or Iind themselves in vulnerable situations oI
neglect and abuse, including incest. On their return, some women also Iace traumatic
experiences, such as sexual abuse, violence or Iamily dislocation. More generally,
countries that send a large proportion oI their population overseas Iind they create a
'culture oI emigration¨ in which becoming a migrant is almost a rite oI passage Ior
young people. This is the case in a number oI Caribbean countries, and increasingly in
parts oI Mexico and Uruguay.
(d) Flows of remittances
78. The recent World Bank study, Global Development Finance 2003,
11
highlighted
the Iact that remittance Ilows were the second-largest source, behind FDI, oI external
Iunding Ior developing countries. In 2001, workers` remittance receipts oI developing
countries stood at US$72.3 billion or 1.3 per cent oI their combined GDP, much higher
than total oIIicial Ilows and private non-FDI Ilows, and 42 per cent oI total FDI Ilows to
these countries. Flows oI remittances were smaller than inIlows oI FDI but usually larger
than those oI oIIicial development assistance. They were also a more reliable and stable
source oI income and tended to Iluctuate less with economic cycles they continued to
rise during the Asian Iinancial crisis, Ior example, even when Ilows oI FDI Iell
(Iigure 2.1). For a number oI countries remittances are now the principal source oI
Ioreign exchange.
79. Whether intended Ior consumption or Ior investments, migrants` remittances
appear to be less volatile than capital Ilows. In Iact remittances tend to increase in times
oI economic hardship because Iamilies depend on them as a principal income source,
and because more people are likely to emigrate Ior work during such times. Better-oII
migrants who invest in their home countries are also less likely to be discouraged by
adverse economic conditions than Ioreign investors. The World Bank noted that
remittances have been used as collateral against which some emerging market
economies like Brazil borrow in the international capital markets on substantially better
terms than they otherwise could.

11
World Bank: 'Workers` remittances: An important and stable source oI external development Iinance¨, by
D. Ratha, in Global Development Finance 2003 (Washington, DC, 2003).
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
24
Figure 2.1. Workers' remittances and other infIows, 1998-2001 (US$ biIIion)
-50
0
50
100
150
200
1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
$ billion
Remittances
Capital market Ilows
OIIicial Ilows
FDI

J65$&8R!X6$D=!W';NO!S|ooa| 0eve|opmenr F|nance 200J!TX'1>%;G:6;O!K?O!233+U!7*!(-0*!
80. While there is no inIormation on remittance Ilows according to the skill proIile oI
migrant workers, the contribution oI low-skilled migrants is believed to be substantial.
An undocumented Mexican worker in the United States, Ior example, is estimated to
send back home US$500 per month. Although the leading recipients oI remittances were
Mexico (US$10 billion), India (US$9.9 billion) and the Philippines (US$6.4 billion),
remittances as a share oI GDP were much higher in some oI the smaller countries: Tonga
(37 per cent), Lesotho (27 per cent), the Republic oI Moldova (25 per cent), and Jordan
(23 per cent).
12
In Cape Verde, remittances exceeded the country`s exports by 16 to one
in 1994. In the same year, remittances accounted Ior over 75 per cent oI merchandise
exports in Egypt, El Salvador and Jordan, and 25 per cent or more oI merchandise
exports in Bangladesh.
13
ILO case studies show that remittances in Bangladesh account
Ior more than halI oI household income oI Iamilies who receive them, and in Senegal the
Iigure is as high as 90 per cent. A recent ILO mission to Nepal concluded that
remittances now probably contribute more to Nepal`s Ioreign exchange than do
manuIacturing exports, tourism, Ioreign aid and other sources combined. Research has
suggested that the resilience oI the economy despite these adverse macroeconomic
indicators must be due to the inIlow oI the large volume oI remittances, estimated at
more than one billion rupees each year.
81. Even these amounts only reIer to oIIicial transIers. In some countries it is thought
that only around halI oI remittances pass through oIIicial banking channels, since
migrants are discouraged Irom using them by cumbersome procedures, high Iees and
poor rates oI exchange. In South Asia, the Hawala or Hundi systems oI inIormal transIer
are popular because they make it much easier Ior people not used to going to banks to
receive money sent to them. Allowing Ior the Iunds that do not travel through Iormal

12
ibid.
13
J. Van Doorn: 'Migration, remittances and development¨, in Labour Education 2002/4 (Geneva, ILO, 2003),
No. 129, special issue on migrant workers, pp. 48-53.
Migration and its consequences
25
banking channels, the global annual Ilow oI remittances to developing countries
probably already exceeds US$100 billion.
82. An unexpected consequence oI the large Ilows oI migrants` remittances through
inIormal currency traders is the ease with which capital Ilight takes place during periods
oI instability. In many developing countries large amounts oI Ioreign currencies are now
traded by money brokers who easily escape control by the monetary authorities.
83. It is diIIicult to generalize as to how increased remittances by migrants have
aIIected the development oI origin countries. Since they tend to push up the external
value oI a country`s currency or its exchange rate, they may make a country`s exports
less competitive and investments in import-substituting industries less attractive, a
variant oI the so-called 'Dutch disease¨. But most origin country authorities seem
convinced that this impact has on the whole been very positive, especially because oI the
need Ior Ioreign exchange to Iinance large trade deIicits and service external debts.
84. Since remittances go directly to migrants` households which have a high
propensity to consume, their multiplier eIIects on a country`s national income is
considerable. Increased spending by migrants` Iamilies on goods and services produced
in sectors with excess capacity create jobs and incomes Ior others whose additional
spending in turn beneIits some others, and so on. A study by the Bangladesh Institute oI
Development Studies, Ior example, indicates that remittances in Bangladesh have a
multiplier eIIect oI 3.3 on GNP, 2.8 on consumption, and 0.4 on investment.
14

85. The recent Department Ior International Development (DFID) and World Bank
International ConIerence on Migrant Remittances concluded that sound macroeconomic
policies, political stability and improvements in the investment climate in receiving
countries were prerequisites Ior making the best use oI remittances. It suggested that
improving migrants` access to the Iormal Iinancial sector constituted a priority because
the Iormalization oI transIers was central to enhancing their long-term development
impact.
15

(e) Transnational communities and home
country development
86. Migration is viewed positively in origin countries not only because it improves the
economic conditions oI migrant Iamilies and their communities but also because
migration and return have become conduits Ior new ideas and new ways oI doing things,
and serves as a window to the outside world. In addition to sending remittances, migrant
communities abroad are now seen as investors, welIare providers, knowledge
communities and technology harbingers to the home countries. They can do this, Ior
example, by passing on inIormation and contacts and helping to enIorce contractual
arrangements. Indian nationals who have reached senior executive positions in
multinational companies such as Hewlett Packard have encouraged their companies to
set up operations in India. Studies undertaken by the Sussex Migration Centre on Ghana
and Côte d`Ivoire have shown that migration and return can be seen as a mechanism Ior
providing capital Ior the development oI small enterprises, particularly among poorer

14
ibid.
15
DFID/World Bank: Report and conclusions, International Conference on Migrant Remittances. Development
impact, opportunities for the financial sector, and future prospects (London, 9-10 October 2003).
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
26
and less-skilled migrants.
16
Some US$60 billion are estimated to have been invested in
China by 55 million overseas Chinese.
87. Governments oI origin countries are increasingly becoming interested in the
potential value oI transnational communities as engines oI development. Mexico, Ior
example, has created special programmes that match government Iunds to remittances
that were invested to create jobs in migrant areas oI origin. Mexicans in the United
States have thousands oI 'hometown associations¨, which have supported all kinds oI
community activity back home, Irom building new roads to repainting the church to
paying Ior Iiestas. Similarly, emigrants Irom El Salvador who live in Los Angeles,
Washington, DC, and many other United States cities have established comites del
pueblo (town committees) to support activities back home. Salvadorian towns with this
kind oI association oIten acquire paved roads and electricity.
88. The migrants themselves have Iormed associations and networks abroad, some oI
which are associations oI the intellectual or proIessional diaspora. Meyer and Brown
17

have identiIied 41 Iormal knowledge networks linking thirty countries to their skilled
nationals abroad. They distinguish between Iive types oI networks: student/scholarly
networks, local associations oI skilled expatriates, expert pool assistance through the
UNDP`s TOKTEN programme, and intellectual/scientiIic diaspora networks. Some
well-known ones are: the Colombian Red Caldas network, the South AIrican Network oI
Skills Abroad (SANSA), the Global Korean Network, the Philippines Brain Gain
Network, Polish Scientists Abroad, the Association oI Thai ProIessionals in North
America, the Iranian ScientiIic InIormation Network, the Tunisian ScientiIic Consortium,
and Arab Scientists and Technologists Abroad. The Internet has played a key role in this
regard, and SANSA, Ior example, is said to comprise an active network with more than
2,000 members.
18

(f) Return migration
89. The large-scale return oI migrants has rarely taken place beIore conditions at home
have improved suIIiciently to make it attractive. This happened when northern Italy
became very prosperous and attracted back Italians who had earlier migrated to Germany
and the Americas; in the Russian Federation, when ethnic Russians who had earlier been
Iorcibly relocated to Central Asia and the Caucasus moved back aIter the collapse oI the
Soviet Union; and when second-generation Japanese in Brazil, Peru and elsewhere in
Latin America responded to encouragements Ior them to take up jobs in Japan.
90. Individual migrants, however, do return even when conditions at home have not
changed either because their contracts abroad are over or because they have other
reasons Ior not wanting to remain abroad. This is clearly the case Ior temporary migrants
such as most contract workers in the GulI States, who normally return aIter a couple oI
years. On the other hand, many other people who migrate overseas with the aim oI long-
term settlement change their minds aIter a couple oI years. One survey has concluded

16
Sussex Centre Ior Migration Research: International Workshop on Migration and Poverty in West AIrica,
Sussex University, Brighton, 2003.
17
J.-B. Meyer and M. Brown: Scientific diasporas. A new approach to the brain drain (Paris, UNESCO,
UNESCO-MOST Discussion Paper No. 41, 1999).
18
H. Bhorat, J.-B. Meyer and C. Mlatsheni: Skilled labour migration from developing countries. Studv on South
and Southern Africa (Geneva, ILO, International Migration Papers No. 52, 2002).
Migration and its consequences
27
that around 20 per cent oI migrants to the United States leave within ten years oI arrival
and one-third leave at some time during their liIetime.
19

91. Some migrants may have been disappointed by their emigration experience; others
may decide to return when they have accumulated suIIicient Iunds. But oIten the
deciding Iactor will be the situation in their country oI origin: iI the economic outlook
improves then returning will seem more attractive. When these migrants come back with
skills or savings, this can make a welcome contribution to development. China, Ior
example, is now taking advantage oI what are sometimes called 'turtles¨ comparing
returning migrants to turtles who eventually return to the beach where they were born.
OI the 600,000 students who are thought to have leIt China in the past 25 years only
160,000 have returned. But the numbers are rising: 18,000 in 2002, double the number oI
two years previously oI whom a high proportion held a master`s degree or a doctorate,
and many oI whom set up new enterprises in business parks created Ior their use.
20

92. In addition to those who return home permanently there are also people who
regularly move back and Iorth between their two countries. In this case, rather than a
brain drain, there is more oI a circulation or sharing oI know-how. Indeed the extent oI
travel and communications links between source and destination countries is blurring
lines oI nationality. Migrants, diasporas and circulating workers have eIIectively been
establishing new kinds oI social space and Iorming 'transnational communities¨. The
AIrican Union has now invited AIrica`s diaspora to actively take part in the region`s
development, and has agreed to amend the organization`s charter to 'encourage the Iull
participation oI the AIrican diaspora as an important part oI the continent.... ¨.
21

(g) Migration and trade
93. Trade, like migration, also involves the movement oI labour since goods traded
include labour inputs. For this reason economists look at trade as a substitute Ior
migration. It is thereIore not surprising that the growth oI trade with the reduction or
removal oI tariIIs and other trade barriers tends to reduce migration pressures. In the
European Union the growth oI intra-community trade has brought about a convergence
oI incomes. Today, even though labour is completely Iree to move within the European
Union, the number oI workers tempted to migrate is an insigniIicant proportion oI the
European workIorce because trade and other measures have largely accomplished the job
oI reducing economic diIIerences between the Member States.
22
The relation between
trade and migration is, however, much more complex than this would suggest. Some
activities like 'call centres¨ can easily be relocated to low-wage countries (jobs migrate,
not labour), but others cannot. In some cases such as Iinancial services and high-
technology products trade and migration are complementary in that the Iormer prompts
an increase oI the latter.
94. Other Iactors also inIluence outcomes. In North America, NAFTA may in Iact have
led to greater, not less, migration between the United States and Mexico. The

19
B. Bratsberg and D. Terrell: 'Where do Americans live abroad?¨, in International Migration Review (New
York), 1996, Vol. 30, No. 3.
20
'On their way back¨, in The Economist (London), 19 Nov. 2003.
21
G. Mutume: 'Reversing AIrica`s 'brain drain¨: New initiatives tap skills oI AIrican expatriates¨, in Africa
Recoverv (New York, United Nations), Vol. 17, No. 2, July 2003.
22
See A. Venables: 'Trade liberalization and Iactor mobility: an overview¨, in R. Faini, K.F. Zimmerman,
J. de Melo (eds.), Migration. The controversies and the evidence (London, Cambridge University Press, 1999).
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
28
establishment oI maquiladora enterprises near the United States-Mexico border has
triggered labour migration Irom the Mexican hinterland which in turn has generated
more pressures to cross the border Ior much higher wages.
95. As noted earlier, migration and remittances may in turn have a perverse impact on
trade. Where remittances raise the exchange rate oI the currency oI the country oI origin,
the consequence may be to reduce exports and increase imports. Some countries have
been labelled as 'import-based, remittance-dependent economies¨ Ior this reason.
96. Migrants do contribute to trade by establishing stronger links between the source
and destination countries. The most striking example oI this synergy is provided by the
Indian inIormation technology (IT) industry. Initially the Indian Government had not
been enthusiastic about inIormation technology, Iearing job losses. But multinationals in
India recognized the IT talent in India and sent Indians to their operations in other
countries. Meanwhile, Indian Iirms such as Tata moved Indian IT specialists overseas
and soon saw the virtues oI bringing some back to work in India. The Indian
Government then bolstered the budding IT industry by reducing barriers to the imports
oI computers and helped to assure reliable inIrastructure. By 2002, India had about
US$10 billion in revenues Irom exports oI computer-related products, including services
provided to Ioreign Iirms in India, and has gradually been moving Irom exporting labour
to exporting services.
97. The General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) Irom the Uruguay Round
represents the Iirst multilateral and legally enIorceable agreement on the international
trade in services. Its central objective is the progressive liberalization oI trade in services.
GATS Mode 4 (movement oI natural persons) in a sense seems to provide the best oI
both worlds Ior promoting circulation oI skills at least in theory. On the one hand,
developing countries have surplus skills in the service sector, and GATS provides an
opportunity Ior them to earn higher rewards in developed countries. On the other hand,
the strictly temporary movement oI Mode 4 oI GATS allays the concerns oI developed
countries about permanent settlement. Yet the potential oI this option has been seriously
constrained by limited commitments by developed countries, and by serious immigration
barriers to the movement oI natural persons. ConIusion oI short-term movements with
permanent migration, and treatment oI issues within a migration rather than a trade
Iramework, have hampered progress in this area.
23

(h) Migration and overall economic performance
98. Migration may clearly have a number oI positive and negative eIIects in the
country oI origin. Most policy-makers in developing countries conclude that any losses
in human capital are more than oIIset by the gains through remittances and other
linkages. Is this the case? At present, there is not much positive evidence that countries
receiving large quantities oI remittances have better economic perIormance. OI the top
20 developing country recipients oI workers` remittances, seven have managed an
annual per capita income growth oI at least 2 per cent over the past 25 years (notably
China, India, and Thailand); however, seven have done very poorly (notably Ecuador,
the Philippines and Yemen).

23
OECD and Working Party oI the Trade Committee: Service providers on the move. A closer look at labour
mobilitv and the GATS (Paris, OECD, 2002).
Migration and its consequences
29
99. A similar mixed picture emerges when economic perIormance is compared with
net migration rates. Table 2.3 groups developing countries by economic perIormance
and by involvement in migration as reIlected in net migration rates. This table excludes
countries Ior which no migration data were available. It also excludes the least
developed countries, Ior which structural Iactors would be Iar more important in
explaining development perIormance than migration.
TabIe 2.3. Emigration and deveIopment performance
h|gh em|grat|on Hed|um em|grat|on Low em|grat|on
a%G>!78$#6$<8$1! Y5%;8'!
9816:>6!!
TV((*3U
TV.*3U
! ?'78!f8$=8!!
W8D%\8!!
TV2*2U
TV(*2U
! C>'%D';=!!
?>%;'!!
TV3*(U
TV3*+U
F'7%=DH!G$6P%;G!78$!!
&'7%:'!%;&6<81!T2g!hU!
! ! 4GH7:!!
IG';='!!
TV(*2U
TV(*)U
! S;=%'!!
['5$%:%51!!
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T!3!U
[8=%5<!78$#6$<8$1! J'<6'!!
Y5H';'!!
TV(+*-U
TV(3*-U
! Y5':8<'D'!!
M>%D%77%;81!!
TV2*3U
TV2*+U
! F6<';%'!!
W';GD'=81>!!
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TV3*.U
JD6PVG$6P%;G!78$!!
&'7%:'!%;&6<81!
J5$%;'<8!!
_%`%!!
e'<'%&'!!
!
TV/*0U
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! [6$6&&6!!
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4&5'=6$!!
C$%;%='=!d!
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TV2*+U
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! !
M66$!78$#6$<8$1! "D@';%'!!
c'\'N>1:';!!
TV(,*3U
TV(3*+U
! 9':L%'!!
IN$'%;8!!
TV+*-U
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! i%<@'@P8!! TV3*2U
K8&D%;%;G!78$!&'7%:'!!
%;&6<81!
C'`%N%1:';!!!
41:6;%'!!
Y86$G%'!!
"$<8;%'!!
TV,*0U
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TV)*-U
! [6;G6D%'!! TV2*+U ! ! !
A6:8R!C>8!#%G5$81!%;! @$'&N8:1! '$8!;8:! <%G$':%6;! $':81!T<%G$';:1!78$!:>651';=!6#! :>8!7675D':%6;UO!'L8$'G8=! 6L8$!:>8! 78$%6=!2333! :6
233-*!"!;8G':%L8!#%G5$8!%;=%&':81!8<%G$':%6;*!
J65$&8R! [*! "@8DD'O! 7'78$! 7$818;:8=! ':! [8:$676D%1! ?6;#8$8;&8O! f%8;;'O J87*! 233+*! A8:! <%G$':%6;! =':'! '$8! #$6<! I;%:8=! A':%6;1!
M675D':%6;!K%L%1%6;R!wor|o Popu|ar|on Prospecrs. Tne 2002 Rev|s|on!TA8P!Q6$NO!233+U*!
100. Poorly perIorming economies tend to be concentrated in the column Ior high net
emigration, while higher perIorming countries are in the column with lower net
emigration rates. However, this crude comparison cannot indicate the direction oI
causality: are people leaving because the economic situation is diIIicult, or does their
departure cause deterioration in economic perIormance? The Iormer seems more likely.
In the case oI Eastern Europe, Ior example, the high emigration rates are probably the
result oI major social and economic disruption in the region. On the other hand, there
does not seem to be any evidence that high emigration boosts economic perIormance. At
best emigration can serve as a saIety valve, making more productive use oI workers who
otherwise would have been unemployed or underemployed, or whose departure opens up
employment opportunities Ior others.
101. Among the middle-income countries there does not seem to be a strong correlation
between per capita income and migration. For example the Philippines, whose per capita
income has only risen at 1 per cent a year over the past 20 years, has the same migration
rate as Mexico whose economic perIormance has been much better. Clearly other Iactors
are at work here. Mexico experiences a strong pull Irom the United States to the North,
and cross-border migration is much easier than Ior the Philippines. In addition, the Ilight
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
30
Irom the countryside and the high levels oI inequality will have encouraged migration
Irom Mexico.
24

102. One recent review oI the links between migration and development has concluded
that it is still an 'unsettled and unresolved¨ Iield.
25
Whether or not emigration will
contribute to development will vary according to many Iactors. It would seem to depend,
Ior example, on what Iorms oI migration take place, where to, and on how well countries
are able to put in place policies to adjust to adverse consequences or take advantage oI
big windIalls. The latter suggests that migration can contribute positively to development
where a country is already poised to develop; it cannot, however, create such a condition.
103. A recent study has attempted an assessment oI the relationship between poverty,
migration and remittances Ior 74 low and middle-income developing countries.
26
The
major Iinding is that both international migration (the share oI a country`s population
living abroad) and international remittances (the share oI remittances in country GDP)
have a strong, statistical impact on reducing poverty in the developing world. First, 'on
average, a 10 per cent increase in the share oI international migrants in a country`s
population will lead to a 1.6 per cent decline in the poverty headcount.¨
27
Second,
international remittances deIined as the share oI remittances in country GDP have a
negative and statistically signiIicant eIIect on poverty indicators used. On average, the
point estimates Ior the poverty headcount measure indicate that a 10 per cent increase in
the share oI remittances in country GDP will lead to a 1.2 per cent decline in the share oI
people living on less than US$1 per person per day. The other poverty measures the
poverty gap and squared poverty gap show a slightly larger impact on poverty
reduction, with a 2.0 per cent decline in the depth and/or severity oI poverty in the
countries studied. The study Iinds that the impact oI international migration and
remittances on poverty varies Irom one region to another, which may perhaps be due to
the diIIiculty oI Iactoring in undocumented migration.
2.3. Ìmpact of immigration on destination countries
104. Immigration has equally proIound consequences Ior receiving countries. The
immediate eIIects are to rejuvenate populations and stimulate growth without inIlation
but these are seldom noticed. What usually become the subject oI public discourse are
the social adjustments that receiving societies have to make to immigrants Irom a
diIIerent ethnic origin, whose values may diIIer considerably Irom their own. Many
societies have managed to adjust to increasing immigration and some, like Canada, may
even celebrate increasing diversity. There is today much greater cultural diversity, even
in countries which a decade or so ago did not see themselves as countries oI immigration.
But there have been some negative reactions, sometimes taking the Iorm oI open racism
and xenophobia, especially where migration is perceived, rightly or wrongly, to take
away jobs Irom native workers. At another level migration, especially when large in

24
X. Clark, T.J. Hatton and J.G. Williamson: What explains cross-border migration in Latin America? DraIt
paper, June 2003, p. 6. http://post.economics.harvard.edu/Iaculty/jwilliam/papers/Cross-Border.pdI (accessed
27 Feb. 2004).
25
D. Ellerman: Policv research on migration and development (Washington, DC, World Bank, World Bank
Policy Research Working Paper 3117, 2003).
26
R. Adams Jr. and J. Page: The impact of international migration and remittances on povertv, Paper prepared
Ior the DFID/World Bank ConIerence on Migrant Remittances, London, 9-10 Oct. 2003.
27
ibid.
Migration and its consequences
31
scale, may have important repercussions on the political order in the destination
countries. Particularly where it does not lead to integration, migration is sometimes at
the root oI ethnic tensions.
105. While migration may bring about the same pressures on host societies, the
outcomes have tended to diIIer, depending on a country`s history, its policies, and its
government`s capacity Ior managing social change. It is not possible to speak oI
consequences without taking into account the mediating eIIects oI state policy. The
emergence oI minority ghettoes, Ior example, is the consequence oI Iailure oI policy to
integrate migrants, rather than the inevitable result oI immigration. In some cases it may
even result Irom well-intentioned policies to provide reIugees and poor immigrants with
subsidized housing.
106. At the economic level immigration also has a mixed impact on the destination
countries, though here there seems little doubt that the countries as a whole beneIit, even
iI certain groups Iind themselves disadvantaged notably the less skilled, a group that
includes some oI the earlier migrants. In Europe since the Second World War, immigrant
workers have been credited Ior their contribution to thirty or so years oI sustained
growth. In East and West Asia Irom the 1970s, migrant workers helped transIorm cities,
almost overnight, into gleaming metropolises. And in North America immigrants to
Canada and the United States have Ior generations renewed and re-energized the
population and the economy.
107. An exercise Ior the destination countries, similar to that in table 2.2, would show
that the countries with the highest levels oI immigration are among the most successIul
economically the United States, Canada, Australia and South AIrica. In Europe,
Germany, Switzerland and Luxembourg have some oI the highest proportions oI
immigrant workers and are among the wealthiest. A statistical analysis Ior 15 European
countries over the period 1991-95 Iound that Ior every 1 per cent increase in a country`s
population through immigration there was an increase in GDP oI 1.25 to 1.5 per cent.
28

This, oI course, does not prove causality, but studies which used simulation models to
assess the impact oI migration on GDP indicate that it can be substantial iI the skills oI
the migrants complement those oI the native population.
29

(a) Ìmpact on employment and wages
108. It is commonly assumed that during times oI economic expansion immigrants bring
net beneIits. This can come about Ior example by meeting general labour shortages and
helping prevent inIlation, and also by providing particular skills that are in great demand,
as has happened in recent years with inIormation technology specialists. In Europe,
where countries have less mobile populations than the United States, these shortages can
occur not just in diIIerent countries but also in diIIerent regions in the same country.
Migrants tend to move to the Iast-growing regions where wages are relatively higher and
unemployment lower. It must also be noted that the impact oI migration is not limited to
the labour market; it can also provide incentives Ior capital accumulation.
30


28
S. Glover, C. Gott et al.: Migration. An economic and social analvsis (London, Home OIIice, RDS Occasional
Paper No. 67, 2001).
29
H. Brücker, G. Epstein et al.: 'Managing migration in the European welIare state¨, in: T. Boeri, G. Hanson and
B. McCormick (eds.), Immigration policv and the welfare state (OxIord, OxIord University Press, 2002), p. 120.
30
ibid.
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
32
109. The impact oI migration on wages and employment depend on initial conditions in
the labour market, and the number and skill levels oI migrant workers admitted. In
general immigration would tend to reduce the wages oI natives with similar skills, and
consequently also worsen income distribution. But studies in Western Europe indicate
that wages tend to resist downward pressures and the impact on employment is
ambiguous (table 2.4). Migration has had a negative impact on unskilled wages but may
actually raise the real wages oI the more skilled because oI the increased supply oI
products Irom the low-wage sector.
TabIe 2.4. The empIoyment impact of migration:
A survey of European studies, 1992-2002
8tudy Year 6ountry |mpact on emp|oyment
Y';G!';=!F%L8$'VW':%\!! (,,)! 4IV(2! M61%:%L8O!@5:!%;1%G;%#%&';:!&6$$8D':%6;!@8:P88;!
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a5;:!! (,,2! _$';&8! ";!%;&$8'18!6#!:>8!#6$8%G;8$!1>'$8!@H!(!78$&8;:'G8!
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78$&8;:'G8!76%;:1!
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78$!&8;:!
M%1&>N8!';=!f8DD%;G!! (,,/! Y8$<';H! X8'N!&6$$8D':%6;!@8:P88;!#6$8%G;8$!1>'$8!';=!
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Y8$<';H!
";!%;&$8'18!%;!:>8!#6$8%G;8$!1>'$8!@H!(!78$&8;:'G8!
76%;:!%;&$8'181!T=8&$8'181U!:6:'D!8<7D6H<8;:!@H!
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TY8$<';HUO!';=!;':%L8!8<7D6H<8;:!@H!V3*2-!78$!
&8;:!T"51:$%'U!';=!V3*3.!78$!&8;:!TY8$<';HU!
A6:8R!4D'1:%&%:%81!>'L8!@88;!&6;L8$:8=!':!:>8!1'<7D8!<8';!@H!:>8!'5:>6$*!
J65$&8R!?65$:81H!6#!I;%:8=!A':%6;1!4&6;6<%&!?6<<%11%6;!#6$!45$678R!Econom|c $urve, ol EuropeO!2332O!A6*!2*!
110. The presence oI immigrants is generally assumed to depress wages Ior local
workers. However, the near uniIorm Iinding oI a wide range oI studies is that any
negative eIIect oI immigration on wages is small. In Europe, there have been a series oI
studies that have produced a range oI conclusions. A study in Germany in 1995 based on
Migration and its consequences
33
household panel data shows that a 1 per cent increase in the share oI Ioreign citizens in
the population has a small positive impact (0.6 per cent) on domestic wages.
31
Wages oI
the highly skilled native workers increase even more, by 1.3 per cent. Other studies
Iound negative but very small eIIects, ranging Irom -0.3 to -0.8 per cent, while some
suggested that native wages, especially oI the highly skilled, increase slightly.
32
In the
United States a large number oI studies have concluded that there is very little impact
typically concluding that a 10 per cent increase in the proportion oI immigrants in a
region lowers native wages by less than 1 per cent and oIten by an amount close to
zero.
33
A survey oI literature in the United Kingdom concluded: 'The overwhelming
majority oI empirical studies agree that there is essentially no statistically signiIicant
eIIect oI immigration on labour market outcomes.¨
34

111. It is possible, however, that the arrival oI immigrants in a given certain region
either causes other workers to leave or deters them Irom coming, thus diIIusing or
disguising the impact. There are, on the other hand, other studies showing that, in terms
oI mobility, natives and previous cohorts oI immigrants do not react in this way to new
immigrant inIlows indeed, iI anything, their arrival can complement new immigrant
Ilows.
112. What does seem to be the case, however, is that the wages oI immigrants as a
whole are lower than those Ior native workers. In most EU countries, migrants, and
particularly non-EU migrants, are more likely to be unemployed than natives. Although
the situation varies Irom one country to another, the general picture seems to be that this
is the result oI lower levels oI education and skill among immigrants. In the United
States too, in 1998 the hourly wage Ior immigrant men was 23 per cent less than that Ior
native men, largely because oI the increasing concentration oI immigrants with low
levels oI education. That is not to deny that part oI the explanation is discrimination
against immigrants. Many studies already conIirm that visible minorities earn
signiIicantly less than natives, even when taking into account occupation, industry,
education, experience and language, among other Iactors.
35

113. There is much controversy as to whether or not immigration causes higher
unemployment among natives. At micro or enterprise levels there are undoubtedly
displacements that take place when Iirms restructure and Ioreign workers are hired to
take the place oI native workers, especially the older and less skilled, who have been laid
oII. What is diIIicult to assess is whether, aIter taking all economic adjustments into
account, there is higher unemployment among natives aIter immigration than beIore. II
immigration brings about an expansion oI the economy it is no longer clear that it causes
higher unemployment among natives. The OECD examined the experience oI several
countries between 1984 and 1995 and concluded that there was no evidence oI a

31
K. Zimmerman: Wage and mobilitv effects of trade and migration (London, CEPR Discussion Paper No. 1318,
Jan. 1995).
32
G. Hanson, K.F. Sheve et al.: 'Immigration and the US economy: Labour-market impacts, illegal entry, and
policy choices¨, in: T. Boeri, G. Hanson and B. McCormick (eds.): Immigration policv and the welfare svstem
(OxIord, OxIord University Press, 2002, p. 192).
33
H. Brücker, op. cit., p. 30.
34
N. Gaston and D. Nelson: The emplovment and wage effects of immigration (Centre Ior Research on
Globalisation and Labour Markets, University oI Nottingham), July 2000, cited in Glover et al., op. cit.
35
See Ior example: K. Pendakur and R. Pendakur: 'The colour oI money Earnings diIIerentials among ethnic
groups in Canada¨, in Canadian Journal of Economics, Vol. 31, No. 3, Aug. 1998.
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
34
negative impact. In one study no relationship at all was Iound between unemployment
and the growth in immigrant arrivals: in the countries that had the highest inIlows oI
immigrants, unemployment oIten stayed the same or went down. Indeed some studies
even show that immigration has led to an increase in employment as a result oI an
expansion in production. The admission oI unskilled labour may, Ior example, lead to
increased production oI labour-intensive products and to increased exports, thus raising
overall levels oI employment.
36

114. A direct way oI examining whether immigration adds to unemployment during a
recession is to compare two periods oI time and see iI an increase in immigration is
matched by an increase in unemployment. The OECD has carried out this exercise Ior a
range oI countries Ior the periods 1984-89 and 1990-95.
37
As may be seen in table 2.5,
annual immigration and unemployment do not appear to be related. Migration grew
rapidly between the two periods even iI the latter witnessed a an economic downswing.
In the countries that experienced a substantial increase in immigration (the United States,
Germany, Japan, Switzerland and France) the rate oI unemployment dropped in one,
rose slightly in three, and remained the same in the IiIth.
TabIe 2.5. Gross immigration infIows and unempIoyment
in seIected OECD countries
1984-89 1990-95
Average |nf|ows
(thousands}
Unemp|oyment rate
(per cent}
Average gross
|nf|ows
(thousands}
Unemp|oyment rate
(per cent}

Percentage po|nt
d|fference |n
unemp|oyment
rates
I;%:8=!J:':81! )/-! )*.! (!(20! )*.! ! 3*3
Y8$<';H! -23! /*)! ,23! 0*(! ! h3*-
e'7';! (0+! 2*)! 20.! 2*-! ! V3*(
JP%:\8$D';=! ),! 3*/! (3(! 2*,! ! h2*2
I;%:8=!c%;G=6<! -3! 0*)! -.! ,*.! ! h3*0
_$';&8! .-! (3*3! ,+! (3*/! ! h3*/
A6$P'H! (0! +*3! (0! -*-! ! h2*-
95^8<@65$G! /! (*)! (3! 2*3! ! h3*.
A6:8R!K':'!#6$!Y8$<';H!'$8!#6$!X81:8$;!Y8$<';H!5;:%D!(,,3O!';=!15@18b58;:DH!#6$!Y8$<';H!'1!'!P>6D8*!
J65$&8R!B4?KR!C$8;=1!%;!%;:8$;':%6;'D!<%G$':%6;R!JBM4[S!(,,/*!
115. Even at times oI economic contraction, immigrants continue to do work that native
workers shun. In many industrialized countries, the steadily more educated populations
are less willing to take on manual work, even skilled manual work. In the Republic oI
Korea the Government wants more women and old people either to start working or to
return to work. But most oI the Iirms say this is impractical Ior heavy physical work. In
any case they Iind that Koreans reIuse to do even the lighter work Ior the wages on oIIer.

36
A. Venables, op. cit.
37
OECD: Trends in International Migration. SOPEMI 1997 (Paris, 1998).
Migration and its consequences
35
(b) Fiscal impact of immigration
116. A major concern in some countries is that immigrants become a burden on host
societies since they extract more Irom public services and welIare payments than they
contribute in terms oI taxes and social security contributions.
38
In Denmark, the
Netherlands, Belgium, France, Austria and Switzerland welIare dependency oI
immigrants is signiIicantly higher than that oI natives. This seems to correlate with the
amount oI beneIits granted under the welIare systems. The risk oI serving as 'welIare
magnets¨ has caused a number oI countries to limit the welIare beneIits that new
immigrants can claim.
117. The Iiscal impact oI immigration would evidently depend on the age at which
immigrants arrive in the host country. Those who come at working age are likely to
make a greater contribution to public Iinances and social security than those who come
in as young children. A study in Germany, Ior example, shows that someone who
immigrates at age 30 will contribute 110,000 euros over his or her liIetime, while one
who immigrates beIore his or her Iirst birthday will create a net burden on public
Iinances oI 60,000 euros. Since 78 per cent oI immigrants in Germany are oI working
age, the representative migrant makes a positive net contribution oI some 50,000 euros
in his or her liIetime. Immigration thereIore helps Germany to close the gap between
expected tax revenues and government consumption and debt servicing. In the United
States some studies have concluded that immigrants make more use oI welIare in terms
oI public assistance and Iree medical care than do natives. This is mainly because
immigrants are on average less educated and poorer than natives. Other studies Iind that
low-income immigrants are less likely to claim welIare than low-income natives.
39

Taking the longer view oI immigration, a study Ior the United States National Academy
oI Sciences has concluded that although immigrants will in the early years add to costs,
particularly Ior education, eventually each immigrant, with his or her descendants paying
taxes, will make a net positive contribution to the national budget oI US$80,000.
40

118. As regards undocumented migrants, they are oIten so preoccupied with concealing
their existence that they are unlikely to claim welIare. Employers who treat them as legal
immigrants on the basis oI Iake social security cards will be paying social security
contributions to the Government. These Iunds accumulate in a 'suspense Iile¨ Ior
contributions that cannot be matched to legally recorded names and will not thereIore
generate beneIits. In the United States during the period 1990-98 these Iunds amounted
to more than US$20 billion. Many undocumented immigrants pay taxes through
automatic deductions, and even some oI those paid in cash voluntarily pay taxes to prove
their residence in the country in the case oI a Iuture amnesty. In some countries, the tax
and social security authorities are legally prevented Irom sharing inIormation with the
immigration authorities.
41


38
In the United States there has been a rise in welIare use by the immigrant population; it would seem that the
longer immigrants stay the more likely it is that they will use welIare. See G. Borjas: Heavens door. Immigration
policv and the American economv (Princeton, N.J., Princeton University Press, 1999).
39
M. Fix and J. Passel: Trends in nonciti:ens and citi:ens use of public benefits following welfare reform.
1994-97 (Urban Institute, Washington, DC, 1999).
40
J. Smith and B. Edmonston: The New Americans. Economic, demographic and fiscal effects of immigration
(Washington, DC, National Academy Press, 1997).
41
G. Hanson et al., op. cit., p. 248.
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
36
119. Other countries oI immigration have also shown that immigrants are paying their
way. In Australia, Ior example, a study in 2000 Iound that Ior the younger age groups in
particular immigrants were less likely to be receiving welIare payments than those born
in Australia.
42
Across the European Union the Iiscal impact is more ambiguous. In a
number oI countries (Germany, the United Kingdom, Greece, Spain and Portugal)
dependency on welIare among immigrants is similar to, and sometimes lower than, that
oI EU citizens.
43
In the United Kingdom, Ior example, one study revealed that the
Ioreign-born population contributed around 10 per cent more to government revenue
than they took in beneIits, and concluded that were it not Ior the immigrant population,
either public services would have to be cut or income taxes would need to increase. The
British Home OIIice carried out a more detailed analysis oI the Iiscal impact oI the
migrant population in the United Kingdom and estimated that in 1999/2000, migrants in
the United Kingdom contributed £31.2 billion in taxes while they consumed £28.8
billion in beneIits and state services a net Iiscal contribution oI approximately £2.5
billion aIter rounding.¨
44

(c) Social consequences of immigration
120. Migration has a proIound impact on host societies beyond quantiIiable economic
consequences, which to a large extent explains the controversies that surround migration
policy. Migration changes society and its institutions. Because its composition rarely
mirrors that oI the receiving society, with the large majority having lower education and
experiencing greater disadvantages in the labour market, it tends to lead to changes in
social stratiIication.
45
The entry oI new migrants, especially those Irom very diIIerent
ethnic origins, usually leads to Iragmentation oI the working classes and segmentation oI
the labour market. The growth in numbers oI migrants in an irregular situation has only
exacerbated this trend. Migrants, however, have experienced markedly diIIerent rates oI
social mobility in diIIerent countries, suggesting that integration policies, as well as
social and economic conditions, determine the Iinal consequences oI migration.
121. Immigration alters a country`s sense oI national identity, a development that may
be by and large welcomed as Ior example in Canada but not as well accepted in
Germany or France. Regardless oI the diIIerences in attitudes, it is evident that the living
and working together oI people coming Irom diIIerent origins and possessing diIIerent
social values and standards inevitably transIorm societies. This is nowhere more evident
than in the large cosmopolitan centres like New York, London, Cairo, Bangkok, and
even Moscow and Tokyo. Fortunately, increasing diversity has not led to a breakdown oI
social cohesion in many countries and the large cosmopolitan centres appear to have
beneIited hugely Irom the entry oI energetic migrants with new ideas and diIIerent
outlooks.

42
B. Birrell and J. Jupp: Welfare recipient patterns among migrants (Canberra, Australian Department oI
Immigration and Multicultural AIIairs, 2000).
43
Brücker et al., op. cit., p. 74.
44
C. Gott and K. Johnston: The migrant population in the UK. Fiscal effects (London, RDS Occasional Paper
No. 77, 2002).
45
See S. Castles and M. Miller: The Age of Migration (New York, Palgrave Macmillan, 1998, paperback edition
2003).
Migration and its consequences
37
Box 2.1
Impact of migration on sociaI and demographic
structure of the popuIation in Russia
Today many Russian regions find themselves in a deep demographic crisis. Under
these conditions, migration plays the role of a "shock absorber¨ in the process of the
reduction of the population. For example, in 1992, migration growth compensated by 85
per cent for the natural loss of the population; in 1994, by 93 per cent; in 1996 and 1997,
by some 50 per cent; and in 1999 and 2000 by some 20 per cent.

Ìn the course of 1992-
2000, the net migration growth in Russia amounted to some 3.6 million persons, which
made it possible to slow down the rates of depopulation affecting many regions.
Many surveys show that these persons are, as a rule, migrants of active working
age with an adequate educational level. For example, in 1998, the share of the persons
of active working age among external migrants amounted to 63.8 per cent, and among
the permanent Russian population, 58 per cent. Among migrants, more than 15 per cent
of the newcomers had higher and undergraduate education; 31 per cent, secondary and
specialized secondary education, the same indicators among the permanent population
being 13 per cent and 24 per cent respectively. Ìn fact, immigrants to Russia are already
well-trained specialists who can be used in various branches of the national economy
without additional budget expenditures.
The experience of Stavropol Territory is quite significant. According to the results of
our studies, the migration flow includes basically highly qualified persons. Ìn Stavropol
Territory, 17 per cent of the migrants have higher education and some 30 per cent
specialized secondary education. Moreover, migration here exerts a stabilizing influence
on the demographic situation, compensating for the loss of population, as a result of a
sharp reduction in birth rates in the region. The flow of forced migrants has saved a
number of village schools from closing down. Ìt would be interesting to know that it was
migration that slightly increased the number of marriages.
As is known, prevailing evaluations of the after-effects of migration flows in various
sources include pressures on labour markets, deterioration of the socio-economic
situation and increased criminality. At the same time, from the point of view of the
demographic situation, for many regions of Russia migration today is an unquestionably
favourable phenomenon since it plays the role of a "shock absorber¨ of the negative
demographic consequences of reduced natural population growth.
Ìt should be admitted that migration in Russia has partially impeded the process of
further ageing of the population and slightly improved the educational and occupational
composition of the population.
Source: S.V. Ryazantsev: External labour migration in Russia, ÌLO Ìnternational Migration Programme,
Geneva, forthcoming.


Case study of ageing and migration in Europe
Europe is ageing rapidly. Ìn 2000, the United Nations Population Division published
a report,
*
which stated that for the present 15 States of the EU, about 47 million migrants
would be needed to maintain the overall size of the population until 2050; about 79
million migrants would be needed to maintain a constant size of the 15-64 years age
group; and about 674 million would be needed to maintain a constant old-age
dependency ratio. This conclusion perturbed many people in Europe and prompted
some to speculate as to what extent ageing would reduce the standard of living and the
social security of Europeans.
Ìn order to ascertain the potential immigration needs of the current EU countries, the
ÌLO performed a combined demographic and economic analysis to assess how ageing
would reduce the standard of living (as measured by per capita GDP) under different
assumptions. Ìf the labour force participation rates remain constant, an ever-increasing
share of the population will be inactive as a result of old age; an ever-decreasing share
of the population will have to produce the goods and services needed, and that active
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
38
group will itself become older and older. These developments will also affect long-term
economic growth rates.
For the purpose of the exercise the GDP per capita and hence the average per capita
consumption level is targeted to increase in real terms by about 3 per cent per annum. The
historical trend in labour productivity is assumed to continue (increase by 2.5 per cent a
year). The labour force participation rates for women are assumed to increase by about 1 per
cent per year for the next 25 years until they reach a level only 5 percentage points less than
that of males. There is no general increase in effective retirement age; and a rate of
"unavoidable¨ frictional unemployment is assumed to be 2.5 per cent for the whole period.
Ìf the EU-15 as a whole does not take any corrective measures (i.e. if there is no change
in the labour force participation and no migration of additional workers), the analysis using a
simulation model predicts a substantial labour shortage of about 38 million workers by 2050,
assuming a rise in labour productivity of 2.5 per cent. Ìf productivity only rises by 2 per cent a
year, the shortage grows to 88 million workers. The effect on the "gap between the targeted
standard of living and the one that is possible¨ would be substantial. Per capita GDP would
be only 78 per cent of the expected level by 2050.
What would happen now if Europe were to take corrective action through the import of
labour rather than changing its labour force participation behaviour, inter alia, through later
retirement age, longer working hours, or switching to more productive work patterns? Workers, of
course, will not come alone; they will come with their families and the total population will spiral
upwards. The reason is that, in closing the employment gap, the migrant workers and their
families will push up overall consumption levels ÷ and hence the necessary GDP level ÷ so that
the structural labour gap of the native population is further increased and the subsequent year's
gaps and replacement needs become bigger than under the original conditions.
The results of the simulation are striking. Ìn an ever-increasing effort to fill the labour
gap, the total population of EU-15 would have to approximately double within the next 50
years and the net increase of the population would be about 388 million. This would seem to
be a most unlikely scenario. Societies are unlikely to absorb such a massive increase in
migrant population. They will make other adjustments.
One clear option for the EU countries is to increase the retirement age from about 60
(de facto) to 65 years. This would mean increasing labour force participation by about 15 per
cent. Doing so greatly changes the results. Ìt reduces the needed additional immigrant
population to about 112 million over 50 years (figure 2.2).
The changing demographic structure in an ageing society has an obvious impact on the
social protection system. Generally expenditure for pensions and health care will increase,
while other expenditure items such as child and family benefits will decrease as societies
age. Ìn the EU, pension and health expenditure account for about 75 per cent of total social
expenditure, with pensions alone accounting for about half. Controlling pension expenditure
would thus go a long way towards keeping the overall social expenditure at sustainable
levels. To demonstrate the effect it is assumed (see figure 2.3) that EU-15 has increased the
retirement age to 65 years and reduced replacement rates of social security pensions to a
uniform rate of 40 per cent of the average wage ÷ a rate barely higher than many national
relative poverty rates. Old-age pensions of this level are assumed be financed on a pay-as-
you-go (PAYG) basis.
Under a "no migration¨ scenario, it is no surprise that the PAYG contribution rate (cost
rate without administrative cost) and the cost measured in GDP shares (the GDP cost ratio)
would increase by over 50 per cent over the projection period. Under the migration scenario
with higher labour force participation rates and a retirement age of 65, the cost would
increase likewise over the next decades but would be brought back to the present levels
once the replacement migration sets in. Figure 2.3 shows this graphically.
The above results indicate broad directions for future policies. Ìt appears that standards
of living and the financial stability of nationals could be safeguarded by a careful policy mix.
That mix has to find a compromise between accepting lower economic growth (and hence
lower growth rates in standards of living), accommodating replacement migration, increasing
labour force participation rates and, as a consequence, investing in the increase of
productivity of older workers. Ìt is obvious that controlled migration plays a crucial role in the
portfolio of policies.
* United Nations Population Division: Replacement migration: Ìs it a solution to declining and ageing
populations? Doc. ESA/P/WP.160 (New York, United Nations, 2000).

Migration and its consequences
39
Figure 2.2. Projected totaI popuIation (EU-15) under status quo and standard
migration assumptions with and without the effect of aIternative
Iabour force participation rates, in thousands, 2000-50

0
100'000
200'000
300'000
400'000
500'000
600'000
700'000
800'000
2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 2045 2050
Status quo Variant one Variant one with aIternative Iabour force participation rates



Figure 2.3. Projected PAYG cost ratios and GDP cost ratios of
PAYG pension schemes in EU-15, 2000-50
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 2045 2050
PAYG contribution rate under status quo (without migration)
PAYG contribution rate under standard migration with aIternative Iabour force participation rates
per cent of GDP under status quo (without migration)
per cent of GDP under standard migration with aIternative Iabour force participation rates


Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
40
2.4. Preliminary conclusions
122. We live in an age oI global migration, with more migrants moving in more ways to
more countries than ever beIore. As in the past, this migration is mostly beneIicial Ior
the migrants that move, the countries that welcome them, and the countries they leave.
The challenge is to manage the migration that is occurring in a way that maximizes
beneIits Ior all parties involved.
123. Origin countries have begun to recognize that their nationals abroad can be an
important source oI Iinance Ior development, as their remittances can cover Iamily living
expenses as well as investment Ior job creation. Migrants who return or circulate
between sending and receiving countries can also be an important source oI new
technologies and ideas. When recruitment, remittances, and returns come together in a
virtuous circle, as in the Indian IT sector, the result can be an important new export
industry that also beneIits those who did not migrate.
124. The ambition and drive that motivates people to migrate generally helps migrants
in many countries to Iind jobs, work hard, and beneIit both themselves and host country
nationals. In most cases, migrants have only slight negative eIIects on the wages oI
nationals, and they usually pay more in taxes than they receive in tax-supported services.
There is also little evidence that migration leads to much displacement oI nationals in
employment.
125. Finally, demographic trends in some regions suggest that immigration will be an
important component oI a long-term solution to the anticipated problems raised by
ageing. Along with raising labour productivity and increasing labour Iorce participation
especially among older workers countries will need to consider more immigration iI
a decline in levels oI welIare is to be avoided. Promoting consensus on these long-term
issues is clearly the task oI responsible political leadership, since immigration always
imposes social adaptation which must be supported by appropriate public policy.

41
*12#&"%'5'
Conditions of work and treatment
of migrant workers
3.1. Ìntroductory remarks
126. Analysis in preceding chapters suggests that international migration Ior
employment is likely to increase in the Iuture, with potential beneIits Ior countries oI
origin and destination and Ior the migrants themselves. A major precondition Ior
harnessing these potential beneIits is an eIIort to ensure decent working conditions Ior
migrant workers. For many, migrating Ior work may be a rewarding and positive
experience, but Ior an unacceptably large proportion oI migrants, working conditions are
abusive and exploitative, and may be characterized by Iorced labour, low wages, poor
working environment, a virtual absence oI social protection, the denial oI Ireedom oI
association and union rights, discrimination and xenophobia, as well as social exclusion,
all oI which rob workers oI the potential beneIits oI working in another country.
1
The
development oI labour institutions Ior the protection oI migrant workers has lagged
behind the growth oI migration.
127. This chapter reviews working conditions Ior international migrants and the Iactors
that determine these conditions, with a special Iocus on more vulnerable groups oI low-
and semi-skilled women and men migrant workers who need greater protection.
2

InIormation has been gathered Irom several diIIerent sources, including the International
Labour Migration Survey (ILM Survey).
3
The analysis considers speciIic vulnerable
groups, including domestic workers and migrant workers in an irregular status and
employment sectors where migrant workers are predominant. Integration oI migrants in
host societies and health issues are discussed next, Iollowed by conclusions.
4

128. While the report overall Iocuses mostly on positive aspects oI international labour
migration, the present chapter considers problem areas and reviews signiIicant, practical
initiatives at diIIerent levels to address them. The way these concerns are reIlected and
addressed in international standards is reviewed in the Iollowing chapter.

1
ILO: Summarv of conclusions, Report oI the Regional Tripartite Meeting on Challenges to Labour Migration
Policy and Management in Asia, 30 June-2 July 2003, Bangkok; ILO: Summarv report and conclusions,
Tripartite Forum on Labour Migration in Southern AIrica, Pretoria, South AIrica, 26-29 November 2002.
2
This report does not deal with the working conditions and treatment oI internal migrant workers, although their
situation has close parallels with that oI international migrant workers, especially in large countries like India or
China.
3
For all reIerences to the results oI the ILM Survey see Annex I.
4
Social security issues are discussed in Ch. 4.
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
42
3.2. Scope and criteria of working conditions
129. Concerns relating to working conditions and the treatment oI migrant workers have
been articulated in numerous international labour standards developed by the ILO, as
well as in international instruments developed by the United Nations. These cover issues
such as remuneration, hours oI work, holidays with pay, minimum age Ior employment,
occupational saIety and health measures, social security measures and welIare Iacilities
and beneIits provided in connection with employment, and security oI employment. A
Iundamental principle is that oI equality oI treatment: Article 12 oI the Migrant Workers
(Supplementary Provisions) Convention, 1975 (No. 143), urges States to 'guarantee
equality oI treatment, with regard to working conditions, Ior all migrant workers who
perIorm the same activity whatever might be the particular conditions oI their
employment¨, and Article 25, paragraph 1, oI the International Convention on the
Protection oI the Rights oI All Migrant Workers and Members oI their Families also
calls Ior equal treatment: 'Migrant workers shall enjoy treatment not less Iavourable
than that which applies to nationals oI the State oI employment¨ in respect oI
remuneration and other conditions oI work and terms oI employment.
130. Migrant workers` issues should be seen in the context oI the ILO`s decent work
Iramework because conditions oI work determine the quality oI employment. Decent
jobs should mean Iair and acceptable conditions oI work. The Director-General`s report
to the International Labour ConIerence in 2001
5
identiIied decent work deIicits Ior
workers in Iour categories: employment, rights at work, social protection, and social
dialogue.
3.3. Factors affecting conditions of work
131. Disparities in working conditions and treatment in countries oI destination exist at
two levels: (a) between migrant workers themselves; and (b) between migrant workers
and national workers. While some disparities can be explained by Iactors such as
diIIerences in migration status, skill proIiles, or the nature oI jobs and employment
sectors, some are attributable to deliberate diIIerential treatment. A brieI discussion oI
this Iollows.
(a) Evidence of disparities
132. DiIIerences in unemployment rates are a clear indicator oI the disadvantageous
position oI migrants in the labour market: in the period 2000-01, migrant men and
women in OECD countries had unemployment rates that averaged almost twice those oI
non-migrant men and women. In Denmark and Switzerland, the migrant unemployment
rate Ior men was over three times the corresponding non-migrant rate, and
unemployment rates Ior migrant women were over 20 per cent in Finland, France, and
Italy
6
(see table 3.1).

5
ILO: Reducing the decent work deficit A global challenge, Report oI the Director-General, Part I(A),
International Labour ConIerence, 89th Session, Geneva, 2001.
6
OECD: Trends in international migration. SOPEMI annual report, 2002 edition, Paris, 2003, tables 1.13
and 1.14.
Conditions of work and treatment of migrant workers
43
TabIe 3.1. Migrant and non-migrant workers in seIected OECD countries,
1995 and 2000
Fore|gn workers
($'000s}
Tota| |abour
force (7}
Unemp|oyment rate 2000-01 (7} Unemp|oyment
rat|os
6ountry
1995 2000

1995 2000

Nat|ona|s
(ma|e}
Fore|gners
(ma|e}
Nat|ona|s
(fema|e}
Fore|gners
(fema|e}

For.|nat.
(ma|e}
For.|nat.
(fema|e}
"51:$%'! ! +))! +// ! ,*/! ,*0 +*,! 0*.! +*,! 0*) ! 2*2! 2*2
W8DG%5<! ! +2/! 2)) ! /*,! 0*. .*)! (.*2! /*3! ()*- ! +*(! 2*.
K8;<'$N! ! -.! /0 ! 3*2! 2*0 +*)! (2*2! .*,! /*2 ! +*.! (*-
_%;D';=! ! (0! +. ! 3*0! (*+ (3*3! 2.*2! ((*2! 2,*, ! 2*.! 2*/
_$';&8! ! (!-))! (!-/( ! )*+! )*( /*(! (/*(! (3*/! 2+*, ! 2*.! 2*2
Y8$<';H! ! +!-3-! +!.2, ! ,*(! 0*0 /*2! (+*.! /*0! ((*/ ! (*,! (*-
Y$88&8! ! /(! ()+ ! (*/! +*0 /*2! /*)! ()*2! (/*) ! (*(! (*(
S$8D';=! ! .2! )3 ! +*3! +*- .*(! -*(! +*0! )*2 ! (*2! (*)
S:'DH! ! (33! 2.) ! 3*-! (*( 0*3! /*.! (+*,! 2(*+ ! 3*,! (*-
A8:>8$D';=1! ! 20(! 2,0 ! +*,! +*/ (*,! .*/! 2*,! /*3 ! 2*-! 2*.
A6$P'H! ! -,! /- ! 2*/! +*2 +*/! -*+! +*.! .*- ! (*.! (*+
M6$:5G'D! ! 2(! (3. ! 3*-! 2*2 +*(! 0*.! -*(! ,*) ! 2*/! (*,
J7'%;! ! (2(! 22/ ! 3*0! (*. ,*+! (2*,! (,*0! (/*2 ! (*.! 3*,
JP8=8;! ! (0)! 23- ! .*2! .*0 -*-! ()*(! .*)! (+*3 ! 2*,! 2*0
JP%:\8$D';=! ! /2,! /(/ !(0*)! (0*+ (*+! .*+! 2*)! )*. ! +*+! 2*-
I;%:8=!c%;G=6<! ! (!3((! (!223 ! +*)! .*2 -*-! ()*(! .*.! /*, ! 2*,! (*0
"51:$'D%'! ! 2!(+,! 2!+)- !2+*,! 2.*- )*/! )*)! -*0! )*, ! (*3! (*2
?';'='! ! 2!0+,! !(,*2! (3*+! ,*,! ,*-! ((*) ! (*3! (*2
I;%:8=!J:':81! !(.!30+! (/!+0. !(3*0! (2*. .*,! .*.! .*(! -*) ! 3*,! (*.
"L8$'G8! ! ! ! )*/! )*/ -*/! (3*.! /*-! (2*2 ! 2*3! (*0
A6:8R!_6$8%G;!P6$N8$1!'$8!;6;V;':%6;'D1!T45$678U!6$!#6$8%G;!@6$;!T"51:$'D%'O!?';'='O!I;%:8=!J:':81U*!
J65$&8R! B4?KR! Trenos |n |nrernar|ona| m|grar|on. 0onr|nuous reporr|ng s,srem on m|grar|on. /nnua| reporrO! 2332! 8=%:%6;! TM'$%1O! 233+UO! &6<7%D8=!
#$6<!:'@D81!S*(+!';=!S*(.O!77*!-,!';=!)3*!
133. There are also notable diIIerences with regard to employment security. National
workers in most host countries can expect some Iorm oI protection in the case oI loss oI
employment, such as redundancy payments or unemployment insurance, and perhaps an
opportunity Ior retraining. At the very least, they can look Ior another job. Migrant
workers have in general much less security. Permanent migrants may eventually enjoy
labour market advantages similar to nationals, but these are not normally available to
temporary workers. Some countries allow temporary migrant workers to seek alternative
employment Ior the duration oI their residence permit, but in others, work and residence
permits are combined, so that losing a job means loss oI the right to live in the country.
7


7
According to the ILM Survey, 32 member States indicated that migrant workers who lost their employment
through no Iault oI their own were not allowed to stay and seek new employment, while 47 granted migrant
workers such rights. Upon regular termination oI the contract oI temporary migrant workers, 21 member States
allowed them to stay and seek other employment while 53 did not. See Annex I.
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
44
134. Chapter 2 (section 2.2(a)) highlighted the disparities in wages between migrants
and native workers. It was shown that in general the wages oI migrants as a group are
lower than those Ior native workers, and that this is partly explained by lower levels oI
education and skill among migrants, with discriminatory practices also playing a role. In
the Middle East, there is a high level oI segmentation in the labour market and large
wage disparities between national and Ioreign workers. The relatively low wages oI
migrant workers seem to be determined by the prevailing labour market conditions in
sending countries.
8
In Asia also, women and men migrant workers generally receive
lower wages compared to native workers Ior the same work.
9

(b) Reasons for differences in working conditions
Migration status
135. While all migrants are workers employed outside their country oI birth or
citizenship, their status abroad ranges widely: they may be legal migrants with the right
to settle and become naturalized, temporary guest workers required to leave when a
contract expires, or unauthorized workers liable to arrest and removal at any time.
Temporary workers are rarely accorded the same treatment given to permanent workers,
as a matter oI policy aimed at discouraging settlement. Those migrating under irregular
conditions, and persons traIIicked or smuggled, normally experience the most
unIavourable conditions oI work, and oIten have limited means oI seeking redress.
Conditions of recruitment
136. ILO instruments recommend bilateral agreements as means oI regulating labour
migration, and they were the norm in the 1950s and 1960s, when public employment
services played a signiIicant part in the recruitment oI migrants and in ensuring that they
leIt their own countries with contracts setting out wages and working conditions. Today,
the international mobility oI workers is increasingly in the hands oI private Iee-charging
recruitment agencies which play a crucial role in Iacilitating migration Ior
employment.
10
They are also responsible Ior a number oI unethical practices which
promote irregular migration and cause immense hardship to actual and potential
migrants. Some recruitment agencies send workers Ior non-existent jobs, some provide
Ialse inIormation about jobs, and many charge migrants excessive Iees Ior services.
11

The sponsorship or 'khafeel¨ system common in the GulI States has also resulted in
labour inIlows not matched by actual employer demand, resulting in irregular status Ior

8
ILO: Migrant workers in Kuwait. A review of the recruitment svstem in an international context (unpublished
report, Geneva, International Migration Programme, 2002); ILO studies on women migrant workers in Bahrain,
Lebanon and the United Arab Emirates; K.C. Zachariah et al. (eds.): Keralas Gulf connection. CDS studies on
international labour migration from Kerala state in India (Ulloor, Kerala, India, Centre Ior Development Studies,
2002).
9
P. Wickramasekara and M. Abella: 'Protection oI migrant workers in Asia: Issues and policies¨, in Labour
migration in Asia. Trends, challenges and responses in countries of origin (Geneva, International Organization
Ior Migration, 2003, pp. 53-75).
10
OI the 90 respondents to the ILM Survey, just under halI authorized private recruitment agencies to bring in
migrant workers, and 23 indicated that private recruitment agencies were entitled to charge Iees. The respondents
also reported on malpractices in this area, including the oIIering oI non-existent jobs, withholding oI inIormation
or provision oI Ialse inIormation on the nature oI jobs and conditions oI employment, and the imposition oI
exorbitant Iees. See the summary oI replies to the ILM Survey (Annex I) Ior Iurther details.
11
Report oI the ILO Asian Regional Tripartite Meeting, Bangkok, 2003, op. cit. which notes widespread
recruitment malpractices, Iraud and abuses in many Asian countries.
Conditions of work and treatment of migrant workers
45
the migrants.
12
Some intermediaries engage in smuggling and traIIicking oI migrants
which are proving diIIicult to stop. As an ICFTU-APRO report noted: 'Employment
agencies caught Ior their malpractices and even illegal work are quite oIten Iound
escaping any punishment. II at all a punishment is given, the penalty imposed is Iar less
than the crime and damage inIlicted on the concerned migrants¨.
13

137. Subcontracting oI temporary and seasonal workers through labour brokers in many
sectors has been at the expense oI worker beneIits and entitlements such as holidays,
bargaining rights and social protection. The manner oI recruitment and placement thus
has Iar-reaching consequences Ior the working conditions and general treatment oI
migrant workers. Some may be Iorced to endure situations oI virtual debt-bondage or
near-slavery to pay oII debts owed to recruiters and traIIickers.
Sector of emplovment or occupation
138. Migrant workers are concentrated in the labour markets that are sometimes
characterized as the 'bargain basement¨ oI globalization. Most are employed in low-skill
services, agriculture and labour-intensive manuIacturing in which employers are small
enterprises that are basically 'price-takers¨ that is, they have no inIluence on the prices
oI their products or services. With intensiIying competition with suppliers Irom other
parts oI the world, employers in these sectors seek to maintain their small margins by
squeezing workers` wages. Garment manuIacturing, Ior example, is one industry that is
at the 'squeezed¨ end oI the 'buyer-driven chain¨ and one that relies heavily on migrant
labour.
139. The more highly skilled workers migrate, mostly through regular channels, into
Iormal sector jobs with good conditions oI work, although there are exceptions. However,
the great majority oI migrant workers are in low-skilled occupations, usually in jobs
requiring long or irregular hours oI work or subject to seasonal lay-oIIs jobs normally
shunned by national workers. These issues are discussed below in section 3.4.
Growth of the informal sector in developed economies
14

140. Changing economic and demographic trends are combining to increase the
eIIective demand Ior Ioreign labour in many industrialized countries. Ageing
populations, older workIorces and Iewer entries into labour markets combine with the
persistence oI dual labour markets to expand the number oI precarious jobs oIten Iilled
by migrants. Many small and medium-sized companies and labour-intensive sectors that
Iind it hard to relocate abroad try instead to hold down labour costs by hiring migrants,
so that the demand Ior Ioreign labour reIlects the long-term trend oI inIormalizing or
downgrading low skilled and poorly paid jobs. Migrants in irregular status are oIten
preIerred since they are willing to work Ior lower wages, Ior short periods during
production peaks, and to accept physically demanding and hazardous jobs.
15
The

12
M. Ruhs: Temporarv foreign worker programmes. Policies, adverse consequences and the need to make them
work (Geneva, ILO, Social Protection Sector, Perspectives on Labour Migration, No. 6, 2003).
13
ICFTU/APRO: Migration issues concern trade unions. Background proceedings, action plan and conclusions,
Regional Consultation on Developing a Cooperating Mechanism Ior Promoting and Protecting the Rights oI
Migrant Workers, Jakarta, 19-21 March 2003.
14
P.A. Taran: Globali:ation, migration and the rule of law. Roles and challenges for international organi:ations,
Paper presented at the Workshop 'Managing the employment oI Ioreign workers: What role Ior international
standards and institutions?¨, Eighth International Metropolis ConIerence, Vienna, 15-18 September 2003.
15
P. Stalker: Workers without frontiers. The impact of globali:ation on international migration (Geneva, ILO,
2002).
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
46
resulting demand Ior migrant workers provides a signiIicant impetus to labour Ilows and
encourages the use oI undocumented migrants, at the expense oI Iormal protections oI
workplace saIety, health, minimum wage and other standards.
Lack of freedom of association and bargaining rights
141. The right to organize and to Iorm trade unions is oI Iundamental importance in the
world oI work and is oI particular importance to migrant workers. Representation and a
voice at work are important means by which migrant workers can secure other labour
rights and improve their working conditions, and may be a crucial avenue by which
temporary and migrant workers in irregular status can assert their rights. While these
rights may be upheld and Ireely exercised in many countries, migrant workers` rights to
organize and protect their interests are Irequently violated. Permanent migrant workers
are more oIten able to exercise these rights than temporary workers or, in particular,
migrant workers in irregular status,
16
but national legal restrictions based on nationality
may make it more diIIicult Ior migrant workers to act as trade union oIIicials, to be
active as members oI an organization, or to Iorm their own unions. Workers in an
irregular situation are generally not in a position to demand any rights, given their
precarious position. The ILO Workers` Consultation on Migrant Workers in December
2003 reiterated that organizing migrants was a paramount task Ior trade unions, and that
legislation preventing migrants Irom joining unions should be repealed, as should
provisions in trade union statutes and rules which contain obstacles to the membership oI
migrants.
17

Discrimination and xenophobia in the workplace
142. While it may be understandable why migrants suIIer some Iorms oI labour market
disadvantages upon entry as a result oI language and other handicaps, some
disadvantages seem to be systemic, a consequence oI policy (or the lack oI one), or oI
discrimination. Migrant workers are Irequently subjected to unequal treatment and
opportunities, as well as discriminatory behaviour, and these are the key reasons why
migrant and ethnic minority workers Iace greater obstacles than the majority
population.
18
With the support oI local Ioundations and research institutions, the ILO
used practice tests in comparing the occurrence oI discrimination in access to
employment, speciIically against migrant workers and ethnic workers in some highly
advanced countries (Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain,
Switzerland and the United States). These studies showed that more than one-third oI
tested vacancies Ior semi-skilled jobs were closed to young, male applicants oI migrant
or ethnic minority origin. Higher discrimination rates were detected in the services sector
than in other sectors, and in small and medium-sized enterprises than in bigger ones.
19


16
According to the ILM Survey, 14 out oI 90 respondents indicated that the right to organize and protect their interests
was reserved Ior nationals. See Annex I Ior details.
17
Report oI the Workers` Consultation on Migrant Workers, organized by the ILO Governing Body`s Workers`
group and ACTRAV, Nyon, Switzerland, 15 and 16 December 2003; see also ICFTU-APRO, 2003, op. cit.
18
Only a Iew respondents in the ILM Survey reported on speciIic legal restrictions on grounds oI nationality. See
Annex I.
19
R. Zegers de Beijl: Documenting discrimination against migrant workers in the labour market. A comparative
studv of four European countries (Geneva, ILO, 2000). The country studies can be downloaded Irom:
http://www.ilo.org/migrant/publ/imp-list.htm . See also ILO: General Survev on migrant workers, Report III
(Part 1B), International Labour ConIerence, 87th Session, 1999, paras. 365-368; and Time for equalitv at work,
Global Report under the Iollow-up to the ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work,
Report I(B), International Labour ConIerence, 91st Session, 2003.
Conditions of work and treatment of migrant workers
47
143. Temporary (and a fortiori undocumented) migrants may be excluded Irom wage
protection and Irom social security programmes as a result oI stringent residence
requirements. In addition, some jobs disproportionately Iilled by migrants may be
excluded Irom Iull coverage under wage laws and beneIit programmes, Ior example in
agriculture, in Iree trade zones, and in private households.
20
Even iI migrants are
protected by wage laws and covered by beneIit programmes on the same basis as non-
migrant workers, they may not enjoy these rights in practice.
144. According to the ILM Survey, national legislation in just under halI the countries
surveyed provides Ior protection against discrimination at work Ior all workers. In about
one-third oI countries, this right applies only to nationals and regular migrant workers.
Equal treatment with regard to wages and the right to a minimum wage is available to all
workers in about 40 per cent oI cases, and to national and regular migrant workers only
in another 40 per cent oI cases.
21
In Iive cases, national provisions relating to
discrimination were said not to cover migrant workers. A number oI countries
highlighted problems in applying protection to workers in irregular status. While most
protections would cover such workers, some States make it obligatory to inIorm the
immigration authorities iI the workers concerned attempt to avail themselves oI these
provisions. With regard to protection against ethnic and racial harassment, irregular
workers are also covered in the majority oI cases, particularly against sexual
discrimination and harassment, although 24 per cent oI the respondents indicated that
such legislation applies only to nationals and regular migrant workers.
145. Discrimination based on workers` general state oI health, or speciIically on their
HIV status, is another issue that is becoming increasingly important.
22
In some cases,
testing HIV-negative is a condition Ior entry into a country, in others a condition Ior
employment or extension oI work permits.
146. With considerable numbers oI non-nationals and members oI ethnic minorities
living permanently and legally in migrant-receiving countries, the Iailure to establish or
implement eIIective anti-discrimination measures may contribute to societal
disintegration.
23
Where discrimination is not addressed, violent backlashes against
inequality can occur. Economic arguments and the 'business case¨ against
discrimination are well documented. They include the Iact that employers may be
passing over some oI the best-qualiIied candidates Ior a given job on irrelevant grounds
such as nationality or race, that tolerating discrimination may disrupt work teams and
lower productivity, and that allegations oI discrimination may hurt an employer`s
reputation and proIits.

20
J.M. Ramirez-Machado: Domestic work, conditions of work and emplovment. A legal perspective (Geneva,
ILO, 2003).
21
See Annex I Ior details.
22
According to the ILM Survey, 21 member States indicated that HIV/AIDS screening was a condition Ior entry
(see Annex I). On the other hand, more than 15 countries have incorporated in their legislation a prohibition oI
any kind oI discrimination based on health status, including HIV-status. They include Colombia, Costa Rica,
Ecuador, Finland, France, Italv, Hong Kong (China), New Zealand, Philippines, Portugal, South Africa,
Thailand and Zimbabwe. Several member States speciIically deIine disability so as to include individuals inIected
by HIV/AIDS, e.g. Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom. See ILO: Governing Body document
GB.283/2/1, 283rd Session, March 2002, para.26.
23
ibid.
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
48
147. The ILO high-level Tripartite Meeting on 'Achieving Equality in Employment Ior
Migrant Workers¨, Geneva, March 2000, examined the Iindings and implications oI ILO
discrimination research, developed a Iramework and inventory oI measures and
mechanisms to combat discrimination and promote equality oI opportunity, identiIied an
initial listing oI best practice measures replicable elsewhere, and elaborated a set oI
recommendations Ior Iuture Iollow-up activity.
24
The ILO Global Report Time for
equalitv of work in 2003 outlined various measures to combat discrimination against all
workers, including migrants. The ILO Governing Body at its 288th Session (November
2003) considered key policy interventions to tackle discrimination at work including an
action plan proposed by the OIIice as a Iollow-up to the Global Report.
25

148. Research and experience compiled by the ILO, IOM, OHCHR and UNHCR led to
a number oI recommendations on discrimination and integration which were jointly
Iorwarded to the World ConIerence Against Racism and Xenophobia in 2001. The
ICFTU Plan oI Action against racism and xenophobia elaborates a number oI good
practices to be adopted by the trade union movement.
26

3.4. Conditions of work in selected sectors
and occupations
27

149. Migrant workers tend to be concentrated in certain sectors oI the economy that Iail
to attract native workers because they are characterized by seasonality oI production, a
large number oI small producers in highly competitive global production chains, low-
technology, and high Iirm turnover. In order to address the problems oI protecting
migrant workers, one needs to understand these structural Ieatures oI sectors employing
migrants and apply the policy tools that will be likely to change them (see table 3.2).
(a) Agriculture
150. About 43 per cent oI the world`s total labour Iorce oI three billion, or some 1.3
billion workers, are employed in agriculture as selI-employed Iarmers, unpaid Iamily
workers and hired workers. The number oI 'wage¨ or hired workers is estimated at 450
million, 38 per cent oI all persons employed in agriculture and equivalent to the entire
labour Iorce oI the high-income countries.
28
Women account Ior over halI oI all
agricultural labour.
29


24
P.A. Taran, I. McClure and R. Zegers de Beijl: Challenging discrimination in emplovment. A summarv of
research and a compendium of measures (Geneva, ILO, 2000).
25
ILO: Governing Body document GB.288/TC/4, 288th Session, Geneva, November 2003.
26
ICFTU: Trade unions sav no to racism and xenophobia, A plan oI action Ior trade unions (Brussels, 2002).
27
For details, see P. Martin: Migrant wages and working conditions. Comparisons bv sector and countrv, Paper
prepared Ior ILO/MIGRANT, 3 Jan. 2004.
28
M. Pigott: Decent work in agriculture, Background paper Ior the International Workers` Symposium on
Decent Work in Agriculture, Geneva, 15-18 September 2003 (ILO/ACTRAV, 2003).
29
ILO: Facts on agriculture, Department oI Communication Iact sheet, 2003, available online at
http://mirror/public/english/bureau/inI/Iact/index.htm (accessed 7 Mar. 2004).
Conditions of work and treatment of migrant workers
49
TabIe 3.2. EmpIoyment of foreign workers by sector, 2001-02 average
(percentage of total foreign employment)
6ountry Agr|cu|ture
and f|sh|ng
H|n|ng,
manufac-
tur|ng and
energy
6onstruc-
t|on
who|esa|e
and reta||
trade
hote|s and
restaurants
Educat|on hea|th and
other
commun|ty
serv|ces
house-
ho|ds
Adm|n.
and
ET0
0ther
serv|ces
"51:$%'!! (*(! 24.5 13.5 (-*2 11.3 2*(! )*+! 0.ô (*2! 24.2
W8DG%5<!! 3*,! 21.4 9.0 1ô.0 7.9 .*+! 0*3! 0.9 0*+! 2+*+
?\8&>!
F875@D%&!!
+*-! +(*-! 11.0 19.5 7.2 +*(! .*,! **!! l! (0*2
_%;D';=!! l! (-*+! 7.8 14.5 11.0 10.8 ((*-! l!! l! 27.2
_$';&8!! +*2! (/*2! 17.5 ((*+ 7.3 +*2! -*(! ô.7 2*/! 25.8
Y8$<';H!! (*2! 32.ô 8.1 (2*, 11.3 2*/! /*3! 0.ô 2*+! 2(*.
Y$88&8!! +*2! 17.9 27.ô ((*2 10.2 (*)! (*)! 17.2 l! ,*2
S$8D';=!! +*2! (/*2! )*,! (3*2 13.8 -*.! 10.3 l!! l! 30.1
e'7';
!(
!! 3*.! ô1.5 2*3! ,*+ 1.0 **! **!! **!! **! 2ô.8
95^8<@65$G! 3*0! (3*.! 1ô.4 14.1 8.2 2*+! )*(! 3.1 0*/! 29.8
A8:>8$D';=1!! 3.7 21.4 .*/! (-*. 8.0 .*(! ((*/! **!! +*-! 27.ô
A6$P'H!! l! 1ô.1 )*(! (2*- 7.3 9.5 21.3 l!! l! 2+*(
J7'%;!! 8.ô ((*2! 15.8 (3*, 1ô.5 +*2! (*,! 14.8 3*-! ()*0
JP8=8;!! l! 19.3 +*+! (3*/ 5.9 8.2 19.2 l!! 2*0! 29.ô
JP%:\8$D';=!! 3*0! 22.9 10.2 17.9 ô.9 -*3! ((*)! 1.2 2*-! 2(*3
I;%:8=!
c%;G=6<!!
l! (2*3! .*.! (2*3 11.0 /*/! 14.0 1.3 .*(! 33.1
"51:$'D%'
!2
!! 2*3! 17.5 /*+! (/*3 -*-! )*2! 10.3 +*2! +*-! 27.3
?';'='!
T233(U
!2
!!
(*0! 19.1 .*/! (.*2 7.4 -*/! ,*.! 0.ô +*,! ++*2
I;%:8=!
J:':81
!2
!!
3.2 17.2 8.2 23*( 10.3 -*/! 10.ô 1.5 2*2! 23*,
A6:8R!C>8!;5<@8$1!%;!@6D=!%;=%&':8!:>8!18&:6$1!P>8$8!#6$8%G;8$1!'$8!6L8$V$87$818;:8=!T%*8*!:>8!1>'$8!6#!#6$8%G;!8<7D6H<8;:!%;!:>8!18&:6$!%1!D'$G8$!
:>';!:>8!1>'$8!6#!#6$8%G;!8<7D6H<8;:!%;!:6:'D!8<7D6H<8;:U*!C>8!1%G;!mln!%;=%&':81!:>':!:>8!81:%<':8!%1!;6:!1:':%1:%&'DDH!1%G;%#%&';:*!
(
!K':'!$8#8$!:6!e5;8!233(*!C>8!m>6:8D1!';=!$81:'5$';:1n!18&:6$!%1!%;&D5=8=!%;!:>8!mP>6D81'D8!';=!$8:'%D!:$'=8n!18&:6$*!!!
2
!K':'!$8#8$!:6!:>8!#6$8%G;V@6$;!
7675D':%6;!'G8=!(-h*!
J65$&8R!B4?KR!Trenos |n |nrernar|ona| m|grar|on. 0onr|nuous reporr|ng s,srem on m|grar|on. /nnua| reporrO!233+!8=%:%6;!TM'$%1UO!:'@D8!S*(2*!
151. Agriculture is a special industry: it is the world`s largest employer, and economic
development is associated with a declining percentage oI the workIorce employed in
Iood and Iibre production. The exodus oI rural youth to manuIacturing and services in
urban centres has raised the demand Ior migrant workers. Virtually all governments
intervene in agriculture by way oI subsidies and taxation. Finally, trade in Iarm goods is
aIIected by trade preIerences and restrictions, as well as migration policies. In the rich
countries, many oI the subsidized specialty crops, including sugar and some Iruits and
vegetables, employ migrants.
152. Among the developed countries, the United States has the most hired Iarm workers:
some 2.5 million persons are employed Ior wages at some time during a typical year,
most oI them Ior less than six months. About 90 per cent oI the migrants who work
seasonally on Iarms producing Iruit, vegetable and horticultural (FVH) commodities
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
50
were born abroad. The share oI irregular or unauthorized workers among all hired crop
workers rose Irom less than 10 to over 50 per cent during the 1990s.
30
Every year, the
European Union`s agricultural sector employs close to 4.5 million seasonal workers,
almost 500,000 oI whom come Irom countries outside the EU-15.
31
Women workers
make up about 40 per cent oI the total seasonal agricultural workIorce in Germany.
32

153. Agriculture is one oI the three most hazardous industries (the other two are mining
and construction). According to ILO estimates, oI 335,000 Iatal workplace accidents a
year worldwide, some 170,000 involve agricultural workers. Millions more oI the
world`s agricultural workers suIIer serious injury in workplace accidents involving
machinery or are poisoned by pesticides and agrochemicals. In the United States, Ior
example, agricultural workers made up 3 per cent oI the workIorce but suIIered 7.4 per
cent oI work-related deaths between 1990 and 1995.
33
They endure excessive working
hours and inadequate daily or weekly rest. Migrant workers, especially irregular workers,
are particularly vulnerable since they may not have adequate insurance.
154. The agricultural sector is also characterized by a high incidence oI child labour
including migrant children. The SaIety and Health in Agriculture Convention, 2001
(No. 184), speciIies 18 years as the minimum age Ior employment in agriculture in
dangerous jobs and 16 years Ior other Iarm jobs. Nonetheless, some 80 million 5- to 14-
year-olds are believed to be employed in agriculture. In some countries, migrant children
are employed to produce commodities Ior export; Ior example children Irom Mali and
Burkina Faso work in Côte d`Ivoire, which produces about 40 per cent oI the world`s
cocoa.
155. In developing countries, a series oI vicious circles have been lowering wages and
protection Ior hired Iarm workers, leading to rural-urban and international migration.
The many causes oI these vicious circles include: intensiIied competition, especially
with countries that heavily subsidize their agriculture; domination oI agricultural export
markets by multinational buyer cartels; privatization that eliminates jobs in Iarming and
Iarm-related industries; and rising input costs and declining prices Ior many
commodities produced in developing countries, including bananas, cocoa, coIIee and
sugar. This cost-price squeeze puts downward pressure on Iarm wages and incomes and
increases emigration pressures in agricultural areas.
156. Year-round workers living on plantations generally enjoyed better protection in the
past. The switch to seasonal workers supplied by labour contractors in the 1990s put
downward pressure on working conditions Ior all Iarm workers, including migrants in
the countries in which they are a signiIicant part oI the hired workIorce (Ior example,
Costa Rica, Malaysia and Thailand). A vicious circle arises when eIIorts are made to
regulate contractors: they oIten hire the most vulnerable workers, are oIten under
extreme competitive pressure to keep wages low, and generally operate without written
contracts and in areas with Iew labour inspectors. Some 55 per cent oI union complaints

30
P. Martin, 2004, op. cit.
31
A. Renaut: 'Migrants in European agriculture: open season Ior exploitation¨, in Trade Union World Briefing
(Brussels, ICFTU), No. 7, Dec. Available online at http://www.icItu.org/www/pdI/brieIing¸migrantsE.pdI (accessed
7 Mar. 2004).
32
ibid.
33
V. Forastieri: 'The ILO Programme on SaIety and Health in Agriculture: The challenge Ior the new century
Providing occupational saIety and health services to workers in agriculture¨, in Labour Education, 2000/1-2
(Geneva, ILO), Nos. 118/119.
Conditions of work and treatment of migrant workers
51
to the ILO in the 1990s alleging violations oI core ILO standards were Irom the
Americas, and many were directed at governments that had assisted, Ior example,
banana plantations seeking to replace year-round workers.
34
A recent publication
summarizes the situation as Iollows:
Poverty wages, atrocious working conditions and downward pressure on the terms oI
collective agreements negotiated by the unions are all part oI the immigrant workers` Iate.
They embody the whole decent work deIicit in agriculture.
35

157. In Germany, the agriculture and construction union IG Bau has expressed grave
concern at the growing trend oI permanent jobs being replaced by temporary contracts,
particularly in tree nurseries and horticulture. Migrant agricultural workers are oIten
recruited in a very inIormal manner, oIten through an intermediary or labour
contractor.
36
According to the British Trades Union Congress, many seasonal workers
end up signing contracts that include very high charges Ior transportation, housing and
other services, so that their earnings are oIten Iar less than expected.
37

158. A Council oI Europe report noted that reliance on migrant labour has become a
characteristic Ieature oI Mediterranean agriculture, especially Ior seasonal activities, and
that the work oI many oI these migrants is undeclared, as a result oI which they have no
right to receive minimum wages or make social security contributions and are oIten
subjected to abuse and exploitation.
38
Abuses oI migrants include making Ialse promises
concerning wages and working condition during recruitment, high or unexpected charges
Ior transportation, housing and meals, and unauthorized deductions Irom wages or
Iailure to Iorward taxes to government authorities.
159. Contractors usually compete with each other on cost, and some agree to supply
workers at such low costs that they end up violating minimum wage and tax laws. In the
United States, Ior example, contractors charge an overhead commission oI at least 25 to
35 per cent, yet some contractors oIIer to bring crews to Iarms Ior lower overheads,
which suggests that they may actually be cheating the workers oI wages or the
government oI payroll taxes.
39
It is estimated that one-third oI workers` wages may be
lost as a result.
40

160. A recent ILO study on decent work in agriculture succinctly summed up the situation:
DeIicits in social protection Ior waged agricultural workers are Iurther exacerbated through the
practice oI labour contracting, where abusive systems are contributing to the erosion oI rights
and protection. The system oI labour contracting in all its Iorms (both national and

34
M.L. Pigott, op. cit.
35
M. Pigott and L. Demaret: 'They Ieed the world, but their children go hungry¨, in Focus on Trade, No. 95, Nov.
2003, available online at http://www.Iocusweb.org/publicatons/Fot2003/Fot95.htm (accessed 10 Mar. 2004).
36
A. Renaut, 'Migrants in European agriculture ...¨, op. cit.
37
N. Clark: Overworked, underpaid, over here. Migrant workers in Britain, available online at the Trades Union
Congress site http://www.tuc.org.uk/international/tuc-6878-I0.cIm (accessed 7 Mar. 2004).
38
Council oI Europe, Committee on Migration, ReIugees and Demography: Migrants in irregular emplovment in
the agricultural sector of southern European countries, doc. 9883, 18 July 2003.
39
Many Iarm organizations survey members and contractors to determine average overheads or commissions, so
contractors are rarely able to overcharge Iarmers.
40
P. Martin, op. cit., 2004.
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
52
transnational) now appears to be a central component in labour market institutions in all parts
oI the world, and underlies many oI the decent work deIicits identiIied throughout the paper.
41

161. With less than 10 per cent oI the world`s hired Iarm workers represented by unions,
and unions Iinding it very hard to organize the Iast-growing Iemale segment oI the
seasonal Iarm workIorce brought to Iarms by contractors, workers` organizations are
oIten weak or non-existent among Iarm workers. The worker organizations that do exist
are oIten on the deIensive, Iighting to retain the wages and beneIits they have won as
state-owned or Ioreign-owned plantations are restructured. Migrant workers may receive
the lowest priority in the process. These Iactors mean that Iarm workers oIten have no
collective bargaining rights; they have inadequate income in relation to basic needs, no
social protection Irom unemployment, sickness or injury, and have no voice to Iurther
their interests.
162. Nevertheless, trade unions have established a number oI good practices with regard
to the protection oI migrant workers in agriculture. The ICFTU lists a number oI good
practices Ior trade unions, including inIormation centres set up with the cooperation oI
unions in receiving countries.
42

163. Experience suggests a number oI steps that should be taken to reduce the incidence
and severity oI migrant abuses. The starting point is to identiIy employers oI migrants,
which most countries do via a registration or licensing system. Perhaps the most
promising way to better regulate contractors who hire mostly migrants may be joint
liability and seizure laws, under which the beneIiciary oI the migrants` labour assumes
joint liability with the contractor Ior paying wages and abiding by labour laws. In most
cases, the beneIiciary oI the work done by workers hired through contractors is the most
stable entity in the business relationship, and the rationale Ior joint liability is that the
beneIiciaries oI contractor-migrant labour will more careIully check the contractors they
use iI they are liable Ior violations committed by those contractors.
43

164. Through trade unions and consumer group pressure, retailers could be made
responsible Ior working conditions since it is they, and not the Iarm producers, who
receive the largest share oI retail Iood spending. The European agricultural workers`
unions have urged the promotion oI 'virtuous recruitment Iormulas¨, like those oI
employers` groups in France.
44
The Parliamentary Assembly oI the Council oI Europe,
in its Recommendation on migrants in irregular employment in the agricultural sector oI
southern European countries,
45
called on member States to establish an eIIective system
oI migration management Ior labour in agriculture, including Iair and viable channels Ior
the recruitment oI seasonal migrant workers, work permits which give Iull access to
social security and other rights, and appropriate legal Irameworks to sanction employers

41
ILO: Decent work in agriculture, Synopsis oI the Background paper (IWSDWA/2003) Ior the International
Workers` Symposium on Decent Work in Agriculture, Geneva, 15-18 September 2003.
42
A. Renaut, op. cit.
43
In the United States, courts have established a series oI indicators oI joint liability that include whether or not
the business operator who hired the contractor has any control over the workers brought to the business by the
contractor.
44
Cited in A. Renaut, op. cit.
45
Council oI Europe, Parliamentary Assembly Recommendation 1618 on migrants in irregular employment in
the agricultural sector oI southern European countries, adopted by the Standing Committee on 8 Sep. 2003,
available online at http://assembly.coe.int/Documents/AdoptedText/TA03/EREC1618.htm (accessed 7 Mar.
2004).
Conditions of work and treatment of migrant workers
53
oI clandestine workers in agriculture and their recruiters, and called Ior ratiIication oI the
International Convention on the Protection oI the Rights oI All Migrant Workers and
their Families.
165. Finally, educating migrants about their rights can help to limit abuses at the hands
oI employers. There are several ways oI educating migrants, including in their country oI
origin beIore departure and by having their country`s representatives visit them at work
abroad, as Mexican representatives visit Mexican Iarm workers employed on Canadian
Iarms. Trade unions can play a unique role in monitoring conditions Ior migrant workers,
providing education Ior workers and seeking redress when abuses are Iound. However,
their right to enter workplaces with migrants is not always respected. NGOs dealing with
migrant workers` issues may Iace similar obstacles.
(b) Construction
166. Construction is a large, labour-intensive industry. Total global employment in the
construction sector in 1999 was estimated to be about 112 million, including 29 million
in more developed countries and 82 million in less developed countries.
46
The
construction industry has a long tradition oI employing migrant labour Irom lower-wage
economies. Migrant labour is important in the countries oI the Arabian GulI, which have
small populations and large construction programmes Iinanced by oil. Malaysia and
Singapore both rely heavily on Ioreign construction workers. Israel has replaced
Palestinian construction workers with workers Irom countries such as the Philippines,
Thailand, China and Romania. Many oI the construction workers in Moscow and its
environs come Irom the Caucasus and the Central Asian republics. A tripartite meeting
convened by the ILO in Geneva in March 1996 concluded that countries will continue to
rely on Ioreign workers to Iill jobs in construction.
47

167. Construction remains unique in several respects. It is project-by-project based, with
the production site constantly moving; demand is cyclical or has a 'boom-bust¨ quality;
and governments oIten begin public construction projects during recessions to create
jobs. The industry is Iragmented, with mostly small Iirms operating only in local markets
because oI their knowledge oI building codes, workers and customers. As the ILO puts it:
'It is probably better to regard construction not as an industry, but as a loose
agglomeration oI agents and activities which can be unpackaged and packaged in
diIIerent ways.¨
48

168. Employment relations in construction are unique.
49
Workers move Irom project to
project, and on any particular building site, there are usually multiple small employers
whose activities need to be coordinated so that buildings are constructed in the correct
manner and to ensure quality control. The construction workIorce includes those with
signiIicant skills, such as carpenters and electricians, as well as unskilled labourers, with

46
ILO: The construction industrv in the twentv-first centurv. Its image, emplovment prospects and skill
requirements, report Ior discussion at the Tripartite Meeting on the Construction Industry in the Twenty-Iirst
Century, Geneva, Sectoral Activities Department, 2001, table 1.1.
47
ILO: Note on the Proceedings, Tripartite Meeting on Social and Labour Issues Concerning Migrant Workers
in the Construction Industry, Geneva, 4-6 March 1996.
48
'DeIining construction¨, http://www.ilo.org/public/english/dialogue/sector/sectors/constr.htm (accessed 8 Mar.
2004).
49
ILO: The scope of the emplovment relationship, Report V, International Labour ConIerence, 91st Session,
Geneva, 2003, box 3 ('Construction industry: Dependent and independent workers¨).
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
54
the skilled workers oIten providing on-the-job training to the unskilled. Many
subcontractors on construction sites have limited capital and engage in labour-intensive
tasks.
169. Construction used to be an industry that oIIered above-average wages to
compensate Ior arduous and dangerous work, with relatively large employers making
considerable investments in their relatively highly skilled workers and taking
responsibility Ior training replacements. It has also, historically, been an industry with
relatively high levels oI unionization, at least in the developed countries. The entire
industry is, however, undergoing a proIound transIormation. This is due to the surge in
subcontracting and a high level oI privatization.
50
These trends have grown to such
proportions that some 'builders¨ see their job solely as managing subcontractors who
provide the labour and materials to build a project. Today, casual and temporary
employment with Iirms employing Iewer than 20 workers and selI-employment have
become the rule. In some cases, vertically integrated construction Iirms have become
merely managers who allow subcontractors to compete against one another to supply
workers Ior their projects.
51

170. As a result, work in construction has become increasingly temporary and insecure,
and workers` protection (where it existed at all) has been eroded. The report oI the
Workers` Consultation notes: 'Deregulation has also led to a race to the bottom making
jobs in sectors like construction unattractive and underpaid Ior nationals and calling on
Ioreign labour to Iill those gaps, including through irregular migration channels¨.
52

According to a recent ILO report, the increased employment oI labour through
subcontractors has also had a proIound eIIect on saIety and health at the workplace and
has undermined collective bargaining and training provision.
53

171. The same report states that in much oI the world, work in construction is not
regarded as 'decent work¨. It is in Iact one oI the most dangerous sectors, with two to
Iour times the average Irequency oI Iatal accidents. Because oI high rates oI injury,
Irequent lay-oIIs and substandard housing, young people tend to shun construction jobs,
setting in motion a vicious circle in which Ioreigners without adequate protection and
training increase their share oI the labour Iorce.
54

172. The current trends towards subcontracting and privatization in the construction
industry appear to be irreversible, and it has become important to Iind ways to make
employers, unions, and governments cooperate to ensure that migrant workers employed
by subcontractors do not become a disadvantaged and isolated labour Iorce whose
vulnerability is used as means oI pulling down wages and conditions in the entire

50
Governments undertaking construction projects are oIten under an obligation to pay prevailing or union wages
on projects.
51
ILO: Note on the Proceedings, Tripartite Meeting on the Construction Industry in the Twenty-Iirst Century: Its
Image, Employment Prospects and Skills Requirements, Sectoral Activities Programme, Geneva, 10-14
December 2001, p. 24.
52
ILO: Report of the Workers Consultation on Migrant Workers, op. cit.
53
ILO: The construction industrv in the twentv-first centurv, op. cit.
54
See, Ior example, A. Abdul-Aziz: 'Bangladeshi migrant workers in Malaysia`s construction sector¨, in Asia-
Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 16, No. 1, Mar. 2001.
Conditions of work and treatment of migrant workers
55
industry, and to prevent a race to the bottom that puts construction among the 'worst
occupations¨.
55

(c) Manufacturing: Sweatshops and migrant workers
173. Globalization has liberalized international capital mobility and the relocation and
outsourcing oI production. In this process, jobs in manuIacturing are created Ior workers
in sending countries, thereby reducing pressures Ior migration. At the same time, there
has been an international outcry regarding the conditions oI work in some oI the
clandestine workplaces described as 'sweatshops¨ which do not oIIer decent working
conditions and violate Iundamental labour standards.
56
A signiIicant number, employing
local workers, are Iound in the developing world. Some are linked to multinational
companies through a complex network oI subcontracting chains, Irom retailer down to
production units. The production oI international brands oI garments, shoes, toys and
sports equipment, among other things, has been targeted as sweatshop production
involving child labour and Iemale labour, mostly in Iorced labour conditions. This
section discusses only 'sweatshop¨ situations involving migrant labour.
174. 'Sweatshops¨ have re-emerged in developed countries on the basis oI cheap
migrant labour. TraIIicking and smuggling oI persons provides a ready source oI cheap
Iorced labour Ior the sweatshops. The ILO report on the Iootwear, leather, textiles and
clothing (TCF) industries points out that migrant workers constitute an important part oI
the TCF workIorce in industrialized countries and in those developing countries which
have progressed Iurthest along the road to industrialization.
57

175. Concentrations oI clandestine workshops are Iound in a number oI European
countries. These workshops employ large numbers oI illegal migrants and use 'labour
practices that are contrary to the most rudimentary principles oI respect Ior human rights
at work¨.
58
In the case oI southern Europe, an ILO study Iound that migrants are mainly
employed in manuIacturing jobs that have the toughest conditions with respect to
physical eIIort, endurance, overtime work and night shiIts, as well as the highest risk oI
accidents.
59

176. In the United States, the problem oI 'sweatshops¨ has received much media
attention. In August 1995, the case oI 72 young Thai women who were being Iorced to
work in conditions oI near-slavery Ior a clothing enterprise in the CaliIornian city oI El
Monte caused public outrage. More recently, Saipan (in the Commonwealth oI the
Northern Mariana Islands, administered by the United States) has attracted considerable
media attention because oI the slavery-like practices in 'sweatshops¨ producing goods

55
ILO: The construction industrv in the twentv-first centurv, op. cit. The ILO 1996 Tripartite Meeting
recommended measures to provide Ior legal admission oI construction workers and adequate protection Ior them
in accordance with ILO and United Nations Conventions.
56
The word originated in the clothing industry where it has been used to reIer to Iirms that required workers to
work long hours to meet production targets without regard Ior their health and saIety. See 'The globalization oI
sweatshops¨, in Sweatshop Watch, Vol. 6(2), summer 2000, available online at http://www.sweatshopwatch.org/
swatch/newsletters/6¸2.html (accessed 8 Mar. 2004).
57
ILO: Labour practices in the footwear, leather, textiles and clothing industries, report Ior discussion at the
Tripartite Meeting on Labour Practices in the Footwear, Leather, Textiles and Clothing Industries, Geneva, 16-20
October 2000.
58
ibid.
59
E. Reyneri: Migrants involvement in irregular emplovment in the Mediterranean countries of the European
Union (Geneva, ILO, International Migration Paper series, 2001).
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
56
Ior major American distributors. More than 50,000 young Iemale migrants Irom China,
the Philippines, Bangladesh and Thailand were discovered working as virtual prisoners
in workshops, Iorced to work 15 hours a day, seven days a week. Trade unions, NGOs
and the United States authorities have joined Iorces to combat such sweatshop practices.
As a result, a number oI American clothing distributors have undertaken to Iinance an
independent monitoring system to ensure that in Iuture their suppliers in Saipan will
respect basic workers` rights. The Iederal authorities have also launched a number oI
initiatives during recent years aimed at combating 'sweatshops¨ with the support oI
major enterprises in the textiles sector.
60
The United States Department oI Labor
collected US$175 million in back wages Ior 263,593 workers during the Iinancial year
2002 Irom low-wage industries including garment manuIacturing.
61

177. It is in clandestine workshops that violations oI human rights at work are most
common and most serious. The scale oI the phenomenon, which is seen mainly in the
clothing sector, is such that they pose a threat to the viability oI legal enterprises because
oI the unIair competition which they represent. Voluntary private initiatives, including
codes oI conduct, can complement existing legislation and encourage the promotion oI
Iundamental principles and rights in the workplace. In Europe, the European Trade
Union Federation oI Textiles, Clothing and Leather (ETUF:TCL) and the European
Apparel and Textile Organisation (EURATEX) signed the Iirst 'European Code oI
Conduct¨ on 22 September 1997 to comply with and promote basic human rights in the
workplace based on international norms.
62

178. The ILO Tripartite Meeting on the TCF industries (2001) adopted a resolution
which supports the promotion throughout the TCF industries oI the ILO Declaration on
Fundamental Principle and Rights at Work and the ILO Tripartite Declaration oI
Principles concerning Multinational Enterprises and Social Policy, as well as all relevant
ILO Conventions and Recommendations.
63

(d) Services
179. The world`s economy is based predominantly on services: 64 per cent oI the global
GDP oI US$31 trillion in 2001 was accounted Ior by services according to the World
Bank`s assessment oI value added, and 65 to 70 per cent oI the workers in the more
developed countries are employed in service-producing sectors.
64
The composition oI
services changes with economic development and rising incomes, as educational,
business and health services increase their share oI GDP and personal services (such as
private household help) decline. The Iact that demand Ior migrant workers has ranged
Irom highly skilled to unskilled workers also reIlects this.
180. The distribution oI Ioreign workers by sector in OECD countries highlights these
structural changes. In the past Iew years, however, the tertiary or services sector has

60
ibid.
61
http://www.dol.gov/opa/media/press/esa/ESA2002694.htm (accessed 10 Mar. 2004).
62
A Charter bv the Social Partners in the European Textile and Clothing Sector. Code of Conduct, text available
online at http://www.unicz.it/lavoro/UECODET.htm (accessed 10 Mar. 2004).
63
ILO: Resolution concerning future ILO action in the footwear, leather, textiles and clothing industries,
Tripartite Meeting on Labour Practices in the Footwear, Leather, Textiles and Clothing Industries, Geneva,
16-20 October 2000, available online at http://www.ilo.org/public/english/dialogue/sector/techmeet/tmlIi00/
resolute.htm (accessed 8 Mar. 2004).
64
World Bank: World Development Report 2002 (Washington, DC, 2002).
Conditions of work and treatment of migrant workers
57
become more important Ior the employment oI Ioreign workers and now employs more
than three-quarters oI all such workers in some countries (such as Australia,
Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway and the United States).
65
Sectoral distribution,
however, varies signiIicantly by country, although wholesale and retail trade, hotels and
tourism, health and community services and household services appear to be the most
important.
Domestic service, nursing and other care services
181. The demand Ior Ioreign household and care workers has grown in the OECD
countries with rising Iemale employment rates, changes in Iamily structures and an
ageing population leading to higher dependency ratios.
66
Within this Iramework, the
need Ior household services is expected to increase. According to the latest SOPEMI
report (2003), more than 10 per cent oI Ioreign workers in southern Europe are
employed in household services, especially in Greece, Italy and Spain. In France and the
United States, about 51,000 and 150,000 Ioreigners respectively provide care Ior the
elderly and children at home. More than 950,000 Italian Iamilies hired Ioreign workers
to tend to the needs oI the elderly or children in 2002. Another important aspect oI this is
that many oI these workers may be in irregular status as shown by regularization
exercises.
67
The issue oI domestic workers is discussed in detail below.
182. In 2002, Citizenship and Immigration Canada established the Live-in Caregiver
Program to allow Ioreign employers and caregivers to Iill the need Ior live-in care work
Ior children, elderly people or persons who have disabilities,
68
in response to labour
market shortages oI Canadian citizens or permanent residents. Prior to this programme,
Canada was providing permanent resident status (as housekeepers, servants or personal
service providers) to only a very limited number oI Ioreign workers. The Live-in
Caregiver Program provides the possibility oI applying Ior permanent residence in
Canada aIter two years oI employment.
183. Migration oI health workers, especially nurses, has grown in recent years in
response to high demand in developed countries such as the United States and United
Kingdom. An ILO study has highlighted the problems Iaced by them, which include lack
oI recognition oI skills and previous experience leading to systematic deskilling,
channelling into 'non-career¨ grades in unpopular specialties, and the 'ethnic penalty¨
which results in restricted access to training and poorer career progression.
69
The United
Kingdom has introduced the international nurses` advice line, which oIIers advice to
nurses working in England and who are experiencing problems with supervised practice
placements and agencies who Iail to honour the terms oI contracts.
70


65
OECD: Trends in international migration 2003 (Paris, 2003), table I.12.
66
ibid.
67
ibid.
68
Citizenship and Immigration Canada: The Live-In Caregiver Program, Fact Sheet 19, available online at
http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/irpa/Is-caregivers.html (accessed 10 Mar. 2004).
69
S. Bach: International migration of health workers. Labour and social issues (Geneva, ILO, Sectoral
Activities Programme, WP.209, 2003).
70
ILC survey inIormation.
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
58
Hotel, catering and tourism (HCT)
184. Worldwide, employment within the tourism economy is estimated at 192.2 million
jobs (one in every 12.4 jobs in the Iormal sector). By 2010, this should grow to 251.6
million jobs (one in every 11 Iormal sector jobs). The industry is heavily dominated by
SMEs: in Europe, Ior example, there are 2.7 million SMEs operating in the sector,
representing almost all HCT enterprises. Some 94 per cent oI this segment are micro-
enterprises employing Iewer than ten people. SMEs employ over halI the labour Iorce
working in the industry.
71

185. Migrant workers in the tourism labour market oI destination countries include daily
commuters, seasonal workers and permanent migrants. The majority are drawn into
lower-paid, inIormal or casual employment in services. Although many migrant workers
stay Ior a number oI years, they oIten remain at low skill levels compared to local
workers. An ILO study equates their social status to that oI ethnic minorities, another
group strongly over-represented in the HCT sector. European countries such as Austria,
Denmark, Germany and Switzerland employ large numbers oI migrants. In 1996, the
percentage oI Ioreign workers in hotels and restaurants was 51.2 per cent in Switzerland
and 30.9 per cent in Germany. In Spain, the coastal resorts employ large numbers oI
illegal migrants.
186. The hotel, restaurant and catering sector remains an area in which use is Irequently
made oI undeclared labour. In some countries, this may involve the clandestine
employment oI illegal Ioreigners who are willing to accept less Iavourable conditions oI
employment than nationals. It may also take the Iorm oI employees being declared as
working Ior a certain limited number oI hours while actually working longer hours and
receiving supplementary payments in cash, thus enabling both employer and employee
to avoid payment oI a proportion oI social insurance contributions. Undeclared labour is
employed mainly in small enterprises where cash is available outside the oIIicial
accounts.
3.5. Most vulnerable groups of workers
72

(a) Women domestic workers
187. Migrant women domestic workers are among the world`s most vulnerable workers.
Most are women moving Irom poorer to richer countries Ior economic reasons, and most
leave their children behind, oIten in the care oI relatives or a hired local maid, creating
global care chains. The availability oI Ioreign maids, in turn, allows women with
children in destination countries to work Ior wages, so that many oI the world`s women
between the ages oI 15 and 64 years are able to pursue paid employment outside the
home.
73


71
ILO: Human resources development, emplovment and globali:ation in the hotel, catering and tourism sector,
Report Ior discussion at the Tripartite Meeting on Human Resources Development, Employment and
Globalization in the Hotel, Catering and Tourism Sector, Geneva, 2-6 April 2001.
72
A detailed discussion oI these groups in Asia can be Iound in P. Wickramasekara: Asian labour migration.
Issues and challenges in an era of globali:ation, International Migration Papers No. 57 (Geneva, ILO, 2002).
73
ILO: Preventing discrimination, exploitation and abuse of women migrant workers. An information guide,
Booklet 1, Introduction: 'Why the Iocus on women international migrant workers¨, Gender Promotion
Programme, Geneva, p. 29.
Conditions of work and treatment of migrant workers
59
188. In some European countries (France, Greece, Italy and Spain) domestic work or
housekeeping is the most common occupation open to Iemale migrants.
74
During the
1990s, numerous migrants with residence permits entered Italy, Greece and Spain as
domestic workers through the quota system, and a large proportion oI those regularized
were domestic workers. High- and middle-income States in Asia, including Hong Kong
(China), Singapore, Taiwan, China and Malaysia, and the GulI States also employ large
numbers oI women migrant workers. In Costa Rica, domestic workers are drawn largely
Irom neighbouring Nicaragua.
189. In Asia, the most important source countries oI Iemale migrant workers are
Indonesia, Philippines and Sri Lanka. In these countries, women are a majority oI
migrants and many work abroad in services, including domestic work, health services
and entertainment. There are diIIerences in government policies toward women going
abroad to be domestic workers, ranging Irom liberal to highly regulated systems.
Countries such as Bangladesh and Pakistan ban the emigration oI unskilled Iemale
workers altogether.
190. The admission oI domestic workers usually occurs when rural-urban migration
declines and rising incomes and employment opportunities draw local women away
Irom work at home. But there are marked diIIerences among countries. While Singapore
in the 1980s sought to increase the labour Iorce participation oI women by opening the
door to Ioreign domestic workers, Japan did not.
75
In the Middle East, the admission oI
Ioreign domestic workers is not linked to the wage employment oI native women.
76

191. Working conditions oI domestic workers vary enormously. Some are treated as
members oI their employer`s Iamily, while others are exploited and subjected to
conditions which in some cases amount to virtual slavery and Iorced labour. Domestic
workers oIten have to work long or even excessive hours oI work (on average, 15-16
hours per day), with no rest days or compensation Ior overtime; they generally receive
low wages, and have inadequate health insurance coverage.
77
Domestic workers are also
exposed to physical and sexual harassment and violence and abuse, and are in some
cases trapped in situations in which they are physically or legally restrained Irom leaving
the employer`s home by means oI threats or actual violence, or by withholding oI pay or
identity documents.
78

192. Wage discrimination by nationality is experienced by domestic workers in most
countries in Asia and the Middle East. Filipinos generally earn the highest wages among
domestic workers, partly because oI their knowledge oI English and awareness oI local
laws and regulations. Most Indonesian and Sri Lankan maids do not receive the legal
minimum wage.
79
A similar pattern has been observed in the Middle East Ior domestic

74
E. Reyneri, 2001, op. cit., p. 37.
75
The 'side doors¨ opened Ior trainees and ethnic Japanese Irom Brazil and Peru conIined migrants largely to
manuIacturing and construction.
76
In the GulI States, most women who work are in government services, and married women in Kuwait aged 40
years or over can retire with Iull beneIits aIter 15 years oI employment; about 90 per cent oI Kuwaitis work Ior
the Government.
77
ILO: InIormation guide, op. cit., Booklet 4, 'Working and living abroad¨.
78
ILO: InIormation guide, op. cit.
79
N. Oishi: Women in motion. Globali:ation, state policies, and labor migration in Asia (StanIord University
Press, Iorthcoming).
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
60
workers: the ILO Bahrain study Iound that 'wages are determined according to the
nationality oI the Iemale domestic workers instead oI their experience¨.
80

193. In some countries, domestic workers are required to undergo compulsory periodic
pregnancy tests. II they test positive, they are immediately deported. Such tests are
prohibited by the Maternity Protection Convention, 2000 (No. 183). In Italy, a new
general national contract Ior domestic employment enacted on 8 March 2001, introduced
an important new provision against the dismissal oI pregnant women workers Irom the
moment oI pregnancy (the only exception being dismissal Ior lawIul cause).
194. The very nature oI domestic household work gives rise to complex protection
issues.
81
In many countries, labour, saIety, and other laws do not cover domestic
workers, so that there are no legal norms Ior their treatment or oIIices and inspectors to
enIorce them. Even iI they are protected by legislation, it can be very diIIicult Ior
domestic workers to learn about or beneIit Irom available protections, the result being
widespread violations oI protective labour laws.
(b) Migrant workers in irregular situations
195. Irregular migration results Irom a variety oI causes, as explained in Chapter 1.
Given their precarious legal position in the host country, irregular migrant workers easily
Iall prey to extortion and are highly vulnerable to abuse and exploitation by employers,
migration agents, corrupt bureaucrats and criminal gangs. According to the United
Nations OIIice oI the High Commissioner Ior Human Rights (UNOCHR): 'migrant
workers Iace the gravest risks to their human rights and Iundamental Ireedoms when
they are recruited, transported and employed in deIiance oI the law¨.
82
Women in an
irregular status are doubly vulnerable, owing to the high risk oI sexual exploitation to
which they are Irequently exposed. The basic human rights oI migrants in an irregular
status are thus oIten violated, despite the protection they should receive under the
general international human rights instruments ratiIied by most countries.
83

196. Even workers who enter a country legally Iall into illegal status as a result oI Ialse
inIormation given by recruiters or oI losing their jobs.
84
Fear oI detection and possible
deportation deters migrant workers Irom availing themselves oI even those services
oIIered to them. In short, they are not able to 'secure Ior themselves protection against
hazards to their health and saIety, join unions or organize themselves Ior collective

80
S. al-Najjar: Women migrant domestic workers in Bahrain (Geneva, ILO, International Migration Papers,
No. 47, 2002).
81
F.M. Ramirez-Machado, Domestic work, conditions of work and emplovment, op. cit.
82
UNOHCHR: The rights of migrant workers, human rights Fact Sheet No. 24, Geneva, United Nations, 1996.
83
P. Wickramasekara: Migrant workers in Asia and the Pacific. Issues in human rights and the principle of non-
discrimination, Paper prepared Ior the Asia-PaciIic Regional Seminar oI Experts in preparation Ior the World
ConIerence on Racism, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance, organized by the OHCHR, Bangkok, 5-7 September
2000.
84
M. Ellman and S. Laacher: Migrant workers in Israel A contemporarv form of slaverv, Report oI a joint
mission by the Euro-Mediterranean Human Rights Network and the International Federation Ior Human Rights
(Paris, 2003), available online at http://www.Iidh.org/magmoyen/rapport/2003/il1806a.pdI (accessed 10 Mar.
2004). The mission was alarmed to Iind that, oI approximately 300,000 Ioreign workers brought into Israel, more
than 65 per cent (over 200,000) are illegal, and that many migrant workers who go to Israel because they have
been promised a job discover upon arrival that no such job exists.
Conditions of work and treatment of migrant workers
61
bargaining, obtain Iair wages, ask Ior compensation in case oI injury or illness, or have
any security oI employment¨.
85

197. The PlatIorm Ior International Cooperation on Undocumented Migrants (PICUM)
sums up the European situation as Iollows:
Undocumented migrants residing in Europe are socially excluded and very vulnerable to
marginalization. Europe needs and makes use oI the labour oI undocumented migrants, but at
the same time is not willing to give any rewards Ior their contributions. Undocumented
migration is Iought in many ways, including by blocking access to basic social services. It is
alarming that there has been a tendency to criminalize undocumented migrants themselves
and penalize the social and humanitarian assistance that citizens and civil organizations oIIer
them.
86

198. The provisions in international instruments to curb irregular migration are
discussed in Chapter 4. II root causes are to be addressed, creation oI more legal
migration opportunities will be essential. The conclusions oI the ILO Asia Regional
Tripartite Meeting in Bangkok (30 June-2 July 2003) pointed out that easy and
transparent access to legal migration opportunities could be part oI an eIIective response
to the problem. At the ILO Workers` Consultation also, there was a strong view that
legal migration should be Iacilitated as a means oI combating traIIicking and irregular
movements.
87

199. The popular oIIicial response has been to intensiIy border controls and deportation
procedures 'more policing¨ instead oI 'better policies¨. Yet experience has shown that
these are oI limited eIIectiveness. As the United Nations Secretary-General succinctly
put it:
Few iI any States have actually succeeded in cutting migrant numbers by imposing such
controls. The laws oI supply and demand are too strong Ior that. Instead, immigrants are
driven to enter the country clandestinely, to overstay their visas, or to resort to the one legal
route still open to them, namely the asylum system.
88

He adds that such measures lead 'almost inevitably¨ to human rights violations. A recent
study oI unauthorized migration in Iour South-East Asian countries comes to similar
conclusions: '|...| experience shows that this approach |keeping our borders tightly
guarded| has not succeeded in keeping all unwanted persons out. It does succeed in
rendering many unauthorized persons who Iorm the backbone in some sectors
without protection Irom insecurity and abuse.¨
89

200. Another disturbing trend highlighted by the United Nations Special Rapporteur on
Human Rights oI Migrants is the practice oI administrative detention instead oI recourse

85
M. Abella: Protecting temporarv migrant workers. Challenge for moderni:ing States in Asia, Paper presented
at the Workshop on International Migration and Labour Markets in Asia, 28-29 January 1999, Tokyo.
86
PICUM: Book of Solidaritv Jolume/01. Providing assistance to undocumented migrants in Belgium,
Germanv, the Netherlands and the UK, Brussels, 2002.
87
ILO: Regional Tripartite Meeting, Summarv of conclusions, op. cit.; Report oI the Workers` Consultation on
Migrant Workers, op. cit.
88
K. Annan: Emma Lazarus Lecture on International Flows oI Humanity, Columbia University, New York,
21 Nov. 2003.
89
G. Battistella and M.M.B. Asis (eds.): Unauthori:ed migration in Southeast Asia (Quezon City, Philippines,
Scalabrini Migration Center, 2003).
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
62
to judicial processes.
90
Contrary to international norms, there have recently been mass
deportations oI undocumented migrant workers in some Asian and AIrican countries,
causing serious violations oI human rights in the process. Many migrant holding centres
are overcrowded and unhygienic and conditions oI detention do not respect international
norms, standards and principles, and inhumane or degrading treatment oI migrants is not
uncommon.
91

(c) Trafficked persons
201. TraIIicking oI human beings represents a violation oI the Iundamental rights and
core labour standards enshrined in the ILO Declaration those relating to Iorced labour,
discrimination and Ireedom oI association, and not inIrequently also child labour.
92
It
constitutes an antithesis oI any notion oI decent work. The consequences are that:
... the traIIicking victim will be at the mercy oI the traIIickers and, Iar Irom being able to Iind
work to begin to build a better Iuture, will be Iorced to labour to pay oII debts, as a result oI
Iear oI disclosure, violence or reprisals. This labour is likely to be perIormed without a
contract, time oII, insurance, access to health or social security services or pay, and oIten Ior
long hours in the kind oI work too oIten reserved Ior low-skilled migrant workers: in
sweatshops, agriculture, construction work, domestic service, Iood processing or labour-
intensive manuIacturing and, oI course, Ior women and older girls, in commercial sex. Such
exploitation is at the heart oI traIIicking.
93

202. According to the ILO Global Report on Iorced labour: 'The recent rise in labour
traIIicking may basically be attributed to imbalances between labour supply and the
availability oI legal work in a place where the jobseeker is legally entitled to reside¨.
94

Smuggling occurs because borders have become barriers between jobseekers and job
oIIers. TraIIicking occurs not only when borders are barriers to labour supplies meeting
demands, but when no knowledge is available about proper migration channels, when
employment is itselI illegal and/or underground, and where conditions oI work below the
legal minimum are tolerated or ignored.
95

203. Those who recruit people to be traIIicked oIten create the conditions Ior Iorced
labour by entering into loan agreements with migrants and putting them into debt
bondage, by Iacilitating undocumented (or Ialsely documented) migration, so that
migrants are vulnerable to threats oI deportation, or by giving them Ialse inIormation on
the nature or place oI work they are going to. Victims oI traIIicking may be in economic
sectors where they are hard to detect, such as agriculture, domestic service and sex work.
204. As with child labour, there has been a substantial degree oI convergence at the
international level on combating traIIicking, with a number oI countries taking action.

90
United Nations Commission on Human Rights: Specific groups and individuals. Migrant workers, Report oI
the Special Rapporteur (Geneva, doc. E/CN.4/2003/85, 30 Dec. 2002).
91
ibid. See also: Asia MetaCentre Ior Population and Sustainable Development Analysis: Health consequences
of population changes in Asia. What are the issues?, Research Paper Series, No. 6 (Singapore, 2002).
92
ILO: Stopping forced labour, Report oI the Director-General, Report IB, Global Report under the Iollow-up to
the ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work, International Labour ConIerence, 89th
Session, Geneva, 2001.
93
ILO: Trafficking in human beings. New approaches to combating the problem, Geneva, Special Action
Programme to Combat Forced Labour (Geneva, 2003).
94
ILO: Stopping forced labour, op. cit., p. 53.
95
ibid.
Conditions of work and treatment of migrant workers
63
The international legal Iramework has been strengthened by the ILO Declaration and the
United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and the related
Palermo Protocol.
96
A number oI agencies including the International Organization Ior
Migration have been actively assisting countries in combating traIIicking.
97
The United
States in 2000 enacted the TraIIicking Victims Protection Act that mandated the State
Department to produce an annual report assessing the eIIorts oI governments around the
world to meet minimum standards in combating traIIicking. Economic sanctions may be
imposed on countries that do not take measures to combat traIIicking eIIectively. There
has also been considerable international cooperation between other source and
destination countries. Australia`s Department oI Immigration and Multicultural and
Indigenous AIIairs, Ior example, has an extensive system oI compliance and
enIorcement within the country. Australia was also co-organizer oI the Regional
Ministerial ConIerence on People Smuggling, TraIIicking in Persons and Related
Transnational Crime in Bali in 2002. In cooperation with UNICEF and international
NGOs, the Government oI Japan held the Second World Congress against Commercial
Sexual Exploitation oI Children in December 2001.
205. There are also a number oI anti-traIIicking activities in Europe. Iceland, Ior
example, which is part oI the Nordic-Baltic Campaign Against TraIIicking in Women,
carries out public inIormation campaigns about traIIicking, and also advises women who
apply to come to Iceland as 'dancers¨, inIorming them oI their legal rights. Many States
(Ior example, Belgium, the Netherlands, Spain and the United States) have adopted
legislation that allows victims oI traIIicking to stay temporarily in the country, some on
grounds oI social protection (as in Italy) or, more generally, on condition that victims
collaborate actively in the prosecution oI traIIickers. Also in Europe, in 2002 a proposal
was submitted Ior a Council Directive on a short-term residence permit issued to victims
oI smuggling or traIIicking who cooperate with the competent authorities.
206. To date, most counter-traIIicking measures have Iocused on law enIorcement and
control measures. What is needed in the longer term is an eIIort to create productive
employment in countries oI origin, and access to legal migration channels to match
labour market needs in destination countries. A comprehensive response Iramework
must cover the Iollowing elements: treating traIIicking as a distinct crime; addressing the
root causes oI supply and demand; promoting a standards-based approach and measures
to protect the human rights oI all workers, supported by adequate legal Irameworks and
eIIective enIorcement; work towards more regulated, orderly and humane labour
migration systems; and mobilization oI all social actors.
98


96
P. Taran and G. Moreno-Fontes: Getting at the roots. Stopping exploitation of migrant workers bv organi:ed
crime, Paper prepared Ior an International Symposium on the United Nations Convention against Transnational
Organized Crime, Turin, 22-23 February 2002 (Geneva, ILO, 2002).
97
IOM: Trafficking in migrants. IOM policv and responses (Geneva, 2001), available at http://www.iom.int/en/
who/main¸policies¸traIIicking.shtml (accessed 10 Mar. 2004).
98
See ILO: Preventing discrimination, exploitation and abuse of women migrant workers. An information guide,
Booklet 6 'TraIIicking oI women and girls¨, Gender Promotion Programme, Geneva. Anti-Slavery International:
The migration-trafficking nexus. Combating trafficking through the protection of migrants human rights,
London, Nov. 2003.
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
64
3.6. Occupational safety and health issues
207. There are two aspects oI health issues Ior migrant workers: (a) occupational saIety
and health (OSH) at the workplace; and (b) general health conditions oI the workers and
their Iamilies. These are closely interrelated. OSH is an important issue Ior migrant
workers Ior several reasons.
99
Firstly, migrant workers tend to be employed in high-risk
sectors;
100
secondly, language and cultural barriers require speciIic OSH communication,
instructions and training approaches; and thirdly, many oI these workers overwork
and/or suIIer Irom poor general health and are thereIore particularly prone to
occupational injuries and work-related diseases.
208. Out-migration or international migration oIten results in increased levels oI
precariousness and higher risk oI adverse health outcomes.
101
Occupational accident
rates are about twice as high Ior migrant workers as Ior native workers in Europe, and
there is no reason to believe that the situation is any diIIerent in other parts oI the
world.
102
Many migrants, especially seasonal migrants, are placed in high-risk, low-pay
jobs with poor supervision. Linguistic obstacles, lack oI Iamiliarity with modern
machinery, and diIIerent attitudes to saIety are all Iactors that increase work-related risks.
Migrant workers oIten accept these dangerous working conditions Ior Iear oI bringing
attention to themselves and losing their jobs or being deported.
209. The conclusions oI the ILO Tripartite Meeting on Migration in Asia succinctly
sums up the situation:
103

SaIety and health issues Ior migrant workers are a major concern as they may be involved in
hazardous and risky jobs. Language barriers, exposure to new technology, Iamily disruption,
poor access to healthcare and stress and violence, are the speciIic problems Iaced by migrant
workers leading to higher vulnerability to saIety and health risks at the workplace.
210. The ILO report on standards-related activities in OSH
104
highlighted the need Ior
strategies to take account oI the increased vulnerability oI certain groups such as women,
older workers and migrant workers. The related survey Iound that speciIic OSH
measures Ior migrant workers and older workers were less prevalent than Ior other
categories oI workers.

99
For a general reIerence on the issue, see ILO: Safetv and health of migrant workers. International Svmposium
(Occupational SaIety and Health Series, 1983); article on 'Migrant and seasonal Iarm workers¨, ILO
Encvclopaedia of occupational health and safetv, 4th edition (1998), Vol. 3.
100
The ILO regards agriculture, mining, construction and inIormal sector work areas where migrants are
concentrated as 'especially hazardous¨.
101
ILO: ILO standards-related activities in the area of occupational safetv and health. An in-depth studv for
discussion with a view to the elaboration of a plan of action for such activities, Report VI, International Labour
ConIerence, 91st Session, Geneva, 2003.
102
S. Braunschweig and M. Carballo: Health and human rights of migrants, Geneva, World Health Organization
and International Centre Ior Migration and Health, Geneva, 2001.
103
ILO: Summarv of conclusions, ILO Regional Tripartite Meeting on Challenges to Labour Migration Policy
and Management in Asia, 30 June-2 July 2003, Bangkok.
104
ILO: ILO standards-related activities in the area of occupational safetv and health, op. cit.
Conditions of work and treatment of migrant workers
65
211. According to one report on the United States, 'Migrant Iarm workers have a third-
world health status, although they live and work in one oI the richest nations on
earth¨.
105
It also states that:
Poverty; Irequent mobility; low literacy; language, cultural and logistic barriers impede Iarm
workers` access to social services and cost-eIIective primary health care. Economic pressure
makes Iarm workers reluctant to miss work when it is available. In addition, they are not
protected by sick leave, and risk losing their jobs iI they miss a day oI work. These
circumstances cause Iarm workers to postpone seeking health care unless their condition
becomes so severe that they cannot work.
A survey oI Iarm worker health issues concluded that migrant Iarm workers have
diIIerent and more complex health problems than Irom those oI the general population,
and that they also suIIer more Irequently Irom inIectious diseases.
106

212. Temporary workers, and in particular migrants in an irregular status, are oIten
unable to access social security beneIits such as health insurance and employment injury
coverage.
107
In addition, they oIten resist seeking medical treatment because oI the cost,
inability to take time oII work, lack oI childcare, and problems oI transportation. Many
are unIamiliar with the local health-care systems and may have linguistic or cultural
diIIiculties in communicating their problems. These problems are compounded Ior
irregular migrants and traIIicked persons.
213. In a number oI countries, there is also stereotyping oI migrant workers as a 'threat¨
to public health and as disease carriers without any solid evidence. This leads to Iurther
discrimination.
214. As reported in the ILM Survey, temporary or guest workers in Canada, Ior example,
may have to pay a small Iee Ior medical consultations, while irregular workers would not
normally have access to public health Iacilities, although they would not be denied
emergency treatment. In New Zealand, although the system is under review, people who
do not expect to stay Ior more than two years are not entitled to Iree treatment and would
have to pay Ior emergency care. In Mexico, irregular migrants would be allowed
treatment only in an emergency. In other countries, such as Portugal, the provision oI
health Iacilities Ior migrants depends on a reciprocal arrangement with the source
country. In the United States, it is estimated that Iewer than 20 per cent oI all migrant
Iarm workers have access to quality health care.
108

215. Migrant workers and members oI their Iamilies Iace higher risks oI HIV/AIDS
inIection than the stationary population but oIten Iace restricted access to disease
prevention, detection and treatment.
109
Those employed in mining, seasonal agriculture,
temporary work or migratory trade, who have to live away Irom spouses and partners
and work in geographically isolated areas with limited health-care Iacilities, are

105
National Center Ior Farmworker Health: Facts about farmworkers, Buda, Texas, 2004, available online at
http://www.ncIh.org/Iactsheets.shtml (accessed 10 Mar. 2004).
106
ibid. See also Migrant Health Issues, Monographs 1-10, produced Ior the National Advisory Council on
Migrant Health by the National Center Ior Farmworker Health, Inc., Buda, Texas, 2001.
107
On the issue oI social security coverage Ior migrant workers, see Ch. 4.
108
C. Beck: 'Migrant Iarm workers under the new regime¨, in Human Rights Brief (Washington, DC, American
University, Center Ior Human Rights and Humanitarian Law), Vol. 5(1), 1997, available online at
http://www.wcl.american.edu/hrbrieI/v5i1/html/migrant.htm (accessed 9 Mar. 2004).
109
ILO: Meeting Report 3, Technical workshop on population mobility, migration and HIV/AIDS, held in
Geneva on 18 March 2002.
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
66
particularly at risk. The problems are compounded where they Iace discrimination or
where there is a general lack oI respect Ior human rights.
110

216. Migrants are oIten concentrated in poor areas with substandard housing.
Temporary and seasonal migrants Iace serious housing problems and tend to cluster in
makeshiIt accommodation or in shanty towns. There is a vicious circle linking poor
housing, hazardous working conditions and social disruption, and the spread oI disease
among migrant workers.
111
One study in South AIrica has Iound that migrant workers
and their partners are about twice as likely to be inIected with HIV as non-migrant
couples.
112
According to the World Economic Forum, almost 5 per cent oI (internal)
migrant workers in China and India are HIV-inIected.
113
While Filipinos working and
living abroad constitute 10 per cent oI the Philippine population, 28 per cent oI the total
number oI reported HIV/AIDS cases are among migrant workers.
114

217. The ILO code oI practice on HIV/AIDS and the world oI work provides important
guidelines on the development oI workplace policies and programmes on HIV/AIDS.
115

While the code recognizes the workplace as a major entry point in the Iight against
HIV/AIDS, with trade unions and employers playing an important role, the Iact that
migrant workers are oIten not allowed to join trade unions and participate in their
activities can be considered an obstacle to the campaign Ior health and saIety. There are
positive initiatives among some large multinational corporations to ensure aIIordable and
accessible health care Ior migrant workers and their Iamilies. Box 3.1 highlights the role
oI the Global Business Coalition on HIV/AIDS.
Box 3.1
GIobaI Business CoaIition on HIV/AIDS
The Global Business Coalition (GBC) on HÌV/AÌDS is a rapidly expanding alliance of
more than 130 international businesses ÷ with over 4 million employees in 178 countries ÷
dedicated to combating the AÌDS epidemic through the business sector's unique skills and
expertise. Many leading global companies are now members. Activities include:
‰ implementing prevention and care programmes and policies for employees and
immediate communities ÷ in many countries company programmes will be the only
source of accurate HÌV information available to employees;
‰ bringing business core strengths of creativity and flexibility to improve the reach and
effectiveness of AÌDS programmes ÷ the marketing, communication, distribution and
logistics skills of businesses are already strengthening the impact of many AÌDS
programmes around the world;
‰ leadership and advocacy by business leaders, lobbying for greater action and
partnerships with governments and civil society. The GBC has joined the Business
Sector Delegation to the Global Fund on AÌDS, Malaria and TB to lobby
governments and United Nations agencies to find innovative ways of collaborating
with business using the sector's expertise and creativity.
Source: http://www.businessfightsaids.org/default.asp

110
S. Braunschweig and M. Carballo, op. cit.
111
ibid.
112
ibid.
113
World Economic Forum: Scenarios. The global HIJ-AIDS crisis, Annual Meeting, Davos, 2003, available
online at http://www.weIorum.org/pdI/Initiatives/GHI¸2003¸HIVAIDS¸Scenario.pdI (accessed 9 Mar. 2004).
114
World Economic Forum: Join the fight against AIDS in the Philippines, available online at
http://www.weIorum.org/pdI/Initiatives/Philippines¸menu¸1.pdI (accessed 10 Mar. 2004).
115
ILO: HIJ/AIDS and the world of work, ILO code oI practice, Geneva, 2001.
Conditions of work and treatment of migrant workers
67
3.7. Ìntegration of migrant workers in host countries
218. Poor integration oI migrants in host societies is highlighted by a number oI
indicators. First, the high unemployment rates oI migrant workers cited above show poor
labour market integration. Migrants are absorbed into employment at much lower levels
than would be warranted by their qualiIications and many countries Iail to recognize
their experience or skills. The incidence oI discrimination and xenophobia was discussed
in section 3.3. Second-generation migrants also Iace serious employment problems.
Migrants tend to be clustered in enclaves or 'ghettos¨, Iorced by economic
circumstances to live in poor housing areas (i.e. abandoned inner cities) and to
congregate because oI the need Ior mutual support. There is widespread stereotyping oI
migrants as criminals, 'scroungers¨, and a threat to public saIety and to health systems.
219. Integration is among the most diIIicult challenges raised by international migration
today. Finding workable balances between host community respect Ior diIIerence and
immigrant participation remains extremely diIIicult Ior most countries. The integration
policy dilemmas Iaced by many States are rarely separable Irom more general debates on
discrimination and race relations within host communities. SuccessIul integration will
also depend on success in curbing racism and xenophobia. The report oI the Workers`
Consultation points out that: 'Trade unions have a particularly important role in
Iacilitating migrant workers` integration, thanks to their presence at the workplace and
their democratic procedures. Failure to integrate migrants makes them prey to extremists
and threatens democracy¨.
116
The growth oI clandestine and irregular migration provides
Iodder Ior extremist political parties to push Ior restrictions. Strong border control is
oIten advocated as necessary Ior the acceptance oI racial, cultural or ethnic minorities by
the dominant culture. Temporary status Ior reIugees or guest workers, Ior example, is not
conducive to integration. In many countries, access to citizenship is a lengthy,
sometimes almost impossible, process and might not necessarily prove to be in the best
interests oI either the migrants or the host community. Integration is, however, one
approach Ior migrants to realize Iull legal protection Ior their Iundamental human rights.
220. While temporary guest worker programmes are again growing in number and
dimensions in Europe, and while in Asia the growth oI migration over the past two
decades has been almost entirely in the Iorm oI short-term contract labour, the reality is
that some employers become dependent on Ioreign workers. Similarly, once Ioreign
workers have worked Ior some time in a destination country, Iamily and social ties are
established and deepened in the new land. While incentives may encourage some
workers to return to their own countries, conditions in both home and host countries
compel many migrants including those admitted under temporary programmes to
stay Ior extended periods. The challenge is to ensure that those who stay become
productive participants in destination countries. Whether or not they are integrated
depends on the policies adopted. The alternative, already Iaced today in a number oI
European countries and elsewhere, is marginalization oI entire communities into
increasingly isolated ghettos and perceived crises that may threaten social cohesion. The
EU has adopted a number oI initiatives to promote integration (see box 3.2).

116
ILO: Report oI the Workers` Consultation on Migrant Workers, op. cit.
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
68
Box 3.2
Integration of third country nationaIs in the European Union
Ìn October 1999, at the European Council meeting in Tampere (Finland), the leaders
of the European Union called for a common immigration policy which would include more
dynamic strategies to ensure the integration of third-country nationals legally resident in
the Union. At their meeting in Thessaloniki in June 2003, the Council set out a strategy
for the development of a comprehensive and multidimensional policy on integration for
the Union based on the principle, agreed at Tampere, of granting legal immigrants rights
and obligations comparable to those of EU citizens.
The Council mapped out a holistic policy, which takes into account not only the
economic and social aspects of integration, but also issues related to cultural and
religious diversity, citizenship, participation and political rights ÷ planned within a long-
term, coherent and overall framework. The Council emphasized that the policy must be
responsive to gender, to the specific needs of particular groups and to local conditions,
and stressed that its effectiveness depended on the establishment of partnerships
between a wide range of stakeholders together with the provision of adequate resources.
Ìn its Communication on Ìmmigration, Ìntegration and Employment of June 2003, the
European Commission made proposals for reinforcing integration at both EU and
national level with respect to the main areas of this holistic policy, which were defined as:
‰ integration into the labour market;
‰ access to education and language skills;
‰ access to housing and comprehensive urban and regional planning;
‰ access to health and social services;
‰ active involvement and participation in civil life;
‰ nationality, civic citizenship and respect for diversity.
Ìntegration into the labour market is seen as a key element in EU integration policy.
The European employment guidelines for 2003 have, accordingly, been revised to
require Member States to implement measures and set targets to ensure the integration
into the labour market of migrant workers, to reduce the unemployment gap with
nationals, and to tackle more effectively the transformation of undeclared work into legal
employment. Ìntegration measures are already supported by a range of EU policies and
programmes notably in the field of social cohesion, anti-discrimination and via the
Structural Funds. Financial support was strengthened by the introduction in 2003 of a
specific programme of pilot projects on the integration of migrants. Ìn addition a number
of steps are being taken at EU level to promote the exchange of information and good
practice between Member States with respect to integration policy with a view to
improving integration policy and, in the longer term, defining common objectives. The
Commission is also reviewing the concept of civic citizenship as a means of promoting
integration within the framework of the Charter of Fundamental Rights, since most of its
provisions are applicable to all persons, irrespective of their nationality. The Commission
acknowledges that naturalization in itself can promote integration and it is, therefore,
promoting the exchange of information and best practice in relation to Member State's
nationality laws.
Source: European Commission.
221. The social partners play a key role in integration. On the basis oI the experience oI
social partner organizations in Belgium, Ireland, the United Kingdom, the United States
and other countries, the ILO has Iacilitated the development oI a methodology Ior
promoting integration in workplaces. The approach recognizes that integration requires
deliberate, multiple and sequential steps by both immigrants and host institutions and
individuals over time.
Conditions of work and treatment of migrant workers
69
3.8. Preliminary conclusions
222. Migrants oIten Iace multiple disadvantages. As temporary workers they oIten have
limited legal rights. Most can only Iind employment in sectors where wages are
squeezed because producers are in highly competitive end oI global production chains.
Trends towards more Ilexible employment relationships, gender discrimination, abuses
in recruitment and irregular status compound these disadvantages, and have led to the
greater vulnerability oI most migrant workers. Governments have a responsibility to
comply with the equal treatment pledges in their constitutions and international treaties.
Much needs to be done to ensure the equal treatment oI migrants, especially those most
liable to abusive situations such as domestic workers, and to minimize their exploitation,
Iorced labour, smuggling, and traIIicking.
223. There are best practices which can inspire improvements in working conditions Ior
migrants, including having competent institutions to supervise recruitment and migration,
encouraging migrants to sign contracts whose provisions have been approved by
competent national authorities, including migrants workers under work-related health
programmes, and establishing specialized agencies to monitor and seek to reduce
discrimination. Workers` organizations have networked to provide greater protection to
migrant workers, and also adopted an action plan against racism and discrimination. In
several countries, private businesses have taken the initiative to improve their housing
and living conditions and health care.
224. The complexity oI the issues means that responses have to be comprehensive and
multi-pronged, based on the one hand on international norms, and on the other on a
better understanding oI economic Iorces at play which shape working conditions in
diIIerent sectors. A sound Iramework Ior improving the conditions oI employment oI
migrant workers will need to draw on multilateral or inter-state cooperation, good
governance, labour market regulation, joint liability oI subcontractors and enterprises or
employers, appropriate laws and their enIorcement, and eIIective mobilization oI social
partners and other concerned agencies. The next chapter reviews the scope oI
international instruments and their relevance.

71
*12#&"%'6'
InternationaI reguIation of migrant workers
and migration
4.1. Ìntroductory remarks
225. International regulation and guidance are an essential Ioundation Ior national
legislation, policy and practices which are required to address eIIectively the issues
raised in previous chapters. Indeed, a large array oI international standards already exists
to provide parameters Ior the regulation oI international migration in such a way as to
contribute towards strengthening the rule oI law. Several complementary instruments
oIIer relevant standards in areas such as human rights, labour, criminal law and reIugees.
The current regulatory system is multi-layered, reIlecting eIIorts to protect migrant
workers` rights and address problems related to migration at the multilateral, regional,
bilateral and national levels. As will be examined below, the ILO has a comprehensive
system oI standards coupled with a unique tripartite supervisory mechanism, including
scrutiny by independent legal experts.
226. Among the abovementioned standards, the ILO has adopted two Conventions and
two Recommendations addressing most migrant workers` concerns. Following a review
oI these instruments in the context oI the ILO`s examination oI the need Ior revision oI
ILO standards,
1
the Governing Body concluded that Iurther inIormation was required in
order to determine the status oI these instruments and whether they required revision. As
a result, a detailed examination oI these Iour instruments was carried out in 1998
2
and
discussed at the 87th Session oI the International Labour ConIerence in 1999, where a
lack oI consensus on Iuture directions Ior these instruments became clear.
3
It was
thereIore agreed that a general discussion should be held at a Iuture session oI the
ConIerence, including on the possible need Ior additional standard-setting activities in
this area.
227. Against this background, the Iollowing examination Iocuses on developments since
1999 and is aimed at providing Iurther inIormation on whether current international
standards including, but not limited to, the Iour comprehensive ILO instruments Iully
address the problems Iacing migrant workers in the current political context oI

1
Carried out by the Governing Body Irom 1995 to 2002 and based on the work oI the Working Party on Policy
regarding the Revision oI Standards oI the Committee on Legal Issues and International Labour Standards.
2
In the Iorm oI a General Survey based on reports requested Irom member States pursuant to article 19 oI the
ILO Constitution. See ILO: General Survev on migrant workers, Report III(1B), International Labour
ConIerence, 87th Session, Geneva, 1999 (subsequently reIerred to as General Survey, 1999).
3
ILO: Report of the Committee on the Application of Standards, International Labour ConIerence, 87th Session,
Geneva, 1999, paras. 134-175.
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
72
international migration. In this examination account is taken not only oI the Iour speciIic
ILO instruments but also oI other relevant ILO standards, as well as other international
regulatory systems, in particular those developed within the United Nations.
4.2. Current international regulation
Ìnstruments developed by the ÌLO
228. Instruments relevant to migrant workers include the speciIic Conventions Nos. 97
and 143 and their accompanying Recommendations, and the ILO`s instruments on
Iundamental principles and rights as well as in principle all other ILO standards.
229. According to the 1998 ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at
Work and its Follow-up ('the 1998 Declaration¨), all ILO member States have an
obligation arising Irom the very Iact oI membership oI the Organization to respect, to
promote and to realize, in good Iaith and in accordance with the Constitution, Iour
categories oI principles and rights at work, even iI they have not ratiIied the Conventions
to which they reIer: Ireedom oI association and the eIIective recognition oI the right to
collective bargaining; the elimination oI all Iorms oI Iorced or compulsory labour; the
eIIective abolition oI child labour; and the elimination oI discrimination in respect oI
employment and occupation. The Iundamental principles and rights at work are universal
and applicable to all people in all States, regardless oI the level oI economic
development. They thus apply to all migrant workers without distinction, whether they
are temporary or permanent migrant workers, or whether they are regular migrants or
migrants in an irregular situation. In addition, the 1998 Declaration makes speciIic
reIerence to groups with special needs, speciIically including migrant workers.
230. The recognition oI the special status oI these Iundamental principles and rights has
evolved over the past ten to 15 years, and they are the essence oI the eight 'core¨ ILO
Conventions, which express in more detail and in a Iormal legal structure the scope and
content oI these Iundamental principles and rights. The ILO`s campaign Ior the universal
ratiIication oI these instruments has been very successIul, and the levels oI ratiIications
oI these Conventions have soared over the past decade. All these standards, which cover
migrant workers along with all other workers, are thus binding on a large majority oI
ILO member States.
Fundamental principles and rights at work
Freedom oI association and collective bargaining
231. The Freedom oI Association and Protection oI the Right to Organise Convention,
1948 (No. 87),
4
and the Right to Organise and Collective Bargaining Convention, 1949
(No. 98),
5
are the two basic Conventions that deal with Ireedom oI association.
Convention No. 87 guarantees the right, Ireely exercised, oI workers and employers,
without distinction, to organize Ior Iurthering and deIending their interests. Convention
No. 98 protects workers and employers who exercise the right to organize, Iorbids
interIerence in the activities oI workers` and employers` organizations and promotes
voluntary collective bargaining. Representation and a voice at work are important means

4
142 ratiIications as at 12 Feb. 2004.
5
154 ratiIications as at 12 Feb. 2004.
Ìnternational regulation of migrant workers and migration
73
through which migrant workers can secure other labour rights and improve their working
conditions.
232. The denial oI trade union rights and anti-union discrimination against migrant
workers, even those in an irregular situation,
6
by countries that have ratiIied these
Conventions has been the subject oI comments by the Committee oI Experts on the
Application oI Conventions and Recommendations (CEACR) and by the Committee on
Freedom oI Association (CFA), which have repeatedly reaIIirmed the Iundamental rights
oI workers, including migrants, to Iorm and join trade unions and to be protected against
any act oI discrimination on the grounds oI trade union activities.
233. According to the CEACR, provisions on nationality that are too strict run the risk
oI depriving some workers oI the right to elect their representatives in Iull Ireedom, Ior
example migrant workers, in sectors where they account Ior a signiIicant proportion oI
the workIorce. National legislation should also allow Ioreign workers to take up trade
union oIIice, at least aIter a reasonable period oI residence in the host country.
7

Abolition oI Iorced labour
234. The ILO has deIined the incidence oI Iorced labour in relation to migrant workers,
particularly as a result oI cross-border traIIicking, as a major area oI concern.
8
Practice
shows that migrant workers in an irregular situation are more at risk oI being lured into
situations oI Iorced labour, including traIIicking, and the illegal exaction oI Iorced
labour oIten implies an irregular status oI the migrant worker concerned, whether this is
due to his or her irregular or undocumented entry or stay, or to the illegal employment
situation oI the worker. The Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (No. 29),
9
and the
Abolition oI Forced Labour Convention, 1957 (No. 105),
10
prohibit Iorced and
compulsory labour oI all persons, irrespective oI the type or location oI their economic
activity. On several occasions, the ILO supervisory bodies have expressed increased
concern about the illegal exaction oI Iorced labour, including debt bondage oI migrant
workers in agricultural and non-agricultural sectors, and traIIicking oI men and women
migrant workers in agriculture, the sex industry and domestic service.
11
They have also

6
With respect to migrant workers in an irregular situation, the Committee on Freedom oI Association considered
that Article 2 oI Convention No. 87 'recognize|d| the right oI workers, without distinction whatsoever, to establish
and join organizations oI their own choosing without previous authorization. The only permissible exception to
Convention No. 87 |was| that set out in Article 9 concerning the armed Iorces and the police¨. (ILO: 327th Report of
the Committee on Freedom of Association, Governing Body, 283rd Session, Geneva, March 2002, GB.283/8, para.
561.) In the HoIIman case, in contrast with the Ioregoing case, it was not questioned that migrant workers in an
irregular situation should enjoy the Iundamental right to Ireedom oI association. What was at stake concerned the
remedial measures available in cases oI illegal dismissals oI undocumented workers in order to ensure eIIective
protection against acts oI anti-union discrimination. (ILO: 332nd Report of the Committee on Freedom of
Association, Governing Body, 288th Session, Geneva, November 2003, GB.288/7 (Part II), Case No. 2227).
7
ILO: Freedom of association and collective bargaining. General Survev, Report III (Part 4B), International
Labour ConIerence, 81st Session, 1994, para. 118.
8
See in particular, ILO: Stopping forced labour, Report oI the Director-General, Report IB, International Labour
ConIerence, 89th Session, Geneva, 2001.
9
163 ratiIications as at 12 Feb. 2004.
10
161 ratiIications as at 12 Feb. 2004.
11
Concerned at the increase in traIIicking oI men, women and children Ior purposes oI Iorced labour in areas
such as domestic service, agriculture, Iactory work and the sex sector, the CEACR in 2001 adopted a general
observation concerning labour traIIicking under Convention No. 29. ILO: Report of the Committee of Experts on
the Application of Conventions and Recommendations, Report III (Part 1A) |subsequently reIerred to as CEACR
Report|, International Labour ConIerence, 89th Session, Geneva, 2001, p. 119).
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
74
expressed concern about the absence oI penal sanctions or insuIIicient penal protection
with respect to Iorced labour practices involving migrant workers. Such practices have
included, Ior example, the use by employers oI excessive power over migrant workers in
an irregular situation, in particular domestic workers; the retention or non-payment oI
wages; contract substitution and retention oI passports; long working hours and physical
violence.
12
The absence or inadequacy oI measures taken, including legislation, against
the traIIicking oI women and children into Iorced prostitution, or Iorced labour in
agriculture abroad, also remain indications oI the lack oI commitment or institutional
capacity to address the issue seriously.
Elimination oI child labour
235. The elimination oI child labour is covered by the Minimum Age Convention, 1973
(No. 138),
13
and the Worst Forms oI Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182).
14

Convention No. 138 prescribes speciIic age limits Ior the admission oI children to work,
including a prohibition on children under 18 years oI age engaging in hazardous work.
Convention No. 182 calls Ior 'immediate and eIIective measures to secure the
prohibition and elimination oI the worst Iorms oI child labour as a matter oI urgency¨,
and deIines the worst Iorms oI child labour as comprising: (a) slavery and Iorced labour,
including child traIIicking and Iorced recruitment Ior armed conIlict; (b) child
prostitution and pornography; (c) production and traIIicking oI drugs; and (d) work
likely to harm the health, saIety or morals oI children. As to the exact types oI work to
be prohibited as hazardous work under category (d), the Convention leaves the matter to
national determination aIter consultation with employers` and workers` organizations
and taking into consideration relevant international standards. These instruments are
backed up by the International Programme on the Elimination oI Child Labour (IPEC).
Problems related to work carried out by migrant worker children are being addressed in
this context. Comments by the supervisory bodies on migrant child labour have mainly
been issued under Convention No. 29 and relate to the lack oI penal sanctions addressing
practices such as the traIIicking oI children into prostitution, domestic service,
agriculture and vending; the use oI children as camel jockeys; and the Iorced labour oI
migrant children in plantations.
Equality oI opportunity and treatment
236. The Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention, 1958 (No. 111),
15

requires ratiIying States to declare and pursue a national policy aimed at promoting
equality oI opportunity and treatment and eliminating all Iorms oI discrimination in
employment and occupation based on race, colour, sex, religion, political opinion,
national extraction and social origin. In addition, States parties to the Equal

12
See, inter alia, ILO: Report of the Committee on the Application of Standards, International Labour
ConIerence, 88th-91st Sessions, Geneva, 2000-03.
13
131 ratiIications as at 12 Feb. 2004.
14
147 ratiIications as at 12 Feb. 2004. Convention No. 182 was adopted only recently, but both this Convention
and Convention No. 138 have received a large number oI new ratiIications in the past Iew years. The ILO
supervisory system is thus in the early stages oI monitoring the implementation oI these instruments in many
countries oI the world.
15
159 ratiIications as at 12 Feb. 2004.
Ìnternational regulation of migrant workers and migration
75
Remuneration Convention, 1951 (No. 100),
16
have agreed to pursue a policy oI equal
remuneration Ior work oI equal value between men and women workers.
237. The Conventions apply to nationals and non-nationals alike without distinction oI
status. Nationality is not listed among the grounds oI discrimination Iormally prohibited
by Convention No. 111. However, the supervisory bodies have Irequently reaIIirmed
17

that migrant workers are protected by this instrument in so Iar as they are victims oI
discrimination in employment and occupation on the basis oI any oI the abovementioned
prohibited grounds oI discrimination.
18
Concerning Convention No. 100, national
migration studies and statistics have shown that wage discrepancies exist between male
and Iemale migrants, irrespective oI their legal status.
19

Standards specificallv concerning migrant workers
Comprehensive standards
238. The ILO has developed standards speciIically regarding migrant workers in two
diIIerent political contexts: Iirst, in 1949, in the aItermath oI the Second World War and,
second, in 1975, in the wake oI the 1973 oil crisis.
239. The 1949 instruments were prompted, inter alia, by the interest in Iacilitating the
movement oI surplus labour Irom Europe to other parts oI the world. The provisions oI
the Migration Ior Employment Convention (Revised), 1949 (No. 97),
20
and the
supplementing Migration Ior Employment Recommendation (Revised), 1949 (No. 86),
Iocus on the standards applicable to the recruitment oI migrants Ior employment and
their conditions oI work. By 1975 governments had become increasingly concerned
about unemployment and the increase in irregular migration. The Iocus shiIted Irom
Iacilitating the migration oI surplus labour to bringing migration Ilows under control.
This caused the ILO to adopt two new standards: the Migrant Workers (Supplementary
Provisions) Convention, 1975 (No. 143),
21
and the Migrant Workers Recommendation,
1975 (No. 151). These instruments were the Iirst multilateral attempt to deal with
irregular migrants and also to call Ior sanctions against 'traIIickers¨. Convention No.
143 reiterates that member States have a general obligation to respect the basic human
rights oI all migrant workers. It also provides that migrant workers should not only be
entitled to equal treatment (as provided Ior in Convention No. 97) but also to equality oI
opportunity, e.g. equality with regard to access to employment,
22
trade union rights,
cultural rights and individual and collective Ireedoms.

16
161 ratiIications as at 12 Feb. 2004.
17
See, inter alia, CEACR Report, International Labour ConIerence, 89th Session, Geneva, 2001, individual
observations concerning Conventions Nos. 97 and 111, pp. 369-374 and 493-495.
18
A proposal has been submitted to the ILO Governing Body to adopt a Protocol to Convention No. 111 that
would allow member States to accept Iormally additional grounds on which discrimination would be prohibited
and which would complement the ILO`s protection against discrimination. The grounds proposed include
nationality and state oI health. The inclusion oI a provision prohibiting discrimination on health grounds,
including HIV/AIDS, would give additional Iorce to the recently adopted ILO code oI practice on HIV/AIDS and
the world oI work. See Governing Body, 289th Session, Geneva, March 2004, GB.289/2, paras. 8-15.
19
See Ch. 3, para. 134 (including reIerences).
20
42 ratiIications as at 12 Feb. 2004.
21
18 ratiIications as at 12 Feb. 2004.
22
Recommendation No. 86 (supplementing Convention No. 97) already advocated equality oI treatment between
regular migrants and nationals with regard to admission to employment.
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
76
240. Both Conventions Nos. 97 and 143 cover issues concerning the whole migratory
process, including emigration, immigration and transit, and apply to persons who
migrate Irom one country to another with a view to being employed otherwise than on
their own account. With the exception oI Article 8 oI Convention No. 97 and to some
extent Part II oI Convention No. 143, the instruments do not make a distinction between
permanent or non-permanent migrants. The provisions in these instruments do not
depend on reciprocity and also cover reIugees and displaced persons in so Iar as they are
workers employed outside their home country.
23
Both Conventions
24
allow Ior
exceptions Irom their scope oI application,
25
namely seamen, Irontier workers, and
artistes and members oI the liberal proIessions who have entered the country on a short-
term basis. Convention No. 143 also excludes trainees and employees admitted
temporarily to carry out speciIic duties or assignments
26
Irom the coverage provided by
the general provisions oI Part II.
241. The ILO instruments advocate the development oI model contracts to govern the
situation oI migrant workers. Such a solution is included in article 22 oI the Model
Agreement on Temporary and Permanent Migration Ior Employment, including
Migration oI ReIugees and Displaced Persons, annexed to the Migration Ior
Employment Recommendation (Revised), 1949 (No. 86), which also provides, inter alia,
that bilateral agreements should include provisions concerning the equal treatment oI
migrants and nationals and appropriate arrangements Ior acquired rights in the area oI
social security.
242. Following its detailed examination in 1998 oI the instruments relating to migrant
workers, the CEACR concluded that the international context had changed and that there
were certain lacunae in these standards. As examples oI contextual changes, it cited the
declining role oI state leadership in the world oI work;
27
the Ieminization oI migration
Ior employment; the increase in temporary migration in place oI migration Ior permanent
settlement; the increase in illegal migration; and, Iinally, the development oI certain
means oI transport. In this context, some oI the provisions oI Convention No. 97,
including those regulating how to maintain migrant workers` health during ship transIers,
appeared to have lost their purpose. Furthermore, the CEACR concluded that
Conventions Nos. 97 and 143 did not deal with the elaboration and establishment oI a
national migration policy in consultation with employers` and workers` organizations,
within the Iramework oI overall national policy.
28
Whether these lacunae are suIIiciently
important to require additional instruments is open to question.
243. In terms oI problems in application and/or problems considered to be obstacles to
ratiIication oI the instruments,
29
governments most Irequently cited the Iollowing:
concerning Convention No. 97: Article 6 (equality oI treatment Ior Ioreign workers and
nationals) and Article 8 (maintenance oI residence rights Ior permanent migrant workers
in the event oI incapacity Ior work); and concerning Convention No. 143: Article 8

23
General Survey, 1999, op. cit., para. 101.
24
Under Article 11 oI Convention No. 143, the named categories are excluded Irom the scope oI Part II only.
25
See para. 251 below.
26
See para. 281.
27
Demonstrated, inter alia, by the increasing role oI private recruitment agencies. See Iurther para. 251 below.
28
See, however, Recommendation No. 151, Paragraph 1.
29
In reports submitted Ior the General Survey, 1999.
Ìnternational regulation of migrant workers and migration
77
(protection Ior lawIully admitted migrant workers in the event oI loss oI employment),
Article 10 (equality oI opportunity and treatment), and Article 14(a) (right oI migrant
workers to geographical and occupational mobility).
30

244. The CEACR also noted that certain diIIiculties in the application oI Conventions
Nos. 97 and 143 seemed to arise Irom misunderstandings oI obligations in certain oI
their provisions.
Social security
245. Migrant workers are conIronted with particular diIIiculties in the Iield oI social
security, as social security rights are usually related to periods oI employment,
contributions or residency. They run the risk oI losing entitlements to social security
beneIits in their country oI origin owing to their absence, and may at the same time
encounter restrictive conditions in the host country with regard to their coverage by the
national social security system. For migrant workers it is oI particular importance to: (1)
have the same access to coverage and entitlement to beneIits as nationals; (2) maintain
acquired rights when leaving the country (including the export oI beneIits); and (3)
beneIit Irom the accumulation oI rights acquired in diIIerent countries.
31

246. All current ILO social security standards deIine personal scope oI coverage
irrespective oI nationality
32
and almost all contain similar clauses on equality oI
treatment Ior nationals and Ioreign workers in the host country. However, the Equality oI
Treatment (Accident Compensation) Convention, 1925 (No. 19),
33
speciIically
establishes the right to equality oI treatment Ior Ioreign workers oI any other State which
has ratiIied the Convention, in respect oI workmen`s compensation Ior industrial
accidents. The Equality oI Treatment (Social Security) Convention, 1962 (No. 118),
34

provides Ior the right to equality oI treatment with regard to all nine branches oI social
security. For each oI the nine branches that it accepts, a State party to the Convention
undertakes to grant within its territory to nationals oI any other State that has ratiIied the
Convention equality oI treatment with its own nationals. The provisions in both
Conventions are thus dependent on reciprocity.
247. Other social security instruments also contain special non-discrimination clauses,
Ior example, the Social Security (Minimum Standards) Convention, 1952 (No. 102).
35

Part XI oI this Convention is entirely devoted to equality oI treatment oI non-national
residents. Article 68 oI Convention No. 102, which applies to all branches oI social
security, provides that nationals and non-nationals should have the same rights to social

30
In 2003, the types oI obstacles cited were diIIerent but relatively Iew responses were recorded on this issue.
See Annex I, section 3.1, Ior details.
31
Social security beneIits are traditionally divided into nine diIIerent branches: medical care, sickness beneIit,
unemployment beneIit, old-age beneIit, employment injury beneIit, Iamily beneIit, maternity beneIit, invalidity
beneIit and survivors` beneIit. For a detailed overview oI ILO instruments on social security, see M. Humblet and
R. Silva: Standards for the XXIst centurv Social securitv, Geneva, ILO, 2002, pp. 41-45.
32
Their applicability to migrant workers is demonstrated, inter alia, by the Iact that the ILO supervisory bodies
have made speciIic reIerence to migrant workers in the context oI their regular supervision: Ior example, with
respect to application oI the Employment Injury BeneIits Convention, 1964 |Schedule I amended in 1980|
(No. 121), and oI the Medical Care and Sickness BeneIits Convention, 1969 (No. 130).
33
120 ratiIications as at 12 Feb. 2004.
34
38 ratiIications as at 12 Feb. 2004.
35
41 ratiIications as at 12 Feb. 2004.
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
78
security. It also provides, however, Ior some Ilexibility permitting exclusions oI non-
nationals in cases when beneIits or parts oI beneIits are payable wholly out oI public
Iunds.
248. Convention No. 118 Iurther provides Ior the maintenance oI acquired rights and the
export oI beneIits. In essence, a State party to Convention No. 118 has to ensure the
provision oI beneIits abroad in a speciIic branch Ior its own nationals and Ior the
nationals oI any other State that has accepted the obligations oI the Convention Ior the
same branch, irrespective oI the place oI residence oI the beneIiciary. Convention No. 19
also provides Ior the export oI beneIits oI Ioreign workers covered by the Convention,
but only when the ratiIying State provides Ior such export oI beneIits Ior its own
nationals.
249. The Maintenance oI Social Security Rights Convention, 1982 (No. 157),
36
and
Maintenance oI Social Security Rights Recommendation, 1983 (No. 167), institute an
international system Ior the maintenance oI acquired rights and rights in the course oI
acquisition Ior workers who transIer their residence Irom one country to another, and
which ensure the eIIective provision oI the beneIits abroad when they return to their
country oI origin. Under this Convention, the maintenance oI acquired rights has to be
ensured Ior the nationals oI other States parties to the Convention in any branch oI social
security in which the States concerned have legislation in Iorce. Within this context, the
Convention provides Ior the conclusion oI bilateral or multilateral social security
agreements. In addition, the Recommendation contains model provisions Ior the
conclusion oI such agreements. Other social security Conventions, e.g. Convention
No. 128, contain a speciIic clause Ior the maintenance oI acquired rights.
250. For regular and longer-term migrant workers, equality oI treatment between
national and migrant workers in the country oI employment with regard to existing
social security beneIits seems to be the rule.
37
With regard to the export oI beneIits
abroad, equality oI treatment also seems to be the rule. However, possibilities Ior
exporting beneIits vary greatly depending on the country and the branch oI social
security in question.
38
Restrictions on the export oI beneIits most oIten concern
unemployment beneIits.
39
In most cases where migrant workers carry out work in
diIIerent countries over a period oI time, they are entitled to accumulate and maintain
rights.
Other relevant standards
251. In addition to the Iundamental principles and rights at work and the standards
speciIic to migrant workers, all other ILO standards
40
are also in principle applicable

36
3 ratiIications as at 12 Feb. 2004.
37
See Annex I, section 2.10, Ior details.
38
Finland, Ior instance, allows both national and migrant workers the export oI beneIits but only with respect to
long-term beneIits (old-age beneIit, employment injury beneIit, invalidity beneIit and survivors` beneIit). Egypt,
on the other hand, allows both national and migrant workers the export oI beneIits whatever the contingency may
be.
39
With respect to this contingency, temporary migrant workers are thus at a comparative disadvantage.
40
The ILO has adopted a large number oI instruments concerning seaIarers. These instruments are in the process
oI being consolidated and a new instrument in this area will be considered at the 94th (Maritime) Session (2005)
oI the International Labour ConIerence. Given the discussion that will take place in 2005, these standards are not
included in the scope oI this report.
Ìnternational regulation of migrant workers and migration
79
to migrant workers.
41
Some oI them contain speciIic reIerences to migrant workers. The
application oI certain instruments in practice is demonstrated, inter alia, by comments by
the supervisory bodies oI the ILO. Instruments that are oI particular relevance Ior
migrant workers, include the recent SaIety and Health in Agriculture Convention, 2001
(No. 184).
42
The Private Employment Agencies Convention, 1997 (No. 181),
43
contains
important provisions aimed at preventing abuses oI migrant workers in relation to
recruitment and placement through private employment agencies. This instrument
reaIIirms that the recruitment oI migrant workers should be Iree oI charge, but allows Ior
exceptions in respect oI certain categories oI workers and speciIic types oI services.
44

This approach better conIorms to the present realities, compared to the corresponding
provisions contained in Convention No. 97, which only prescribes that services oI
employment agencies should be Iree. According to the Employment Promotion and
Protection against Unemployment Convention, 1988 (No. 168),
45
(lawIully resident)
migrant workers should beneIit Irom equal treatment and non-discrimination based, inter
alia, on race, colour, sex, nationality or ethnic origin in the context oI the promotion oI
Iull, productive and Ireely chosen employment.
252. The Protection oI Wages Convention, 1949 (No. 95),
46
is also relevant in this
context and applies to all workers, without qualiIication. The CEACR has supervised its
application in relation to migrant workers in the context oI non-payment oI wages to
Egyptian workers Iorced to return to their country because oI the GulI War.
47

Convention No. 95 also prohibits deductions Irom wages Ior payments to Iee-charging
agencies Ior the purpose oI obtaining or retaining employment.
48
This issue has been
raised in the context oI deductions made Irom the salaries oI plantation workers, who are
oIten migrants.
49
In the context oI the examination by the Working Party on Policy
regarding the Revision oI Standards in 1996, it was noted that the questions touching
upon certain aspects oI the payment oI wages to migrant workers, in particular
periodicity, modes oI payment, deIerred payments in Ioreign currency and appeals, were
not adequately dealt with by the current provisions oI Convention No. 95
50
and that it

41
The Inter-American Court oI Human Rights issued a sweeping opinion on 17 September 2003 which clearly
reinIorces the application oI international labour standards to non-national workers, particularly those oI irregular
status. The Court Iound that non-discrimination and the right to equality are 'fus cogens` and applicable to all
residents regardless oI immigration status.
42
Three ratiIications as at 12 Feb. 2004. InIormation on the practical application oI this instrument is not yet
available as it is a recently adopted instrument. Regarding its relevance in this context, see 'Migrant workers in
agriculture¨, paras. 276-278 below.
43
14 ratiIications as at 12 Feb. 2004.
44
See also Annex I, section 2.8.
45
6 ratiIications as at 12 Feb. 2004.
46
95 ratiIications as at 12 Feb. 2004.
47
CEACR Report, International Labour ConIerence, 89th Session, Geneva, 2001, p. 358.
48
ILO: Protection of wages. Standards and safeguards relating to the pavment of labour remuneration, General
Survey oI the reports concerning the Protection oI Wages Convention, 1949 (No. 95), and the Protection oI
Wages Recommendation, 1949 (No. 85), Report III (Part 1B), International Labour ConIerence, 91st Session,
Geneva, 2003, para. 267.
49
CEACR Report, International Labour ConIerence, 87th Session, Geneva, 1999, p. 313, and CEACR Report,
International Labour ConIerence, 89th Session, Geneva, 2001, p. 357. Certain Iorms oI deductions have been
considered to amount to debt bondage, which constitutes a Iorm oI Iorced labour. See para. 234 above. See also
Stopping forced labour, op. cit., para. 63.
50
Convention No. 95 is nevertheless included among the 71 up-to-date Conventions.
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
80
would be desirable to examine the question oI deductions Irom wages Ior the services
provided by private employment agencies.
51
The Working Conditions (Hotels and
Restaurants) Convention, 1991 (No. 172),
52
is also an important instrument Ior migrant
workers, who are Irequently employed in this sector. States parties thereto undertake to
pursue a policy to ensure that the workers concerned are not excluded Irom the scope oI
any minimum standards adopted at the national level. This instrument has so Iar only
been ratiIied by a handIul oI countries, however, and the question oI migrant workers
has not yet been raised in the context oI its supervision.
253. The CEACR has also considered other standards to be relevant Ior migrant workers
including the Iollowing up-to-date standards: the Labour Inspection Convention, 1947 (No.
81),
53
the Labour Inspection (Agriculture) Convention, 1969 (No. 129),
54
the Labour
Clauses (Public Contracts) Convention, 1949 (No. 94),
55
the Plantations Convention, 1958
(No. 110),
56
and the Employment Policy Convention, 1964 (No. 122).
57
In terms oI their
content, the Iollowing up-to-date instruments also seem to be relevant in this context,
although the CEACR has not yet had the opportunity to make speciIic comments on their
application in relation to migrant workers: the Minimum Wage Fixing Convention, 1970
(No. 131),
58
the Nursing Personnel Convention, 1977 (No. 149),
59
the Occupational
SaIety and Health Convention, 1981 (No. 155),
60
and the Occupational Health Services
Convention, 1985 (No. 161),
61
the SaIety and Health in Construction Convention, 1988
(No. 167),
62
and the Workers` Housing Recommendation, 1961 (No. 115).
254. In some cases, on the other hand, Ilexibility clauses in instruments may permit
certain branches oI activity or categories oI workers to be excluded Irom coverage.
These may be branches or activities where migrant workers are traditionally employed.
In practice, member States have most oIten excluded domestic
63
and agricultural

51
See GB.267/LILS/WP/PRS/2, section III.4.
52
13 ratiIications as at 12 Feb. 2004.
53
130 ratiIications as at 12 Feb. 2004. The CEACR has, inter alia, requested States parties to this Convention to
report on the level oI resources attributed to labour inspectorates and whether they are adequate to deal with the
supervision oI migrant workers and on how reliable statistics are gathered, in particular regarding occupational
diseases with long latency periods to which migrating workers might be exposed. (CEACR Report, International
Labour ConIerence, 90th Session, Geneva, 2002, p. 233.)
54
41 ratiIications as at 12 Feb. 2004.
55
59 ratiIications as at 12 Feb. 2004.
56
12 ratiIications as at 12 Feb. 2004.
57
94 ratiIications as at 12 Feb. 2004. Regarding employment policy, see also Employment Policy
Recommendation, 1964 (No. 122), and Employment Policy (Supplementary Provisions) Recommendation, 1984
(No. 169).
58
45 ratiIications as at 12 Feb. 2004.
59
37 ratiIications as at 12 Feb. 2004.
60
41 ratiIications as at 12 Feb. 2004.
61
22 ratiIications as at 12 Feb. 2004.
62
17 ratiIications as at 12 Feb. 2004.
63
Such exclusions concern in particular the Iollowing instruments: Convention No. 95 (protection oI wages),
Convention No. 131 (minimum wage), Convention No. 148 (working environment), Convention No. 162
(asbestos), Convention No. 171 (night work), and Convention No. 175 (part-time work).
Ìnternational regulation of migrant workers and migration
81
workers
64
when such exclusions have been used. But these are generally not very
Irequent. Although Convention No. 184 permits the exclusion oI certain categories oI
agricultural workers, it speciIically covers temporary and seasonal workers who are
oIten migrant workers. No speciIic standards have been adopted with respect to domestic
workers.
Ìnstruments developed by the United Nations
Instrument specificallv concerning migrant workers
255. In 1990 the United Nations adopted a comprehensive instrument regulating most
aspects oI international migration: the International Convention on the Protection oI the
Rights oI All Migrant Workers and Members oI Their Families ('the United Nations
Convention¨), which recently entered into Iorce.
65
The ILO and United Nations
instruments speciIically concerned with migrant workers have similar overall aims: to
Iurther the rights and protections oI persons migrating Ior employment and to discourage
and eventually eliminate irregular migration. The United Nations Convention`s
deIinition oI 'migrant worker¨ is broader than that oI the ILO Conventions (the United
Nations Convention covers Irontier workers, seaIarers and the selI-employed), and the
deIinition oI 'Iamily¨ in the United Nations Convention is also broader than the
deIinition in the ILO Conventions.
256. In terms oI substantive coverage, Part III oI the United Nations Convention
enumerates the civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights applicable to all
migrant workers and members oI their Iamilies irrespective oI whether they are
documented or non-documented. These provisions are mostly speciIic Iormulations oI
the applicability oI universal human rights to migrants as elaborated in the instruments
oI the Universal Declaration oI Human Rights and the International Covenant on Civil
and Political Rights. As with United Nations Conventions relating to the rights oI
women, children and victims oI racism, this Convention sought to extend protection oI
universal rights to vulnerable groups by providing explicit normative language suitable
Ior national legislation. Compared to the speciIic ILO instruments, the United Nations
Convention seems to provide Ior a broader articulation oI the principle oI equality oI
treatment between migrant workers and nationals beIore the courts and tribunals, with
respect to remuneration and other working conditions as well as with respect to migrant
workers` access to urgent medical assistance and education Ior children oI migrant
workers. Compared to the ILO instruments the United Nations Convention also seems to
provide Ior more extensive rights Ior migrant workers to transIer their earnings and
savings. In terms oI the right to reimbursement oI social security contributions, however,
the ILO instruments (including speciIic Conventions on social security) deIine migrant
workers` rights more clearly. As regards additional rights Irom which documented
migrants and members oI their Iamilies may beneIit (Part IV oI the United Nations
Convention), the ILO and United Nations instruments are quite similar, except that the
ILO Conventions provide Ior more distinct rights Ior migrant workers to Iorm a trade
union, and the right to equal treatment in terms oI access to education, housing and

64
Such exclusions concern in particular the Iollowing instruments: Convention No. 14 (weekly rest); Convention
No. 78 (medical examination oI young persons); Convention No. 95 (protection oI wages); Convention No. 131
(minimum wage); Convention No. 138 (minimum age); Convention No. 148 (working environment); Convention
No. 171 (night work); Convention No. 175 (part-time work); and Convention No. 184 (OSH in agriculture).
65
The Convention entered into Iorce on 1 July 2003, and had a total oI 25 ratiIications as at 12 Feb. 2004.
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
82
vocational and social services. Finally, under the United Nations Convention, migrant
workers may beneIit Irom a clearer level oI protection in relation to expulsion.
257. The ILO instruments (in particular Convention No. 143) and the United Nations
Convention (Part VI) both place great emphasis on eIIorts to curb irregular migration
and the need to Iormulate appropriate migration policies to that eIIect; and on
exchanging inIormation, providing inIormation to migrant workers, and Iacilitating the
provision oI consular services and the imposition oI sanctions to give eIIect to
regulations in this area.
Box 4.1
Commission on Human Security -
A proposaI for an internationaI migration framework
The Commission on Human Security proposes the development of an international
migration framework which, among other issues, would address:
‰ Taking steps towards the orderly and safe movement of people, including increasing
migratory opportunities and burden-sharing among countries.
‰ Developing international and regional norms for the movement of people between
countries and for the rights and obligations of migrants.
‰ Formulating strategies to combat trafficking and smuggling and implementing the
relevant international and regional conventions, while protecting the rights of victims.
‰ Protecting against racism and intolerance and other human rights violations.
‰ Developing an institutional framework.
Source: Commission on Human Security, Human Security Now, New York, 2003, p. 47.
Other relevant United Nations instruments
258. The United Nations Universal Declaration oI Human Rights, adopted in 1948,
states that all individuals, irrespective oI race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or
other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status, are born Iree and
equal in dignity and rights. In addition, several other United Nations instruments are
relevant Ior protecting migrant workers Irom discrimination and exploitation on grounds
other than their non-national status, including the International Convention on the
Elimination oI All Forms oI Racial Discrimination (ICERD), 1965. This is currently one
oI the most widely ratiIied oI the United Nations human rights Conventions,
66
and while
it binds States parties to outlaw discrimination on the grounds oI race, colour, descent, or
national or ethnic origin against all individuals within the jurisdiction oI the State and to
enact sanctions Ior activities based upon such discrimination, it does not apply to
discrimination on the grounds oI nationality, a type oI discrimination to which migrants
by deIinition are extremely vulnerable.
259. The Convention on the Elimination oI All Forms oI Discrimination Against
Women (CEDAW), 1979, consolidates the provisions oI existing United Nations
instruments concerning gender discrimination. The Convention applies to citizens and
non-citizens and provides that States parties shall take all appropriate measures to
eliminate discrimination against women in the Iield oI employment in order to ensure the
same rights, on the basis oI equality between men and women. CEDAW is speciIically
relevant to migrant workers in that it requires States parties to take all appropriate

66
169 ratiIications as at 1 Feb. 2004.
Ìnternational regulation of migrant workers and migration
83
measures, including legislation, to suppress all Iorms oI traIIic in women and
exploitation oI prostitution oI women. Other human rights instruments oI relevance to
migrant workers include the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural
Rights (1966), the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966), the
Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or
Punishment (1984), and the Convention on the Rights oI the Child (1989). All these
instruments, like the ILO`s general human rights instruments, apply to all persons.
260. Transnational organized crime, including traIIicking and smuggling, has recently
been addressed in the context oI the newly adopted Convention against Transnational
Organized Crime. Labour traIIicking and smuggling
67
were regulated separately in two
protocols supplementing this convention which were also adopted in 2000 and which
both recently entered into Iorce: the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish
TraIIicking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (TraIIicking Protocol) and the
Protocol against Smuggling oI Migrants by Land, Sea and Air (Smuggling Protocol).
Ìnstruments developed by the WTO
261. As already mentioned in Chapter 2, the WTO has also developed an important set
oI international provisions governing migration, which include some requirements
individuals have to IulIil in order to move and work abroad. Although it only accounts
Ior just over 1 per cent oI world services trade so Iar,
68
the presence oI natural persons,
otherwise reIerred to as Mode 4, is one oI the Iour possible Iorms oI providing a service
under the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). Members` commitments
under this 'mode¨ reIer to the temporary admission oI Ioreign natural persons as service
providers into their territory (e.g. accountants, doctors, nurses, teachers). Permanent
migration is not covered under Mode 4.
Regional agreements
262. Regional and subregional bodies also include the management oI international
migratory Ilows as a main issue in their agendas and have developed a wide range oI
measures at diIIerent levels concerning the conditions oI admission, stay and treatment
oI non-national workers. Regional standards include standards dealing with the
protection oI migrant workers as well as standards which relate to the management oI
migration. Within Europe there is an elaborate set oI labour migration standards,
particularly at the level oI the European Union. In this respect, the entry into Iorce in
1999 oI the Treaty on European Union as amended by the Treaty oI Amsterdam
represents a turning point in the European Union`s commitment with regard to
immigration and moves the development oI a migration policy Irom the
intergovernmental level to the community level.
263. Processes oI regional economic integration are also taking place on all other
continents. The 1999 General Survey on migrant workers has already highlighted the
Iact that initiatives in the Iield oI labour mobility revealed a series oI converging

67
Smuggling oI migrants involves migrants who have consented to the smuggling, whereas traIIicking victims
have either never consented or, iI they initially consented, that consent has been rendered meaningless by the
coercive, deceptive or abusive actions oI the traIIickers. Other diIIerences include the Iact that smuggling ends
with the arrival oI migrants oI their destination while traIIicking involves ongoing or Iurther exploitation. In
addition, smuggling always require a border crossing while traIIicking can take place within a country.
68
These data are based on recent estimates reported by the WTO Secretariat (Joint WTO-World Bank
Symposium on Movement oI Natural Persons (Mode 4) under the GATS, WTO, Geneva, 11-12 April 2002).
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
84
interests towards progressive harmonization at regional and subregional levels.
69
For
instance, in the last Iew years, an increasing number oI regional inter-State economic
integration spaces/processes have established or renewed eIIorts to implement Iormal
legal and administrative agreements regarding labour circulation. The Andean
Community adopted in 2003 a revised Andean Instrument Ior Labour Migration. In
order to strengthen the integration process, Mercosur countries approved an agreement
on residence Ior their nationals in November 2002. The Treaty Iormalizing the East
AIrican Community, which entered into Iorce in 2003 among the three member States,
establishes Iree circulation and residence oI labour Ior nationals oI member countries.
The Central AIrican Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC) agreed in 2003 to
establish new measures to put into eIIect its accord on Iree circulation oI labour, which
was adopted in the 1980s but never eIIectively implemented. The Southern AIrica
Development Community (SADC) draIted a Protocol in 2001 on Iree movement oI
labour; although ultimately it was not adopted by States, new initiatives to address
labour migration among the 14 member States are currently being negotiated.
70

264. A Iew oI these Iormal agreements or proposals draw on relevant international
standards, in particular ILO Conventions Nos. 97 and 143, which have been ratiIied by
some member States oI these regional entities. Several, however, have not drawn on the
experience incorporated in international standards, with the risk both oI repeating
mistakes these standards were designed to avoid and oI putting in place legal measures
which undermine existing norms.
Bilateral agreements
265. Convention No. 97 includes a general invitation to enter into bilateral agreements,
whenever necessary or desirable, to regulate relevant issues related to migration in
connection with the application oI the Convention, and proposes the use oI a model
agreement appended to its accompanying Recommendation No. 86. This model
agreement covers most aspects oI the migratory process and also includes proposed
contents Ior model contracts oI employment.
266. Although not a comprehensive solution to all the issues concerned, the conclusion
oI bilateral agreements is a useIul solution to provide Ior better protection oI migrant
workers in particular with respect to certain areas, such as social security, or with regard
to more vulnerable categories oI migrant workers.
267. In practice, bilateral agreements have been a longstanding means oI resolving and
managing migration Ilows between two countries. This was current practice until the
global economic downturn in the 1970s. Since then, a large number oI these agreements
have lapsed and been replaced by much looser Iramework agreements, memoranda oI
understanding and declarations oI mutual cooperation on the contracting and protection
oI Ioreign workers.
71
Since the 1990s, there has been a global upsurge in bilateral


69
See in particular paras. 62-74.
70
For more on this issue, see Ch. VI (Managing migration).
71
M. Abella: Sending workers abroad (Geneva, ILO, 1997).
Ìnternational regulation of migrant workers and migration
85
agreements, although the practice varies in diIIerent regions.
72
These bilateral
agreements may have a wide range oI objectives including speciIically preventing a rise
in illegal migration or seeking to address broader economic and social issues.
73
Others
speciIically address issues related to seasonal work in agriculture.
74

268. As in the case oI regional agreements, it is important that bilateral agreements
operate within a multilateral context oI international standards and that the bilateral and
multilateral levels are mutually supportive.
4.3. Relevance and impact of international regulation
Current situation
269. It Iollows Irom this review that the ILO has, in principle, a Iunctioning regulatory
system with respect to international migration and the protection oI migrant workers. In
spite oI the changes in the context oI international migration and the lacunae identiIied
by the CEACR including the Iact that the ILO Conventions on migrant workers do not
speciIically prescribe the development oI a national migration policy
75
the principles
enshrined in these instruments still provide sound guidance on the protection oI migrant
workers and measures to Iacilitate and control migration movements. More speciIically,
they call Ior measures aimed at regulating the conditions in which migration Ior
employment occurs, and Ior measures aimed at combating irregular migration, as well as
containing provisions on cooperation between States. They deIine parameters Ior
recruitment and contract conditions, participation oI migrants in job training and
promotion, and, to a certain extent, Ior Iamily reuniIication and appeals against
unjustiIied termination oI employment or expulsion. A number oI provisions in the ILO
instruments on migrant workers are intended to provide a Iramework Ior guaranteeing

72
In Latin America the number oI bilateral agreements has doubled over the past decade, but countries in Asia
(with the exception oI the Philippines) seem to have a greater resistance towards such agreements (see IOM:
World Migration 2003). In the OECD countries, there are currently 173 bilateral agreements with countries Irom
all regions oI the world, which represents a IiveIold increase since the 1990s. (OECD: Bilateral labour
agreements. Evaluation and prospects, Seminar on Bilateral Labour Agreements jointly organized by the OECD
and the Swiss Government, Montreux, June 2003). The ILM Survey also indicates considerable use oI bilateral
agreements by Central and Eastern European States and by the Commonwealth oI Independent States, not only
between States in the region or with neighbouring States oI the European Union, but with countries oI southern
Europe such as Spain and Portugal and even with countries on other continents. See also Annex I, section 2.6.
73
This is the case with the agreements that Argentina has concluded with Bolivia (1999), Peru (1999) and
Paraguay (not yet in Iorce).
74
These include the successIul experience with the Commonwealth Caribbean and Mexican Agricultural
Seasonal Workers Programme in Canada. This is oIten considered a model programme Ior admitting and
protecting migrants (P. Martin: Managing labour migration. Temporarv worker programmes for the 21st centurv.
Geneva, International Institute Ior Labour Studies, 2003). It is based on an MOU that calls Ior the Mexican
Government to select workers and monitor their conditions in Canada, and a Canadian Iarm employers`
association to transport them to the Iarms on which they work. Farm employers provide written evaluations oI
each worker at the end oI the season, with evaluations placed in sealed envelopes and delivered by returning
workers to the Mexican authorities. Some unions are critical oI this evaluation system, alleging that workers who
protest are not invited to return: 70 per cent oI Mexican migrants are requested by name by their employers. Most
Mexican migrants report that they preIer the security oI contracts in Canada to the insecurity oI unauthorized
status in the United States, but some Canadian unions and NGOs consider the migrants 'unIree¨ because they can
be blacklisted. Nevertheless, the Canadian arrangement seems to be one that is Iree oI the common problems that
beset temporary worker programmes.
75
However, 59 oI the 90 responding countries have declared that, in practice, they have adopted such a policy.
See Annex I, section 2.1, Ior details.
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
86
protection oI migrant workers. They relate to the minimum standards oI protection; the
provision oI correct inIormation about conditions in the country oI employment;
measures to Iacilitate the adaptation oI migrants to living and working conditions in the
country oI employment; special provisions on mechanisms Ior the transIer oI migrants`
earnings; employment opportunities; and access to social services, medical services and
reasonable housing. In addition, the provisions in Convention No. 143 call Ior the
adoption oI a policy to promote and guarantee equality oI treatment and opportunity
between regular-status migrants and nationals in employment and occupation in the
areas oI access to employment remuneration, social security, trade union rights, cultural
rights and individual Ireedoms, employment taxes and access to legal proceedings.
270. Since the 1999 Survey, and in the context oI the regular reporting on the
application oI Conventions Nos. 97 and 143, the CEACR has raised a number oI
questions on developments in national law and practice as regards irregular migrants,
procedural guarantees Ior Ioreigners, control oI expulsion procedures, the place oI
women in labour migration, and respect Ior Iundamental rights. In addition, the question
oI wage discrimination
76
against domestic workers has become an important issue in the
context oI a representation concerning the application oI Convention No. 97.
271. In the context oI the 2003 ILM Survey, member States were also asked to indicate
their views on the existence oI gaps in existing standards and the way ahead Ior Iuture
ILO action in this area. Relatively Iew responses were received on these questions.
77

The responses received were diIIicult to interpret. Concerns raised regarding gaps
78

including lacunae in the protection oI irregular migrant workers, temporary migrant
workers and domestic migrant workers, as well as in the social protection oI migrant
workers did not necessarily imply that a recommendation was made Ior ILO action.
Among the 23 countries that proposed action, a majority proposed a revision oI existing
standards, but proposals were also made to develop a new Convention and/or
Recommendation. In a handIul oI cases, several or all oI these actions were proposed
simultaneously. Proposals were also made to develop codes oI practice and/or guidelines.
As regards the speciIic concerns that such ILO action should address, 11 diIIerent areas
were identiIied, by a similar number oI countries. In no case were any oI these speciIic
concerns proposed by more than two member States.
Protecting the rights of specific groups of migrant workers
272. It Iollows, however, Irom the overview in preceding chapters oI this report, that in
spite oI existing regulation oI international migration and the protection oI migrant
workers, the situation oI certain speciIic groups oI migrant workers remains a cause oI
serious concern. The protection provided in current standards Ior these speciIic groups oI
migrant workers is examined below.
Migrant domestic workers
273. One oI the maniIestations oI the Ieminization oI migration has been the increase in
the number oI women engaging in domestic work as regular migrant workers but also
oIten as irregular migrants. Domestic work is an area that is characterized by a particular

76
For details, see Iorthcoming CEACR Report, International Labour ConIerence, 92nd Session, Geneva, 2004.
77
Approximately one-third oI the respondents. See Annex I, section 3.1, questions 43 and 44, Ior details.
78
HalI oI the 29 respondents on this issue considered there were gaps, while the other halI Iound that there were
none.
Ìnternational regulation of migrant workers and migration
87
absence oI regulatory systems. At the international level, the Ilexibility oI international
standards may be used to exclude this type oI work Irom their scope.
79
At the national
level, domestic work is oIten excluded Irom the scope oI national labour and/or other
laws. There may thus be cases where domestic migrant workers are only protected by
generally applicable Iundamental principles and rights and basic human rights. But, as
with migrant workers in an irregular situation, the crucial issue in these cases is whether
domestic workers have eIIective access to appeals procedures and/or to other institutions
such as independent human rights commissions or similar bodies, in order to be able to
claim their rights to protection.
80

274. The ILO`s approach to these issues had been geared towards prevention by
regulating the recruitment process, and the use oI model contracts incorporating basic
issues such as salary, hours oI work and weekly rest. There are some good practices
observed in this respect. For example, one country
81
has adopted a model contract Ior
domestic workers and has established a 'hot line¨ to receive complaints Irom domestic
workers. Another country
82
has included in a model contract entitlements to liIe
insurance, medical care, rest days, repatriation upon expiration oI the contract, and
reiterates migrant women`s right to be treated in compliance with international human
rights standards.
83
Other countries also use model contracts in relation to particularly
vulnerable occupations such as domestic work, manual labour and agricultural work.
84

275. Furthermore, as noted previously, the conclusion oI bilateral agreements may be a
particularly useIul tool to protect this category oI migrant workers. It is a matter oI
debate whether this gap concerning migrant domestic workers should be Iilled at the
international level, or more generally by encouraging wider dissemination oI the practice
in certain countries oI providing protection Ior domestic workers in their national labour
legislation.
Migrant workers in agriculture
276. Many workers in agriculture in a large number oI countries are migrant workers.
The protection oI workers in the agricultural sector has long been a concern Ior the ILO,
and there are several standards which apply to agricultural workers in general.
85
Two oI
these instruments are particularly relevant Ior migrant workers: Convention No. 110,
including its Protocol oI 1982, and Convention No. 184. Although Convention No. 110

79
See para. 254.
80
A number oI countries are establishing or have established specialized bodies with advisory or quasi-judicial
powers to tackle discrimination and promote equality. At the national level there are several initiatives in this
respect, including bodies with quasi-judicial powers to examine complaints on human rights violations or
discrimination in a wide number oI areas in countries such as Austria, Brazil, Hong Kong (China), Trinidad and
Tobago and the United States. Bahrain has established a Human Rights Commission, which is looking into
domestic worker issues as well. Finally, it is worth mentioning that some countries such as Hungary, Norway and
Sweden have established ombudsperson oIIices or ombudsperson-type oIIices that may receive complaints and
institute proceedings beIore court.
81
Hong Kong, China.
82
Jordan.
83
Press release by the United Nations Development Fund Ior Women (UNIFEM), Arab States Regional OIIice,
Amman, 21 Jan. 2003.
84
Sri Lanka and United Republic oI Tanzania.
85
See ILO: Decent work in agriculture, Background paper Ior the Symposium on Decent Work in Agriculture,
Geneva 15-18 September 2003, Appendix: 'ILO Conventions and Recommendations relevant to agriculture¨.
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
88
has received only a handIul oI ratiIications, it is a comprehensive instrument covering a
wide range oI relevant issues. However, the Convention oIIers considerable Ilexibility
Ior ratiIying parties as several oI its parts can be excluded, including the part concerning
the engagement and recruitment oI migrant workers.
277. Convention No. 184 Iocuses speciIically on occupational saIety and health, which
as the statistics concerning occupational accidents demonstrate is an issue oI major
concern in agriculture. Convention No. 184 speciIically provides that 'measures shall be
taken to ensure that temporary and seasonal workers receive the same saIety and health
protection as that accorded to comparable permanent workers in agriculture¨ and that
'adequate and appropriate training and comprehensible instructions on saIety and health
and any necessary guidance or supervision are provided to workers in agriculture .
taking into account their level oI education and diIIerences in language.¨ As noted above,
Convention No. 184 also provides more generally that relevant national laws and
regulations on welIare and accommodation Iacilities, working time arrangements and
coverage against occupational injuries and diseases should apply to workers in
agriculture.
278. In addition, and as with the case oI domestic workers, the ILO standard-setting
approach has been to advocate the conclusion oI model contracts and bilateral
agreements. In practice, there are quite a Iew examples oI such bilateral agreements.
86

Migrant workers in construction
279. The surge in subcontracting and a high level oI privatization has had proIound
eIIects on the labour market generally, and construction is a sector particularly marked
by this trend. In this respect, the ILO is in the process oI addressing the more general
problem oI the employment relationship. A general discussion has recently been held on
this issue resulting in a decision that the ILO should envisage the adoption oI a
Recommendation in this area.
87

280. In terms oI speciIic problems, construction is a sector with one oI the highest
incidences oI occupational accidents and the ILO has adopted several instruments oI
general relevance in this area, as well as a Convention and a Recommendation
speciIically dealing with occupational saIety and health in construction Convention No.
167 and Recommendation No. 175. This Convention provides that the term 'employer¨
includes any physical or legal person who employs one or more workers on a
construction site; and includes, as the context requires, the principal contractor, the
contractor or the subcontractor. This standard appears to be particularly relevant to
migrant workers and is applicable to them, but the CEACR has not yet had the
opportunity to address the conditions oI migrant workers in this context.
281. Although the problems in the construction industry particularly aIIect migrant
workers owing to the high number oI migrant workers employed there, the diIIiculties
they Iace appear to be largely due to more general issues oI global concern. Moreover,

86
Such as the agreements Canada has entered into with Mexico, Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago, Barbados and
the Organization oI Eastern Caribbean States; France with Poland, Morocco and Tunisia; Germany with several
Eastern European states; Greece with Albania; Italy with Tunisia; and Albania and Spain with Poland. In
addition, there is a recent agreement between Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
87
ILO: Report of the Committee on the Emplovment Relationship, International Labour ConIerence, 91st Session
(2003), Conclusions, para. 25. A corresponding proposal to include such an item at a Iuture ConIerence has been
submitted to the Governing Body, see doc. GB.289/2.
Ìnternational regulation of migrant workers and migration
89
migrant workers in this sector may be particularly aIIected by the problems relating to
temporary migrant workers addressed below.
Temporarv migrant workers
282. Current ILO standards were not draIted with the protection oI temporary migrant
workers in mind and the provisions applicable to other lawIully admitted migrant
workers may not always be well suited to their situation.
88
Like other lawIully admitted
migrant workers, temporary migrant workers enjoy the protection oI the Iundamental
principles and rights and are entitled to beneIit Irom the provisions in Convention No. 97
concerning equal treatment.
283. While Part II oI Convention No. 143 provides Ior equality oI opportunity and
treatment Ior all lawIully admitted residents, Article 11 excludes certain speciIic
categories oI temporary migrant workers Irom the scope oI this Part.
89
Article 11(2)(e),
excludes 'employees oI organisations or undertakings operating within the territory oI a
country who have been admitted temporarily to that country at the request oI their
employer to undertake speciIic duties or assignments, Ior a limited and deIined period oI
time, and who are required to leave the country on the completion oI their duties or
assignments.¨ In the preparatory work preceding the adoption oI Convention No. 143, it
was stressed that this provision applied essentially to workers having special skills who
go to a country to undertake speciIic short-term technical assignments. Although the
CEACR recalled that the provision did not imply that all Iixed-term workers could be
excluded Irom the provisions oI Part II oI Convention No. 143,
90
this question may need
Iurther examination taking account oI the increase in temporary migration and GATS
Mode 4.
284. Another exclusion provided Ior in Article 11 oI Convention No. 143 concerns
'artistes and members oI the liberal proIessions who have entered the country on a short-
term basis¨. In 1999 the CEACR noted that this exclusion had taken on a vastly
increased signiIicance, particularly in relation to the increasing number oI Iemale
migrant workers recruited Ior employment abroad and issued permits to work as dancers
in night clubs or as hostesses in bars, when in reality they are Iorced to become 'sex
workers.¨
91
There are several indications that this development has continued and
increased in proportions since then. This category oI workers is addressed in particular
by the new international standards on traIIicking.
285. Furthermore, Article 8 oI Convention No. 97 grants only permanently admitted
migrants the speciIic right not to be Iorced to return, iI they are unable to work owing to
illness or injury.
286. Subject thereto, Convention No. 143 applies equally to lawIully admitted
temporary and other migrant workers, although temporary migrant workers` rights to

88
This was discussed at a Tripartite Meeting oI Experts on Future ILO activities in the Field oI Migration (21-25
April 1997), which resulted in the adoption oI the Guidelines on special protective measures for migrant workers
in time-bound activities (MEIM/1997/D.4, Annex I). These guidelines covered issues such as accommodation,
tied employment, wages and other terms oI employment, Iamily migration and reuniIication, Ireedom oI
association, social security and return. The OIIice does not have any inIormation on the impact oI these
guidelines.
89
Recommendation No. 151 does not, however, contain any similar exclusions.
90
General Survey, 1999, para. 115 (including reIerences).
91
General Survey, 1999, para. 113.
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
90
equal treatment in the case oI loss oI employment is limited to the duration oI their
residence or work permit. In other words, this means that temporary migrant workers
who lose their employment are entitled to look Ior new employment opportunities as
long as they remain lawIully resident, i.e. Ior the remainder oI their work or residence
permit.
92
Practice in this respect varies, but several countries seem to allow temporary
migrant workers to seek alternative employment Ior the duration oI their residence
permit.
93

287. In terms oI social security, the relevant instruments make no distinction between
temporary and other regular migrant workers. Residence requirements may, however,
hamper temporary migrant workers` possibilities oI acquiring beneIits. As regards the
maintenance oI acquired rights when leaving the country (including the export oI
beneIits), and the right to beneIit Irom the accumulation oI rights acquired in diIIerent
countries, current standards provide Ior such entitlements but they are limited by the
principle oI reciprocity. Social security issues are oIten the subject oI bilateral or
multilateral agreements as recommended by ILO standards.
94
In some cases, and in the
absence oI bilateral or multilateral agreements, migrant workers who leave the country
are granted a reIund oI the contributions which they have paid Ior long-term beneIits.
288. Current ILO Conventions do not regulate the question oI access to public health
care, but according to Recommendation No. 151 migrant workers lawIully residing in a
country should also be entitled to equality oI opportunity and treatment with nationals in
respect oI the beneIits oI social services and educational and health Iacilities.
289. Finally, as noted previously, Convention No. 143 together with Recommendations
Nos. 86 and 151 and the United Nations Convention contain largely similar conditional
provisions concerning the right oI migrant workers to be united with their Iamilies, but
the United Nations Convention deIines the concept oI 'Iamily¨ more broadly than the
ILO Conventions.
95
Most temporary labour schemes do not permit migrant workers to
be accompanied by their Iamily members. The ILO supervisory bodies have noted that in
some cases oI temporary, seasonal or project-related work, Iamily reuniIication may be
inappropriate Ior practical reasons, but the individual circumstances oI each case should
be taken into consideration.
Migrant workers in an irregular situation
290. While Convention No. 97, Recommendation No. 86 and Part II oI Convention
No. 143 deal only with the protection oI migrant workers who have been regularly
admitted Ior the purpose oI employment, Part I oI Convention No. 143 and several
provisions oI Recommendation No. 151 deal explicitly with the suppression oI
clandestine migration Ilows and the protection oI migrants oI irregular status. It is worth
recalling here that any member State that ratiIies this Convention may exclude either
Part I or Part II Irom its acceptance oI the Convention.

92
Prior to the clariIications provided by the CEACR in the 1999 General Survey, a common misunderstanding oI
these provisions was that Convention No. 143 would prevent States Irom requiring temporary migrant workers to
return at the end oI their contracts. Relevant CEACR practice clariIies that this is not the case.
93
See Annex I, section 2.12, Ior details.
94
For Iurther inIormation on bilateral social security agreements, see: http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/
socsec/pol/publ/index.htm .
95
It should be emphasized, however, that all these instruments stipulate only that Iamily reuniIication should be
'Iacilitated¨.
Ìnternational regulation of migrant workers and migration
91
291. According to Article 1 oI Convention No. 143, ratiIying States undertake to protect
the basic human rights oI 'all migrant workers¨. In this respect, the structure oI
Convention No. 143 is similar to that oI the United Nations Convention in the sense that
the latter reIers in Part III to the 'Human rights oI all migrants workers and members oI
their Iamilies¨, whereas other rights listed in Part IV concern 'migrant workers and
members oI their Iamilies who are documented or in a regular situation¨.
292. As regards social security beneIits, the relevant ILO social security instruments
have nothing to say with regard to the protection oI migrant workers in an irregular
situation. The same applies with respect to other international instruments that deal with
migrant workers in an irregular situation and with social security. One exception,
however, can be Iound in Convention No. 143, which stipulates that migrant workers in
an irregular situation shall have the same rights as regular migrant workers concerning
social security rights arising out oI past employment. This provision must in particular
be understood Ior the purpose oI acquiring rights to long-term beneIits. Within this
context, it appears Irom the General Survey on migrant workers that the wording 'past
employment¨ reIers to past periods oI legal as well as illegal employment. Paragraph
34(1)(b) oI Recommendation No. 151, which accompanies Convention No. 143,
recommends that migrant workers, irrespective oI their legal status, who leave the
country oI employment should be entitled to beneIits which may be due in respect oI any
employment injury suIIered.
96

293. With respect to expulsion, the supervisory bodies have laid particular emphasis on
respect Ior the provision in Convention No. 143 that the costs oI expulsion should not be
borne by the worker. There is an even more important question in practice as to whether
guarantees are in place concerning respect Ior the Iundamental and basic human rights oI
migrant workers in the context oI expulsion, and whether they have eIIective recourse to
appeal against such decisions.
294. While one can still argue about the content oI substantive rights and how Iar these
rights may be applied in practical terms to irregular migrants, there is a clear need to
promote better application oI labour standards to all migrant workers. It should be clear
that the obligation oI all States to protect the basic human rights oI all persons resident
within their territory and regardless oI the regularity oI their status should not be
challenged. Also, it cannot be overemphasized that the protection oI the rights oI migrant
workers in an irregular situation is illusory iI diIIiculties bar their access to appeal
procedures. This is particularly true in cases where immigration law and practice are in
conIlict with national labour law.

96
In practice, most countries provide that social security beneIits are dependent on legal employment or
residence in the country (as in France, Ior example) or on holding a valid work permit (as is the case in Lebanon
and the United Kingdom), but others (Luxembourg and Norway, Ior example see CEACR 1980 General Survey
on migrant workers) consider that the legal status oI migrant workers is irrelevant in this respect. Some seem
most inclined to allow irregular migrants to beneIit Irom protection only against occupational accidents and
diseases. In one particular case (Belgium), the legislation governing employment injury compensation was a
matter oI public policy and hence mandatory: the nullity oI a contract concluded with a worker in an irregular
situation could not be invoked in order to evade payment oI compensation. II the employer was not insured, it
was the Employment Injury Compensation Fund that paid and subsequently claimed Irom the employer. II a
worker who was to be paid compensation had not been aIIiliated to the scheme, the employer was liable to pay
contributions in arrears. Within this context, the CEACR already stated in its 1980 General Survey on migrant
workers that provisions oI that kind could be envisaged as a proposal Ior Iuture interventions. Concerning the
access oI irregular migrant workers in an irregular situation to public health care, the trend is Ior the vast majority
oI member States not to allow them the beneIits oI this protection. However, a Iew exceptions can be Iound in
certain cases Ior emergency treatment.
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
92
295. ConIlicts between national laws serving diIIerent purposes raise important issues
concerning governance in relation to migrant workers and the need to develop and adopt
national policies to govern migration. This highlights the need Ior States to adopt a
national policy to govern migration and the conditions oI migrant workers, although this
is not explicitly called Ior in the present Conventions.
97

296. In terms oI the management oI international migration, the dividing lines between
the protection oI workers who wish to migrate Ior employment, the Iight against
irregular migration and the saIeguarding oI human rights are not always clear. Although
eIIorts to curb irregular migration are legitimate and necessary, it is at the same time
crucial to ensure respect Ior basic human rights. National provisions on irregular
migration should be developed and reviewed in the light oI the principle oI necessity and
proportionality and respect Ior the rights oI all men and women migrant workers.
98

297. Good practice to deal with irregular migration should begin with migration
management that respects the rights oI all migrants based on international instruments.
99

Irregular migration should also be treated as a labour issue, not only as a security and
legal issue, since the causes are oIten rooted in structural imbalances in the labour
market. Social dialogue can help governments arrive at acceptable solutions since
governments, employers and unions all have a stake in improving the situation.
The impact of international regulation
Current impact
RatiIication levels, intentions to ratiIy and
obstacles to ratiIication
298. Since 1999, Convention No. 97 has received two new ratiIications; Convention
No. 143 has received one; and the 1990 United Nations Convention has received 16 new
ratiIications Iollowing a ratiIication campaign. The ratiIications levels oI these
instruments have evolved as Iollows.
299. As Iigure 4.1 indicates, ratiIications oI the 1990 United Nations Convention have
gained a certain momentum based on a broad-based ratiIication campaign, aIter ten years
during which it received little attention. So Iar, the parties to the United Nations
Convention are primarily countries with net emigration, although Ghana, Mexico and
Senegal, among others, are also destination countries Ior hundreds oI thousands oI
migrants (some 2 million in the case oI Mexico). National campaigns to promote
ratiIication have been initiated in a number oI industrialized countries.

97
See, however, Recommendation No. 151, Paragraph 1.
98
See General Survey, 1999, op. cit., para. 301.
99
United Nations Commission on Human Rights: Report oI the Special Rapporteur on the human rights oI
migrants presented to the United Nations Commission on Human Rights, Geneva, 10 April 2003, doc.
E/CN.4/2003/85.
Ìnternational regulation of migrant workers and migration
93
Figure 4.1. CumuIative ratifications of ILO and United Nations
instruments on migration
0
10
20
30
40
50
1950 1954 1958 1962 1966 1970 1974 1978 1982 1986 1990 1994 1998 2002
N
u
m
b
e
r

o
f

r
a
t
i
f
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
s

o
r

a
c
c
e
s
s
i
o
n
s
Convention 97
Convention 143
UN Convention

300. Convention No. 97 has attracted a total oI 42 ratiIications, more than halI oI which
are Irom countries with net emigration. According to the ILM Survey, 12 member States
were considering ratiIication, while 34 member States said that they had no intention oI
ratiIying it. The obstacle reIerred to most oIten was non-conIormity between national
legislation and the Convention. Convention No. 143 has been ratiIied by 18 member
States, including countries with both net immigration and net emigration. Ten member
States also considered ratiIying this Convention, but 40 States said they did not intend to
do so. The obstacle again cited most oIten was non-conIormity between national
legislation and the Convention.
100

301. While the speciIic instruments on migrant workers have not received large numbers
oI ratiIications, the ratiIication levels oI the other relevant ILO Conventions vary
considerably.
101
The Iundamental Conventions are oI course heavily ratiIied.
Standards used as models
302. The impact oI standards, including both Conventions and Recommendations, is not
limited to the impact created in ratiIying countries. Member States also use them as models
and apply them regardless oI ratiIication.
102
Generally speaking, countries tend to Iollow
the provisions oI these instruments in broad terms, but less so when it comes to provisions
calling Ior more speciIic commitments regarding to the protection oI migrant workers.
103

Increasing the impact
Promotion
303. Promotion oI ILO standards is not always pursued in a consistent way, either by
the OIIice or by the ILO`s constituents. Once submission to the competent authorities
has been accomplished, there is no speciIic obligation to reconsider ratiIication

100
See Annex I, section 3.1.
101
Convention No. 95 (protection oI wages) has received 95 ratiIications, while Convention No. 157
(maintenance oI social security beneIits) has only three.
102
See Annex I, section 3.1.
103
See General Survey, 1999, op. cit., para. 647.
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
94
periodically, and unless a Iocused promotional campaign is undertaken, ratiIications may
stagnate. However, promotion oI standards may also help governments to understand the
perceived obstacles to ratiIication and, in many cases, to overcome them. The increased
level oI ratiIications oI the Iundamental Conventions is a telling example oI the
eIIectiveness oI targeted, sustained and systematic promotional campaigns. Conventions
Nos. 97 and 143 have not been the object oI any targeted ratiIication campaign. This
may be one explanation Ior their rather modest levels oI ratiIications. By contrast, the
global promotional campaign Ior the ratiIication oI the United Nations International
Convention on the Protection oI the Rights oI All Migrant Workers and Members oI
Their Families in which the ILO took part had Iew Iinancial resources at its disposal
but was nonetheless successIul. This instrument had attracted only nine ratiIications in
1999 but Iollowing these promotional eIIorts it has now been ratiIied by a total oI 25
countries.
304. Other ILO standards are promoted in the context oI related ILO activities. A
promotion targeted at addressing migrant workers` concerns could be based on and
Iacilitated by a coherent presentation oI all the relevant standards, including those on
protection oI wages, labour inspection, saIety and health in construction, and others.
305. A Iurther promotion measure that appears necessary would be to explore how to
encourage the extension oI national legislative coverage to categories oI work regularly
Iilled by migrant workers especially agricultural and domestic work.
Monitoring and supervision
306. In terms oI monitoring and supervision oI standards, the ILO system comprises
several distinct components, including supervisory machinery based on regular reporting.
Reports received are examined by the Committee oI Experts on the Application oI
Conventions and Recommendations (CEACR), a group oI 20 independent legal experts.
The report prepared by the CEACR on the basis oI this examination is subsequently
discussed in a tripartite context in the ConIerence Committee on the Application oI
Standards at the ILO ConIerence. This system provides inIormation on the actual
application oI ILO standards and permits monitoring oI their impact in practice. This
supervision is designed Ior ratiIied Conventions. The impact oI non-ratiIied Conventions
and Recommendations is also monitored, although less systematically, through General
Surveys such as the one carried out in 1999 in relation to the two Conventions and their
two supplementary Recommendations concerning migrant workers.
104
Since 1955, the
ILO has carried out one such General Survey on one or more instruments relating to a
speciIic subject matter each year.
307. The monitoring oI United Nations instruments does not include the tripartite
element built into the ILO`s supervisory mechanism or scrutiny by independent legal
experts.
Impact oI supervision
308. The comments made by the CEACR on the application oI Conventions relevant to
this area demonstrate that migrant worker concerns are regularly monitored not only
through Conventions Nos. 97 and 143 but also through other instruments,
105
and that this
monitoring covers the situation oI migrant workers in a large number oI countries. The

104
On the basis oI article 19, paras. 5(e), 6(d) and 7(b) oI the ILO Constitution.
105
See paras. 251-254.
Ìnternational regulation of migrant workers and migration
95
ILO`s supervision oI the situation oI migrant workers is thus not limited to migrant
workers in the countries that have ratiIied Conventions Nos. 97 and 143. ILO research
has also demonstrated that this monitoring has had a positive impact, particularly in
relation to the application oI Conventions.
106
It would be productive to take a more
coherent approach to improving the situation oI migrant workers by using the comments
on all relevant Conventions as a basis Ior national action and Ior ILO technical
assistance.
Tools Ior systematic review oI national needs
309. It Iollows Irom the ILM Survey
107
that a large number oI member States consider
there is a need to expand the ILO`s knowledge base in the area oI migrant workers. More
systematic collection oI inIormation on national law and practice as well as an analysis
oI the national situation would respond to such a need. It would also constitute an
important tool Ior the promotion oI ILO instruments and the Iollow-up to their
implementation, and would enable technical assistance to be adapted to national needs.
Articles 10 and 19 oI the ILO Constitution oIIer ample possibilities Ior developing such
additional tools.
108

4.4. Preliminary conclusions
310. It should be recalled that the purpose oI the present discussion, based on an
integrated approach, is to permit the constituents to examine diIIerent ways oI improving
the coherence, relevance and impact oI the ILO`s standards-related activities in the area
oI migrant workers, through a better use oI its diIIerent means oI action.
311. The ILO`s body oI standards is rich and varied. As the Ioregoing examination
illustrates, several ILO standards are particularly relevant to migrant workers. These
include, Iirst and Ioremost, Conventions Nos. 97 and 143 and their Recommendations. It
Iollows Irom this review that while these Conventions may have certain lacunae, they
contain the principles that should be promoted Ior the protection oI migrant workers.
Migrant workers also beneIit Irom the protection oIIered by other relevant ILO standards,
including the standards concerning Iundamental rights at work and standards relating to
other areas such as employment, labour inspection, social security, wages, occupational
saIety and health, and private recruitment agencies, as well as sectors such as agriculture,
construction and the hotel and restaurant sector, which traditionally employ large
numbers oI migrant workers.
312. Certain categories oI migrant workers, however, do not beneIit Irom an adequate
level oI protection, Ior a number oI reasons. These include migrant workers in an
irregular situation and certain other particularly vulnerable categories oI workers such as
domestic workers, many oI them women, as well as, to some extent, temporary migrant
workers.
313. Account should also be taken oI the Iact that the United Nations Convention on the
Protection oI All Migrant Workers and Members oI their Families has recently entered

106
Particularly in the Iield oI Ireedom oI association and in relation to the application oI Convention No. 118
(equality oI treatment (social security)).
107
See Annex I, section 3.3, Ior details.
108
See also ILO: ILO standards-related activities in the area of occupational safetv and health, Report VI,
International Labour ConIerence, 91st Session, Geneva, 2001, para. 187.
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
96
into Iorce. This is a more recent instrument than ILO Conventions Nos. 97 and 143, and
it is, in some respects, more closely aligned to modern developments in this Iield. It will
be supervised by the United Nations` own supervisory process that will shortly begin to
operate. It will not, however, have the support provided by the ILO tripartite structure
and supervisory mechanism.
314. On the basis oI the Ioregoing, thereIore, what are the diIIerent options that could be
considered?
315. A Iirst option might be to launch a proper promotional campaign, coupled with
structured technical assistance Ior the ratiIication oI Conventions Nos. 97 and 143 and
the application oI their Recommendations. This action could be combined with the
ongoing promotion oI the United Nations Convention and would thus beneIit Irom the
strengths oI the two organizations. Notwithstanding their diIIerent institutional contexts,
these instruments contain a Iundamental set oI principles that should govern the
protection oI migrant workers and thereIore constitute a broad and valid basis Ior
immediate action in this Iield. However, relying on these three instruments alone does
not provide a complete solution to all the problems concerned, relating in particular to
irregular and temporary migration.
316. Addressing the lacunae that have been identiIied in the current standards could be
done by adopting one or more complementary instruments in this area, Ior example, in
the Iorm oI a protocol or guidelines. In this context account could be taken oI the 1997
Guidelines on special protective measures Ior migrant workers in time-bound
activities
109
and consideration could be given to the possible need to update and/or
complement them with guidelines concerning other vulnerable categories oI migrant
workers such as those having irregular status. Consideration could also be given to
developing guidelines Ior the management and good governance oI international
migration that would be appropriate Ior present-day international migration.
317. Another option would be to launch a promotional action with respect to all the
relevant standards reviewed in this chapter including Conventions Nos. 97 and 143.
Such a promotional initiative could contribute to Iostering more comprehensive
protection oI migrant workers through a more eIIective application oI these standards in
national law and practice.
318. A possible way to enhance the eIIiciency oI such an initiative would be to elaborate
a new instrument which would serve as a promotional 'engine¨ and be coupled with a
Iollow-up mechanism and technical assistance. This instrument which could be a
Recommendation would provide a coherent view oI the principles, both Ior the
protection oI migrant workers contained in the relevant standards and Ior good
governance oI international migration in the present context oI globalization. The
purpose oI this instrument and its Iollow-up would be to encourage the implementation
oI these principles. The Iollow-up should be based on systematically collected
inIormation on national law and practice, as well as on an analysis oI national situations,
in order to adapt technical assistance to national needs. Articles 10 and 19
110
oI the ILO
Constitution oIIer ample possibilities Ior the regular collection oI relevant inIormation in
this context.

109
See Iootnote 88.
110
Paras. 5(e), 6(d) and 7(b).
Ìnternational regulation of migrant workers and migration
97
319. Finally, it should also be recalled that in the context oI the discussion oI the
General Survey in the ConIerence Committee on the Application oI Standards in 1999, a
proposal was made Ior a Iull revision oI Conventions Nos. 97 and 143 and the merging
oI these instruments into a single Convention, which would take account oI present-day
realities.
111


111
ILO: Report of the Committee on the Application of Standards, International Labour ConIerence, 87th
Session, Geneva, 1999, para. 174.

99
*12#&"%'7'
ILO activities with governments
and sociaI partners
5.1. Ìntroductory remarks
320. This chapter outlines the main elements oI the ILO`s activities in the Iield oI
international labour migration. The economic and social policy issues raised by labour
migration cut across practically all spheres oI the normative and technical activities oI
the ILO. The search Ior employment and socio-economic security is the principal motive
Ior the migration oI workers, which gives rise to important employment policy issues in
both source and destination countries. The social protection oI all workers, including
migrant workers, is at the core oI the ILO`s work, whether it is to protect workers against
Iorced labour and against discrimination, provide them with social security coverage,
reduce poverty and create decent jobs, create more and better jobs Ior women, combat
traIIicking or stop the spread oI HIV/AIDS. As discussed in the previous chapter, most
ILO standards and norms apply to migrant workers. Today a large number oI the ILO`s
normative and technical cooperation activities have a direct bearing on migration and the
conditions oI migrant workers, and are in turn inIluenced by them.
5.2. A core agenda
321. A core agenda Ior labour migration policy comprises seven basic components: (1)
applying international standards to protect the basic rights oI all migrants; (2) monitoring
migration and the conditions oI migrant workers; (3) consulting social partners and other
stakeholders; (4) developing coherent national policies and measures on labour migration,
based on ILO principles; (5) enhancing administrative capacities Ior managing migration;
(6) preventing discrimination and Iacilitating the social and economic integration oI
immigrants; and (7) engaging in regional and international dialogue and cooperation.
322. The OIIice`s activities have evolved along lines corresponding to this core agenda
and have been grouped into the Iollowing main themes:
„ building a global knowledge base on labour migration through research and the
International Labour Migration (ILM) database;
„ promotion and supervision oI relevant ILO norms;
„ promoting and strengthening social dialogue on migration and integration
questions;
„ technical cooperation to assist governments and social partners in improving their
capacities Ior policy-making and administration;
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
100
„ special action programmes to combat traIIicking and Iorced labour oI both children
and adults, to protect groups at risk, especially Irom HIV/AIDS, and to promote
integration and non-discrimination;
„ building an international Iramework Ior cooperation on migration.
(a) Building the knowledge base
323. ILO studies on migration and migration policy have long been standard reIerences
Ior specialists and Ior policy-makers. They can be broadly divided into three categories:
studies identiIying migration trends, their causes and consequences; studies documenting
and evaluating the policies oI countries oI origin; and studies documenting and
evaluating the policies oI countries oI employment. Some oI the earliest evaluations oI
the guest worker programmes in western Europe came Irom ILO research, as did early
reports on the emergence oI a labour migration system in the GulI region. The studies on
the experience oI Asian countries oI origin in regulating recruitment and contract labour
migration are still important reIerence points Ior countries in other regions seeking
models Ior managing emigration. For countries that are experiencing irregular Iorms oI
migration, ILO research on how employer sanctions and regularization measures work is
particularly instructive. All these studies have since been synthesized into manuals to
support the OIIice`s advisory work.
324. The growing demands Irom member States Ior policy advice underscore the need
Ior Iurther expanding the ILO`s knowledge base, especially in new and growing regions
oI migration and on issues arising Irom the increasing complexity and diversity oI cross-
border movements oI workers in an era oI globalization.
325. Some years ago, the ILO started an International Labour Migration Database,
providing online data Irom more than 80 countries on labour migration Ilows, stocks and
employment characteristics. It was designed and is being implemented in coordination
with the United Nations, the OECD and EUROSTAT to avoid duplication and to
enhance complementarity. Limited resources as well as the scarcity oI national statistics
on migration have impeded Iurther development and wider participation by developing
countries in some regions.
326. Two main series oI publications disseminate research Iindings and specialist views
on policy questions. The ILO`s International Migration Papers series, which started in
the mid-1970s, has been bringing out the results oI empirical studies on a broad range oI
issues, Irom emigration pressures in North AIrica to the integration problems oI second-
generation migrants in Europe; Irom the conditions oI mineworkers in South AIrica to
the impact oI CARICOM on the actual movements oI workers in the Caribbean. A new
Perspectives on Labour Migration series, which started in 2003, provides a vehicle Ior
the exchange oI specialist views on selected migration policy issues. These studies and
the ILM database are made available to the general public worldwide through the ILO
web site. Migration research papers, articles, statistical data and reports on relevant
activity are posted at http://www.ilo.org/migrant .
327. NATLEX, the ILO`s database on labour legislation, also contains inIormation on
migration law together with useIul country proIiles. This database will be enriched by
the inIormation sent in by countries responding to the ILM Survey. Many respondents
drew attention to the useIulness and value oI such a collection oI laws on migration Ior
policy-making and administration.
ÌLO activities with governments and social partners
101
328. The ILO`s work on migration also draws on a much larger inIormation base
accumulated under the auspices oI a large number oI technical cooperation programmes
in the Iield and at headquarters. These include the ILO`s country programmes to promote
employment and decent work, and studies on the social dimensions oI globalization,
improving key labour market indicators, child labour, more and better jobs Ior women,
traIIicking and Iorced labour, social Iinance, conditions oI work, crisis response, social
security, HIV/AIDS, and on working conditions in several important economic sectors,
including agriculture, construction, the maritime sector, communications, tourism and
health.
(b) Promotion of norms
329. The wider acceptance and integration oI ILO standards and principles, both in
national migration policies and in international treaties, remains the Iundamental
objective oI the ILO`s work in this Iield. This is undertaken at various levels, in the
regions and at headquarters, through advisory missions, training programmes and
national and regional conIerences, and through collaborative work with other
international and regional organizations such as the OIIice oI the High Commissioner Ior
Human Rights (OHCHR), UNHCR, the IOM and the Council oI Europe.
1

330. As ILO Conventions and the International Convention on the Protection oI the
Rights oI All Migrant Workers and Members oI their Families oI 1990 share a common
purpose, the ILO has participated since 1998 in the inter-agency Steering Committee Ior
the Global Campaign Ior ratiIication oI the International Convention, a multi-agency
eIIort which has already contributed to ratiIications by several countries.
(c) Social dialogue
331. Labour migration policies are likely to have broad support iI they are developed
with the Iull participation oI those representing the interests oI the most directly aIIected
parties, namely the employers and workers. However, Iormal structures at national level
that allow Ior active participation oI social partner organizations in labour migration
policy and administration are still very Iew and Iar between. Preparing the tripartite
partners Ior such a role in migration policy is now being given due emphasis in the
design oI ILO seminars and related activities. The OIIice has even Iacilitated
participation by regional and national employer and union organizations in recent
activities organized under the auspices oI outside organizations.
2
ACT/EMP and
ACTRAV have each designated a Iocal point oIIicer Ior labour migration concerns, and
produced a special issue oI the publication Labour Education on migrant workers in
2002, which covered in some depth the situation oI migrant workers and the possible
role oI workers` organizations in improving it.
(d) Technical cooperation
332. Technical cooperation is now a major means oI action Ior achieving the ILO`s
mission and objectives. Through externally Iunded projects the ILO has been able to
oIIer more substantive technical assistance to member States in various aspects oI labour

1
Recent examples are subregional tripartite seminars in AIrica (Pretoria, Douala, Dakar, Arusha), International
Migration Policy Programme (IMP) conIerences in AIrica and Central Asia, a tripartite regional conIerence in
Asia, and ILO contributions to regional conIerences in Central and Latin America (San Jose, Lima, Santiago,
Montevideo).
2
IMP conIerences in East and West AIrica and Central Asia (see para. 19).
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
102
migration policy and administration than its own resources would permit. Regional
technical cooperation projects carried out in Asia, North AIrica, and in Central and
Eastern Europe, Ior example, have enabled the OIIice to meet in a cost-eIIective manner
countries` common needs Ior inIormation and training in the management oI labour
migration. They supported the establishment oI networks among labour ministries which
continued long aIter the externally Iunded projects had ended. Through technical
cooperation the OIIice has assisted governments in developing a Iirm base Ior national
policies by grounding them on conditions in national and international labour markets,
by harmonizing national with international normative standards, and by broadening
support Ior policy through social dialogue.
Box 5.1
The ILO's advisory work on Iabour migration
Two main approaches characterize ÌLO technical cooperation. One comprises
advisory missions, seminars and/or short-term expert projects at the request of member
governments to address specific needs and situations. Over the last few years, these
have included advisory missions on general issues of improving national migration policy
(Bahrain, Bulgaria, Costa Rica, Ìslamic Republic of Ìran, Kuwait, Republic of Korea and
Thailand); formulating legislation (Azerbaijan, Georgia and Turkey); and/or establishing
frameworks for protecting nationals going abroad (Albania, Bangladesh, China,
Ìndonesia, Mongolia, Nepal). Similar requests have been received from Armenia,
Ecuador, Mauritius, Poland, Serbia and Montenegro and the Democratic Republic of
Timor-Leste.
Another approach addresses multilateral migration issues. The Office has been
asked, for example, to advise the ASEAN countries on the feasibility of a regional
agreement on social security for migrant workers. A draft was prepared some years ago
but agreement has so far not been reached. More recently, an assessment of trends in
cross-border movements in the CARÌCOM area has been undertaken with a view to
identifying areas of converging interests in further advancing labour market integration.
The Gulf Cooperation Council has sought advice and information on other regions'
experience of labour market integration. Basic research on the policy implications of
liberalizing cross-border movements and allowing the freer circulation of labour will be
very important in the future advisory work of the Office.
333. A project entitled the 'AIrican Labour Migration Policy Initiative¨ has obtained
Iinancial support Irom the European Union and is due to be launched in March 2004. It
will provide assistance in policy development to the Iive Maghreb countries, the three
countries oI the East AIrican Community and the members oI the West AIrican
Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU). The main areas oI emphasis in these three
concurrent subregional programmes are: strengthening data collection and analysis;
Iacilitating labour mobility in regional integration processes; addressing the 'brain
drain¨; and preventing exploitation and discrimination, with the overall objective oI
enhancing development. A similar project is being initiated jointly with the IOM in the
Southern AIrican Development Community (SADC). An integrated regional approach is
also planned Ior Central Asia, the Caucasus and several Eastern European countries.
334. Two other smaller projects have recently started. One oI these, which aims to help
the Governments oI Albania, the Republic oI Moldova and Romania to design national
programmes on labour migration and counter traIIicking, was launched in late 2003 with
support Irom Ireland Aid. The other project aims to enhance national capacity Ior the
eIIective administration and management oI labour migration Ilows in Cambodia, Lao
People`s Democratic Republic, Mongolia and Thailand. It will start in early 2004 under
the auspices oI the Republic oI Korea-ILO strategic partnership.
ÌLO activities with governments and social partners
103
335. Technical cooperation at the country level is exempliIied by a project supported by
the Italian Ministry oI Labour and Social WelIare aiming to assess the employment
diIIiculties Iaced by migrant workers in Italy because oI discrimination. Based on the
methodology used in earlier ILO studies in Belgium, Germany, the Netherlands and
Spain, research was conducted in three Italian cities in 2003 to measure discrimination in
access to employment Iaced by immigrant and minority workers. Its Iindings will assist
the Government and social partners oI Italy in combating discrimination in employment
more eIIectively and implementing the EU Directive on racism (Council Directive
2000/43/EC).
336. A technical cooperation project to enhance tripartite cooperation in Iacilitating
integration and combating discrimination against migrant workers in Europe will be
initiated in mid-2004 with support Irom the European Union INTI Iund. This will build
on the OIIice`s earlier work on a compendium oI anti-discrimination 'good practice¨
measures Irom employers, unions, governments and NGOs Irom most European
countries, which will be available online as oI March 2004. A practical handbook and
other materials will be published to assist constituents in conducting eIIective anti-
discrimination work.
(e) Capacity building
337. The OIIice, in cooperation with the ILO International Training Centre in Turin, has
developed a tripartite training module on labour migration incorporating interactive
discussions with experts, validation oI participants` experience and collective elaboration
oI plans and commitments Ior Iollow-up activity. Subregional tripartite capacity-building
seminars using this approach were held in southern AIrica, Central AIrica and West
AIrica in 2002-03. Regional and topical seminars are scheduled Ior AIrica and Latin
America in 2004. The Turin Centre has also been engaged in the work oI promoting ILO
instruments on migration Ior employment through several courses designed specially Ior
administrators oI migration policy, and in several instances speciIically Ior labour
attaches.
338. Through its participation in conIerences convened by the inter-agency International
Migration Policy Programme (IMP), the ILO has been able to stress the centrality oI
labour issues in migration and the need to adopt appropriate normative, policy and
practical administrative measures as core elements oI sound migration policy. These
activities (Dakar, 2001; Nairobi, 2002; Istanbul, 2003; Addis Ababa, 2003; Bishkek,
2004), have so Iar involved senior oIIicials Irom the Ioreign aIIairs, interior and other
ministries oI 65 governments in West AIrica, Central Asia-Caucasus and neighbouring
countries, East AIrica and the Horn oI AIrica.
(f) Special action programmes
339. Some oI the ILO`s global initiatives and programmes are particularly important in
addressing the most severe challenges to protection in the Iield oI migration. These
programmes are helping to develop common understanding, cooperation and eIIective
action across borders, and they attract resources and attention that no national or regional
eIIort has achieved.
340. Seven major regional projects to combat traIIicking in children, covering more than
45 countries, are operational under IPEC auspices in South Asia, West and Central
AIrica, Central America, the Dominican Republic, South America, Eastern Europe and
the Balkans, and the Greater Mekong Subregion. These projects reIlect an integrated
approach towards the prevention oI exploitative work and the withdrawal oI children
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
104
Irom it by addressing the root causes oI traIIicking poverty, inadequate education and
lack oI decent work Ior adults.
Box 5.2
The ILO's SpeciaI Action Programme to
Combat Forced Labour (SAP-FL)
This global programme addresses the trafficking of migrant workers, focusing on the
forced labour outcomes. National studies are being conducted on the characteristics and
consequences of the trafficking of migrant workers in a number of Asian and European
countries. An ÌLO overview paper, Trafficking in human beings: New approaches to
combating the problem, was first issued in May 2003. SAP-FL approaches human
trafficking from a broader labour market perspective in both countries of origin and
destination countries, aiming to involve key labour institutions and players in coordinated
anti-trafficking activities. Research examines both demand and supply aspects,
identifying the extent to which irregular migrants are subjected to coercive recruitment
and employment conditions in certain economic sectors. Many partners welcomed this
focus, which draws more attention to labour market initiatives as a key element of global
action against trafficking. Training seminars for labour officials from Central and Eastern
Europe were held in Bucharest and Turin in early 2004. Operational projects have
started in Europe, Central Asia, West Africa and South-East Asia, with activities in
countries of origin and destination countries. Technical assistance is being provided to
member States on the identification of forced labour cases in new anti-trafficking
legislation and law enforcement.
341. In 2001-02, studies documenting discrimination against women migrant workers
were conducted under the auspices oI GENPROM in Bolivia, Costa Rica, Ethiopia, Italy,
Japan, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Philippines, Romania, Sri Lanka and the United Arab
Emirates. These studies yielded valuable insights into the situation oI women migrant
workers and on how they can be assisted at various stages oI the migration process, and
served as the basis Ior training seminars at the Turin Centre on the identiIication oI anti-
traIIicking strategies, and Ior policy advocacy. The good practices documented in the 11
country studies served as the material Ior the ILO`s inIormation guide on women
migrant workers, which was issued in 2003 to enhance the eIIorts oI government
agencies, workers` and employers` organizations and NGOs in all countries to improve
protection, reduce exploitation and abuse, and prevent traIIicking oI Iemale migrants.
342. Finally, ILO-AIDS has given particular attention to identiIying challenges and
remedies concerned with reducing the risk oI HIV/AIDS among mobile and migrant
worker populations; the OIIice has cooperated with UNAIDS, the WHO and the IOM on
research and joint advocacy on this issue.
(g) Building international cooperation
343. Since the great majority oI migrants worldwide are economically active, the ILO
has an essential role to play in Iorging international cooperation Ior managing migration.
Much oI today`s migration is due to widening economic gaps, lack oI employment
opportunities at home, and conditions in labour markets. One oI the key migration issues
Iacing the international community is the protection oI migrants against exploitative
treatment. The rising emphasis on migration as a labour and economic concern, rather
than as a security issue, in current international policy discourse certainly coincides with
increased ILO activity in the Iield.
344. The United Nations itselI provides the most important avenue Ior building
international cooperation. The ILO has brought migration and workers` rights issues to
ÌLO activities with governments and social partners
105
relevant sessions oI the Commission on Human Rights and the General Assembly. It has
supported the United Nations Special Rapporteurs on Human Rights oI Migrants and on
Rights oI Non-Citizens with inIormation and advice. The OIIice likewise cooperates
actively with other United Nations agencies as well as with the International
Organization Ior Migration (IOM) at policy and technical levels, in bilateral activities
and in multilateral Iorums such as the intergovernmental organization (IGO) Contact
Group on Human TraIIicking and Migrant Smuggling. More signiIicantly, the ILO`s
Director-General is a co-Iounder oI the Geneva Migration Group, a recently established
inIormal association oI the executive heads oI United Nations and international agencies
in Geneva dealing with migration and reIugee questions.
345. A Iew important initiatives have been launched recently by some governments and
international organizations to create a multilateral Iramework oI cooperation Ior
improving migration governance. The ILO is an active member oI the Steering
Committee oI the Berne Initiative, a project launched by the Swiss Government and now
supported by a number oI others aimed at improving global governance oI migration
through multilateral action. The ILO is also a co-sponsor oI the inter-agency
International Migration Policy Programme together with the IOM, United Nations
Population Fund (UNFPA) and the United Nations Institute Ior Training and Research
(UNITAR). The latest initiative is the establishment oI the Global Commission on
Migration by several governments, notably by the Governments oI Sweden and
Switzerland.
346. The ILO has sought to strengthen coordination with regional structures as well. In
late 2003, migration was agreed as one oI the Iive priority areas Ior implementation oI
the newly established EU-ILO strategic partnership. The ILO contributed to the draIt
strategic Iramework Ior a policy on migration in AIrica developed under AIrican
auspices. ILO observations have been actively solicited in the Council oI Europe
Committee on Migration (CDMG). In addition, high-level ILO oIIicials in 2003
addressed the 5¹5 Dialogue conIerence on migration in Rabat and, in 2002, the 7th
ConIerence oI European Ministers Responsible Ior Migration AIIairs in Helsinki, the
Hemispheric ConIerence on Migration, Human Rights and the TraIIicking in Persons in
Santiago de Chile, the European Red Cross and Red Crescent Regional ConIerence in
Berlin, and the Asia and PaciIic Regional ConIerence oI Red Cross and Red Crescent
Societies in Manila.
5.3. An integrated programme within the ÌLO
347. The challenges posed by migration require responses which can draw on
competencies, programmes and activities within the ILO. These encompass a vast range
oI competencies in diIIerent departments, both at headquarters and in the Iield. ILO
activities in many regions in the Iield oI employment policy address the underlying
Iactors behind migration pressures and the conditions oI employment Iacing migrant
workers. The ILO`s programme on standards and Iundamental principles and rights at
work is obviously central to the promotion oI a rights-based approach to migration
management. ILO activities aimed at promoting saIer and better conditions oI
employment and enlarging the population covered by social security are as relevant to
migrants as they are to national workers, iI not more so. And the establishment and
strengthening oI social dialogue is oI critical importance in making sound migration
policy and obtaining broad support Ior it.
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
106
348. Building an integrated programme on migration Irom this vast array oI technical
competencies and activities is the central task oI MIGRANT, the ILO`s specialized
technical unit Ior migration. It identiIies the issues that need to be addressed by the ILO
and Iinds the means Ior tackling them by mobilizing knowledge, competencies and
Iinancial resources Irom inside and outside the Organization. This has proved to be a
Iormidable task, given its limited resources and the rapidly growing demands Ior ILO
involvement in a wide range oI migration issues. In 2003, Ior example, this entailed
involvement in regularizing the status oI migrant workers in Thailand, harmonizing
policies in support oI Iree movement oI labour in West AIrica, identiIying and
documenting best practices Ior reducing discrimination against immigrants in western
Europe, improving the management oI recruitment in places as diverse as Nepal and the
United Republic oI Tanzania, spreading inIormation on how migrants can be induced to
invest in their communities oI origin in Mexico, assessing the conditions oI migrant
domestic helpers in Central America, and developing strategies to combat traIIicking in
young women Irom a number oI States in the CIS region.
349. The replies to the ILM Survey indicate a very strong demand by member States Ior
Iurther support activity Irom the ILO (see Iigure 5.1). A total oI 47 countries replied that
they needed technical cooperation Irom the ILO on improved migration statistics, 32
needed technical cooperation on development oI labour migration policy, 22 on
review/reIorm oI legislation, 22 on development oI national administrative
inIrastructures, 29 on capacity building oI employers` and workers` organizations, 33 on
strengthening labour inspection, 22 on promotion oI equality oI treatment and 24 on
gender-speciIic issues oI migration policy or practice. A number oI countries indicated a
speciIic need Ior technical cooperation in one or two areas. Some 20 indicated a need
across the board in all categories. Most replies received directly Irom several national
trade union Iederations also expressed the need Ior assistance in some or all oI these
categories. Employer representatives have urged the ILO to address companies` needs in
labour markets.
Figure 5.1. TechnicaI cooperation required from the ILO
(No. of respondents)
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
Ìnfrastructure
Equal treatment
Laws
Gender
Capacity building
Labour inspection
Migration policy
Statistics

J65$&8R!S9[!J5$L8HO!233+*!
350. A growing proportion oI ILO activity on migration is implemented through
regional and Iield oIIices. Migration Ieatured as a central priority in plans agreed Ior the
Asia and Middle East regions, and was explicitly included Ior AIrica, Europe and Latin
America in the joint ILO programme planning exercise oI November 2003.
ÌLO activities with governments and social partners
107
351. Many oI these activities have already had concrete results which are expected to
contribute to the improvement oI the actual conditions oI migrants in many parts oI the
world. A Iew examples may be cited to illustrate this. The ILO`s technical assistance
project on migration management has already led to the signing oI a Memorandum oI
Understanding between the Governments oI Thailand, Myanmar, Lao People`s
Democratic Republic and Cambodia, under which migrant workers will receive wages
and beneIits at the same rate as national workers in accordance with the principles oI
non-discrimination and equality with respect to gender, ethnicity and religious identity.
In the Republic oI Korea, a new law providing Ior the temporary admission and
employment oI Ioreign workers has been passed, based in part on ILO advice. The
OIIice promoted this policy reIorm aIter identiIying deIiciencies in the previous trainee
system and advised the Ministry oI Labour on best practices with respect to preparation
oI the legislative proposals.
352. In Belgium, ILO research on Combating Discrimination Against Migrant and
Ethnic Minority Workers in the World oI Work was credited with shaping the content oI
national legislation adopted in 2003 by the Belgian Parliament putting into eIIect the EU
Directive on racism (Council Directive 2000/43/EC). A campaign against discrimination
was established at regional and Iederal levels with the involvement oI the three national
trade union Iederations and the national Iederation oI employers. In Ireland, the ILO
helped the Government and social partner institutions draIt an 'action plan¨ Ior trade
union and business anti-discrimination/integration in 2003.
353. The impact oI ILO action against child traIIicking has included recognition oI its
role, methodology and outcomes at the global level (Yokohama ConIerence, United
Nations General Assembly), expanding demand Ior ILO technical cooperation and
advisory services in diIIerent regions, and increasing donor willingness to Iinance large-
scale projects against child traIIicking.
354. In Mauritius, the Ministry oI Labour and Industry credited ILO principles, standards
and training Ior its decision to set up a 'special expatriate squad¨ to oversee all aspects oI
employment oI Ioreign workers. In Mongolia, the Ministry oI Labour has set in motion the
programme oI action adopted at the ILO Workshop on Overseas Employment in 2002
which included a closer monitoring oI the activities oI recruitment agencies.
5.4. Preliminary conclusions
355. The Ioregoing discussion oI the ILO`s activities illustrates the relevance oI ILO
normative and technical cooperation activities to tackling the wide variety oI migration
issues. These activities underscore the important position that labour migration occupies
in the ILO`s mission and suggest that the ILO has a key role to play in the wider eIIort to
resolve the many dilemmas with respect to migration Iacing the international community.
Greater participation by the tripartite constituents in the various regional and global initiatives
to discuss and develop cooperation on managing migration would appear to be essential.
356. The International Labour Migration Survey indicates that member States are
expecting a Iurther expansion oI technical cooperation activities in the Iield oI migration.
Supporting and sustaining these activities and the initiatives at regional and international
level that the ILO might wish to take in the Iuture, especially Iollowing the general
discussion, will require a review oI the adequacy oI resources devoted to the ILO`s
International Migration Programme.

109
*12#&"%'8'
Managing migration
6.1. Ìntroductory remarks
357. Migration represents one oI the most complex policy challenges Ior governments.
They Iind themselves balancing a host oI diIIerent issues and interests, some economic,
some social, some political. These are in essence concerned with ideas oI diIIerence and
equality: migration is Iuelled by diIIerences between countries, and yet the protection oI
migrants demands equal treatment Ior all workers, whatever their nationality.
358. Unlike other aspects oI globalization, such as increased trade or investment,
migration oI labour, even Ior temporary periods, provokes signiIicant social and political
adjustments which are oIten stressIul, and has implications Ior a range oI economic and
social policies Irom education, health and social welIare, to international development.
Governments concerned about migration must thereIore go beyond mere gate-keeping
and integrate migration policy into mainstream planning.
1

359. This chapter, which is based on the experience oI many countries and on responses
to the International Labour Migration Survey, looks at the available opportunities Ior
improving the governance oI migration. Migration policy decisions are hard to reverse,
so they need to be based on a consensus regarding long-term interests; and since
migration can involve losses and gains both Ior individuals and Ior source and
destination countries, ways must be Iound to distribute the beneIits oI migration more
equitably.
360. Sustainable policies must thereIore be based on open debate and social dialogue
among the most important stakeholders, and consistent with policies in other spheres oI
governance, particularly in the management oI the economy and the promotion oI
political stability. It is in the nature oI liberal democracies Ior strong diIIerences to exist
on policy directions and how they are to be managed. Political leaders have a
responsibility to inIorm and educate the public on the implications and consequences oI
migration. Policies need to be made transparent and coherent, yet administered
suIIiciently Ilexibly to allow policy-makers to learn Irom experience.
361. This chapter Iurther argues that while many elements oI immigration policy will
continue to be in the domain oI individual state policy, there is an evident need Ior more
multilateral approaches to managing migration. Existing unilateral approaches to
establishing order in migration are proving inadequate to cope with the rising mobility oI
people across borders Ior reasons oI tourism, work, business, study or asylum. The ever-

1
See S. Spencer (ed.): The politics of migration. Managing opportunitv, conflict and change, Special Issue oI
The Political Quarterlv (OxIord, Blackwell Publishing, 2003).
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
110
growing size oI populations in an irregular status is evidence oI that Iailure. In order to
protect migrant workers, the ILO will need to go beyond its normative work to actively
promote, in partnership with other international organizations, cooperative schemes Ior
managing migration.
6.2. Choosing policy directions
362. History shapes and constrains migration policy choices. Wars, Ior example, have
oIten caused political boundaries to be drawn and redrawn, so that some people, even
without migrating, have Iound themselves living within the territory oI a nation other
than the one in which they were born. Past colonial arrangements have also played a part,
since they generally allowed Ior Iree movement between the imperial centre and the
territories and thus established migration Ilows that changed the ethnic character oI
source and destination countries. Finally, governments have also made deliberate choices
that aIIect migration by adopting common borders. This has happened in the European
Union, which now guarantees Iree movement oI labour Ior nationals oI all its Member
States.
363. Migration policies are shaped by balancing diIIerent, and at times conIlicting,
interests and objectives. Family reuniIication remains an important value underlying the
immigration priorities oI most countries, but also has to be balanced with employers`
concerns regarding the need to tailor policy to meet labour shortages. Temporary Ioreign
worker programmes are established to meet cyclical labour shortages, but the way to
sustain such policies may involve an unacceptable limitation oI workers` rights. The
admission oI highly skilled Ioreign workers may be considered an imperative to maintain
global competitiveness in certain industries or as a means to stimulate growth, but it may
be opposed by native workers whose wages may be depressed.
364. Because policies have signiIicant long-term implications which go beyond their
intended eIIects, the course that is chosen is oI critical importance. For example, in the
1950s, as a result oI rapid economic recovery, both Germany and Japan were Iaced with
emerging labour scarcities, but chose very diIIerent solutions. Japan decided not to open
her doors to Ioreign labour and instead used a variety oI policy instruments to press
Japanese Iirms to adopt labour-saving processes and eventually to use direct Ioreign
investment to relocate production to lower-wage countries. West Germany, as it then
was, also experienced rapid economic growth and Iull employment, while its labour
Iorce was shrinking. Planners in West Germany, unlike those in Japan, were reluctant to
put their Iaith in mechanization and rationalization, on the grounds that they might
jeopardize what was perceived to be a Iragile economic recovery. German leaders
considered that importing Ioreign labour temporarily would be less risky and embarked
on the now Iamous Gastarbeiter ('guest worker¨) programme.
6.3. Towards greater policy coherence
365. One oI the major challenges to the governance oI labour migration is policy
coherence. At the very least, policy coherence must ensure that migration policies are
directed at meeting Ioreseeable long-term requirements oI the economy and society, and
remain in place regardless oI changes in government. However, in a broader sense,
policy coherence means ensuring that policies and programmes in both migration and
other sectors do not undermine each other, either directly or through unintended
consequences. Rather, governments should take measures that support legal migration,
Managing migration
111
ensuring that Ioreign workers receive wages that are not lower than those oI local
workers, and using sanctions and other means to discourage the employment oI irregular
workers.
366. Some oI the perceived policy Iailures associated with 'guest worker¨ programmes
arose Irom unrealistic expectations about how closely migration could be Iine-tuned to
respond to economic cycles; in Iact, it is oIten not possible to turn migration on and oII
like a water tap. Policy-makers may also have assumed, erroneously, that temporary
worker programmes do not aIIect relative wages, or returns on capital or to owners oI
other productive assets. In Iact Iirms adjust their production strategies, and structure the
jobs they create, according to their expectations about the availability and cost oI labour;
once they have made investment decisions on the assumption that migrants will continue
to be available, they will understandably resist policy changes that would deny them
access to such labour.
367. Policies based on the assumption that migrants can be brought in when needed and
sent home when no longer needed are bound to Iail. Such policies, which are premised
on making migration a counter-cyclical measure against instabilities in the labour market,
have Iailed in every region where they have been tried. The reason was summed up in
one phrase by the Swiss writer Max Frisch: 'We invited guest workers, and got human
beings.¨ As social beings, men and women have needs that go beyond physical
maintenance. Moreover, host societies and economies adjust to their presence and come
to depend on their services.
368. Lack oI policy coherence is oIten a reIlection oI the conIlicting pressures on
political leaders who are nervous oI losing the support oI key constituencies. One
consequence is the contradiction between political pronouncements and what happens on
the ground. For example, a government may play up its opposition to the use oI
unskilled Ioreign labour and its determination to stop irregular migration, while in
practice actually subsidizing and protecting sectors, such as agriculture, that absorb
unskilled Ioreign labour. It may also Iail to regulate wages and working conditions,
giving some employers an incentive to hire irregular workers to save on labour costs, or
allow Iirms quite legally to pay below-minimum wages to Ioreign 'trainees¨ who are in
Iact workers. Politicians who Iail to develop clear policies on migration run the risk oI
appearing hypocritical and losing public support, leaving policy at the mercy oI
extremist pressure groups. In many countries it is still an open question as to whether or
not a more liberal immigration platIorm can be a vote winner.
Flexibility in administering policy
369. Policy coherence does not, however, mean that the administration oI migration
policy should be inIlexible. As many national authorities have learned Irom experience,
some oI the best designed procedures to manage migration can go awry because it is
very diIIicult to anticipate the responses oI the main players in the labour market. In the
United States, Ior example, the H1B visa category was created to meet the demands oI
private industry Ior highly skilled workers when these could not be Iound within the
domestic labour market. However, the 'body shops¨ that recruited skilled Ioreign
workers and placed them in jobs in the United States Iound it advantageous to obtain as
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
112
many visas as they could, regardless oI demand, so some brought in Ioreign workers
even when there were no jobs available Ior them.
2

370. Policies will always need to be adjusted to changing circumstances and shiIting
objectives. Experience shows that planned migration is rarely achieved. This was the
experience with the German Gastarbeiter programme and with the earlier Australian
policy to keep Australia white and British. Circumstances change and migration
outcomes may bear little relation to the original objectives oI the policy, but this does not
necessarily mean that the policy has Iailed.
6.4. The value of social dialogue
371. Migration has, or is perceived to have, consequences that disadvantage certain
groups, particularly the less skilled and older workers, either through displacement or by
lowering wages. Migration has also been blamed Ior all kinds oI social and economic ills,
Irom unemployment and displacement oI nationals in the labour market, to illicit drugs,
street crime, terrorism and HIV/AIDS. Since migrant groups seldom have any
opportunity to deIend themselves, they have become easy targets Ior extremist groups
looking Ior opportunities to advance their political agenda. Few policy-makers want to
take chances on such a divisive issue, and during periods oI economic crisis they may
choose simply to repatriate Ioreign workers and close the migration gates. This happened
recently in South-East Asia in the aItermath oI the 1997 Asian Iinancial crisis, Ior
example, but has also occurred in other parts oI the world. Even the most responsible
political parties have been known to play the 'migration card¨ in order to win more
votes.
372. Rescuing migration policies Irom the demands oI street politics will require an
inIormed debate that can reach a broad social consensus among representatives oI those
who stand to gain and those who stand to lose. These are the employers, the workers,
and the government representing society as a whole. Social dialogue can help to Iorm a
sound approach that commands broad support. Responses to the International Labour
Migration Survey indicate that, when amending or adopting laws pertaining to national
immigration policy, most countries hold regular consultations with representative
employers` and workers` organizations. There are, however, only a Iew examples where
the Iormulation oI labour migration policies, laws and regulations takes place through
Iormally established tripartite structures.
373. This type oI dialogue is also needed in the countries oI origin especially where
governments have assumed responsibility Ior regulating the recruitment and contracting
oI their nationals. Here, too, there can be winners and losers. The migrant workers and
their Iamilies will gain but the society they leave behind may lose out, especially when
skilled workers are lost. For example, when Jamaica lost two-thirds oI its nurses to other
countries, its hospitals could no longer provide the same quality oI treatment. And when
Pakistan lost its best masons and carpenters to the GulI States during the 1970s and
1980s, it also lost the more senior workers who could pass on skills to younger
apprentices, thus damaging its inIormal training systems. Not surprisingly, domestic
industries in origin countries that lose skilled personnel will have little incentive to
invest in the development oI skills other than Iirm-speciIic skills.

2
P. Martin and M.I. Abella: Globali:ation and guest workers. Migration for emplovment in the 21st centurv
(Iorthcoming).
Managing migration
113
374. Where an origin country establishes appropriate policies and structures Ior
managing emigration, workers usually opt to migrate through established legal channels
and are thus better protected. The Philippines is a good example. The country has two
key agencies responsible Ior labour migration policy and administration the Philippine
Overseas Employment Administration (POEA) and the Overseas Workers WelIare
Administration (OWWA), Ior both oI which the Government has established tripartite
advisory boards. The POEA has been credited with many innovations, including the
policy oI making private recruitment agencies jointly liable with Ioreign employers Ior
any contract violations, while also providing incentives and awards Ior good
perIormance, and Ior the introduction oI an Internet-based 'paperless¨ contract approval
system. As a result, Philippine workers are some oI the most sought-aIter abroad and are
known to receive higher wages than their counterparts Irom other countries.
6.5. Aligning foreign labour admissions with
economic needs
375. Not all migration policies are driven by labour scarcity. The United States, Canada
and Australia have a tradition oI encouraging long-term immigration, and a key
Ioundation oI their migration policy is to encourage Iamily reuniIication. Even in Europe,
aIter the ending oI guest worker programmes in the early 1970s, governments continued
to permit Iamily reuniIication which became virtually the only legal channel Ior
immigration Irom non-EU countries. However, by the 1990s, thanks to the huge
investments in inIormation technology, most governments were looking to use
immigration to solve skill shortages resurrecting the debates over how successIully
states can align migration policies with the short- and long-term needs oI their
economies.
376. The major reasons usually presented Ior increasing the supply oI workers via
immigration are:
„ Meeting a temporary demand Ior workers the belieI that the labour demand-
supply gap is only temporary and will subsequently be Iilled by local workers,
including students who are currently in training.
„ Supporting strategic industries some labour-short industries have a strategic value
that might be lost iI the industry migrated abroad, or expanded more slowly owing
to a lack oI labour.
„ Building a global workIorce the need to train Ioreign workers Ior branches or
subsidiaries abroad as part oI a global workIorce.
„ Avoiding inIlation the desire to curb wage inIlation in one industry, occupation
or area that could have spillover eIIects in other labour markets or could lead to
rising consumer prices.
377. These reasons tell us why countries might choose to open the border gates, but not
how many migrants they should admit. Planning immigration to meet labour market
requirements may take diIIerent tracks. Traditional immigration countries such as
Canada and Australia do not only recruit immigrants Ior speciIic jobs or Ior immediate
labour market scarcities, but also choose immigrants on the basis oI their long-term
capacity to integrate in the labour market, so that migrants who pass points tests Ior
admission are Iree to choose and change jobs as they wish.
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
114
378. Other countries make more eIIorts to match Ioreign workers to immediate labour
market needs. This is a complex undertaking. Ascertaining labour scarcity Ior each and
every occupation at speciIic points in time, and Ior each region within a country, is
diIIicult, so that governments inevitably use simple labour market tests and allow
agencies considerable latitude in administering labour market-based migration policies.
In some cases, the government takes a laissez Iaire approach. Some put the onus on the
company to prove that no national workers are available Ior this assignment that they
have advertised the post but Iound no qualiIied applicants. This can be expensive and
time-consuming. In other cases, like the United States, the employer simply attests that
the workers are needed and the prevailing wage will be paid, and there is generally no
enIorcement unless complaints are made.
Box 6.1
Minimum waiting period to estabIish scarcity
The period during which employers must offer jobs to national workers varies from
one country to another. Ìn Mauritius and Tunisia, for example, employers have to prove
that there is a lack of qualified applicants after a job vacancy has been advertised for two
weeks; in Lebanon the period is three weeks; in Ìreland, the Republic of Korea, Poland
and the United Kingdom, it is four weeks; in Portugal, five weeks; and in the Netherlands
it is five to 12 weeks. Ìn some countries, however, as in Belgium, the burden of proof lies
with the competent authority, which must demonstrate that there is no labour scarcity.
Source: ÌLM Survey 2003.
379. Other countries discourage the employment oI Ioreign workers in diIIerent ways.
Singapore, Ior example, requires employers to pay a migrant workers` levy or tax.
3

Others oIIer migrant workers a premium over wages oIIered to nationals as in Bahrain,
Czech Republic, Kazakhstan, Poland, Senegal and Slovakia. But one oI the commonest
ways oI ensuring that employers are not resorting to cheap migrant labour is to require
them to pay migrants at least the same wages as nationals.
Establishing quotas
380. Some countries have established Ioreign worker quotas. These can be applied to
speciIic parts oI the country or, more commonly, to certain occupations in designated
sectors like agriculture, industry or hotels and tourism. Austria, Ior example, has quotas
Ior seasonal workers in tourism and agriculture. France, Greece, the Republic oI Korea,
Mauritius, Netherlands, Portugal and Senegal have quotas Ior agriculture, mining,
commerce and transport. Seychelles has quotas Ior the manuIacturing sector in Iree trade
zones. Sweden has quotas in agriculture. Other countries either apply quotas to speciIic
occupations (as in Belarus, Mexico, New Zealand and Spain), or use a combination oI
these criteria. Only a Iew countries have quotas that also speciIy the countries Irom
which the workers may come, mainly as a consequence oI bilateral agreements; this is
the case in Algeria, the Czech Republic, Guatemala, the Republic oI Korea, Singapore,
Slovakia, Spain and Switzerland. Quotas are usually not applied to countries oI origin. In
the International Labour Migration Survey, only 12 countries indicated that they applied
such quotas.

3
See M. Ruhs: Temporarv foreign worker programmes. Policies, adverse consequences and the need to make
them work (Geneva, ILO, Social Protection Sector, Perspectives on Labour Migration, No. 6, 2003).
Managing migration
115
381. Switzerland has tried various ways oI setting quotas. In the 1940s and 1950s it used
the principle oI rotation; in the 1960s it applied enterprise quotas; in the 1970s it used the
double platIorm oI enterprise and sector quotas; and in the 1980s and 1990s it set a
global ceiling. In 1999, aIter entering into a bilateral agreement with the EU on the Iree
movement oI persons, Switzerland adopted a dual system: EU/EFTA nationals will be
subject to preIerential quotas during a transitional period at the end oI which quotas will
be liIted, while nationals oI all other countries will Iace more restrictive conditions Ior
residence and access to the labour market.
4

Box 6.2
Different ways in which quotas are expressed
Quotas may be expressed in absolute numbers or as percentages ÷ of the total
population, total labour force, or labour force in a given sector or enterprise. Ìn Austria,
the limit is 8 per cent of the labour force (up to 9 per cent for certain categories), while in
Honduras the maximum is 10 per cent. Ìn the United States, the H1B and H2B visas are
covered by annual quotas established by federal law.
Some countries fix the quota at the level of the enterprise. For example, Mauritius
allows a maximum of one foreign worker for every three local workers; Ecuador allows
one for every five local workers. Bolivia allows migrants to comprise 15 per cent of the
enterprise workforce, while Egypt and El Salvador set the proportion at 10 per cent.
Tunisia puts a numerical cap of only four foreign workers per enterprise, which must be
totally export-oriented.
382. The quota system can be somewhat inIlexible. During periods oI economic
contraction there is always the option oI not using the Iull quota, but during periods oI
expansion the quotas cannot be quickly adjusted upwards. Nevertheless, a quota presents
strong advantages: it provides a clear Iramework Ior the debate on immigration policy
and it oIIers a clear benchmark and a transparent guide Ior administrators and employers.
383. Finally, in order to ensure that workers actually leave the country aIter the
termination oI their employment, some countries also require that employers put up a
deposit as a guarantee as in Bahrain, Cyprus, Iceland, Kazakhstan, the Republic oI
Korea, Lebanon, Malaysia, Mauritius and the United Arab Emirates. Mauritius, Ior
example, bases these deposits on the outward economy class air ticket Irom Mauritius to
the sending country. Colombia does not require any deposit but requires employers to
include in the contract a provision regarding the unconditional return oI the migrant
worker.
6.6. Path dependence in migration policy
384. Migration policy is one area where Iuture decisions are constrained by past
decisions there is strong 'path dependency¨. This is because, unlike the movement oI
goods, the movement oI people is diIIicult, indeed oIten impossible, to reverse. Even
changes in economic circumstances may have little eIIect on migration Ilows, since
migration can respond to economic cycles in an asymmetric Iashion, increasing on the
upswing but not necessarily Ialling on the downswing. In East Asia, Ior example, most
countries established temporary or guest worker programmes based on the idea oI using

4
See W.R. Böhning: Emploving foreign workers. A manual on policies and procedures of special interest to
middle- and low-income countries (Geneva, ILO, 1996).
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
116
migration to stabilize wages during peaks in economic activity, and the plan was that,
during a downswing, migrants whose work permits had expired would leave. However,
return seldom takes place in this Iashion, especially among migrants in an irregular
situation, in part because they do not want to leave but also because employers want
them to stay. Even when unemployment is rising employers can Iind it diIIicult to recruit
national workers Ior certain jobs, and may be reluctant to raise wages to tempt them.
385. More generally, however, although migration may respond to underlying economic
diIIerences between source and destination countries, it does not necessarily respond
closely to economic Iluctuations. Thus, while migration Ilows to Germany, the
Netherlands, Sweden and the United Kingdom, and to a lesser extent Australia, appear to
have moved in parallel with the business cycle until the end oI the 1970s (Iigure 6.1),
such links were not evident in Canada and the United States, and Irom the 1980s
onwards no countries demonstrated a relationship between migration and economic
growth.
5

386. Many countries, developed and less developed, have temporary admission policies
whose rules are linked to local needs and circumstances, as when migrants in agriculture,
Iorestry or tourism are limited to stays oI three to nine months. The United States, Ior
example, gives sheepherders with the H2A seasonal agricultural worker visa the option
oI renewing Ior a total length oI stay oI up to three years.
387. In other countries the link between labour demand and the length oI stay is less
clear, since the duration oI admission can vary considerably according to workers` skills,
the needs oI employers, and the country oI origin. Brazil, Ior example, gives 90-day
visas to technicians, but two-year temporary visas to those admitted as part oI
technology exchanges. Canada determines the time limit Ior temporary workers
according to the needs oI the employer, and may require a reassessment oI the need Ior
Ioreigners beIore renewal. Australia oIIers temporary skilled migrants a range oI
multiple-entry visas Ior employment and business purposes Ior up to Iour years with the
option, subject to certain criteria, oI renewal beyond this period. Senegal grants 24-
month visas that may be renewed on the basis oI an employment contract. Member
States oI the EU oIIer nationals oI other Member States preIerential access to their
labour markets, but individual governments can also enter into treaties with non-EU
countries. For example, Greece in 2003 granted six- to nine-month work permits to
Egyptians employed in the Iishing sector, and permits oI up to six months Ior seasonal
workers Irom Albania and Bulgaria.
388. Path dependence in decision-making is observed not only in destination countries
but also in source countries where governments have taken a more proactive role in
sending their workers abroad. Pakistan, the Republic oI Korea, and the Philippines,
Iollowed later by most other Asian countries, established government-Iunded
programmes to recruit people to work overseas, notably in the GulI States. This triggered
the growth oI a new 'migration inIrastructure¨ in the Iorm oI recruitment companies,
labour and construction contractors, travel agencies, schools and training centres, and
medical clinics Ior health certiIication along with remittance agents and Ioreign
exchange brokers to transIer Iunds home. These companies can constitute a multi-billion
dollar industry that has a strong vested interest in the continuation oI labour migration.

5
See OECD: Emplovment Outlook 2001 (Paris, June 2001), Ch. 5.
Managing migration
117
Figure 6.1. Net migration rate and the business cycIe in seIected OECD
countries (1960-95)


Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
118
6.7. Making temporary migration schemes work
389. There is a convergence oI interests oI origin and destination countries in temporary
labour migration, but conventional guest worker programmes have come under
considerable suspicion. The experience oI many countries is that 'there is nothing more
permanent than temporary workers¨. Governments that have seen their policies
Irustrated because oI this have thereIore been reluctant to liberalize the employment oI
temporary Ioreign workers whether through the usual guest worker programmes or the
'Mode 4¨ initiatives under the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS).
390. The driIt Irom temporary to permanent migration responds to the wishes oI both
employers and workers. Employers become dependent on such workers, who not only
settle Ior lower wages than native workers but are also less likely to leave Ior better
alternatives. Workers, too, may want to stay longer to recover the Iunds they have
invested in migrating or to reach their desired savings target particularly when the
alternatives at home remain unattractive. II they see that enIorcement is weak and that
there is a secondary market that will oIIer them work, they may take the risk oI
extending their stay indeIinitely and disappearing into the ranks oI irregular workers,
where they are also less easy to identiIy and may Iind it easier to overstay.
391. On the other hand, the prolongation oI temporary worker programmes can also be a
predictable consequence oI policies that have allowed labour market segmentation. In
the GulI States, Ior example, wages are higher in the public than in the private sector as a
consequence oI liberal admission policies that have driven private sector wages down; as
a result, national workers preIer to remain unemployed rather than accept jobs in the
private sector. This problem has been compounded by a recruitment system involving
local 'sponsors¨ or khafeels, who have proIited handsomely Irom bringing in more
workers regardless oI their employment prospects. Swelling the labour market with
migrant workers and thereby lowering wages may have beneIited consumers and
reduced the cost oI public subsidies, but its long-term consequence is dependence and
greater diIIiculty in providing jobs Ior local workers.
392. II they are to be successIul, temporary work programmes must recognize that some
people will move Irom being temporary to being more permanent, and governments
must provide Ior such an eventuality. At the same time, the schemes must work, and be
seen to work, otherwise they will be perceived as policy Iailures. Experience suggests
some possible options. One strategy is to have a more open dialogue and closer
cooperation between source and destination countries through bilateral agreements that
provide Ior greater state involvement in the migration process and can ensure more
orderly admission and return oI workers. Another approach is to use contract labour
migration organized through careIully selected private contractors, although this tends to
be conIined to certain occupations like construction. Project-tied contract labour
migration to the GulI States, Ior example, saw millions oI workers come and go Ior short
periods oI employment during the two decades oI the construction boom that Iollowed
the oil price increases oI 1973.
393. Complementary measures have been used to make temporary migration policies
work. One is a system oI 'Iorced savings¨ in lieu oI social security taxes. These are
deposited with the social security institution, either oI the host or the origin country, to
be recovered when the worker goes home. The migrants risk losing such savings iI they
do not return aIter completion oI their contracts. An objection oIten raised against Iorced
savings is that they make it more tempting Ior temporary workers to switch early to
Managing migration
119
illegal employment, since the longer they stay in legal employment the more savings
they are likely to IorIeit.
394. Some governments put the onus on employers to ensure that workers return.
Greece and Israel, Ior example, require employers to post a bond that is IorIeited iI the
worker Iails to leave at the end oI his or her contract.
6
This encourages employers to
oIIer better conditions and wages so that the workers are less tempted to switch to illegal
employment. In the case oI Israel, the policy was complemented by a requirement that a
Ioreign worker who Iinishes a legal employment oI Iive years must leave the country Ior
at least a year beIore he or she can return.
7
This combination oI employer bonds and
mandatory returns aIter a period oI employment seems to have had some success.
395. The most common approach is to apply sanctions against employers who employ
irregular workers. In principle such sanctions should decrease earnings in illegal
employment, since employers who risk such penalties would not pay irregular workers
as much as regular workers. Whether or not the policy will produce the desired eIIects,
however, depends on a credible threat oI prosecution. The experience with this has been
mixed.
8
In the United Kingdom, Ior example, the Asylum and Immigration Act (1996)
makes it illegal Ior employers knowingly or negligently to employ people who do not
have permission to work. The maximum penalty is £5,000 Ior each illegal employee. But
prosecutions have been Iew only one in 1998, nine in 1999, and 23 in 2000.
6.8. The need for a comprehensive approach to
irregular migration
The public has been Ied images oI a Ilood oI unwelcome entrants, and oI threats to their
societies and identities. In the process, immigrants have sometimes been stigmatized,
viliIied, even dehumanized. In the process, an essential truth has been lost. The vast majority
oI migrants are industrious, courageous, and determined. They don`t want a Iree ride. They
want a Iair opportunity. They are not criminals or terrorists. They are law-abiding. They
don`t want to live apart. They want to integrate, while retaining their identity.
KoIi Annan, Secretary-General oI the United Nations, addressing the European
Parliament on 29 January 2004.
396. Irregularity accounts Ior most exploitation oI migrant labour, and the problem is
growing. Irregular migration is now much higher than in the 1980s and estimated to be
running at 5 to 20 per cent oI aggregate annual admissions to the OECD countries a
result oI many developments, including the growth oI inIormal employment, widening
wage diIIerentials, porous borders, weak asylum systems, and the growth oI smuggling.
Irregular migration is even more pervasive in the developing regions. For example, in
the late 1990s, South AIrica had about halI a million irregular workers.
9
In 1997, the

6
G.S. Epstein, A.L. Hillman and A. Weiss: 'Creating illegal immigrants¨, in Journal of Population Economics
(European Society Ior Population Economics and Springer Publishers, 1999), 12(1), pp. 3-21.
7
For a Iull analysis oI the impact oI policies on contract temporary migration, see Ch. 6 oI T. Boeri, G. Hanson
and B. McCormick (eds.): Immigration policv and the welfare svstem A report for the Fondatione Rodolfo
Benedetti (OxIord, OxIord University Press, 2002).
8
P. Martin and M. Miller: Emplover sanctions. French, German and US experiences (Geneva, ILO, International
Migration Branch, International Migration Paper No. 36, 2000).
9
J. Crush and V. Williams (eds.): 'Criminal tendencies: Immigrants and illegality in South AIrica¨, Migration
Policy BrieI No. 10, Southern AIrica Migration Project.
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
120
authorities in Thailand estimated that they had close to 1 million irregular migrants Irom
neighbouring countries, especially Myanmar.
397. Migrants can acquire irregular status in many diIIerent ways. They may enter a
country illegally, either by avoiding border controls completely or by entering with Ialse
documents. Even iI they enter legally, they may overstay their visas and thus become
illegal residents. Or they may have entered on a non-working visa and then started to
work; in some countries, this may make the entry illegal retroactively, since the act oI
seeking or accepting work is construed as deception oI the authorities upon entry by
posing as a tourist or student while intending to work. This can also happen when people
are allowed in under Iamily reuniIication schemes, since in some circumstances they are
not supposed to work. Furthermore, even iI they are allowed to work, migrants may
jeopardize their right oI residence iI they breach tax or social security regulations,
although compliance with these regulations is oIten primarily, or customarily, the
employer`s responsibility. Temporary workers also acquire irregular status iI they stay
beyond their allocated time, and unsuccessIul asylum seekers who have not been
deported may also stay on as irregular workers.
398. Repatriating irregular migrants is oIten diIIicult, either because oI legal norms or
the lack oI administrative resources. Governments committed to protecting human rights,
including the right to Iamily liIe, will Iind it diIIicult to expel migrants who have strong
social and Iamily ties in the country. They may also be unable to expel migrants iI they
cannot Iind another country that is willing to accept them back, or iI they cannot obtain
transportation to the country oI origin (or to a saIe part oI the country). In 1997, Ior
instance, the Parisian police questioned an average oI 100 undocumented migrants daily,
only to release 80 oI them within an hour owing to shortage oI places in detention
centres or because they could not be returned.
10
In practice, only small percentages oI
asylum applicants and migrants whose applications are not granted are ever removed. In
many cases, authorities have ordered migrants to leave the country but never enIorced
the decision, leaving the migrant in a state oI irregularity Ior Iive to ten years or even
longer.
399. Countries would be better oII regularizing the status oI workers whom they cannot
send back home. This beneIits not only the migrants but the country as a whole. In this
connection, a principle that seems to have wide implicit resonance in the regularization
policies oI many countries is that oI earned adfustment. Migrant workers with irregular
status may be said to earn a right to legal status iI they meet certain minimum conditions:
they must be gainIully employed, they must not have violated any laws other than those
relating to illegal or clandestine entry, and they must have made an eIIort to integrate by
(Ior example) learning the local language.
400. Large numbers oI irregular migrants create signiIicant problems, both Ior the
migrants themselves and Ior the host countries. Migrants in irregular status, who cannot
stand up Ior their rights, oIten suIIer exploitative working conditions and have little
access to social security. They may also represent unIair competition Ior regular workers,
provoking resentment and thus endangering social cohesion. In the worst cases they end
up staIIing the underground economy and become involved in criminal activities.

10
P. Weil: 'Towards a coherent policy oI co-development¨, in International Migration, Vol. 40(3), Special
Issue I, 2002.
Managing migration
121
Box 6.3
Combating irreguIar migration and the iIIegaI empIoyment of foreigners
(Contributed by the OECD, Paris)
Combating illegal entry, residence and employment of foreigners is one of the key
priorities of the immigration policies of OECD countries. Ìt is shared by all the European
OECD countries, including the new immigration countries (Ìtaly, Spain, Greece and
Portugal), by the Asian member States, where many foreign nationals remain beyond
their allotted time, as well as Australia, the United States and Canada. The terrorist
attacks against the United States in September 2001 have considerably increased such
concerns in the majority of OECD countries.
Ìllegal immigration exists only where restrictions exist alongside a certain degree of
tolerance. Ìt reflects an imbalance between the number of would-be emigrants and the
restrictions placed on new entrants by host countries. Ìrregular migration and the illegal
employment of foreigners are related. Generally speaking, the objective of
undocumented migrants is to work in the host country, all the more so since this will
enable them to pay off their debts to traffickers.
Although migrants may gain certain advantages from illegal employment, they rarely
make a deliberate choice to be in an illegal situation. During regularization procedures,
the eagerness displayed by most of those who qualify to make an application shows that
undocumented persons would prefer to have legal status. Similarly, the argument that
illegal workers (more interested in potential earnings than conditions of work) are
prepared to accept longer hours of work needs to be qualified (Dunn, 1990).
The advantages of illegal migration are in fact more apparent for certain employers,
who may have an interest in the illegal resident status of such migrants which puts them
in a particularly dependent situation. Moreover, the fact that the work carried out by
these migrants is undeclared enables employers to avoid paying taxes. Of course, the
scale of illegal employment of foreigners is a reflection of undeclared employment in
general, which is itself a result of the tax burden placed on enterprises, as well as the
frequency of inspections and the type of penalties incurred. Nonetheless, during periods
of immigration restrictions, the legal entry of temporary workers can be used as a means
to counteract the employment of undocumented foreigners (OECD, 1999).
Combating the illegal employment of foreigners
OECD countries have implemented an array of measures to combat illegal
immigration and the illegal employment of foreigners. These measures can be put into
five categories:
‰ Controlling migration flows through border and internal controls as well as visa
policies.
‰ Combating networks involved in the trafficking and exploitation of human beings by
imposing severe penalties or offering special visas to anyone who testifies against
traffickers.
‰ Controlling the number of undocumented persons through deportation procedures
and regularization programmes.
‰ Monitoring the labour market and imposing administrative, criminal and civil
sanctions against employers, contractors and undocumented migrants.
‰ Ìnternational cooperation between host countries as regards policing, or with
sending countries.
Although controlling the entry of migrants is essential, it is not generally in itself
sufficient for combating the illegal employment of foreigners, on the one hand, or for
reducing the number of undocumented migrants, on the other. As observed in some
European countries in the late 1970s, strengthening external controls can actually slow
down return rates, consolidate family reunification and therefore increase the length of
stay in the host country and the number of documented and undocumented foreigners.
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
122

A comparative analysis of the policies implemented in OECD countries in the area of
prevention of and combating illegal employment of foreigners (OECD, 2000) emphasized
the need to combat undeclared work in general and to consider a combination of
sanctions ÷ which are not always effective, are difficult to impose and have a negative
effect beyond a certain threshold (Hill and Pearse, 1990; Fraser, 2000) ÷ and non-
repressive preventive measures. The risks and sanctions incurred for using an illegal
labour force should be made clear to employers and workers in sectors where such
practices are commonplace, and also to employers who occasionally use undeclared
labour and to sending countries. Some specific measures that have been adopted in
several countries, including systems for declaring workers prior to employment, financial
incentives for employing documented workers or even a simplification of recruitment
procedures, could be applied in more countries.
The policies implemented must also take into account the fact that undocumented
foreigners are particularly vulnerable owing to the precariousness of their status ÷ they
do not have the right to work in the host country, and in most cases do not have the right
to take up residence there. Lastly, it should be noted that strengthening international
cooperation in this area is becoming increasingly urgent. No country can claim any
longer to be effectively combating single-handedly the problem of illegal immigration and
trafficking networks, which are increasingly active and professional.
Sources: D. Delaunay; G. Tapinos: La measure de la migration clandestine en Europe, Vols. 1 et 2, Rapport de
synthèse et études par pays, Eurostat Working Paper No. 7, 1998.
L.F. Dunn: "An empirical study of labour market equilibrium under working hours constraints¨, in Review of
Economics and Statistics (Cambridge MA, MÌT Press), Vol. 72, No. 2, May 1990, pp. 139-157.
OECD: Trends in international migration (SOPEMÌ edition, 1999). See especially the chapter on the economic
and political implications of irregular immigration.
OECD: Combating the illegal employment of foreign workers (Paris, 2000).
J.K. Hill; J.E. Pearse: "The incidence of sanctions against employers of illegal aliens¨, in Journal of Political
Economy (Chicago, University of Chicago Press), Vol. 98, No. 1, 1990, pp. 28-44.
J. Fraser: "Preventing and combating the employment of foreigners in an irregular situation in the United
States¨, in Combating the illegal employment of foreign workers, OECD, op. cit.
401. Faced with large numbers oI irregular migrants, governments Irequently choose to
declare amnesties through which migrants can regularize their status.
11
Regularization
programmes are complex undertakings. Authorities must convince the migrants that it is
to their advantage to become regularized, but they cannot divulge their plans too Iar in
advance, since this might immediately encourage more immigration. They must prepare
the ground careIully and ensure that they Iully involve representatives oI all the groups
that will be aIIected. They also have to engage the migrants themselves using publicity
and inIormation programmes through channels that migrants trust. Some governments
have Iound that a good way to achieve this, and generally overcome suspicion, insecurity
and resistance, is to engage the help oI a range oI civic and religious organizations.
402. Regularizations also work best when the process is straightIorward. II the
requirements are too demanding, time-consuming or costly, they will discourage many
oI those who are eligible. Regularization should instead take the Iorm oI a simple act at
the lowest possible level oI administration, demanding very little documentation and
requiring neither the support oI a lawyer nor recourse to the courts. In some countries, it
is not the workers who have to register but their employers. Since some oI the latter may
gain Irom paying wages below the legal minimum, they may not be motivated to register
their workers.

11
P. de Bruycker (ed.): Regularisations of illegal immigrants in the European Union (Brussels, Bruylant
Editions, 2000).
Managing migration
123
403. Many regularizations are treated as a one-oII exercises brieI 'windows oI
opportunity¨ oIIering a large number oI migrants the opportunity to regularize one or
more aspects oI their status. When it is repeated, the determination oI the government
comes into doubt. The alternative is to have a permanent national authority with powers
to regularize the status oI irregular migrants who submit a petition and IulIil established
criteria.
404. It is clear that a comprehensive approach to irregular migration requires a
combination oI measures. These will include law enIorcement, the creation oI a
conducive legal and administrative environment, and the provision oI incentives. But
none oI these will be suIIicient in isolation. In the United Kingdom, Ior example, a
recent White Paper
12
articulates a more consistent and integrated policy that will include
immigration, integration and citizenship.
6.9. Regulating labour migration in countries of origin
405. All democratic States guarantee Ior their citizens the right to accept oIIers oI
employment in Ioreign countries. Only a Iew have laws or regulations that empower the
authorities to intervene in the contracts oI individual migrants. However, the extent oI
abuses suIIered by their workers abroad has brought some governments under immense
public pressure to regulate labour migration Ior the protection oI the migrants.
406. The International Labour Migration Survey revealed that most governments have
taken on one or more regulatory Iunctions related to labour migration, including:
„ setting, monitoring and enIorcing standards in national constitutions, laws and
regulations;
„ providing public employment services, and/or regulating and supervising private
recruitment agencies;
„ adopting and applying model employment contracts;
„ taking speciIic measures against traIIicking and smuggling;
„ arbitrating in disputes between migrant workers and their Ioreign employers;
„ creating national and regional institutions Ior enIorcing human rights;
„ regulating the employment oI migrant workers and managing migration Ilows
between and among countries through multilateral agreements.
13

407. Countries oI origin have little control over the terms and conditions oI employment
oI their nationals in other countries. But they can at least try to ensure that migrants are
well inIormed, so that they do not accept disadvantageous employment oIIers in
ignorance oI the risks involved, and can inIorm prospective migrants about the
conditions they are likely to Iace, particularly on the standard and cost oI living.
408. Those governments that are empowered to supervise the recruitment and
employment oI their nationals abroad can also take more speciIic measures beIore their

12
Home OIIice: Secure borders, safe haven. Integration with diversitv in modern Britain (London, HMSO,
2001).
13
For a Iull discussion oI the best practices on regulating emigration processes in countries oI origin, see
M. Abella: Sending workers abroad. A manual for low- and middle-income countries (Geneva, ILO, 1997).
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
124
citizens leave the country. They can, Ior example, establish regulations on minimum
standards Ior employment covering wages, hours oI work, holidays, overtime pay,
home leave, employment injury insurance, and termination arrangements. They can also
supervise the issue oI employment contracts. One option is to prepare model contracts
which can minimize disputes and problems, especially iI the contracts are realistic and
endorsed by the authorities in the receiving country. The authorities can also use such
contracts to ensure that beIore they sign them, migrants Iully understand their rights and
obligations. Governments in the countries oI origin can also insist that all contracts be
approved by a competent authority, usually the ministry oI labour.
409. To make these measures more eIIective, however, the authorities also have to
disallow the employment oI their nationals in countries that do not respect their
standards. This can be a diIIicult issue, particularly iI it is likely to seriously restrict the
number oI overseas employment opportunities. In table 6.1, the policies and measures
that have been adopted by countries to protect their workers while seeking more
employment opportunities abroad have been mapped under three major objectives:
„ promote employment;
„ protect and promote the well-being oI migrants;
„ maximize developmental impact oI labour migration.
TabIe 6.1. Foreign empIoyment poIicy map
0bject|ves Po||cy |nstruments and measures
Promore emp|o,menr Fore|gn marker oeve|opmenr
! ‰! 41:'@D%1>%;G!=%7D6<':%&!$8D':%6;1!
! ‰! J:$8;G:>8;%;G!7D'&8<8;:!18$L%&81O!75@D%&!';=!7$%L':8!
! ‰! M$6<6:%6;1!';=!<'$N8:%;G!<%11%6;1!
! ‰! ['$N8:!%;#6$<':%6;!';=!$818'$&>!
! ‰! W%D':8$'D!'G$88<8;:1!
! laoour supp|, managemenr
! ‰! 9'@65$!$8G%1:$H!
! ‰! ?6$76$':8!8^76$:!6#!18$L%&81!
! ‰! F81:$%&:%6;1Z76D%&%81!'G'%;1:!m@$'%;!=$'%;n!
Prorecr ano promore rne ue||-oe|ng ol
m|granrs $ranoaro serr|ng ano enlorcemenr
! ‰! [%;%<5<!1:';='$=1!#6$!8<7D6H<8;:!&6;:$'&:1!
! ‰! 4^%:!&6;:$6D!<8'15$81!
! ‰! W%D':8$'D!'G$88<8;:1!%;&D5=%;G!16&%'D!18&5$%:H!
! ‰! F81:$%&:%6;1!6;!8^%:!6#!18D8&:8=!&':8G6$%81!6#!P6$N8$1O!
8178&%'DDH!<%;6$1!';=!H65;G!P6<8;!
! $uperv|s|on ol pr|vare recru|rmenr
! ‰! 9%&8;1%;G!6#!$8&$5%:<8;:!#%$<1!
! ‰! M8$#6$<';&8!G5'$';:881!';=!78;'D:%81!
Managing migration
125
0bject|ves Po||cy |nstruments and measures
! ‰! 9%<%:1!6;!$8&$5%:<8;:!#881!
! ‰! [8'15$81!'G'%;1:!%DD8G'D!$8&$5%:<8;:!';=!&D';=81:%;8!
<%G$':%6;!
! $upporr serv|ces
! ‰! S;#6$<':%6;!';=!&65;18DD%;G!18$L%&81!7$%6$!:6!=87'$:5$8!
! ‰! 9'@65$!'::'&>o!18$L%&81!6;V1%:8!
! ‰! J6&%'D!%;15$';&8!
! ‰! ?6<<5;%:H!#'&%D%:%81!';=!&8;:$81!#6$!P6$N8$1!'@$6'=!
! ‰! J5776$:!18$L%&81!#6$!#'<%D%81!D8#:!@8>%;=!
! ‰! F8:5$;88!:$'%;%;G!';=!8<7D6H<8;:!'11%1:';&8!
! ‰! 4<8$G8;&H!8L'&5':%6;!6$!$87':$%':%6;!
Vax|m|ze oeve|opmenra| |mpacr ol |aoour m|grar|on Rem|rrances
! ‰! _6$8%G;!8^&>';G8!<'$N8:!76D%&%81!
! ‰! F8<%::';&81!76D%&%81!';=!18$L%&81!
! V|granrs´ sav|ngs ano |nvesrmenrs
! ‰! J78&%'D!#%;';&%'D!%;1:$5<8;:1!
! ‰! S;#6$<':%6;!';=!15776$:!18$L%&81!:6!1<'DD!%;L81:6$1!
! ‰! a651%;G!7$6G$'<<81!#6$!<%G$';:1!
! Rerurn ol ra|enrs ano sk|||s
! ‰! J78&%'D!7D'&8<8;:!18$L%&81!';=!%;&8;:%L81!
! ‰! W%D':8$'D!:$'%;%;G!'G$88<8;:1!
! ‰! [6@%D%\%;G!:$';1;':%6;'D!&6<<5;%:%81!
J65$&8R![*!"@8DD'R!$eno|ng uorkers aoroao. / manua| lor |ou- ano m|oo|e-|ncome counrr|es!TY8;8L'O!S9BO!(,,/U*!
410. Only a Iew countries require that recruitment Ior Ioreign jobs be done through
public employment agencies, possibly because these may not be adequately equipped Ior
this responsibility. However, most countries have competent state authorities that are
empowered to review and approve work contracts, prosecute violators oI recruitment
regulations, or arbitrate disputes between migrant workers and Ioreign employers or
agents. This is the case in Albania, Brazil, China, Ethiopia, Madagascar and Senegal.
Most oI these authorities are also empowered to enter into agreements with Ioreign
employers or to recruit nationals Ior employment abroad. Thirty-Iive oI the countries
that responded to the International Labour Migration Survey stated that they had speciIic
provisions regulating the contractual provisions oI migrant workers leaving their
countries. In Latin America, many governments do not have the power to license private
recruitment agencies but are able to prosecute Ior recruitment malpractices.
Protecting workers against recruitment fraud and abuses
411. Most countries oI origin require private enterprises wishing to engage in Iee-based
recruitment to obtain a licence Irom the competent authority. This is the most important
policy instrument Ior instilling order in the industry. By setting stringent conditions Ior a
licence, the authorities can limit recruitment to companies that have the know-how and
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
126
resources to Iind good employment opportunities. They can then cancel or suspend
licences Ior serious violations oI recruitment regulations. Some governments have also
had well-intentioned policies such as limiting the validity oI a licence to a very short
period like one year. But this can produce undesired consequences discouraging
legitimate operators, while attracting those only interested in quick proIits.
412. Licensing will only work, however, iI the authorities can prevent the operation oI
unlicensed recruiters. This requires the involvement oI all levels oI government, Irom the
national authority at the centre to the lowly village head at the periphery. They should
also be able to rely on the support oI many other institutions, Irom the police to church
groups. In addition, the public need to be provided with up-to-date inIormation on which
are the authorized or licensed agents, and what services they should expect Irom them.
413. SuccessIul administration needs to be backed up with appropriate legislation. One
signiIicant innovation is a law in the Philippines which establishes that, in the case oI a
violation oI an employment contract, the recruiters and the Ioreign employer are jointly
liable. Recruiters are also required to put up large perIormance bonds. These measures
have put the onus on the recruiter to take care when choosing Ioreign employers, and
have made it much easier Ior the Philippine Overseas Employment Administration to
settle workers` Iinancial claims.
414. One oI the most diIIicult tasks in supervising recruitment is to control recruitment
Iees, since workers seeking to beat the long queue are willing to pay additional sums.
Market-determined Iees tend to be higher when there is a large wage diIIerential between
the source and the destination country: Ior the same job in the same country, workers
coming Irom lower-wage countries appear to pay more in Iees than those Irom higher-
wage countries. The Iees also tend to be higher Ior low-skilled workers; those whose
skills are in great demand, like nurses and IT workers, may not be charged any Iees,
even iI the wage diIIerential is huge. In response to widespread abuse, most Asian
countries oI origin have set a ceiling on Iees.
415. According to the International Labour Migration Survey, oI the 40 countries where
private recruitment agencies are permitted to bring in migrant workers, some 23 allow
them to charge recruitment Iees Irom the workers. These include developed countries
such as Canada, Switzerland, the United States and New Zealand (with reservations).
Other countries that allow recruitment Iees to be levied are Algeria, Bahrain, Burundi,
China, Kazakhstan, Malaysia, Mauritius, Seychelles, Slovakia, Suriname and Tajikistan.
In most cases, however, governments limit the Iees. In Malaysia, Ior example, Iees may
not exceed 25 per cent oI the Iirst month`s wages, while in Japan they may not exceed
10.5 per cent. In Mauritius, the ceiling is 10 per cent oI the Iirst month`s wages, while in
Switzerland it is much higher, at 5 per cent oI the worker`s annual wages.
416. However, enIorcement can be diIIicult and compliance tends to Iall when there is a
large wage diIIerential at times oI high unemployment. Compliance also depends on the
levels oI education oI the workers as well as the vigilance oI the public.
6.10. Advantages of inter-country cooperation
417. Destination countries are increasingly realizing that they have Iew ways oI
inIluencing 'unwanted¨ migration unilaterally. This insight, though oIten
unacknowledged, has now resulted in a host oI cooperative eIIorts on migration
management, most oI them at the bilateral level, many at the regional level, and some at
Managing migration
127
the global level. This cooperation deserves to be strengthened as it has signiIicant
potential.
418. International cooperation can consist oI a variety oI measures, some oI them
preventive, others remedial. As part oI regional economic integration, along with
reducing barriers to Iree trade, countries can conclude agreements Ior the Iree movement
oI labour. Destination and source countries can also enter into bilateral agreements on
recruitment and employment, and cooperate in the management oI return programmes.
419. Promotion oI a normative Iramework Ior national policy and international
cooperation remains a Iundamental task. There is a need Ior an international regime
based on the rule oI law, that establishes common parameters Ior all, clear
accountabilities, and mechanisms Ior reporting and monitoring. The Iramers oI the ILO
Conventions on migrant workers (Nos. 97 and 143) envisaged such cooperation and
made provision Ior the reciprocal exchange oI inIormation on national policies, laws and
regulations, migration Ior employment, the conditions oI work and livelihood oI
migrants Ior employment, and on misleading propaganda. Convention No. 143 also
provides Ior cooperation between States with the speciIic aim oI suppressing clandestine
movements oI migrants Ior employment, acting against organizers oI the illicit
movement oI migrants and those employing workers who have entered illegally, and
ensuring that the authors oI labour traIIicking can be prosecuted, regardless oI the
country Irom which they exercise their activities.
420. International cooperation should also have an important role Ior the social partners.
Not only are they major agents oI social, economic and political change at home; they
also have international Iorums that can be used to initiate or orchestrate international
cooperation between States. At the same time it must be recognized that migration
management through States, or with the help oI the social partners, can only go so Iar.
Authorities Iind it diIIicult to make people conIorm perIectly to any set oI objectives
on migration or any other policy area. Rather than simply trying to manage people, a
better approach is to involve them in the making oI policies that aIIect them.
Aid and remittances
421. Governments in the destination countries might also consider helping to reduce
migration pressure in the source countries through development aid targeted at
increasing employment opportunities and improving the levels oI human capital. In 1993,
the ILO and UNHCR convened an international meeting on 'development aid and
migration¨. This concluded that in some cases aid could indeed produce the growth that
would stem emigration pressures. France in particular has accepted this principle through
its 'co-developpement¨ policy. Since 2000, Ior example, the annual Mali-France
Consultation on Migration has dealt with the integration oI Malians who want to stay in
France, co-management oI migration Ilows, and cooperative development in emigration
areas oI Mali.
14

422. Migration itselI can be a Iorm oI aid, particularly through remittances which are
oIten the largest and most eIIective Iorm oI Iinancial aid Irom abroad, since remittances
go directly to households Ior their most immediate needs. But the beneIits go beyond
individual households since some groups oI migrants also organize clubs in order to

14
S. Martin; P. Martin; P. Weil: 'Fostering cooperation between source and destination countries¨ (Migration
Policy Institute, Oct. 2002); available online at www.migrationinIormation.org (accessed on 10 Mar. 2004).
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
128
invest jointly in their home community in amenities such as schools, sanitation and
health-care Iacilities, or mains electricity supplies.
423. But all this depends critically on being able to remit the Iunds reliably, swiItly and
without undue interIerence or cost. Remittances will have a more positive eIIect iI the
economy oI the migrant`s home country is suIIiciently open and Ilexible, with well-
Iunctioning markets Ior goods, services and Ioreign exchange, and with a legal system
that protects property and other rights.
6.11. Multilateral processes
424. States voluntarily limit their sovereignty by making binding commitments in
international law to regulate trade and migration, as with:
„ Multilateral treaties and agreements. These include the ILO and United Nations
Conventions already discussed in Chapter 4, which are international treaties with
speciIic monitoring mechanisms including scrutiny by independent experts and (in
the case oI the ILO) tripartite constituents.
„ General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). Mode 4 oI GATS Ior natural
persons supplying services relates to conducting negotiations on the rights oI
natural persons to remain temporarily in a country in order to provide a service, be
it qualiIied or not qualiIied. The principle oI the most Iavoured nation treatment is
applied, but it is not applicable to persons who try to obtain a permanent job, or to
the conditions oI obtaining nationality, residency or permanent employment.
15

Unlike regional integration agreements, this agreement is aimed at the member
States oI the WTO.
„ Regional integration agreements. The Irameworks oI the European Union,
MERCOSUR, the Andean Community and NAFTA allow Ior Iree circulation,
establishment and access to the labour market oI nationals Irom member countries.
In this type oI multilateral agreement, migration is treated as just another variable
oI an integration process. For example, the European Council in its Seville meeting
in 2002 concluded that every cooperation and association agreement concluded by
the EU must contain a clause Ior the readmission oI migrant workers in an irregular
status.
„ Bilateral migration agreements. These agreements between origin and destination
countries usually aim to regulate Ilows and conditions oI stay and employment oI
migrants. The International Labour Migration Survey revealed that a large number
oI countries have entered into such agreements, which include provisions on social
security.

15
As was indicated at the Expert Meeting on Market Access Issues in Mode 4 (UNCTAD, Geneva, 29-31 July
2003), most countries deal with Mode 4 in the same way as migration (temporary), there being Iew countries
which establish speciIic mechanisms or methods Ior the temporary movement oI persons under the GATS (see
summary by the Chairperson in the report oI the Meeting, Geneva, UNCTAD docs. TD/B/COM.I/64 and
TD/B/COM.I/EM.22/3, 27 Nov. 2003). In the ILO International Labour Migration Survey, 2003, only a Iew
countries reIerred to their commitments under Mode 4 (Ior example, Austria, New Zealand and the United
States).
Managing migration
129
Box 6.4
WorId Commission on the SociaI Dimension of GIobaIization
Specific recommendations on migration
"There is therefore a large and productive agenda for multilateral action. The issues
and problems associated with the movement of people across national borders cannot
be addressed by single countries acting in isolation or on a unilateral basis. To move
forward on this agenda, we recommend action at three levels.
The first concerns international conventions and binding obligations. Building on the
foundation of existing instruments, we believe that in several areas international
consensus can be reached on the need to revitalize and extend multilateral
commitments, including issues such as the basic rights and protection of migrant
workers and their families, trafficking, discrimination and exploitation. Action on such
issues needs to be taken within the multilateral bodies concerned, notably the ÌLO and
the UN bodies concerned with human rights and crime prevention.
The second concerns dialogue between countries of origin and destination on key
policy issues of common interest. Such dialogues could aim to develop and agree on
procedures, recommendations and non-binding codes, complementing the formal
obligations under ratified Conventions. This could begin on a bilateral or plurilateral
basis, but it should extend to the regional level. Such dialogues should endeavour to:
‰ exchange information on surpluses and shortages of labour;
‰ develop coordination of policies among labour-exporting countries;
‰ create some harmonization of policies among labour-importing countries;
‰ work towards a regime of discipline to be imposed on intermediaries;
‰ build a more effective system for the prevention of trafficking in people;
‰ address the problems of illegal immigrants.
These dialogues could also help build common approaches to major policy issues
such as the rules for temporary migration, the brain drain and the contribution of
migration to development, and the alignment of social security and labour market
policies; and develop an information system on such matters.
The third level would be to initiate a preparatory process towards a more general
institutional framework for the movement of people across national borders. This means
a transparent and uniform system, based on rules rather than discretion, for those who
wish to move across borders. The ultimate objective would be to create a multilateral
framework for immigration laws and consular practices, to be negotiated by
governments, that would govern cross-border movements of people. This would be
similar to multilateral frameworks that already exist, or are currently under discussion,
concerning the cross-border movement of goods, services, technology, investment and
information.
A global forum is needed for regular exchange of information and views on this
issue among all the countries and interests concerned. Such a forum could help identify
both problems and opportunities, and point to ways to ensure that the movement of
people occurs on an orderly basis. Ìt should engage not only governments but also both
sides of the world of work. Ìn Part ÌV we recommend a dialogue to develop policy on this
issue in order to examine how best to develop this agenda.
Moving this agenda forward would imply strengthening the existing multilateral
organizations dealing with the movement of people ÷ notably the ÌLO, the Ìnternational
Organization for Migration (ÌOM), the United Nations human rights mechanisms and the
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) ÷ and improving the
coordination among them. We welcome the initiatives under way such as the Geneva
Migration Group and the proposed Global Commission on Migration established by the
UN Secretary-General which is due to start work in early 2004. We call on the ÌLO to
take the lead on these matters and we look forward to the outcome of the general
discussion on labour migration at the Ìnternational Labour Conference in Geneva in
2004.¨
Source: World Commission on the Social Dimension of Globalization: A fair globalization: Creating opportunities
for all, ÌLO, Geneva, 2004, paras. 440-446.
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
130
6.12. Bilateral migration agreements
425. In the 1960s a number oI European States Iacing serious scarcity oI workers
entered into bilateral agreements Ior the recruitment oI labour. Most oI these agreements
ended during the 1970s as a result oI economic crises, to be replaced by much looser
Iramework agreements, memoranda oI understanding and declarations oI mutual
cooperation on the contracting and protection oI Ioreign workers.
16
The 1990s, however,
saw an upsurge in bilateral agreements. For example, oI the 168 bilateral agreements
concluded in Latin America in the second halI oI the twentieth century, halI were
concluded in the past decade.
17

426. In the OECD countries, there are currently 173 bilateral agreements with countries
Irom all regions oI the world. As a result oI the opening up oI borders in Central and
Eastern Europe, the number oI bilateral treaties had increased IiveIold by the beginning
oI the 1990s.
18
The ILO`s International Labour Migration Survey, 2003, also indicates
considerable use oI bilateral agreements by Central and Eastern European States and by
the Commonwealth oI Independent States, not only between States in the region or with
neighbouring States oI the European Union, but also with countries oI southern Europe
(such as Spain and Portugal) and even with countries on other continents.
427. Bilateral agreements which have Iollowed ILO and other international models have
proved to be an eIIective way oI managing migratory Ilows. In Iact, Recommendation
No. 86 includes in its annex a model agreement on temporary and permanent migration
oI workers, which includes clauses on the regulation oI migratory Ilows, working and
living conditions, and social security Ior all. The International Labour Migration Survey
Iound that Recommendation No. 86 has been widely used by States as a model,
19
or will
be used
20
even by countries that have not ratiIied the ILO instruments.

16
M. Abella: Sending workers abroad, op. cit.
17
Between 1991 and 2000, 35 bilateral agreements were signed between Latin American countries (Iive Ior
regularization, Iive labour conventions, 13 Ior Iree circulation and 12 Ior return). During the same period, 47
bilateral agreements were signed between Latin American countries and other countries (nine Ior readmission,
one Ior regularization, Iive labour agreements, 18 Ior Iree circulation, 11 Ior return and three Ior migrant
protection). The agreements Ior return include extradition treaties. See IOM: World Migration 2003, p. 178.
18
A seminar on bilateral labour agreements was jointly organized by the OECD and the Swiss Government in
Montreux, 19-20 June 2003.
19
For example, by Argentina, Austria, Barbados, Colombia, Cyprus, Ecuador, France, Guatemala, Kenya,
Republic oI Korea, Lebanon, Mauritius, Myanmar, Portugal, Rwanda, Tajikistan, United Arab Emirates,
Uruguay.
20
Albania, Eritrea, Honduras, Kazakhstan, Madagascar, Poland, Slovakia, Togo.
Managing migration
131
Box 6.5
BiIateraI agreements in Spain
As part of its migration policy, Spain in 2001 adopted a "Global Programme¨ to
regulate and coordinate foreign residents' affairs and immigration (the GRECO
programme). The programme comprises five measures: (a) approval of criteria for the
admission of immigrants; (b) calculation of the need for temporary or permanent workers;
(c) determination of the countries with which to negotiate agreements; (d) management
of all aspects of migration; and (e) establishment of mechanisms to select and, as
necessary, train foreign workers in the source countries, with the contribution of the
social agents and NGOs.
Spain has subsequently concluded eight bilateral agreements ÷ with Morocco
(1999), Colombia, the Dominican Republic and Ecuador (2001), Poland and Romania
(2002) and Guinea-Bissau and Bulgaria (2003). Ìn addition, more than 40 other States
have asked to sign bilateral migration agreements with Spain. Some of these countries,
such as Argentina and Mexico, have a large number of Spaniards living in their
territories.
The agreement concluded with Ecuador, for example, is intended to cover the whole
of the migration process: the pre-selection of workers, the system of communicating job
offers, the selection and recruitment of workers in the sending country, special provisions
for temporary workers, the organization of travel, guarantees of labour conditions and
rights at the destination, the possibility of family reunification, and provisions for return. Ìn
order to coordinate requests by its nationals who wish to work in Spain, the Ecuadorian
authorities, in collaboration with the ÌOM, have set up the Technical Unit for the Selection
of Migrant Workers.
6.13. Regional economic integration and the
free movement of labour
428. Although international migration Ilows are becoming increasingly intercontinental,
the largest Ilows are probably still those between countries in the same region. In the
United States, a high proportion oI migrants still come Irom Mexico and Central America;
in Europe, migrants Irom non-EU countries tend to come Irom Eastern Europe, Turkey,
the Balkans and the Maghreb; in Asia, some oI the largest Ilows are Irom AIghanistan to
Pakistan and the Islamic Republic oI Iran, Irom Myanmar to Thailand, and Irom Indonesia
to Malaysia; and in AIrica, the most active migration systems are those between South
AIrica and her neighbours, between the countries oI Central AIrica, and between the
countries oI West AIrica, where there are some 3 million migrant workers.
429. The European Union Iorms the most extensive area with Iree movement oI labour,
but agreements have also been concluded in many other regions: between members oI the
Nordic Community, Ior both skilled and unskilled labour; between Australia and New
Zealand under ANZCERTA; between Canada and the United States (and Mexico Irom
2004) Ior skilled labour under NAFTA; between the member States oI the Andean
Community; among the CAEMC countries in Central AIrica and UMEOA in West AIrica;
and between the Caribbean countries Ior skilled and unskilled labour under CARICOM.
These agreements provide Ior progressive harmonization oI labour policies with a view
eventually to giving Iull equal treatment to one another`s nationals. In the MERCOSUR
area, an agreement on residence Ior nationals oI States parties was adopted in December
2002. Interest in Iurther advancing the integration process prompted Argentina`s unilateral
decision to suspend expulsions oI irregular migrants originating Irom neighbouring
countries in February 2004. The resolution in question concerns about 700,000 irregular
Ioreigners Irom Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay, Bolivia and Chile.
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
132
Box 6.6
The deveIopment of a common immigration poIicy in the European Union
With the coming into force of the Treaty of Amsterdam in 1999, Community
competence was established in the area of immigration and asylum. Following a decision
of the European Council meeting in Tampere in October 1999, the European Union is
committed to developing a common policy on immigration and asylum based on a
number of principles. These are:
‰ a comprehensive approach which accepts there is a need to find a balance between
humanitarian and economic admission and also acknowledges the policy links
between the different aspects of migration and asylum and, therefore, the interaction
between the measures put in place to deal with them;
‰ fair treatment for third country nationals, aiming to give them comparable rights and
obligations to those of nationals of the Member State in which they live;
‰ the development of partnerships with countries of origin and of transit, including
policies of co-development, as an important element in migration management
strategies;
‰ a separate common policy for asylum which fully respects the terms of the Geneva
Convention and Member States' obligations under international treaties, which
should in the longer term develop into a common asylum procedure and a uniform
status, valid throughout the Union, for those granted asylum.
Since 1999 the EU has been progressively developing these policies on the lines set
out in Tampere and as subsequently elaborated by the Council on the basis of a series
of policy documents put forward by the Commission. Progress has been made with the
harmonization of national legislation on the admission and conditions of stay of third
country nationals, with European directives already adopted on family reunion and on the
status of long-term residents. EU legislation is still under discussion on admission for
employment and self employment and for the purpose of study or to carry out volunteer
work.
At the same time a considerable effort has been made to improve cooperation
between Member States to reinforce control of the EU's external borders and to fight
illegal migration, trafficking and smuggling more effectively. Action has been taken in a
number of areas: visa policy; information exchange, improving cooperation and
coordination between Member States' border authorities (which has led to an agreement
to establish a European External Border Agency); police cooperation; and with respect to
law on aliens and criminal law. Measures to combat smuggling and trafficking and to
dismantle the networks involved have also been taken. Return policies have been
strengthened and an EU return programme is to be set up.
Given the demographic decline and the ageing of its population which is forecast
over the next decades, integration of immigrants is now one of the main challenges
facing the Union. Within the context of the European Employment Strategy, immigration
to meet the unfilled needs of the labour market is seen as one of the measures which will
be necessary to enable the Union to meet the Lisbon goals for its economic
development. The Commission published in June 2003 a communication on immigration,
integration and employment which sets out proposals for reinforcing policy coordination,
cooperation and the exchange of information and good practice with respect to
integration.
An integral part of the European approach to migration management is to build
closer relationships with third countries, and important efforts have been made to
integrate migration-related issues into EU external and development policies. Ìssues
concerned with migration management are now systematically introduced into the
dialogue between the EU and countries of origin and transit, and other regional
groupings (e.g. Mediterranean countries and Asian-Europe Meeting or ASEM) and it will
be a key issue within the wider Europe framework. Since 2001 European funding has
been m made available to support migration management projects in third countries. As
a longer-term objective, particular importance is attached to the implementation of
Council conclusions on migration and development adopted in May 2003 in order to
tackle the root causes of migration flows.
Source: European Commission.
Managing migration
133
430. These agreements reIlect recognition oI the economic and social advantages to be
reaped in integrating labour markets. In providing a normative Iramework Ior the
treatment oI migrant workers, they also establish a basis Ior saIeguarding their rights,
especially where mechanisms Ior mutual reporting and monitoring can be agreed on. For
this reason, regional agreements on migration may have a more direct bearing on how
many people move and under what conditions than international treaties or conventions.
Improving the management oI migration and the conditions oI migrants should thereIore
include measures to ensure more orderly movements between neighbouring States.
Box 6.7
Contribution of regionaI processes to managing migration
InternationaI Organization for Migration (IOM)
Ìn response to the increasing complexity and diversity of international migration,
regional consultation mechanisms have developed around the world and have become an
integral component of managing migration. There are currently 13 regional consultative
mechanisms in place dealing with issues ranging from border control and entry to return
and reintegration of migrants. They serve as mechanisms for bringing together
representatives of States, international organizations and, where possible, non-
governmental organizations (NGOs) in order to discuss regional migration issues in a
cooperative manner. Although they have an informal and non-binding nature, these
processes serve to lay the foundations for common regional approaches to migration.
At their inception, regional processes tend to focus on ways in which origin, transit and
receiving countries can work together to manage irregular migration flows. For this reason it
is often the ministries of the interior and foreign affairs, rather than ministries of labour, that
are involved. However, because of the growing awareness of the development benefits of
migration, the agenda of regional processes have expanded beyond their focus on irregular
migration to a wider range of issues, including labour migration. The number of regional
consultative mechanisms has also grown significantly since their appearance in 1996. Below
are some examples of regional processes and their work relating to labour migration.
The Regional Conference on Migration, or "Puebla Process¨, groups together the
Central and North American countries and the Dominican Republic. Now in its eighth year,
the Process had its first meeting in Puebla in March 1996 where the delegates agreed to
work together to achieve 17 objectives. The countries have since agreed on a common Plan
of Action. The Puebla Process is now moving towards technical cooperation and information
sharing on a variety of issues, including common policies and practices on the return of
regional and extra-regional migrants, joint training, and law enforcement exercises for
combating irregular migration. With the establishment of a Liaison Officer Network for
Consular Protection, it has been able to offer better consular protection and assistance to
migrants.
As the first of its kind on the continent, the Migration Dialogue for Southern Africa
(MÌDSA) was created in 2000, in conjunction with the Southern African Development
Community (SADC), to provide a forum for the exchange of information, experience and
perspectives among governments on migration policy and practice, particularly on the
intraregional movement of people. So far MÌDSA has explored common themes such as
border control and labour migration.
Ìn West Africa, the Migration Dialogue for Western Africa (MÌDWA) began as a follow-
up process to the Dakar Declaration of October 2000. Under its auspices the governments
of the region have received practical assistance in the design, implementation, and
reinforcement of migration legislation and policies.
The 5+5 Dialogue on Migration in the Western Mediterranean was launched in
October 2002 in Tunisia. Ìts objective is the establishment of regular and informal
discussions between five origin and five destination countries in the western Mediterranean
on common migration issues and their linkages with regional cooperation and
development. This resulted in the Tunis Declaration, which called for better management
of legal migration and the integration of migrants. Since then it has had a second meeting
in Morocco in 2003, and a third will take place in Algeria in 2004.
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
134
Ìn Asia, the ÌOM organized the Asian Labour Migration Ministerial Consultation for
Sending Countries in April 2003 in Colombo. This was intended to start a series of
ministerial-level consultations which would serve as a forum for Asian countries to share
experience on how to manage labour migration and to agree on cooperative action.
Twenty-two recommendations on the effective management of labour migration emerged
from this first consultation. A follow-up meeting will take place in Manila in 2004.
To date there are few detailed studies assessing the performance and achievements
of regional consultative processes. There is, however, a consensus that they can make a
valuable contribution to the management of migration, notably through the sharing of
information and experiences. The Puebla Process has been successful in enhancing
cooperation to combat smuggling and trafficking and in ensuring more effective consular
protection for citizens abroad. Enhanced cooperation in other areas, including labour
migration, is clearly possible, and development issues are receiving heightened priority in
regional dialogues today. Regional processes hold the promise of being an effective
means for achieving closer inter-state cooperation in managing labour migration in the
future.
Source: Ìnternational Organization for Migration.
431. II governments are to make these agreements work, they have to harmonize
policies and standards. But they also have to ensure that 'gate-keepers¨ and
administrators on the ground do not use their discretionary powers to deIeat the objective
oI the policy. According to an ECOWAS Executive Secretariat Report in 2000, nearly
all member States maintain numerous checkpoints and subject citizens to administrative
harassment. There have been cases oI expulsions Irom some countries in violation oI
agreements. A common problem is the lack oI a common system Ior recognizing
proIessional qualiIications. Some countries retain barriers to entry into certain
proIessions, requiring the passing oI tests to obtain the requisite licences Ior applicants
who are not educated in the country in which they work.
432. Regional economic integration through trade liberalization should eventually bring
about a greater convergence oI wages and prices and other Iactors oI production which
in itselI will reduce the incentive Ior migration. This has clearly happened in the
European Union, which guarantees Ireedom oI movement and equal treatment, and the
portability oI social welIare beneIits.
21
Despite this, Ioreign workers make up only 2 per
cent oI workers in the national labour markets oI EU countries. Hence, regional
economic integration ultimately brings about an apparent paradox: while it may open up
greater possibilities Ior the Iree movement oI labour, it also generates the kind oI
economic convergence that tends to reduce the need Ior such movements.
6.14. Towards liberalizing trade in services
433. II services are to be traded internationally, some workers will need to move
temporarily to consumers` countries. The General Agreement on Trade in Services
(GATS) that came out oI the Uruguay Round in 1994 has already helped to Iacilitate
such trade through agreements on the temporary admission oI people who are engaged in
rendering certain kinds oI specialized service such as Iinancial management and legal
services.
434. This was a breakthrough Ior the promotion oI international trade in services, and
augurs well Ior the Iastest growing and most dynamic sector in post-industrial societies.

21
W. Molle: The economics of European integration. Theorv, practice, policv (Aldershot, Dartmouth Publishing
Co. Ltd., 1994), Ch. 9.
Managing migration
135
It is also a sector in which some developing countries have a comparative advantage,
since, although they are short oI capital, they are rich in human resources. The
negotiations over the movement oI natural persons, as opposed to legal persons (the so-
called 'Mode 4¨ oI GATS), have, however, been slow and diIIicult, reIlecting the
worries oI the more developed regions over the temporary admission oI people who may
subsequently stay permanently.
435. The negotiations currently centre on:
„ Qualifications accelerating mutual recognition oI qualiIications.
„ Subcontracting schemes to include lower-skilled service workers.
„ Service personnel categories achieving uniIorm deIinition and coverage oI these
categories and expanding them to include middle- and lower-skilled workers and
proIessionals.
„ Social securitv separating short- Irom long-term social security contributions.
436. A global system Ior mutual recognition oI qualiIications, so that an architect,
doctor, or nurse would have his or her credentials recognized in all countries, has yet to
be developed. While some States allow employers to assess qualiIications, many
proIessions remain closed to those who have not passed national certiIication
requirements. Some developing countries have dealt with this problem by incorporating
into their curricula the requirements oI the countries where graduates want to work, so
that nurses in the Philippines, Ior example, are trained to pass nursing examinations in
Canada, the United Kingdom or the United States. At the ILO Tripartite Regional
Meeting on Employment in the Tourism Industry in Asia and the PaciIic, held in
Bangkok in 2003, one oI the recommendations was Ior the ILO to develop certiIication
Ior skilled workers in the industry who underwent specialized training.
437. The expansion oI trade in services will, however, require agreement on important
issues beyond recognition oI qualiIications and the simple matter oI streamlining
procedures Ior obtaining visas and work permits. Current commitments are largely
premised on assumptions about the application oI receiving-country labour laws and
standards on the employment oI the people providing services; but ensuring observance
oI those laws and standards in practice when the service involves brieI periods oI
engagement poses Iormidable problems. This is an area where the tripartite parties have
important interests and where social dialogue can be most useIul.
6.15. Preliminary conclusions: A complex
policy challenge
438. This chapter has argued that sound labour migration policy rests on identiIying
long-term interests, anchoring policies on respect Ior basic human rights, and having an
eIIective mechanism Ior achieving broad social consensus. Governments will have to
make clear the options or choices open to a country and what their long-term
implications may be Ior the economy and society; there are diIIicult trade-oIIs, and some
degree oI conIlict is unavoidable and even desirable in democratic societies. Not only
will they have to argue the rational economic case Ior migration, they must also ensure
that migration does not lead to exploitation oI the migrants as well as marginalizing the
weaker segments oI the labour market, such as older workers or the less skilled, who
also include earlier migrants. Migration must be, and be seen to be, a 'win-win¨
proposition Ior all.
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
136
Box 6.8
EIements for a sound migration poIicy and administration
Policy
‰ Ìncorporating principles contained in relevant international standards in national
legislation and practice to ensure legal recognition and protection of fundamental
human and labour rights of all migrant workers.
‰ Formulating migration policy with due regard to the overall labour market situation,
criteria of decent work and promoting migration as an instrument of development
and poverty reduction.
‰ Ensuring that measures taken in support of migration policy objectives are
transparent and not inconsistent or in conflict with policies in other domains.
‰ Addressing the issues raised by irregular migration and trafficking, ensuring
protection of basic human rights of concerned workers, identifying options, criteria
and procedures for inter-country cooperation, and regularizing the status of workers
in an irregular situation.
‰ Entering into bilateral or multilateral agreements to provide social security coverage
and benefits to migrant workers and for a better management of migration, in
conformity with relevant international standards and practices.
Dialogue
‰ Securing broad support for national policy through consultations and dialogue with
the most directly affected parties, particularly the social partners as well as
concerned civil society organizations and migrants themselves.
‰ Establishing formal structures for consulting workers' and employers' organizations
on labour migration policy and administration.
‰ Engaging in regional and global consultative processes on international migration
policy and cooperation.
Administration
‰ Establishing or strengthening capacities within ministries of labour for developing
coherent and effective policy and administration on labour migration.
‰ Ìmproving the information base for national migration policy through support to data
collection efforts, research and publications.
‰ Reflecting the differences in conditions facing men and women migrants in
measures to improve conditions and reduce specific vulnerabilities faced by female
migrants.
‰ Adopting a comprehensive strategy against trafficking in migrants including
protection, prevention and prosecution.
Social welfare
‰ Promoting access to health care for migrants, including promoting HÌV/AÌDS
prevention.
‰ Addressing problems of discrimination and xenophobia against migrant workers,
including through such means as national action programmes.
‰ Facilitating economic, social and cultural integration of regular migrant workers and
family members into host societies.
439. While international relations oIten set the context Ior migration patterns, migration
policy choices, by their very nature, reIlect the values and priorities within and across
societies. One oI the major challenges in setting multilateral directions Ior migration
policy is arriving at a consensus oI values and priorities widely shared across source and
destination countries which can support a Iramework Ior joint action.
440. Since migration directly aIIects the interests oI workers and employers, achieving
broad social consensus can be Iacilitated by establishing tripartite bodies to assist
governments in Iormulating and implementing labour migration policy. The tasks oI
Managing migration
137
identiIying requirements in the labour market and deciding how best to remedy gaps, oI
combating discrimination and promoting the integration oI immigrants, and oI inIorming
the general public on the impact and consequences oI labour migration, are best carried
out with the participation oI employers` and workers` organizations.
441. Managing migration is inherently a multilateral issue. Today`s global scale oI
migration Ilows and the global reach oI migration networks makes it all the more
compelling Ior countries to look to partnerships overseas, through bilateral and
multilateral agreements and treaties. At the same time the larger part oI cross-border
movements still occur within regional spaces, hence the value oI regional migration
agreements and processes Ior managing migration and protecting the workers.

139
*12#&"%'9'
The way forward
442. As the World Commission on the Social Dimension oI Globalization has
emphasized, cross-border movements oI workers in search oI employment and security
are likely to grow in the coming decades, especially iI globalization Iails to generate jobs
and economic opportunities where most people live. The diIIerences economic,
demographic, social and political that drive migration have widened over the past
several decades and the trend is likely to continue unless Iundamental changes in the
global economy occur to spur growth, promote more equitable income distribution and
reduce economic instability in regions oI the world that are lagging behind.
443. Migration is an integral part oI growth and development processes more
signiIicant at some times and in some countries than others. Nevertheless, as with many
aspects oI development, there are both positive and negative impacts Ior the migrants
themselves and Ior the countries oI origin and destination. There is increasing
recognition oI the role that migration plays in meeting the demographic deIicit and
labour shortages in the more advanced economies, in global exchanges oI technology
and know-how, and in stimulating development through remittance Ilows and
investments, especially Irom diaspora communities. The challenge is how to manage
migration in such a way that the positive eIIects are maximized, making it beneIicial Ior
all.
444. Although migrants and their Iamilies have by and large beneIited Irom migration,
many still toil under abusive and exploitative employment conditions without eIIective
access to legal protection. Migrant women in particular are oIten subjected to multiple
Iorms oI discrimination. There is an urgent need Ior eIIorts, at national and international
levels, to ensure that the rights oI migrants are respected in accordance with all
applicable international standards.
445. II international and national standards are to have a tangible impact on the
conditions oI most migrants, migration processes must be better managed. Unregulated
migration puts many migrants, especially women, in positions oI vulnerability, and their
status oIten eIIectively excludes them Irom social protection. The key to eIIective
protection oI migrants` rights is the eIIective management oI migration.
446. A rights-based international regime Ior managing migration must rest on a
Iramework oI principles oI good governance developed and implemented by the
international community that will be acceptable to all and suitable as a basis Ior
cooperative multilateral action. Existing international instruments deIining the rights oI
migrant workers provide many oI the necessary principles, but a sound Iramework
would have to include principles on how to organize more orderly Iorms oI migration
that beneIit all.
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
140
447. To be eIIective, such a regime Ior managing migration must be accompanied by an
appropriate Iollow-up mechanism to support actions by governments and their social
partners in the implementation oI these principles.
448. The general discussion at the International Labour ConIerence in 2004 might also
speciIy how the ILO`s various means oI action can be used to Iurther strengthen and
expand assistance to governments and to employers` and workers` organizations in
translating such principles into policy and practice at national levels in a number oI areas
including:
„ creating alternatives Ior gainIul employment in countries oI origin;
„ establishing orderly processes oI labour migration;
„ maximizing the contribution oI migration to development;
„ treatment oI migrant workers in accordance with international standards;
„ social protection oI migrant workers and members oI their Iamilies;
„ combating xenophobia and discrimination;
„ social and economic integration oI immigrant workers;
„ addressing the problems oI migrants workers in an irregular status.
449. To this end, the general discussion could propose a well-deIined plan oI action
which engages all the ILO`s constituents governments, and workers` and employers`
organizations. Such a plan oI action could also include the establishment by the ILO oI
an international Iorum on migration Ior work where all the relevant actors can be
brought together on a regular, Irequent and tripartite basis to consider appropriate
responses to the issues raised by increasing migration.
7.1. Ìssues for discussion for a plan of action
450. This report proposes that the ConIerence consider adopting a plan oI action which
would engage the ILO and all its constituents in the development oI a coherent
multilateral Iramework Ior the governance oI international migration. To this end the
ConIerence may wish to discuss the Iollowing issues:
(a) The report highlights the Iact that migration Ior employment is a growing global
phenomenon. Do you agree? II so, what dimensions should be oI particular concern
Ior the ILO and its constituents?
(b) Under certain conditions the cross-border movement oI workers can be mutually
beneIicial Ior countries oI employment and origin, and to the migrants themselves.
However, according to the report, substantial numbers oI women and men migrants
are working under exploitative conditions, deprived oI their basic rights, and are
oIten eIIectively excluded Irom social protection. What policies are needed to
improve their condition? What should the ILO do in terms oI international
regulation to Iill the gaps in protection and how should it develop and employ its
various means oI action in ways that enhance their complementarity and impact?
(c) The key to eIIective protection oI migrants` rights is the eIIective, rights-based
management oI migration. To achieve this, one needs coherent, transparent and
comprehensive national policies that enjoy broad public support, as well as greater
cooperation between and among origin and host States. Apart Irom normative
The way forward
141
action, what can the ILO do to promote such policies and best practices in the
overall management oI labour migration?
(d) What other action should the ILO consider in order to Iacilitate a regular
international exchange oI inIormation and views on international migration and to
contribute to the development oI good governance oI international migration?

143
:++";')'
Summary of repIies to the InternationaI
Labour Migration Survey, 2003
1. Ìntroduction
The analysis is based on the replies to the International Labour Migration Survey
sent out in preparation Ior the general discussion based on an integrated approach at the
International Labour ConIerence in 2004. The Survey aimed to obtain the latest
inIormation on ways in which migration and the treatment oI migrant workers were
being regulated through laws, policies and administrative measures; the role played by
bilateral and multilateral agreements; and the way in which the tripartite partners take
part in the process and the impact oI the ILO instruments in this area. Replies to the
Survey were received Irom 90 member States.
1
The number oI 'Yes/No¨ replies reIlects
the answers given by the member States. Comments Irom the employers` and workers`
organizations have been included where appropriate.
2. Policies, laws and structures
2.1. National labour migration policies
‰ Question 1A. Does your Government have a national policy on international labour
migration?
‰ Question 1B. Ìndicate if you have recently introduced or are contemplating
introducing any changes in the near future to this national policy?

1
Albania, Algeria, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Bahrain, Belarus, Belgium, Bolivia, Bra:il, Bulgaria,
Burundi, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Croatia, Cvprus, C:ech Republic, Denmark, Ecuador,
Egvpt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fifi, Finland, France, Germanv, Greece, Guatemala, Honduras,
Hungarv, Iceland, Indonesia, Ireland, Japan, Ka:akhstan, Kenva, Republic of Korea, Kuwait, Lebanon,
Madagascar, Malawi, Malavsia, Malta, Mauritius, Mexico, Morocco, Mvanmar, Netherlands, New Zealand,
Nicaragua, Norwav, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Rwanda,
Senegal, Sevchelles, Singapore, Slovakia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Sweden, Swit:erland,
Svrian Arab Republic, Tafikistan, Thailand, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United
Kingdom, United States, Uruguav and Zimbabwe.
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
144
Survev response
NationaI poIicy
59
43
26
27
5
20
0
20
40
60
Yes No No reply
National policy on labour
migration
Ìntroduced or contemplate
introducing changes to
national policy

Remarks
Approximately 70 per cent oI member States who responded to the Survey
declared that they have adopted a national policy on labour migration. Some trends in
the objectives oI the national migration labour policy could be determined. For example,
countries such as Australia, Canada, Germanv, New Zealand, United Kingdom or United
States promote the immigration oI highly skilled labour, sometimes based on a points
test, in areas where there is a shortage oI skilled nationals (either on a permanent or
temporary basis), while still leaving the door open Ior the entry oI a limited number oI
migrants who do not Iall within these categories (e.g. Ior Iamily members or asylum
seekers). Japan has recently shiIted its policy towards promoting the acceptance oI
migrant workers in certain technical and proIessional Iields in order to invigorate and
internationalize its society. The admission oI highly skilled labour is also promoted in
certain developing or transition countries in order to Iill labour shortages (e.g. China,
C:ech Republic, Fifi, Republic of Korea, Mauritius, Poland, Thailand or Tunisia). In
Austria, Belgium, Cvprus, France, Lebanon, Malavsia, Netherlands, Norwav, Sweden
and Ukraine, the principal Iocus is to ensure that nationals and regular migrants are Iully
employed. Recruitment oI migrant workers is restricted to certain situations such as the
absence oI national workers with the appropriate skills to Iill the position. Combating
irregular migration, human traIIicking and smuggling was an objective Ior a number oI
both receiving and sending countries (e.g. Albania, C:ech Republic, Germanv,
Indonesia, Netherlands, Portugal, South Africa, Swit:erland, Tafikistan, Thailand,
United Kingdom). The integration oI migrant workers is Iocused on in Austria, C:ech
Republic, Portugal, Tafikistan, South Africa and Swit:erland and the regularization oI
irregular migrant workers is Iocused on in Argentina and Chile. Finally, policies in some
countries (e.g. Egvpt, Ethiopia, Mexico, Morocco, Philippines, Poland, Portugal,
Tafikistan and Tunisia) are aimed at assisting nationals working abroad, ensuring that
they receive equal treatment when in the receiving country, and encouraging the return
oI migrant workers.
2.2. Tripartite consultation
‰ Question 2. Are representative employers' or workers' organizations taking part in
the formulation of labour migration policies, laws and regulations?
‰ Question 3. Do any representative employers' or workers' organizations carry out
specific activities or services targeted at migrant workers?
Summary of replies to the Ìnternational Labour Migration Survey, 2003
145
Survev response
Participation by empIoyers' and workers' organizations
66
35
12
31
12
24
0
20
40
60
80
Yes No No reply
Participation in policy
and law
Specific activities
targeted at migrant
workers

Remarks
The majority oI respondents replied that employers` and workers` organizations
took part in the Iormulation oI labour migration policies, laws and regulations. OI these,
almost halI speciIied that consultations were undertaken in the Iramework oI Iormally
established tripartite bodies. However, no consultations were undertaken or no response
was provided to this question in approximately 25 per cent oI cases. SpeciIic activities
carried out by employers` and workers` organizations included advisory and integration
services as well as training programmes speciIically designed Ior migrant workers in the
country. Some organizations also provided advisory and placement services Ior nationals
going abroad.
2.3. Laws and regulations on migration for employment
‰ Question 4A. Do you have laws and regulations on migration for employment in
your country (immigration)?
‰ Question 4B. Do you have laws and regulations on migration for employment from
your country (emigration)?
Survev response
Laws and reguIations
83
42
4
37
3
11
0
20
40
60
80
100
Yes No No reply
Ìmmigration laws
Emigration laws

‰ Question 39. With respect to migration for employment from your country, do you
have specific provisions regulating the following?
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
146
TabIe 1. Specific IegaI provisions for emigration
0.39 Yes No No rep|y
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‰ Question 5. Are questions related to labour migration provided for expressly or
through practice, in any of the following laws or agreements in your country?
TabIe 2. Laws and agreements reguIating Iabour migration
expressIy or through practice
0.5 Yes No No rep|y
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Remarks
The inIormation provided in the Survey indicated that issues related to migration
were dealt with in a wide array oI laws and regulations, in particular labour and
employment laws, social security laws and immigration laws.
2.4. Competent authorities
‰ Question 8. Please indicate the name of the competent national authority(ies)
engaged in the implementation of matters relating to:
A. Ìmmigration policy
B. Work permits
C. Permits to reside/stay
Summary of replies to the Ìnternational Labour Migration Survey, 2003
147
Survev response
Competent authorities/ministries responsibIe for migration
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Labour/Employment
Ìnterior
Ìmmigration*
Exterior
Defence/Security
Justice
Other
Permits to reside/stay
Work permits
Ìmmigration policy
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‰ Question 38. Do you have a competent authority(ies) specifically placed in charge
of labour emigration? Ìf yes, please specify if it exercises the following functions and
powers:
TabIe 3. Competent emigration authorities
0.38! ! Yes No No rep|y
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Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
148
2.5. Administrative and legal assistance
‰ Question 6. Ìn order to assist migrant workers in asserting their rights, have you
done any of the following?
Survev response
TabIe 4. Administrative and IegaI assistance
0.ô Yes No No rep|y
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Remarks
The majority oI countries indicated that they have set up programmes or services
Ior migrant workers and/or provide inIormation on the rights and obligations oI migrant
workers under national law and regulations. Just over halI the replies indicated that laws
and regulations were translated into the languages most oIten used by migrants in their
country. Other Iorms oI assistance included governmental advisory services, settlement
grants Ior migrant workers as well as inIormation dissemination through various media.
2.6. Bilateral agreements
‰ Question 7. Have you entered into any bilateral or multilateral labour or other
agreements with other countries covering the recruitment, admission, employment,
and social protection of migrant workers?
Survev response
BiIateraI agreements
66
21
3
Yes
No
No reply
Remarks
Most countries had signed bilateral agreements, mainly on labour migration and
social security. The Survey conIirms the trend oI a revival oI bilateral agreements as
many oI the agreements were signed in the 1990s and early 2000s. A large number oI
agreements involve Central or Eastern European countries or ex-USSR countries, some
Iocusing on recruitment in EU countries. Finally, a Iew countries have begun to sign
Working Holiday Maker (WHM) agreements that allow young people to undertake
incidental employment while travelling in the receiving countries, under reciprocal
arrangements. It should also be noted that 33 countries, including 23 that had not ratiIied
Summary of replies to the Ìnternational Labour Migration Survey, 2003
149
Convention No. 97, replied that they had used, or intended to use, Recommendation No.
86, which provides a model agreement on migration Ior employment.
2.7. Admission
‰ Question 9. Are quotas or limits set on the total number of migrant workers that
may be admitted during a particular period (for example, a calendar year)?
‰ Question 10. Are quotas or limits set on the total number of migrant workers who
may be admitted during a particular period for:
A. Selected countries of origin?
B. Certain branches of economic activity?
C. Specific occupations?
D. Migrant workers with particular levels of skills?
Survev response
Quotas and Iimits
26
58
6
12
40
38
25
32
33
25
31
34
19
33
38
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Q.9 Q.10A Q.10B Q.10C Q.10D
Yes
No
No reply

‰ Question 12. Do you allow for preferential treatment in terms of admission for:
A. Migrant workers from specific countries?
B. Migrant workers from countries with whom you have entered into bilateral or
multilateral or other agreements concerning migrant workers?
C. Migrant workers from countries with whom you have formed an economic union
or political association?
D. Migrant workers that satisfy other criteria such as specific ethnic origin or
ancestry?
Survev response
PreferentiaI treatment
33
38
19
36
34
20
31
40
19
14
56
20
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Q.12A Q.12B Q.12C Q.12D
Yes
No
No reply

Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
150
Remarks
One-third oI countries replied that they had speciIic quotas Ior migrant workers
who may be admitted Ior certain reasons, the most common being Ior employment in
certain branches oI activity or employment or, to a lesser extent, Ior workers with
particular levels oI skills. The majority oI respondents replied that they allowed Ior
preIerential treatment; Ior the most part this is accorded to speciIic countries, either
through bilateral agreements or by virtue oI existing political or economic ties.
‰ Question 13. Ìs admission excluded for migrant workers originating from any
specific countries?
‰ Question 14. Ìs there a requirement that migrant workers test negatively for
HÌV/AÌDS in order to gain admission into your country?
Survev response
Grounds for excIusion
4
79
7
21
59
10
0
20
40
60
80
Admission excluded for
certain countries
Must test negative for
HÌV/AÌDS
Yes
No
No reply
Remarks
There are very Iew cases where countries exclude migrant workers Irom speciIic
countries. However, the exclusion oI the admission oI nationals Irom certain countries is
not always negative. For example, one country excludes the employment oI nurses Irom
certain countries where there is a nursing shortage.
‰ Question 15. Does your country provide for different admission categories for the
purpose of employment?
Survev response
Admission categories
65
12 13
41
32
17
0
20
40
60
80
Temporary admissions Ìndefinite admissions
Yes
No
No reply

Summary of replies to the Ìnternational Labour Migration Survey, 2003
151
Remarks
Sixty-Iive countries provided admission Ior temporary migrant workers, less than
one-third oI which require a deposit to ensure that temporary migrant workers will leave
the country (Q.16.I).
2.8. Recruitment
‰ Question 16. Please indicate the conditions that an employer in your country has to
meet in order to be allowed to employ migrant workers:
A. Must demonstrate a lack of qualified applicants .. weeks after announcement of
job offer.
B. Must offer to migrant workers a wage no less than that offered to nationals.
C. Must offer migrant workers a premium over wage offered to nationals.
D. Must be willing to pay a migrant worker's levy or tax.
E. Must be in a selected or priority industry/branch of economic activity.
F. Must qualify as an export industry/branch of economic activity.
G. Must qualify as a small or medium-sized enterprise.
H. Must be in a priority geographic area or region.
Ì. Must put up a deposit to guarantee return of migrant worker.
Survev response
Economic needs tests
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
No qualified
applicant
Equal wage
Other premium
Selected industry
Export industry
SME
Selected area
Guarantee return
Yes
No
No reply
Other

Remarks
The most common criteria an employer must IulIil beIore hiring a migrant worker
are: prooI that there is a lack oI qualiIied national applicants; paying migrant workers a
premium or a wage no less than that oIIered to nationals, or employment in selected
industries/branches oI economic activity.
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
152
‰ Question 17. Can private recruitment agencies be granted authorization to bring in
migrant workers?
‰ Question 18. Are private recruitment agencies allowed to charge migrant workers
recruitment fees to cover services?
‰ Question 20. Ìn addition to legal sanctions and penalties, has your Government
instituted any other special measures ÷ for example collaborations with origin
countries ÷ to combat recruitment malpractices?
‰ Question 40. Are private recruitment agencies allowed to charge migrant workers
placement fees?
Survev response
Private recruitment agencies
40
38
12
23
52
15
32 34
24
26
46
18
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Q.17 Q.18 Q.20 Q.40
Yes
No
No reply
Remarks
Just under halI the respondents replied that private recruitment agencies could be
granted authorization to bring in migrant workers. In the majority oI these cases,
authorization was granted on the condition that they were bringing in the worker on
behalI oI an employer. Twenty-three respondents replied that private recruitment
agencies were allowed to charge migrant workers recruitment Iees to cover services and
26 replied that Iees could be charged Ior the Ioreign employment oI nationals. In some
cases, Iees could be charged under certain conditions, such as Ior speciIic occupations
(e.g. perIormers, models, etc.). In certain countries it was the employer, not the migrant
worker, who paid the recruitment Iees. The amount to be paid varied Irom country to
country but was usually either a Iixed Iee or a percentage oI the worker`s salary.
Examples ranged Irom 10 per cent oI the Iirst month`s salary to 14 per cent oI the annual
salary. In some countries, this area was not regulated and was leIt up to the parties
involved to determine. Thirty-one respondents replied that they had instituted special
practices to combat recruitment malpractices. Initiatives included intergovernmental
collaboration, awareness-raising campaigns Ior potential victims oI traIIicking and the
provision oI advisory services to employers and migrant workers, as well as regional and
international conIerences.
2.9. Rights and benefits
‰ Question 21. Please indicate whether nationals as well as migrant workers (regular
and irregular) in your country are entitled to the rights and benefits listed.
Summary of replies to the Ìnternational Labour Migration Survey, 2003
153
Survev response
TabIe 5. Categories of workers that receive the
foIIowing rights and benefits
R|ghts and benef|ts
A
|
|

w
o
r
k
e
r
s

*

N
a
t
|
o
n
a
|
s

a
n
d

r
e
g
u
|
a
r

H
w
s
*
*

N
a
t
|
o
n
a
|
s

a
n
d

p
e
r
m
a
n
e
n
t
s

T
e
m
p
o
r
a
r
y

H
w
s

N
a
t
|
o
n
a
|
s

o
n
|
y

R
e
p
|
|
e
d



"
n
o
"


t
o

a
|
|

c
a
t
e
g
o
r
|
e
s

N
o

r
e
p
|
y

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Remarks
The right to Iorm or join a workers` organization and to bargain collectively was
available to 'all workers¨ less Irequently than the other Iundamental rights, and a
relatively high proportion oI countries replied that the right was available to 'nationals
only¨. Irregular migrant workers seem to enjoy relatively better protection concerning
the other Iundamental rights (protection against Iorced labour, discrimination at work,
minimum age and equal treatment with respect to wages) as well as against sexual,
ethnic and racial harassment. In addition, with regard to the right to join a social
protection scheme and to access Iree public medical/health services, the number oI
replies indicates that 'nationals and regular migrant workers¨ are more oIten covered
than 'all workers¨. This could reIlect the lack oI protection oI irregular migrant workers
in these Iields. Concerning the rights reserved Ior 'nationals only¨, the Iigures are quite
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
154
'low¨ Ior all the categories reIerred to in table 5, except Ior the right to vote in local and
national elections.
2.10. Social protection
‰ Question 22. Do you have any of the following systems of social protection in your
country?
A. Social insurance (SÌ), i.e. contributory schemes.
B. Provident funds or mandatory savings schemes (PF).
C. Social assistance (SA), financed from taxes, for those with low income or
means.
D. Universal benefits (UB) financed from taxes and usually residency based.
E. Schemes financed by employers only (ES).
‰ Question 23. Are migrant workers entitled to:
A. Maintain their acquired rights with respect to long-term benefits (old-age benefit,
invalidity, survivors' benefit)? (a) only if they stay in the country; or (b)
regardless if they stay in your country or not.
B. Accumulate rights in situations where work is carried out in different countries
over a period of time?
Survev response
Systems of sociaI protection
80
5 5
52
20 18
59
18
13
38
33
19
43
27
20
0
20
40
60
80
SÌ PF SA UB ES
Yes
No
No reply

Scope and coverage of nationaI sociaI security benefits (Q.23)
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Medical care
Sickness
Unemployment
Old age
Employment injury
Family
Maternity
Ìnvalidity
Survivors
No reply or other
Treatment equal to
nationals
Benefit only available for
nationals
Benefit does not exist

Summary of replies to the Ìnternational Labour Migration Survey, 2003
155
Payment of benefits to beneficiaries residing abroad (Q.23)
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Medical care
Sickness
Unemployment
Old age
Employment injury
Family
Maternity
Ìnvalidity
Survivors
No response or other
Benefit paid to nationals
and migrants abroad
Benefit paid to nationals
abroad
Benefit not paid abroad
2.11. Occupational mobility
‰ Question 24. Are there any restrictions regarding the occupational mobility of
migrant workers (i.e. on the right of migrant workers to accept offers of employment
by a person or entities other than those who arrange the migrant workers' admission
into the country?
A. Change of employer not allowed under any circumstance
B. Change of employer allowed subject to prior approval by competent authority
C. Change of employer allowed at any time if in the same branch of economic
activity
D. Change of employer allowed only after certain years of legal employment
Survev response
OccupationaI mobiIity
19
53
18
62
14 14
19
52
19 19
52
19
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Q.24A Q.24B Q.24C Q.24D
Yes
No
No reply

Remarks
Even iI occupational mobility is completely restricted in more than 20 per cent oI
responding countries Ior temporary migrant workers, occupational mobility is allowed,
subject to prior approval by the competent authority, in almost 70 per cent oI countries.
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
156
2.12. Termination of employment
‰ Question 25. Are migrant workers who lose their employment through no fault of
their own, prior to the termination of their contract:
A. Allowed to stay and seek other employment?
B. Assisted in finding other employment?
C. Required immediately to return to country of origin?
D. Given separation pay and sent home?
Survev response
Loss of empIoyment
47
32
11
27
48
15
28
44
18
25
46
19
0
10
20
30
40
50
Q.25A Q.25B Q.25C Q.25D
Yes
No
No reply

‰ Question 26. Upon regular termination of their contract, are temporary or guest
migrant workers allowed to remain in your country to seek other employment?
Survev response
Migrant workers aIIowed to remain in country to seek other
empIoyment upon reguIar termination
21
53
16
Yes
No
No reply

Remarks
Just over halI the countries that responded to the Survey replied that they allowed
migrant workers to stay and seek other employment iI they lost their employment
through no Iault oI their own. However, 23 per cent oI countries declared that they
allowed temporary migrant workers to stay and seek employment aIter the regular
termination oI their contract.
‰ Question 27. Are the following considered valid grounds for termination of
employment of migrant workers?
A. Ìnjury or illness.
B. Testing positively for HÌV/AÌDS.
Summary of replies to the Ìnternational Labour Migration Survey, 2003
157
Survev response
VaIid grounds for termination of empIoyment
19
56
15 15
59
16
0
20
40
60
Ìnjury or illness HÌV/AÌDS positive
Yes
No
No reply
2.13. Monitoring and inspection
‰ Question 28. Does your Government monitor the conditions of employment of
migrant workers? Ìf yes, through which means [table 6].
‰ Question 29A. Does your regular labour inspection system include special
procedures for monitoring migrant workers and their working conditions?
‰ Question 29B. Please indicate whether these procedures are intended to determine
if the situation of migrant workers is in compliance with any or all of the following
national labour standards [table 7].
‰ Question 30. Are special inspections conducted in case of complaints by migrant
workers, such as by victims of trafficking or by foreign domestic helpers?
Survev response
Monitoring the empIoyment conditions of migrant workers
77
3
10
36
38
16
59
11
20
0
20
40
60
80
Q.28 Q.29A Q.30
Yes
No
No reply

TabIe 6. Means through which member States monitor the conditions of
empIoyment of migrant workers
0.28 Yes No No rep|y
"! Y8;8$'D!D'@65$!%;178&:%6;! //! 2 ((
W! F876$:1!6#!&6<78:8;:!'5:>6$%:H!%;!&>'$G8!6#!%11581!$8G'$=%;G!<%G$';:!P6$N8$1 -/! , 2.
?! ?6<7D'%;:1!$8&8%L8=!#$6<!:>8!P6$N8$1!:>8<18DL81! ),! ) (-
K! F876$:1!#$6<!D6&'D!'=<%;%1:$':%L8!@6=%81! -)! (+ 2(
4! F876$:1!#$6<!:$'=8!5;%6;1!6$!6:>8$!P6$N8$1p!6$G';%\':%6;1! -,! (+ (0
_! F876$:1!#$6<!8<7D6H8$1!6$!8<7D6H8$1p!6$G';%\':%6;1! -/! (+ 23
Y! A8P1!<8=%'! --! (- 23
a! F876$:1!#$6<!AYB1! -(! () 2+
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
158
TabIe 7. SpeciaI procedures for monitoring migrant workers are intended to
determine situation of migrant workers with respect to:
0.29ß Yes No No rep|y
"! A6;V=%1&$%<%;':%6;! -0 - 2/
W! [%;%<5<!'G8!#6$!8<7D6H<8;:! )3 . 2)
?! M$6>%@%:%6;1!'G'%;1:!7>H1%&'DZ18^5'D!'@518Z>'$'11<8;:! -) / 2/
K! F8<5;8$':%6;!'&&6$=%;G!:6!<%;%<5<!P'G8! )2 + 2-
4! M'H<8;:!6#!1'D'$%81!'&&6$=%;G!:6!&6;:$'&:! -0 . 20
_! M$6>%@%:%6;!'G'%;1:!P'G8!$8=5&:%6;1!%;!8^&811!6#!:>':!'DD6P8=!%;!D'P! -/ - 20
Y! 4;:%:D8<8;:1!:6!$81:!78$%6=1Z='H1! )( 2 2/
a! 4;:%:D8<8;:1!:6!'=8b5':8!>651%;G! .2 (0 +3
S! 4;:%:D8<8;:1!:6!1'#8!';=!>8'D:>H!P6$N%;G!&6;=%:%6;1! )2 2 2)
e! K%1&$%<%;':%6;!@8:P88;!<8;!';=!P6<8;!<%G$';:!P6$N8$1! -- / 20
Remarks
While the majority oI respondents indicated that they monitored the working
conditions oI migrant workers through general labour inspections, only 40 per cent
indicated that they had a special system Ior monitoring migrant workers. Where speciIic
systems existed, these included the monitoring oI migrant workers by specialist units or
regular labour inspectors. Other methods included administrative veriIication oI work
conditions by the competent authority. In general, where special labour inspections were
carried out, they were aimed at ensuring that migrant workers have the same working
conditions as national workers as well as monitoring the validity oI work permits. OI the
60 per cent oI respondents that replied that there were no speciIic procedures, a number
said that this was because they did not make the distinction between migrant and
national workers. However, in over 66 per cent oI member States that replied, special
inspections were carried out in response to complaints Irom migrant workers.
2.14. Regularization
‰ Question 33. Ìs there an established procedure through which irregular migrant
workers can regularize their status?
‰ Question 34. On what grounds have irregular migrant workers been considered to
qualify for regularization?
A. Being sufficiently employed.
B. Length of stay in the country.
C. No criminal record.
D. Ability to understand and speak language of the country.
Summary of replies to the Ìnternational Labour Migration Survey, 2003
159
Survev response
EstabIished procedure to reguIarize status of irreguIar migrant workers
41
35
14
Yes
No
No reply

Grounds upon which irreguIar migrant workers are considered
to quaIify for reguIarization
22
28
40
27
24
39
28
20
42
6
39
45
0
10
20
30
40
50
Sufficiently
employed
Length of stay No criminal
record
Language skills
Yes
No
No reply
Remarks
Employment, residence and not having a criminal record seem to be the most
Irequent grounds needed to qualiIy Ior regularization. Many countries use a combination
oI these requirements, along with other criteria such as the existence oI Iamily ties with
nationals or regular residents, the degree oI integration oI the migrant worker, or the
presence oI children in the Iamily group asking to be regularized.
2.15. Expulsion
‰ Question 35. Do you have an established procedure for hearing appeals against
expulsion?
‰ Question 36. Does your Government allow victims of trafficking to remain in the
country while law enforcement agencies pursue the prosecution and conviction of
their traffickers?
Survev response
ExpuIsion
53
12
25
43
15
32
0
20
40
60
Appeal against expulsion Trafficking victims allowed to stay
Yes
No
No reply

Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
160
3. ÌLO action
3.1. Ìnternational labour standards
‰ Question 41. Ìf you have not already done so, have you initiated or do you intend to
initiate ratification procedures for the following ÌLO Conventions on migrant workers:
(a) Migration for Employment Convention (Revised), 1949 (No. 97), and/or (b)
Migrant Workers (Supplementary Provisions) Convention, 1975 (No. 143)?
Ìf no, please specify whether any specific Article or Articles in either one of these
instruments represent an obstacle to ratification.
Survev response
7
19
10
12
40
34
33
25
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
Ratified* Ìntend to ratify Do not intend to
ratify
No reply
Convention No. 143
Convention No. 97
E!A5<@8$1!$8#8$!6;DH!:6!:>618!&65;:$%81!:>':!$87D%8=!:6!:>8!J5$L8H*!
Articles of Convention No. 97 that pose obstacles to ratification
„ Article 2 Iree service to assist migrants Ior employment (Estonia, Sri Lanka).
„ Article 6 equal treatment to nationals (Mexico, Slovakia and United Arab
Emirates).
„ Article 7 cooperation between member States and Iree public employment
service (Estonia).
„ Article 8 migrant worker allowed to remain in country aIter termination oI
employment contract due to illness or injury (Slovakia).
„ Annexes I, II and III (Madagascar, Slovakia).
Articles of Convention No. 143 that pose obstacles
to ratification
„ Article 2 determine conditions oI irregular migrant workers (Mexico).
„ Article 3 suppression oI clandestine movement oI migrants and organizers or
illicit or clandestine movements (Mexico).
„ Article 6 detection oI and penalties against illegal employment (Mexico).
„ Article 8 eIIects oI loss oI employment on the migratory situation and equality oI
treatment concerning security oI employment (Mauritius and Netherlands).
„ Article 9 equal treatment oI migrant worker with respect to rights arising out oI
past employment as regards remuneration, social security and other beneIits
(Mexico).
„ Article 10 equality oI opportunity and treatment (Estonia, Germanv, Mauritius
and Mexico).
Summary of replies to the Ìnternational Labour Migration Survey, 2003
161
„ Article 12 cooperation with employers` and workers` organizations, enactment oI
legislation and encouragement oI educational programmes (Germanv, Mexico and
Slovakia).
„ Article 13 Iacilitate the reuniIication oI Iamilies (Mexico and Slovakia).
„ Article 14 geographical mobility (Belgium, Germanv, Mauritius and Slovakia).
General obstacles
„ The Conventions are not in line with current national laws and practice (C:ech
Republic, Finland, Japan, Kuwait, Slovakia, Swit:erland and United Kingdom).
„ Follow-up procedures and elaboration oI reports requested upon ratiIication
(United Arab Emirates).
„ Conventions are inIlexible with respect to the member States` systems and
procedures, e.g. the social security system (in particular provisions that grant
migrants and their Iamilies the same conditions as nationals, that oIIer the same
rights Ior irregular migrants and with respect to Iamily reuniIication) (Denmark).
Remarks
A relatively small number oI the respondents replied that they intended to ratiIy
either oI the Conventions. However, only a handIul oI the member States speciIied
obstacles that prevented ratiIication oI the Conventions, the main reason stated being
that the Conventions were not in line with national laws and regulations in this area.
‰ Question 42. With respect to the following ÌLO Conventions and Recommendations,
please indicate if you have used or intend to use them as models for your national
law and practice in this area.
Survev response
Impact of ILO instruments in the responding countries
19
12
11
15
18
15
7
9
13
15
17
15
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
C.97 R.86 C.143 R.151
Ìntend to use as model
Used as model
Ìntend to ratify
Ratified

Remarks
Based on the results oI the Survey, both Conventions Nos. 97 and 143 appear to
have impacted, either directly (ratiIication) or indirectly (being used, or intended to be
used, as a model), on national laws and regulations, i.e. in 63 per cent oI countries Ior
Convention No. 97 and 49 per cent oI countries Ior Convention No. 143. Conventions
Nos. 97 and 143 have been ratiIied by 42 and 18 member States, respectively.

Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
162
‰ Question 43. Please explain if current ÌLO instruments in this area (including but not
limited to Conventions Nos. 97 and 143) contain any significant gaps or lacunae that
you consider should be addressed by the ÌLO.
Survev response
Gaps
„ Conventions Nos. 97 and 143 are not speciIic enough.
„ SelI-employed persons are not included in the scope oI Convention No. 97.
„ There is no clear deIinition oI the term 'Iamily¨ in Convention No. 97.
„ Regularization oI irregular migrants.
„ Documentation Ior temporary migrant workers (Convention No. 97).
„ TraIIicking.
„ Lack oI social protection oI migrant workers in particular with respect to beneIits.
„ Need to develop new strategies in reaction to the changes in migration brought
about by globalization.
„ ILO instruments need to be harmonized with other international instruments such
as GATS Mode 4 or the International Convention on the Protection oI the Rights oI
All Migrant Workers and Members oI their Families, 1990.
Remarks
Only 29 oI the respondents provided comments on this question. Fourteen replied
that the Conventions were suIIiciently comprehensive and that there were no gaps or
lacunae.
‰ Question 44. Are there any specific concerns that you consider should be the object
of ÌLO action in the present subject area?
A. Ìf yes, please specify.
B. Ìndicate whether these concerns should be addressed in the context of
developing:
(a) A new Convention.
(b) A new Recommendation.
(c) Revision of exiting instruments.
(d) Codes of practice.
(e) Other types of guidelines.
(f) Other action (if yes, please specify below).
Summary of replies to the Ìnternational Labour Migration Survey, 2003
163
Survev response
How to address specific concerns
7
13
70
8 11
71
17
7
66
11
8
71
4
12
74
0
20
40
60
80
Convention Recommendation Revision of existing
instruments
Code of practice Other types of
guidelines
Yes
No
No reply

Specific concerns to be the obfect of ILO action
„ Protection oI irregular migrant workers and their Iamilies.
„ Protection oI temporary migrant workers.
„ Protection oI domestic migrant workers.
„ Social protection oI migrant workers.
„ Family reuniIication.
„ Examination oI the advantages and disadvantages oI labour migration in countries
and regions, and identiIication oI the impact oI migration in receiving countries.
„ Combating human traIIicking, e.g. through inIormation dissemination.
„ Elaboration oI guidelines Ior bilateral agreements.
„ Avoidance oI social dumping and creation oI a policy combating the brain drain in
developing countries.
„ Revision oI Article 8 oI Convention No. 97.
„ Application and promotion oI existing instruments.
Remarks
Only 27 replies were received on the above question. Among these replies, the
protection oI certain groups, such as irregular or temporary migrant workers or domestic
workers, was oIten cited.
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
164
3.2. Technical cooperation required from the ÌLO
‰ Question 45. Please indicate whether you need technical cooperation from the ÌLO
with regard to migration for employment in any of the following areas:
A. Development of labour migration policy.
B. Review and/or reform of applicable legislation.
C. Development of national administrative infrastructures.
D. Building capacity of workers' and employers' organizations.
E. Strengthening labour inspection.
F. Promotion of equality of treatment for migrant workers.
G. Ìmproved statistics on migration.
H. Gender-specific issues of migration policy or practice.
Survev response
TechnicaI cooperation
37
2627 2728
35
25
28
37
34
22
34
37
21
32
26
29
35
50
18
22
29
25
36
0
10
20
30
40
50
Migration
policy
Laws Ìnfrastructures Capacity
building
Labour
inspection
Equal
treatment
Statistics Gender
Yes No No reply

3.3. Ìnformation that would be useful for policy-making
and administration
‰ Question 46. Please specify below what kind of information on labour migration
would be useful to you in policy-making and administration
Survev response
The 37 respondents that replied to this question indicated that more inIormation on
the Iollowing topics would be useIul to them in policy-making and administration:
„ SpeciIic country inIormation on policies, laws, regulations and best practices in
member States, Ior example by way oI a comparative analysis oI countries and/or
database etc. (Albania, Austria, Canada, Costa Rica, Cvprus, Egvpt, Ethiopia,
Japan, Kenva, Lebanon, Mexico, Pakistan, Panama, Rwanda, Tafikistan, Togo,
Ukraine and United Arab Emirates).
„ Statistics (Albania, Argentina, Bahrain, Belgium, Ecuador, France, Honduras,
Hungarv, Kenva, Netherlands, Nicaragua, Pakistan, Slovakia and Sudan) as well
as the Barbados Workers` Union. In addition, the Iollowing countries indicated that
they needed technical cooperation Ior improving labour statistics in this area:
Albania, Algeria, Argentina, Armenia, Bahrain, Belarus, Bolivia, Bra:il, Bulgaria,
Summary of replies to the Ìnternational Labour Migration Survey, 2003
165
Colombia, Costa Rica, C:ech Republic, Ecuador, Egvpt, El Salvador, Eritrea,
Estonia, Ethiopia, France, Guatemala, Honduras, Ka:akhstan, Kenva, Republic of
Korea, Lebanon, Madagascar, Mauritius, Morocco, Nicaragua, Oman, Pakistan,
Romania, Rwanda, Senegal, Sevchelles, Slovakia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan,
Swit:erland, Svrian Arab Republic, Tafikistan, Thailand, Togo, Tunisia, United
Arab Emirates, Uruguav and Zimbabwe.
„ Regional and interregional migration Ilows (Argentina, Japan and Zimbabwe).
„ Solutions Ior issues concerning the 'brain drain¨ (Armenia).
„ Employment abroad, Ioreign market needs, etc. (Armenia, Egvpt and Ethiopia).
Remarks
There were two main trends that came out oI the replies to this question. First was
the need Ior speciIic inIormation, by country, on diIIerent aspects oI migration,
including laws, policies, and employment opportunities, etc. The second was a need Ior
reliable and detailed statistics in this area.
4. Completion of the Survey
‰ Question 51. Regarding the completion of this Survey:
A. Were the most representative employers' organizations consulted in its preparation?
B. Were the most representative workers' organizations consulted in its preparation?
C. Was there consultation with any governmental authorities outside the ministry
responsible for labour?
‰ Question 52. Regarding comments received on this Survey:
A. Did employers' organizations make any comments on the Survey?
B. Did workers' organizations make any comments on the Survey?
Survev response
TabIe 8. ConsuItations and comments
0.51 Yes No No rep|y
"E! [61:!$87$818;:':%L8!8<7D6H8$1p!6$G';%\':%6;1!&6;15D:8=!6;!:>8!
7$87'$':%6;!6#!:>8!J5$L8H!
-3 (+ 2)
WE! [61:!$87$818;:':%L8!P6$N8$1p!6$G';%\':%6;1!&6;15D:8=!6;!:>8!
7$87'$':%6;!6#!:>8!J5$L8H!
., (. 2)
?! Y6L8$;<8;:'D!'5:>6$%:%81!P8$8!&6;15D:8=!6;!J5$L8H! -( (+ 2-
0.52
"EE! 4<7D6H8$1p!6$G';%\':%6;1!<'=8!&6<<8;:1!6;!:>8!J5$L8H! 2- .( 2.
WEEE! X6$N8$1p!6$G';%\':%6;1!<'=8!&6<<8;:1!6;!:>8!J5$L8H! (, .( +3
E! /|ger|a, /rgenr|na, /usrra||a, /usrr|a, 3anra|n, 3e|arus, 3e|g|um, 3u|gar|a, 3uruno|, 0anaoa, 0n|na, 0,prus, 0zecn Repuo||c,
Esron|a, Ern|op|a, F|n|ano, France, Serman,, Sreece, lce|ano, lre|ano, Japan, ren,a, Repuo||c ol rorea, ruua|r, leoanon,
Vaur|r|us, Vex|co, V,anmar, herner|anos, heu Zea|ano, Pn|||pp|nes, Po|ano, Porruga|, Darar, Roman|a, Ruanoa, $|ovak|a, $r|
lanka, $uoan, $ueoen, $u|rzer|ano, $,r|an /rao Repuo||c, Ta¡|k|sran, Togo, uganoa, un|reo r|ngoom, un|reo $rares, urugua,*
Dman!%;=%&':8=!:>':!6;DH!:>8!<61:!$87$818;:':%L8!8<7D6H8$1p!6$G';%\':%6;1!>'=!@88;!&6;15D:8=*!S;!'==%:%6;O!'!15$L8H!$8176;18!P'1
$8&8%L8=!#$6<!'!P6$N8$1p!6$G';%\':%6;!%;!3aroaoos*!!!EE!/|ger|a, 3e|g|um, 3raz||, 0,prus, 0zecn Repuo||c, Ecuaoor, F|n|ano, France,
Serman,, lce|ano, Japan, Repuo||c ol rorea, ruua|r, Vex|co, V,anmar, heu Zea|ano, horua,, Po|ano, Ruanoa, $ueoen,
$u|rzer|ano, uganoa, un|reo r|ngoom, un|reo $rares, urugua,*! ! ! EEE! /|ger|a, /usrr|a, 3e|g|um, 0,prus, 0zecn Repuo||c, Esron|a,
F|n|ano, France, lce|ano, Japan, Va|a,s|a, V,anmar, horua,, Ruanoa, $pa|n, $ueoen, $u|rzer|ano, un|reo $rares, urugua,.!

166
:++";'))'
Ratifications of reIevant instruments
(as at March 2004)
Convention No. 97. Migration Ior Employment Convention (Revised), 1949 (No. 97):
Date oI entry into Iorce: 22 January 1952,
42 ratiIications.
1

Convention No. 143. Migrant Workers (Supplementary Provisions) Convention, 1975
(No. 143):
Date oI entry into Iorce: 9 December 1978,
18 ratiIications.
1990 United Nations Convention. International Convention on the Protection oI the
Rights oI All Migrant Workers and Members oI Their Families:
Date oI entry into Iorce: 1 July 2003,
25 ratiIications.
8tate 6onvent|on No. 97 6onvent|on No. 143 Un|ted Nat|ons 6onvent|on
(m|grants}
"DG8$%'! (,*(3*(,)2! ! ! !
"\8$@'%`';! ! ! ! ! ((*3(*(,,,
W'>'<'1! 2-*3-*(,/)! ! ! !
W'$@'=61! 30*3-*(,)/! ! ! !
W8DG%5<! 2/*3/*(,-+! ! ! !
W8D%\8! (-*(2*(,0+! ! ! ! (.*((*233(
W8;%;! ! ! ((*3)*(,03! !
W6D%L%'! ! ! ! ! (2*(3*2333
W61;%'!';=!a8$\8G6L%;'! 32*3)*(,,+! ! 32*3)*(,,+! ! (+*(2*(,,)
W$'\%D! (0*3)*(,)-! ! ! !
W5$N%;'!_'16! 3,*3)*(,)(! ! 3,*(2*(,//! ! 2)*((*233+

1
Convention No. 97 is also applicable to Hong Kong, China, by virtue oI a notiIication oI application by China,
and to Anguilla (with certain modiIications), Jersey, Guernsey, British Virgin Islands (with certain
modiIications), Montserrat (with certain modiIications) and the Isle oI Man by virtue oI declarations oI
application by the United Kingdom.
Ratifications of relevant instruments
(as at March 2004)
167
8tate 6onvent|on No. 97 6onvent|on No. 143 Un|ted Nat|ons 6onvent|on
(m|grants}
?'<8$66;! 3+*3,*(,)2! ! 3.*3/*(,/0! !
?'78!f8$=8! ! ! ! ! ()*3,*(,,/
?6D6<@%'! ! ! ! ! 2.*3-*(,,-
?5@'! 2,*3.*(,-2! ! ! !
?H7$51! 2+*3,*(,)3! ! 20*3)*(,//! !
K6<%;%&'! 20*32*(,0+! ! ! !
4&5'=6$! 3-*3.*(,/0! ! ! ! 3)*32*2332
4D!J'DL'=6$! ! ! ! ! (.*3+*233+
4GH7:! ! ! ! ! (,*32*(,,+
_$';&8! 2,*3+*(,-+! ! ! !
Y8$<';H! 22*3+*(,-,! ! ! !
Y>';'! ! ! ! ! 30*3,*2333
Y$8;'='! 3,*3/*(,-2! ! ! !
Y5':8<'D'! (+*32*(,-2! ! ! ! (.*3+*233+
Y5%;8'! ! ! 3-*3)*(,/0! ! 30*3,*2333
Y5H';'! 30*3)*(,))! ! ! !
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8tate 6onvent|on No. 97 6onvent|on No. 143 Un|ted Nat|ons 6onvent|on
(m|grants}
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169
:++";')))'
Texts of the ILO instruments on
migrant workers
Migration for Employment Convention (Revised),
1949 (No. 97)
The General ConIerence oI the International Labour Organisation,
Having been convened at Geneva by the Governing Body oI the International Labour
OIIice, and having met in its Thirty-second Session on 8 June 1949, and
Having decided upon the adoption oI certain proposals with regard to the revision oI the
Migration Ior Employment Convention, 1939, adopted by the ConIerence at its
Twenty-IiIth Session, which is included in the eleventh item on the agenda oI the
session, and
Considering that these proposals must take the Iorm oI an international Convention,
adopts this Iirst day oI July oI the year one thousand nine hundred and Iorty-nine the
Iollowing Convention, which may be cited as the Migration Ior Employment Convention
(Revised), 1949:
Article 1
Each Member oI the International Labour Organisation Ior which this Convention is in
Iorce undertakes to make available on request to the International Labour OIIice and to other
Members
(a) inIormation on national policies, laws and regulations relating to emigration and
immigration;
(b) inIormation on special provisions concerning migration Ior employment and the
conditions oI work and livelihood oI migrants Ior employment;
(c) inIormation concerning general agreements and special arrangements on these questions
concluded by the Member.
Article 2
Each Member Ior which this Convention is in Iorce undertakes to maintain, or satisIy
itselI that there is maintained, an adequate and Iree service to assist migrants Ior
employment, and in particular to provide them with accurate inIormation.
Article 3
1. Each Member Ior which this Convention is in Iorce undertakes that it will, so Iar as
national laws and regulations permit, take all appropriate steps against misleading
propaganda relating to emigration and immigration.
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2. For this purpose, it will where appropriate act in co-operation with other Members
concerned.
Article 4
Measures shall be taken as appropriate by each Member, within its jurisdiction, to
Iacilitate the departure, journey and reception oI migrants Ior employment.
Article 5
Each Member Ior which this Convention is in Iorce undertakes to maintain, within its
jurisdiction, appropriate medical services responsible Ior
(a) ascertaining, where necessary, both at the time oI departure and on arrival, that migrants
Ior employment and the members oI their Iamilies authorised to accompany or join them
are in reasonable health;
(b) ensuring that migrants Ior employment and members oI their Iamilies enjoy adequate
medical attention and good hygienic conditions at the time oI departure, during the
journey and on arrival in the territory oI destination.
Article 6
1. Each Member Ior which this Convention is in Iorce undertakes to apply, without
discrimination in respect oI nationality, race, religion or sex, to immigrants lawIully within
its territory, treatment no less Iavourable than that which it applies to its own nationals in
respect oI the Iollowing matters:
(a) in so Iar as such matters are regulated by law or regulations, or are subject to the control
oI administrative authorities
(i) remuneration, including Iamily allowances where these Iorm part oI remuneration,
hours oI work, overtime arrangements, holidays with pay, restrictions on home
work, minimum age Ior employment, apprenticeship and training, women`s work
and the work oI young persons;
(ii) membership oI trade unions and enjoyment oI the beneIits oI collective bargaining;
(iii) accommodation;
(b) social security (that is to say, legal provision in respect oI employment injury, maternity,
sickness, invalidity, old age, death, unemployment and Iamily responsibilities, and any
other contingency which, according to national laws or regulations, is covered by a
social security scheme), subject to the Iollowing limitations:
(i) there may be appropriate arrangements Ior the maintenance oI acquired rights and
rights in course oI acquisition;
(ii) national laws or regulations oI immigration countries may prescribe special
arrangements concerning beneIits or portions oI beneIits which are payable wholly
out oI public Iunds, and concerning allowances paid to persons who do not IulIil
the contribution conditions prescribed Ior the award oI a normal pension;
(c) employment taxes, dues or contributions payable in respect oI the person employed; and
(d) legal proceedings relating to the matters reIerred to in this Convention.
2. In the case oI a Iederal State the provisions oI this Article shall apply in so Iar as the
matters dealt with are regulated by Iederal law or regulations or are subject to the control oI
Iederal administrative authorities. The extent to which and manner in which these provisions
shall be applied in respect oI matters regulated by the law or regulations oI the constituent
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171
States, provinces or cantons, or subject to the control oI the administrative authorities
thereoI, shall be determined by each Member. The Member shall indicate in its annual report
upon the application oI the Convention the extent to which the matters dealt with in this
Article are regulated by Iederal law or regulations or are subject to the control oI Iederal
administrative authorities. In respect oI matters which are regulated by the law or regulations
oI the constituent States, provinces or cantons, or are subject to the control oI the
administrative authorities thereoI, the Member shall take the steps provided Ior in
paragraph 7(b) oI article 19 oI the Constitution oI the International Labour Organisation.
Article 7
1. Each Member Ior which this Convention is in Iorce undertakes that its employment
service and other services connected with migration will co-operate in appropriate cases with
the corresponding services oI other Members.
2. Each Member Ior which this Convention is in Iorce undertakes to ensure that the
services rendered by its public employment service to migrants Ior employment are rendered
Iree.
Article 8
1. A migrant Ior employment who has been admitted on a permanent basis and the
members oI his Iamily who have been authorised to accompany or join him shall not be
returned to their territory oI origin or the territory Irom which they emigrated because the
migrant is unable to Iollow his occupation by reason oI illness contracted or injury sustained
subsequent to entry, unless the person concerned so desires or an international agreement to
which the Member is a party so provides.
2. When migrants Ior employment are admitted on a permanent basis upon arrival in the
country oI immigration the competent authority oI that country may determine that the
provisions oI paragraph 1 oI this Article shall take eIIect only aIter a reasonable period
which shall in no case exceed Iive years Irom the date oI admission oI such migrants.
Article 9
Each Member Ior which this Convention is in Iorce undertakes to permit, taking into
account the limits allowed by national laws and regulations concerning export and import oI
currency, the transIer oI such part oI the earnings and savings oI the migrant Ior employment
as the migrant may desire.
Article 10
In cases where the number oI migrants going Irom the territory oI one Member to that oI
another is suIIiciently large, the competent authorities oI the territories concerned shall,
whenever necessary or desirable, enter into agreements Ior the purpose oI regulating matters
oI common concern arising in connection with the application oI the provisions oI this
Convention.
Article 11
1. For the purpose oI this Convention the term migrant Ior employment means a person
who migrates Irom one country to another with a view to being employed otherwise than on
his own account and includes any person regularly admitted as a migrant Ior employment.
2. This Convention does not apply to
(a) Irontier workers;
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(b) short-term entry oI members oI the liberal proIessions and artistes; and
(c) seamen.
Article 12
The Iormal ratiIications oI this Convention shall be communicated to the Director-
General oI the International Labour OIIice Ior registration.
Article 13
1. This Convention shall be binding only upon those Members oI the International
Labour Organisation whose ratiIications have been registered with the Director-General.
2. It shall come into Iorce twelve months aIter the date on which the ratiIications oI two
Members have been registered with the Director-General.
3. ThereaIter, this Convention shall come into Iorce Ior any Member twelve months
aIter the date on which its ratiIication has been registered.
Article 14
1. Each Member ratiIying this Convention may, by a declaration appended to its
ratiIication, exclude Irom its ratiIication any or all oI the Annexes to the Convention.
2. Subject to the terms oI any such declaration, the provisions oI the Annexes shall have
the same eIIect as the provisions oI the Convention.
3. Any Member which makes such a declaration may subsequently by a new
declaration notiIy the Director-General that it accepts any or all oI the Annexes mentioned in
the declaration; as Irom the date oI the registration oI such notiIication by the Director-
General the provisions oI such Annexes shall be applicable to the Member in question.
4. While a declaration made under paragraph 1 oI this Article remains in Iorce in
respect oI any Annex, the Member may declare its willingness to accept that Annex as
having the Iorce oI a Recommendation.
Article 15
1. Declarations communicated to the Director-General oI the International Labour
OIIice in accordance with paragraph 2 oI Article 35 oI the Constitution oI the International
Labour Organisation shall indicate
(a) the territories in respect oI which the Member concerned undertakes that the provisions
oI the Convention and any or all oI the Annexes shall be applied without modiIication;
(b) the territories in respect oI which it undertakes that the provisions oI the Convention and
any or all oI the Annexes shall be applied subject to modiIications, together with details
oI the said modiIications;
(c) the territories in respect oI which the Convention and any or all oI the Annexes are
inapplicable and in such cases the grounds on which they are inapplicable;
(d) the territories in respect oI which it reserves its decision pending Iurther consideration oI
the position.
2. The undertakings reIerred to in subparagraphs (a) and (b) oI paragraph 1 oI this
Article shall be deemed to be an integral part oI the ratiIication and shall have the Iorce oI
ratiIication.
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3. Any Member may at any time by a subsequent declaration cancel in whole or in part
any reservations made in its original declaration in virtue oI subparagraph (b), (c) or (d) oI
paragraph 1 oI this Article.
4. Any Member may, at any time at which the Convention is subject to denunciation in
accordance with the provisions oI Article 17, communicate to the Director-General a
declaration modiIying in any other respect the terms oI any Iormer declaration and stating
the present position in respect oI such territories as it may speciIy.
Article 16
1. Declarations communicated to the Director-General oI the International Labour
OIIice in accordance with paragraph 4 or 5 oI Article 35 oI the Constitution oI the
International Labour Organisation shall indicate whether the provisions oI the Convention
and any or all oI the Annexes will be applied in the territory concerned without modiIication
or subject to modiIications; and iI the declaration indicates that the provisions oI the
Convention and any or all oI the Annexes will be applied subject to modiIications, it shall
give details oI the said modiIications.
2. The Member, Members or international authority concerned may at any time by a
subsequent declaration renounce in whole or in part the right to have recourse to any
modiIication indicated in any Iormer declaration.
3. The Member, Members or international authority concerned may, at any time at
which this Convention and any or all oI the Annexes are subject to denunciation in
accordance with the provisions oI Article 17, communicate to the Director-General a
declaration modiIying in any other respect the terms oI any Iormer declaration and stating
the present position in respect oI the application oI the Convention.
Article 17
1. A Member which has ratiIied this Convention may denounce it aIter the expiration oI
ten years Irom the date on which the Convention Iirst comes into Iorce, by an act
communicated to the Director-General oI the International Labour OIIice Ior registration.
Such denunciation shall not take eIIect until one year aIter the date on which it is registered.
2. Each Member which has ratiIied this Convention and which does not, within the year
Iollowing the expiration oI the period oI ten years mentioned in the preceding paragraph,
exercise the right oI denunciation provided Ior in this Article, will be bound Ior another
period oI ten years and, thereaIter, may denounce this Convention at the expiration oI each
period oI ten years under the terms provided Ior in this Article.
3. At any time at which this Convention is subject to denunciation in accordance with
the provisions oI the preceding paragraphs any Member which does not so denounce it may
communicate to the Director-General a declaration denouncing separately any Annex to the
Convention which is in Iorce Ior that Member.
4. The denunciation oI this Convention or oI any or all oI the Annexes shall not aIIect
the rights granted thereunder to a migrant or to the members oI his Iamily iI he immigrated
while the Convention or the relevant Annex was in Iorce in respect oI the territory where the
question oI the continued validity oI these rights arises.
Article 18
1. The Director-General oI the International Labour OIIice shall notiIy all Members oI
the International Labour Organisation oI the registration oI all ratiIications, declarations and
denunciations communicated to him by the Members oI the Organisation.
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2. When notiIying the Members oI the Organisation oI the registration oI the second
ratiIication communicated to him, the Director-General shall draw the attention oI the
Members oI the Organisation to the date upon which the Convention will come into Iorce.
Article 19
The Director-General oI the International Labour OIIice shall communicate to the
Secretary-General oI the United Nations Ior registration in accordance with Article 102 oI
the Charter oI the United Nations Iull particulars oI all ratiIications, declarations and acts oI
denunciation registered by him in accordance with the provisions oI the preceding articles.
Article 20
At such times as it may consider necessary the Governing Body oI the International
Labour OIIice shall present to the General ConIerence a report on the working oI this
Convention and shall examine the desirability oI placing on the agenda oI the ConIerence the
question oI its revision in whole or in part.
Article 21
1. Should the ConIerence adopt a new Convention revising this Convention in whole or
in part, then, unless the new Convention otherwise provides
(a) the ratiIication by a Member oI the new revising Convention shall ipso jure involve the
immediate denunciation oI this Convention, notwithstanding the provisions oI Article 17
above, iI and when the new revising Convention shall have come into Iorce;
(b) as Irom the date when the new revising Convention comes into Iorce this Convention
shall cease to be open to ratiIication by the Members.
2. This Convention shall in any case remain in Iorce in its actual Iorm and content Ior
those Members which have ratiIied it but have not ratiIied the revising Convention.
Article 22
1. The International Labour ConIerence may, at any session at which the matter is
included in its agenda, adopt by a two-thirds majority a revised text oI any one or more oI
the Annexes to this Convention.
2. Each Member Ior which this Convention is in Iorce shall, within the period oI one
year, or, in exceptional circumstances, oI eighteen months, Irom the closing oI the session oI
the ConIerence, submit any such revised text to the authority or authorities within whose
competence the matter lies, Ior the enactment oI legislation or other action.
3. Any such revised text shall become eIIective Ior each Member Ior which this
Convention is in Iorce on communication by that Member to the Director-General oI the
International Labour OIIice oI a declaration notiIying its acceptance oI the revised text.
4. As Irom the date oI the adoption oI the revised text oI the Annex by the ConIerence,
only the revised text shall be open to acceptance by Members.
Article 23
The English and French versions oI the text oI this Convention are equally authoritative.
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175
ANNEX I
RECRUITMENT, PLACING AND CONDITIONS OF LABOUR OF
MIGRANTS FOR EMPLOYMENT RECRUITED OTHERWISE THAN
UNDER GOVERNMENT-SPONSORED ARRANGEMENTS
FOR GROUP TRANSFER
Article 1
This Annex applies to migrants Ior employment who are recruited otherwise than under
Government-sponsored arrangements Ior group transIer.
Article 2
For the purpose oI this Annex
(a) the term 'recruitment¨ means
(i) the engagement oI a person in one territory on behalI oI an employer in another
territory, or
(ii) the giving oI an undertaking to a person in one territory to provide him with
employment in another territory,
together with the making oI any arrangements in connection with the operations
mentioned in (i) and (ii) including the seeking Ior and selection oI emigrants and the
preparation Ior departure oI the emigrants;
(b) the term 'introduction¨ means any operations Ior ensuring or Iacilitating the arrival in or
admission to a territory oI persons who have been recruited within the meaning oI
paragraph (a) oI this Article; and
(c) the term 'placing¨ means any operations Ior the purpose oI ensuring or Iacilitating the
employment oI persons who have been introduced within the meaning oI paragraph (b)
oI this Article.
Article 3
1. Each Member Ior which this Annex is in Iorce, the laws and regulations oI which
permit the operations oI recruitment, introduction and placing as deIined in Article 2, shall
regulate such oI the said operations as are permitted by its laws and regulations in
accordance with the provisions oI this Article.
2. Subject to the provisions oI the Iollowing paragraph, the right to engage in the
operations oI recruitment, introduction and placing shall be restricted to
(a) public employment oIIices or other public bodies oI the territory in which the operations
take place;
(b) public bodies oI a territory other than that in which the operations take place which are
authorised to operate in that territory by agreement between the Governments
concerned;
(c) any body established in accordance with the terms oI an international instrument.
3. In so Iar as national laws and regulations or a bilateral arrangement permit, the
operations oI recruitment, introduction and placing may be undertaken by
(a) the prospective employer or a person in his service acting on his behalI, subject, iI
necessary in the interest oI the migrant, to the approval and supervision oI the competent
authority;
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176
(b) a private agency, iI given prior authorisation so to do by the competent authority oI the
territory where the said operations are to take place, in such cases and under such
conditions as may be prescribed by
(i) the laws and regulations oI that territory, or
(ii) agreement between the competent authority oI the territory oI emigration or any
body established in accordance with the terms oI an international instrument and
the competent authority oI the territory oI immigration.
4. The competent authority oI the territory where the operations take place shall
supervise the activities oI bodies and persons to whom authorisations have been issued in
pursuance oI paragraph 3 (b), other than any body established in accordance with the terms
oI an international instrument, the position oI which shall continue to be governed by the
terms oI the said instrument or by any agreement made between the body and the competent
authority concerned.
5. Nothing in this Article shall be deemed to permit the acceptance oI a migrant Ior
employment Ior admission to the territory oI any Member by any person or body other than
the competent authority oI the territory oI immigration.
Article 4
Each Member Ior which this Annex is in Iorce undertakes to ensure that the services
rendered by its public employment service in connection with the recruitment, introduction
or placing oI migrants Ior employment are rendered Iree.
Article 5
1. Each Member Ior which this Annex is in Iorce which maintains a system oI
supervision oI contracts oI employment between an employer, or a person acting on his
behalI, and a migrant Ior employment undertakes to require
(a) that a copy oI the contract oI employment shall be delivered to the migrant beIore
departure or, iI the Governments concerned so agree, in a reception centre on arrival in
the territory oI immigration;
(b) that the contract shall contain provisions indicating the conditions oI work and
particularly the remuneration oIIered to the migrant;
(c) that the migrant shall receive in writing beIore departure, by a document which relates
either to him individually or to a group oI migrants oI which he is a member,
inIormation concerning the general conditions oI liIe and work applicable to him in the
territory oI immigration.
2. Where a copy oI the contract is to be delivered to the migrant on arrival in the
territory oI immigration, he shall be inIormed in writing beIore departure, by a document
which relates either to him individually or to a group oI migrants oI which he is a member,
oI the occupational category Ior which he is engaged and the other conditions oI work, in
particular the minimum wage which is guaranteed to him.
3. The competent authority shall ensure that the provisions oI the preceding paragraphs
are enIorced and that appropriate penalties are applied in respect oI violations thereoI.
Article 6
The measures taken under Article 4 oI the Convention shall, as appropriate, include
(a) the simpliIication oI administrative Iormalities;
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177
(b) the provision oI interpretation services;
(c) any necessary assistance during an initial period in the settlement oI the migrants and
members oI their Iamilies authorised to accompany or join them; and
(d) the saIeguarding oI the welIare, during the journey and in particular on board ship, oI
migrants and members oI their Iamilies authorised to accompany or join them.
Article 7
1. In cases where the number oI migrants Ior employment going Irom the territory oI
one Member to that oI another is suIIiciently large, the competent authorities oI the
territories concerned shall, whenever necessary or desirable, enter into agreements Ior the
purpose oI regulating matters oI common concern arising in connection with the application
oI the provisions oI this Annex.
2. Where the members maintain a system oI supervision over contracts oI employment,
such agreements shall indicate the methods by which the contractual obligations oI the
employers shall be enIorced.
Article 8
Any person who promotes clandestine or illegal immigration shall be subject to
appropriate penalties.
ANNEX II
RECRUITMENT, PLACING AND CONDITIONS OF LABOUR OF
MIGRANTS FOR EMPLOYMENT RECRUITED UNDER
GOVERNMENT-SPONSORED ARRANGEMENTS
FOR GROUP TRANSFER
Article 1
This Annex applies to migrants Ior employment who are recruited under Government-
sponsored arrangements Ior group transIer.
Article 2
For the purpose oI this Annex
(a) the term 'recruitment¨ means
(i) the engagement oI a person in one territory on behalI oI an employer in another
territory under a Government-sponsored arrangement Ior group transIer, or
(ii) the giving oI an undertaking to a person in one territory to provide him with
employment in another territory under a Government-sponsored arrangement Ior
group transIer, together with the making oI any arrangements in connection with
the operations mentioned in (i) and (ii) including the seeking Ior and selection oI
emigrants and the preparation Ior departure oI the emigrants;
(b) the term 'introduction¨ means any operations Ior ensuring or Iacilitating the arrival in or
admission to a territory oI persons who have been recruited under a Government-
sponsored arrangement Ior group transIer within the meaning oI subparagraph (a) oI this
paragraph; and
(c) the term 'placing¨ means any operations Ior the purpose oI ensuring or Iacilitating the
employment oI persons who have been introduced under a Government-sponsored
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178
arrangement Ior group transIer within the meaning oI subparagraph (b) oI this
paragraph.
Article 3
1. Each Member Ior which this Annex is in Iorce, the laws and regulations oI which
permit the operations oI recruitment, introduction and placing as deIined in Article 2, shall
regulate such oI the said operations as are permitted by its laws and regulations in
accordance with the provisions oI this Article.
2. Subject to the provisions oI the Iollowing paragraph, the right to engage in the
operations oI recruitment, introduction and placing shall be restricted to
(a) public employment oIIices or other public bodies oI the territory in which the operations
take place;
(b) public bodies oI a territory other than that in which the operations take place which are
authorised to operate in that territory by agreement between the Governments
concerned;
(c) any body established in accordance with the terms oI an international instrument.
3. In so Iar as national laws and regulations or a bilateral arrangement permit, and
subject, iI necessary in the interest oI the migrant, to the approval and supervision oI the
competent authority, the operations oI recruitment, introduction and placing may be
undertaken by
(a) the prospective employer or a person in his service acting on his behalI;
(b) private agencies.
4. The right to engage in the operations oI recruitment, introduction and placing shall be
subject to the prior authorisation oI the competent authority oI the territory where the said
operations are to take place in such cases and under such conditions as may be prescribed
by
(a) the laws and regulations oI that territory, or
(b) agreement between the competent authority oI the territory oI emigration or any body
established in accordance with the terms oI an international instrument and the
competent authority oI the territory oI immigration.
5. The competent authority oI the territory where the operations take place shall, in
accordance with any agreements made between the competent authorities concerned,
supervise the activities oI bodies and persons to whom authorisations have been issued in
pursuance oI the preceding paragraph, other than any body established in accordance with
the terms oI an international instrument, the position oI which shall continue to be governed
by the terms oI the said instrument or by any agreement made between the body and the
competent authority concerned.
6. BeIore authorising the introduction oI migrants Ior employment the competent
authority oI the territory oI immigration shall ascertain whether there is not a suIIicient
number oI persons already available capable oI doing the work in question.
7. Nothing in this Article shall be deemed to permit the acceptance oI a migrant Ior
employment Ior admission to the territory oI any Member by any person or body other than
the competent authority oI the territory oI immigration.
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179
Article 4
1. Each Member Ior which this Annex is in Iorce undertakes to ensure that the services
rendered by its public employment service in connection with the recruitment, introduction
or placing oI migrants Ior employment are rendered Iree.
2. The administrative costs oI recruitment, introduction and placing shall not be borne
by the migrants.
Article 5
In the case oI collective transport oI migrants Irom one country to another necessitating
passage in transit through a third country, the competent authority oI the territory oI transit
shall take measures Ior expediting the passage, to avoid delays and administrative
diIIiculties.
Article 6
1. Each Member Ior which this Annex is in Iorce which maintains a system oI
supervision oI contracts oI employment between an employer, or a person acting on his
behalI, and a migrant Ior employment undertakes to require
(a) that a copy oI the contract oI employment shall be delivered to the migrant beIore
departure or, iI the Governments concerned so agree, in a reception centre on arrival in
the territory oI immigration;
(b) that the contract shall contain provisions indicating the conditions oI work and
particularly the remuneration oIIered to the migrant;
(c) that the migrant shall receive in writing beIore departure, by a document which relates
either to him individually or to a group oI migrants oI which he is a member,
inIormation concerning the general conditions oI liIe and work applicable to him in the
territory oI immigration.
2. Where a copy oI the contract is to be delivered to the migrant on arrival in the
territory oI immigration, he shall be inIormed in writing beIore departure, by a document
which relates either to him individually or to a group oI migrants oI which he is a member,
oI the occupational category Ior which he is engaged and the other conditions oI work, in
particular the minimum wage which is guaranteed to him.
3. The competent authority shall ensure that the provisions oI the preceding paragraphs
are enIorced and that appropriate penalties are applied in respect oI violations thereoI.
Article 7
1. The measures taken under Article 4 oI this Convention shall, as appropriate,
include
(a) the simpliIication oI administrative Iormalities;
(b) the provision oI interpretation services;
(c) any necessary assistance, during an initial period in the settlement oI the migrants and
members oI their Iamilies authorised to accompany or join them;
(d) the saIeguarding oI the welIare, during the journey and in particular on board ship, oI
migrants and members oI their Iamilies authorised to accompany or join them; and
(e) permission Ior the liquidation and transIer oI the property oI migrants Ior employment
admitted on a permanent basis.
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Article 8
Appropriate measures shall be taken by the competent authority to assist migrants Ior
employment, during an initial period, in regard to matters concerning their conditions oI
employment; where appropriate, such measures may be taken in co-operation with approved
voluntary organisations.
Article 9
II a migrant Ior employment introduced into the territory oI a Member in accordance
with the provisions oI Article 3 oI this Annex Iails, Ior a reason Ior which he is not
responsible, to secure the employment Ior which he has been recruited or other suitable
employment, the cost oI his return and that oI the members oI his Iamily who have been
authorised to accompany or join him, including administrative Iees, transport and
maintenance charges to the Iinal destination, and charges Ior the transport oI household
belongings, shall not Iall upon the migrant.
Article 10
II the competent authority oI the territory oI immigration considers that the employment
Ior which a migrant Ior employment was recruited under Article 3 oI this Annex has been
Iound to be unsuitable, it shall take appropriate measures to assist him in Iinding suitable
employment which does not prejudice national workers and shall take such steps as will
ensure his maintenance pending placing in such employment, or his return to the area oI
recruitment iI the migrant is willing or agreed to such return at the time oI his recruitment, or
his resettlement elsewhere.
Article 11
II a migrant Ior employment who is a reIugee or a displaced person and who has entered
a territory oI immigration in accordance with Article 3 oI this Annex becomes redundant in
any employment in that territory, the competent authority oI that territory shall use its best
endeavours to enable him to obtain suitable employment which does not prejudice national
workers, and shall take such steps as will ensure his maintenance pending placing in suitable
employment or his resettlement elsewhere.
Article 12
1. The competent authorities oI the territories concerned shall enter into agreements Ior
the purpose oI regulating matters oI common concern arising in connection with the
application oI the provisions oI this Annex.
2. Where the Members maintain a system oI supervision over contracts oI employment,
such agreements shall indicate the methods by which the contractual obligations oI the
employer shall be enIorced.
3. Such agreements shall provide, where appropriate, Ior co-operation between the
competent authority oI the territory oI emigration or a body established in accordance with
the terms oI an international instrument and the competent authority oI the territory oI
immigration, in respect oI the assistance to be given to migrants concerning their conditions
oI employment in virtue oI the provisions oI Article 8.
Article 13
Any person who promotes clandestine or illegal immigration shall be subject to
appropriate penalties.
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ANNEX III
IMPORTATION OF THE PERSONAL EFFECTS, TOOLS AND
EQUIPMENT OF MIGRANTS FOR EMPLOYMENT
Article 1
1. Personal eIIects belonging to recruited migrants Ior employment and members oI
their Iamilies who have been authorised to accompany or join them shall be exempt Irom
customs duties on arrival in the territory oI immigration.
2. Portable hand-tools and portable equipment oI the kind normally owned by workers
Ior the carrying out oI their particular trades belonging to recruited migrants Ior employment
and members oI their Iamilies who have been authorised to accompany or join them shall be
exempt Irom customs duties on arrival in the territory oI immigration iI such tools and
equipment can be shown at the time oI importation to be in their actual ownership or
possession, to have been in their possession and use Ior an appreciable time, and to be
intended to be used by them in the course oI their occupation.
Article 2
1. Personal eIIects belonging to migrants Ior employment and members oI their Iamilies
who have been authorised to accompany or join them shall be exempt Irom customs duties
on the return oI the said persons to their country oI origin iI such persons have retained the
nationality oI that country at the time oI their return there.
2. Portable hand-tools and portable equipment oI the kind normally owned by workers
Ior the carrying out oI their particular trades belonging to migrants Ior employment and
members oI their Iamilies who have been authorised to accompany or join them shall be
exempt Irom customs duties on return oI the said persons to their country oI origin iI such
persons have retained the nationality oI that country at the time oI their return there and iI
such tools and equipment can be shown at the time oI importation to be in their actual
ownership or possession, to have been in their possession and use Ior an appreciable time,
and to be intended to be used by them in the course oI their occupation.
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Migration for Employment Recommendation
(Revised), 1949 (No. 86)
The General ConIerence oI the International Labour Organisation,
Having been convened at Geneva by the Governing Body oI the International Labour
OIIice, and having met its Thirty-second Session on 8 June 1949, and
Having decided upon the adoption oI certain proposals with regard to the revision oI the
Migration Ior Employment Recommendation, 1939, and the Migration Ior
Employment (Co-operation between States) Recommendation, 1939, adopted by
the ConIerence at its Twenty-IiIth Session, which are included in the eleventh item
on the agenda oI the session, and
Having determined that these proposals shall take the Iorm oI a Recommendation,
adopts this Iirst day oI July oI the year one thousand nine hundred and Iorty-nine, the
Iollowing Recommendation, which may be cited as the Migration Ior Employment
Recommendation (Revised), 1949:
The ConIerence,
Having adopted the Migration Ior Employment Convention (Revised), 1949, and
Desiring to supplement its provisions by a Recommendation;
Recommends as Iollows:
I
1. For the purpose oI this Recommendation
(a) the term 'migrant Ior employment¨ means a person who migrates Irom one country to
another with a view to being employed otherwise than on his own account and includes
any person regularly admitted as a migrant Ior employment;
(b) the term 'recruitment¨ means
(i) the engagement oI a person in one territory on behalI oI an employer in another
territory, or
(ii) the giving oI an undertaking to a person in one territory to provide him with
employment in another territory, together with the making oI any arrangements in
connection with the operations mentioned in (i) and (ii) including the seeking Ior
and selection oI emigrants and the preparation Ior departure oI the emigrants;
(c) the term introduction means any operations Ior ensuring or Iacilitating the arrival in or
admission to a territory oI persons who have been recruited within the meaning oI
subparagraph (b);
(d) the term placing means any operations Ior the purpose oI ensuring or Iacilitating the
employment oI persons who have been introduced within the meaning oI subparagraph
(c).
2. For the purpose oI this Recommendation, reIerences to the Government or competent
authority oI a territory oI emigration should be interpreted as reIerring, in the case oI
migrants who are reIugees or displaced persons, to any body established in accordance with
the terms oI an international instrument which may be responsible Ior the protection oI
reIugees and displaced persons who do not beneIit Irom the protection oI any Government.
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3. This Recommendation does not apply to
(a) Irontier workers;
(b) short-term entry oI members oI the liberal proIessions and artistes; and
(c) seamen.
II
4. (1) It should be the general policy oI Members to develop and utilise all possibilities
oI employment and Ior this purpose to Iacilitate the international distribution oI manpower
and in particular the movement oI manpower Irom countries which have a surplus oI
manpower to those countries that have a deIiciency.
(2) The measures taken by each Member should have due regard to the manpower
situation in the country and the Government should consult the appropriate organisations oI
employers and workers on all general questions concerning migration Ior employment.
III
5. (1) The Iree service provided in each country to assist migrants and their Iamilies
and in particular to provide them with accurate inIormation should be conducted
(a) by public authorities; or
(b) by one or more voluntary organisations not conducted with a view to proIit, approved
Ior the purpose by the public authorities, and subject to the supervision oI the said
authorities; or
(c) partly by the public authorities and partly by one or more voluntary organisations
IulIilling the conditions stated in subparagraph (b) oI this Paragraph.
(2) The service should advise migrants and their Iamilies, in their languages or dialects
or at least in a language which they can understand, on matters relating to emigration,
immigration, employment and living conditions, including health conditions in the place oI
destination, return to the country oI origin or oI emigration, and generally speaking any other
question which may be oI interest to them in their capacity as migrants.
(3) The service should provide Iacilities Ior migrants and their Iamilies with regard to
the IulIilment oI administrative Iormalities and other steps to be taken in connection with the
return oI the migrants to the country oI origin or oI emigration, should the case arise.
(4) With a view to Iacilitating the adaptation oI migrants, preparatory courses should,
where necessary, be organised to inIorm the migrants oI the general conditions and the
methods oI work prevailing in the country oI immigration, and to instruct them in the
language oI that country. The countries oI emigration and immigration should mutually
agree to organise such courses.
6. On request inIormation should be made available by Members to the International
Labour OIIice and to other Members concerning their emigration laws and regulations,
including administrative provisions relating to restrictions on emigration and Iacilities
granted to emigrants, and appropriate details concerning the categories oI persons wishing to
emigrate.
7. On request inIormation should be made available by Members to the International
Labour OIIice and to other Members concerning their immigration laws and regulations,
including administrative provisions, entry permits where needed, number and occupational
qualiIications oI immigrants desired, laws and regulations aIIecting admission oI migrants to
employment, and any special Iacilities granted to migrants and measures to Iacilitate their
adaptation to the economic and social organisation oI the country oI immigration.
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8. There should, as Iar as possible, be a reasonable interval between the publication and
the coming into Iorce oI any measure altering the conditions on which emigration or
immigration or the employment oI migrants is permitted in order that these conditions may
be notiIied in good time to persons who are preparing to emigrate.
9. Provision should be made Ior adequate publicity to be given at appropriate stages to
the principal measures reIerred to in the preceding Paragraph, such publicity to be in the
languages most commonly known to the migrants.
10. Migration should be Iacilitated by such measures as may be appropriate
(a) to ensure that migrants Ior employment are provided in case oI necessity with adequate
accommodation, Iood and clothing on arrival in the country oI immigration;
(b) to ensure, where necessary, vocational training so as to enable the migrants Ior
employment to acquire the qualiIications required in the country oI immigration;
(c) to permit, taking into account the limits allowed by national laws and regulations
concerning export and import oI currency, the transIer oI such part oI the earnings and
savings oI migrants Ior employment as the migrants may desire;
(d) to arrange, in the case oI permanent migration, Ior the transIer, where desired, to the
country oI immigration, oI the capital oI migrants Ior employment, within the limits
allowed by national laws and regulations concerning export and import oI currency;
(e) to provide access to schools Ior migrants and members oI their Iamilies.
11. Migrants and the members oI their Iamilies should be assisted in obtaining access to
recreation and welIare Iacilities, and steps should be taken where necessary to ensure that
special Iacilities are made available during the initial period oI settlement in the country oI
immigration.
12. In the case oI migrants under Government-sponsored arrangements Ior group
transIer, medical assistance should be extended to such migrants in the same manner as
provided Ior nationals.
IV
13. (1) Where necessary in the interest oI the migrant, Members should require that any
intermediary who undertakes the recruitment, introduction or placing oI migrants Ior
employment on behalI oI an employer must obtain a written warrant Irom the employer, or
some other document proving that he is acting on the employer`s behalI.
(2) This document should be drawn up in, or translated into, the oIIicial language oI the
country oI emigration and should set Iorth all necessary particulars concerning the employer,
concerning the nature and scope oI the recruitment, introduction or placing which the
intermediary is to undertake, and concerning the employment oIIered, including the
remuneration.
14. (1) The technical selection oI migrants Ior employment should be carried out in
such a way as to restrict migration as little as possible while ensuring that the migrants are
qualiIied to perIorm the required work.
(2) Responsibility Ior such selection should be entrusted
(a) to oIIicial bodies; or
(b) where appropriate, to private bodies oI the territory oI immigration duly authorised and,
where necessary in the interest oI the migrant, supervised by the competent authority oI
the territory oI emigration.
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(3) The right to engage in selection should be subject to the prior authorisation oI the
competent authority oI the territory where the said operation takes place, in such cases under
such conditions as may be prescribed by the laws and regulations oI that territory, or by
agreement between the Government oI the territory oI emigration and the Government oI the
territory oI immigration.
(4) As Iar as possible, intending migrants Ior employment should, beIore their departure
Irom the territory oI emigration, be examined Ior purposes oI occupational and medical
selection by a representative oI the competent authority oI the territory oI immigration.
(5) II recruitment takes place on a suIIiciently large scale there should be arrangements
Ior close liaison and consultation between the competent authorities oI the territories oI
emigration and immigration concerned.
(6) The operations reIerred to in the preceding subparagraphs oI this Paragraph should
be carried out as near as possible to the place where the intending migrant is recruited.
15. (1) Provision should be made by agreement Ior authorisation to be granted Ior a
migrant Ior employment introduced on a permanent basis to be accompanied or joined by the
members oI his Iamily.
(2) The movement oI the members oI the Iamily oI such a migrant authorised to
accompany or join him should be specially Iacilitated by both the country oI emigration and
the country oI immigration.
(3) For the purposes oI this Paragraph, the members oI the Iamily oI a migrant Ior
employment should include his wiIe and minor children; Iavourable consideration should be
given to requests Ior the inclusion oI other members oI the Iamily dependent upon the
migrant.
V
16. (1) Migrants Ior employment authorised to reside in a territory and the members oI
their Iamilies authorised to accompany or join them should as Iar as possible be admitted to
employment in the same conditions as nationals.
(2) In countries in which the employment oI migrants is subject to restrictions, these
restrictions should as Iar as possible
(a) cease to be applied to migrants who have regularly resided in the country Ior a period,
the length oI which should not, as a rule, exceed Iive years; and
(b) cease to be applied to the wiIe and children oI an age to work who have been authorised
to accompany or join the migrant, at the same time as they cease to be applied to the
migrant.
17. In countries where the number oI migrants Ior employment is suIIiciently large, the
conditions oI employment oI such workers should be specially supervised, such supervision
being undertaken according to circumstances either by a special inspection service or by
labour inspectors or other oIIicials specialising in this work.
VI
18. (1) When a migrant Ior employment has been regularly admitted to the territory oI
a Member, the said Member should, as Iar as possible, reIrain Irom removing such person or
the members oI his Iamily Irom its territory on account oI his lack oI means or the state oI
the employment market, unless an agreement to this eIIect has been concluded between the
competent authorities oI the emigration and immigration territories concerned.
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(2) Any such agreement should provide
(a) that the length oI time the said migrant has been in the territory oI immigration shall be
taken into account and that in principle no migrant shall be removed who has been there
Ior more than Iive years;
(b) that the migrant must have exhausted his rights to unemployment insurance beneIit;
(c) that the migrant must have been given reasonable notice so as to give him time, more
particularly to dispose oI his property;
(d) that suitable arrangements shall have been made Ior his transport and that oI the
members oI his Iamily;
(e) that the necessary arrangements shall have been made to ensure that he and the members
oI his Iamily are treated in a humane manner; and
(I) that the costs oI the return oI the migrant and the members oI his Iamily and oI the
transport oI their household belongings to their Iinal destination shall not Iall on him.
19. Appropriate steps should be taken by the authorities oI the territories concerned to
consult the employers` and workers` organisations concerning the operations oI recruitment,
introduction and placing oI migrants Ior employment.
VII
20. When migrants Ior employment or members oI their Iamilies who have retained the
nationality oI their State oI origin return there, that country should admit such persons to the
beneIit oI any measures in Iorce Ior the granting oI poor relieI and unemployment relieI, and
Ior promoting the re-employment oI the unemployed, by exempting them Irom the obligation
to comply with any condition as to previous residence or employment in the country or
place.
VIII
21. (1) Members should in appropriate cases supplement the Migration Ior
Employment Convention (Revised), 1949, and the preceding Paragraphs oI the present
Recommendation by bilateral agreements, which should speciIy the methods oI applying the
principles set Iorth in the Convention and in the Recommendation.
(2) In concluding such agreements, Members should take into account the provisions oI
the Model Agreement annexed to the present Recommendation in Iraming appropriate
clauses Ior the organisation oI migration Ior employment and the regulation oI the conditions
oI transIer and employment oI migrants, including reIugees and displaced persons.
ANNEX
MODEL AGREEMENT ON TEMPORARY AND PERMANENT MIGRATION
FOR EMPLOYMENT, INCLUDING MIGRATION OF REFUGEES AND
DISPLACED PERSONS
1

ARTICLE 1. EXCHANGE OF INFORMATION
1. The competent authority oI the territory oI immigration shall periodically Iurnish
appropriate inIormation to the competent authority oI the territory oI emigration or in the

1
The phrases and passages in italics reIer primarily to permanent migration; those enclosed within square
brackets reIer solely to migration oI reIugees and displaced persons.
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case oI reIugees and displaced persons, to any body established in accordance with the terms
oI an international instrument which may be responsible Ior the protection oI reIugees and
displaced persons who do not beneIit Irom the protection oI any Government concerning:
(a) legislative and administrative provisions relating to entry, employment, residence and
settlement oI migrants and of their families;
(b) the number, the categories and the occupational qualiIications oI the migrants desired;
(c) the conditions oI liIe and work Ior the migrants and, in particular, cost oI living and
minimum wages according to occupational categories and regions oI employment,
supplementary allowances, iI any, nature oI employments available, bonus on
engagement, iI any, social security systems and medical assistance, provisions
concerning transport oI migrants and oI their tools and belongings, housing conditions
and provisions Ior the supply oI Iood and clothing, measures relating to the transIer oI
the migrants` savings and other sums due in virtue oI this Agreement;
(d) special Iacilities, iI any, Ior migrants;
(e) Iacilities Ior general education and vocational training Ior migrants;
(I) measures designed to promote rapid adaptation of migrants,
(g) procedure and formalities required for naturalisation.
2. The competent authority oI the territory oI emigration or in the case oI reIugees and
displaced persons, any body established in accordance with the terms oI an international
instrument which may be responsible Ior the protection oI reIugees and displaced persons
who do not beneIit Irom the protection oI any Government shall bring this inIormation to the
attention oI persons or bodies interested.
3. The competent authority oI the territory oI emigration or in the case oI reIugees and
displaced persons, any body established in accordance with the terms oI an international
instrument which may be responsible Ior the protection oI reIugees and displaced persons
who do not beneIit Irom the protection oI any Government shall periodically Iurnish
appropriate inIormation to the competent authority oI the territory oI immigration
concerning
(a) legislative and administrative provisions relating to emigration;
(b) the number and occupational qualiIications oI intending emigrants, as well as the
composition of their families;
(c) the social security system;
(d) special Iacilities, iI any, Ior migrants;
(e) the environment and living conditions to which migrants are accustomed;
(I) the provisions in force regarding the export of capital.
4. The competent authority oI the territory oI immigration shall bring this inIormation
to the attention oI persons or bodies interested.
5. The inIormation mentioned in paragraphs 1 to 4 above shall also be transmitted by
the respective parties to the International Labour OIIice.
ARTICLE 2. ACTION AGAINST MISLEADING PROPAGANDA
1. The parties agree, with regard to their respective territories, to take all practical steps,
so Iar as national laws and regulations permit, against misleading propaganda relating to
emigration and immigration.
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2. For this purpose the parties will, where appropriate, act in co-operation with the
competent authorities oI other countries concerned.
ARTICLE 3. ADMINISTRATIVE FORMALITIES
The parties agree to take measures with a view to accelerating and simpliIying the
carrying out oI administrative Iormalities relating to departure, travel, entry, residence, and
settlement oI migrants and as Iar as possible Ior the members oI their Iamilies. Such
measures shall include the provision oI an interpretation service, where necessary.
ARTICLE 4. VALIDITY OF DOCUMENTS
1. The parties shall determine the conditions to be met Ior purposes oI recognition in
the territory oI immigration oI any document issued by the competent authority oI the
territory oI emigration in respect oI migrants and members of their families |or in the case oI
reIugees and displaced persons, by any body established in accordance with the terms oI an
international instrument which may be responsible Ior the protection oI reIugees and
displaced persons who do not beneIit Irom the protection oI any Government| concerning
(a) civil status;
(b) legal status;
(c) occupational qualiIications;
(d) general education and vocational training; and
(e) participation in social security systems.
2. The parties shall also determine the application oI such recognition.
|3. In the case oI reIugees and displaced persons, the competent authority oI the
territory oI immigration shall recognise the validity oI any travel document issued in lieu oI a
national passport by the competent authority oI the territory oI emigration and, in particular,
oI travel documents issued in accordance with the terms oI an international Agreement (e.g.
the travel document established by the Agreement oI 15 October 1946, and the Nansen
passport).|
ARTICLE 5. CONDITIONS AND CRITERIA OF MIGRATION
1. The parties shall jointly determine
(a) the requirements Ior migrants and members of their families, as to age, physical aptitude
and health, as well as the occupational qualiIications Ior the various branches oI
economic activity and Ior the various occupational categories;
(b) the categories of the members of the migrants families authorised to accompanv or to
foin them.
2. The parties shall also determine, in accordance with the provisions oI Article 28 oI
this Agreement
(a) the numbers and occupational categories oI migrants to be recruited in the course oI a
stated period;
(b) the areas oI recruitment and the areas oI placing and settlement |except that in the case
oI reIugees and displaced persons the determination oI the areas oI recruitment shall be
reserved to any body established in accordance with the terms oI an international
instrument which may be responsible Ior the protection oI reIugees and displaced
persons who do not beneIit Irom the protection oI any Government|.
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3. In order to recruit migrants required to meet the technical needs oI the territory oI
immigration and who can adapt themselves easily to the conditions in the territory oI
immigration, the parties shall determine criteria to govern technical selection oI the migrants.
4. In drawing up these criteria, the two parties shall take into consideration
(a) with respect to medical selection:
(i) the nature oI the medical examination which migrants shall undergo (general
medical examination, X-ray examination, laboratory examination, etc.);
(ii) the drawing up oI lists oI diseases and physical deIects which clearly constitute a
disability Ior employment in certain occupations;
(iii) minimum health provisions prescribed by international health conventions and
relating to movement oI population Irom one country to another;
(b) with respect to vocational selection:
(i) qualiIications required oI migrants with respect to each occupation or groups oI
occupations;
(ii) enumeration oI alternative occupations requiring similar qualiIications or capacities
on the part oI the workers in order to IulIil the needs oI speciIied occupations Ior
which it is diIIicult to recruit a suIIicient number oI qualiIied workers;
(iii) development oI psycho-technical testing;
(c) with respect to selection based on the age oI migrants, Ilexibility to be given to the
application oI age criteria in order to take into consideration on the one hand the
requirements oI various occupations and, on the other, the varying capacities oI diIIerent
individuals at a given age.
ARTICLE 6. ORGANISATION OF RECRUITMENT,
INTRODUCTION AND PLACING
1. The bodies or persons which engage in the operations oI recruitment, introduction
and placing oI migrants and of members of their families shall be named by the competent
authorities oI the respective territories |or in the case oI reIugees and displaced persons, by
any body established in accordance with the terms oI an international instrument which may
be responsible Ior the protection oI reIugees and displaced persons who do not beneIit Irom
the protection oI any Government on the one hand and the competent authority oI the
territory oI immigration on the other| subject to the approval oI both parties.
2. Subject to the provisions oI the Iollowing paragraphs, the right to engage in the
operations oI recruitment, introduction and placing shall be restricted to
(a) public employment oIIices or other public bodies oI the territory in which the operations
take place;
(b) public bodies oI a territory other than that in which the operations take place which are
authorised to operate in that territory by an agreement between the parties;
(c) any body established in accordance with the terms oI an international instrument.
3. In addition, in so Iar as the national laws and regulations oI the parties permit and
subject to the approval and supervision oI the competent authorities oI the parties, the
operations oI recruitment, introduction and placing may be undertaken by
(a) the prospective employer or a person in his service acting on his behalI; and
(b) private agencies.
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4. The administrative costs oI recruitment, introduction and placing shall not be borne
by the migrants.
ARTICLE 7. SELECTION TESTING
1. An intending migrant shall undergo an appropriate examination in the territory oI
emigration; any such examination should inconvenience him as little as possible.
2. With respect to the organisation oI the selection oI migrants, the parties shall agree
on
(a) recognition and composition oI oIIicial agencies or private bodies authorised by the
competent authority oI the territory oI immigration to carry out selection operations in
the territory oI emigration;
(b) organisation oI selection examinations, the centres where they are to be carried out, and
allocation oI expenses resulting Irom these examinations;
(c) co-operation oI the competent authorities oI the two parties and in particular oI their
employment services in organising selection.
ARTICLE 8. INFORMATION AND ASSISTANCE OF MIGRANTS
1. The migrant accepted aIter medical and occupational examination in the assembly or
selection centre shall receive, in a language that he understands, all inIormation he may still
require as to the nature oI the work Ior which he has been engaged, the region oI
employment, the undertaking to which he is assigned, travel arrangements and the conditions
oI liIe and work including health and related matters in the country and region to which he is
going.
2. On arrival in the country oI destination, and at a reception centre iI such exists, or at
the place oI residence, migrants and the members of their families shall receive all the
documents which they need Ior their work, their residence and their settlement in the
country, as well as inIormation, instruction and advice regarding conditions oI liIe and work,
and any other assistance that they may need to adapt themselves to the conditions in the
country oI immigration.
ARTICLE 9. EDUCATION AND VOCATIONAL TRAINING
The parties shall co-ordinate their activities concerning the organisation oI educational
courses Ior migrants, which shall include general inIormation on the country oI immigration,
instruction in the language oI that country, and vocational training.
ARTICLE 10. EXCHANGE OF TRAINEES
The parties agree to Iurther the exchange oI trainees, and to determine in a separate
agreement the conditions governing such exchanges.
ARTICLE 11. CONDITIONS OF TRANSPORT
1. During the journey Irom their place oI residence to the assembly or selection centre,
as well as during their stay in the said centre, migrants and the members of their families
shall receive Irom the competent authority oI the territory oI immigration |or in the case oI
reIugees and displaced persons, Irom any body established in accordance with the terms oI
an international instrument which may be responsible Ior the protection oI reIugees and
displaced persons who do not beneIit Irom the protection oI any Government| any assistance
which they may require.
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2. The competent authorities oI the territories oI emigration and immigration shall, each
within its own jurisdiction, saIeguard the health and welIare oI, and render assistance to,
migrants and the members of their families during the journey Irom the assembly or selection
centre to the place oI their employment, as well as during their stay in a reception centre iI
such exists.
3. Migrants and members of their families shall be transported in a manner appropriate
Ior human beings and in conIormity with the laws and regulations in Iorce.
4. The parties shall agree upon the terms and conditions Ior the application oI the
provisions oI this Article.
ARTICLE 12. TRAVEL AND MAINTENANCE EXPENSES
The parties shall agree upon the methods Ior meeting the cost oI travel oI the migrants
and the members of their families Irom the place oI their residence to the place oI their
destination, and the cost oI their maintenance while travelling, sick or hospitalised, as well as
the cost oI transport oI their personal belongings.
ARTICLE 13. TRANSFER OF FUNDS
1. The competent authority oI the territory oI emigration shall, as Iar as possible and in
conIormity with national laws and regulations concerning the import and export oI Ioreign
currency, authorise and provide Iacilities Ior migrants and for members of their families to
withdraw Irom their country such sums as they may need Ior their initial settlement abroad.
2. The competent authority oI the territory oI immigration shall, as Iar as possible and
in conIormity with national laws and regulations concerning the import and export oI Ioreign
currency, authorise and provide Iacilities Ior the periodical transIer to the territory oI
emigration oI migrants` savings and oI any other sums due in virtue oI this Agreement.
3. The transIers oI Iunds mentioned in paragraphs 1 and 2 above shall be made at the
prevailing oIIicial rate oI exchange.
4. The parties shall take all measures necessary Ior the simpliIication and acceleration
oI administrative Iormalities regarding the transIer oI Iunds so that such Iunds may be
available with the least possible delay to those entitled to them.
5. The parties shall determine iI and under what conditions a migrant may be required
to remit part oI his wages Ior the maintenance oI his Iamily remaining in his country or in
the territory Irom which he emigrated.
ARTICLE 14. ADAPTATION AND NATURALISATION
The competent authoritv of the territorv of immigration shall take measures to facilitate
adaptation to national climatic, economic and social conditions and facilitate the procedure
of naturalisation of migrants and of members of their families.
ARTICLE 15. SUPERVISION OF LIVING AND WORKING CONDITIONS
1. Provision shall be made Ior the supervision by the competent authority or duly
authorised bodies oI the territory oI immigration oI the living and working conditions,
including hygienic conditions, to which the migrants are subject.
2. With respect to temporary migrants, the parties shall provide, where appropriate, Ior
authorised representatives oI the territory oI emigration |or in the case oI reIugees and
displaced persons, oI any body established in accordance with the terms oI an international
instrument which may be responsible Ior the protection oI reIugees and displaced persons
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who do not beneIit Irom the protection oI any Government| to co-operate with the competent
authority or duly authorised bodies oI the territory oI immigration in carrying out this
supervision.
3. During a Iixed period, the duration oI which shall be determined by the parties,
migrants shall receive special assistance in regard to matters concerning their conditions oI
employment.
4. Assistance with respect to the employment and living conditions oI the migrants may
be given either through the regular labour inspection service oI the territory oI immigration
or through a special service Ior migrants, in co-operation where appropriate with approved
voluntary organisations.
5. Provision shall be made where appropriate Ior the co-operation oI representatives oI
the territory oI emigration |or in the case oI reIugees and displaced persons, oI any body
established in accordance with the terms oI an international instrument which may be
responsible Ior the protection oI reIugees and displaced persons who do not beneIit Irom the
protection oI any Government| with such services.
ARTICLE 16. SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES
1. In case oI a dispute between a migrant and his employer, the migrant shall have
access to the appropriate courts or shall otherwise obtain redress Ior his grievances, in
accordance with the laws and regulations oI the territory oI immigration.
2. The authorities shall establish such other machinery as is necessary to settle disputes
arising out oI the Agreement.
ARTICLE 17. EQUALITY OF TREATMENT
1. The competent authority oI the territory oI immigration shall grant to migrants and to
members of their families with respect to employment in which they are eligible to engage
treatment no less Iavourable than that applicable to its won nationals in virtue oI legal or
administrative provisions or collective labour agreements.
2. Such equality oI treatment shall apply, without discrimination in respect oI
nationality, race, religion or sex, to immigrants lawIully within the territory oI immigration
in respect oI the Iollowing matters:
(a) in so Iar as such matters are regulated by laws or regulations or are subject to the control
oI administrative authorities,
(i) remuneration, including Iamily allowances where these Iorm part oI remuneration,
hours oI work, weekly rest days, overtime arrangements, holidays with pay and
other regulations concerning employment, including limitations on home work,
minimum age provisions, women`s work, and the work oI young persons;
(ii) membership oI trade unions and enjoyment oI the beneIits oI collective bargaining;
(iii) admission to schools, to apprenticeship and to courses or schools Ior vocational or
technical training, provided that this does not prejudice nationals oI the country oI
immigration;
(iv) recreation and welIare measures;
(b) employment taxes, dues or contributions payable in respect oI the persons employed;
(c) hygiene, saIety and medical assistance;
(d) legal proceedings relating to the matters reIerred to in this Agreement.
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ARTICLE 18. ACCESS TO TRADES AND OCCUPATIONS AND THE
RIGHT TO ACQUIRE PROPERTY
Equalitv of treatment shall also applv to
(a) access to trades and occupations to the extent permitted under national laws and
regulations,
(b) acquisition, possession and transmission of urban or rural propertv.
ARTICLE 19. SUPPLY OF FOOD
The treatment applied to migrants and the members of their families shall be the same as
that applied to national workers in the same occupation as regards the supply oI Iood.
ARTICLE 20. HOUSING CONDITIONS
The competent authority oI the territory oI immigration shall ensure that migrants and
the members of their families have hygienic and suitable housing, in so Iar as the necessary
housing is available.
ARTICLE 21. SOCIAL SECURITY
1. The two parties shall determine in a separate agreement the methods oI applying a
system oI social security to migrants and their dependants.
2. Such agreement shall provide that the competent authoritv of the territorv of
immigration shall take measures to ensure to the migrants and their dependants treatment
not less favourable than that afforded bv it to its nationals, except where particular
residence qualifications applv to nationals.
3. The agreement shall embodv appropriate arrangements for the maintenance of
migrants acquired rights and rights in course of acquisition framed with due regard to the
principles of the Maintenance of Migrants Pension Rights Convention, 1935, or of anv
revision of that Convention.
4. The agreement shall provide that the competent authority oI the territory oI
immigration shall take measures to grant to temporary migrants and their dependants
treatment not less Iavourable than that aIIorded by it to its nationals, subject in the case oI
compulsory pension schemes to appropriate arrangements being made Ior the maintenance oI
migrants` acquired rights and rights in course oI acquisition.
ARTICLE 22. CONTRACTS OF EMPLOYMENT
1. In countries where a system oI model contracts is used, the individual contract oI
employment Ior migrants shall be based on a model contract drawn up by the parties Ior the
principal branches oI economic activity.
2. The individual contract oI employment shall set Iorth the general conditions oI
engagement and oI employment provided in the relevant model contract and shall be
translated into a language which the migrant understands. A copy oI the contract shall be
delivered to the migrant beIore departure Irom the territory oI emigration or, iI it is agreed
between the two parties concerned, in a reception centre on arrival in the territory oI
immigration. In the latter case beIore departure the migrant shall be inIormed in writing by a
document which relates either to him individually or to a group oI migrants oI which he is a
member, oI the occupational category in which he is to be engaged and the other conditions
oI work, in particular the minimum wage which is guaranteed to him.
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3. The individual contract oI employment shall contain necessary inIormation, such
as:
(a) the Iull name oI the worker as well as the date and place oI birth, his Iamily status, his
place oI residence and oI recruitment;
(b) the nature oI the work, and the place where it is to be perIormed;
(c) the occupational category in which he is placed;
(d) remuneration Ior ordinary hours oI work, overtime, night work and holidays, and the
medium Ior wage payment;
(e) bonuses, indemnities and allowances, iI any;
(I) conditions under which and extent to which the employer may be authorised to make
any deductions Irom remuneration;
(g) conditions regarding Iood iI Iood is to be provided by the employer;
(h) the duration oI the contract as well as the conditions oI renewal and denunciation oI the
contract;
(i) the conditions under which entry and residence in the territory oI immigration are
permitted;
(j) the method oI meeting the expenses oI the journey oI the migrant and the members of
his familv;
(k) in case oI temporary migration, the method oI meeting the expenses oI return to the
home country or the territory oI migration, as appropriate;
(l) the grounds on which a contract may be prematurely terminated.
ARTICLE 23. CHANGE OF EMPLOYMENT
1. II the competent authority oI the territory oI immigration considers that the
employment Ior which the migrant has been recruited does not correspond to his physical
capacity or occupational qualiIications, the said authority shall provide Iacilities Ior placing
the said migrant in an employment corresponding to his capacity or qualiIications, and in
which he may be employed in accordance with national laws or regulations.
2. During periods oI unemployment, iI any, the method oI maintaining the migrant and
the dependent members of his familv authorised to accompanv or foin him shall be
determined by arrangements made under a separate agreement.
ARTICLE 24. EMPLOYMENT STABILITY
1. II beIore the expiration oI the period oI his contract the migrant Ior employment
becomes redundant in the undertaking or branch oI economic activity Ior which he was
engaged, the competent authority oI the territory oI immigration shall, subject to the
provisions oI the contract, Iacilitate the placing oI the said migrant in other suitable
employment in which he may be employed in accordance with national laws or regulations.
2. II the migrant is not entitled to beneIits under an unemployment insurance or
assistance scheme, his maintenance, as well as that of dependent members of his familv
during any period in which he is unemployed shall be determined by a separate agreement in
so Iar as this is not inconsistent with the terms oI his contract.
3. The provisions oI this Article shall not aIIect the right oI the migrant to beneIit Irom
any provisions that may be included in his contract in case it is prematurely terminated by
the employer.
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ARTICLE 25. PROVISIONS CONCERNING COMPULSORY RETURN
1. The competent authority oI the territory oI immigration undertakes that a migrant
and the members of his familv who have been authorised to accompanv or foin him will not
be returned to the territory Irom which he emigrated unless he so desires iI, because oI
illness or injury, he is unable to Iollow his occupation.
2. The Government oI the territory oI immigration undertakes not to send reIugees and
displaced persons or migrants who do not wish to return to their country oI origin Ior
political reasons back to their territory oI origin as distinct Irom the territory Irom which they
were recruited, unless they Iormally express this desire by a request in writing addressed
both to the competent authority oI the territory oI immigration and the representative oI the
body set up in accordance with the provisions oI an international instrument which may be
responsible Ior the protection oI reIugees and displaced persons who do not beneIit Irom the
protection oI any Government.
ARTICLE 26. RETURN JOURNEY
1. The cost oI the return journey oI a migrant introduced under a plan sponsored by the
Government oI the territory oI immigration, who is obliged to leave his employment Ior
reasons Ior which he is not responsible, and who cannot, in virtue oI national laws and
regulations, be placed in an employment Ior which he is eligible, shall be regulated as
Iollows:
(a) the cost oI the return journey oI the migrant, and persons dependent upon him, shall in
no case Iall on the migrant himselI;
(b) supplementary bilateral agreements shall speciIy the method oI meeting the cost oI this
return journey;
(c) in any case, even iI no provision to this eIIect is included in a bilateral agreement, the
inIormation given to migrants at the time oI their recruitment shall speciIy what person
or agency is responsible Ior deIraying the cost oI return in the circumstances mentioned
in this Article.
2. In accordance with the methods oI co-operation and consultation agreed upon under
Article 28 oI this Agreement, the two parties shall determine the measures necessary to
organise the return home oI the said persons and to assure to them in the course oI the
journey the conditions oI health and welIare and the assistance which they enjoyed during
the outward journey.
3. The competent authority oI the territory oI emigration shall exempt Irom customs
duties on their arrival
(a) personal eIIects; and
(b) portable hand-tools and portable equipment oI the kind normally owned by workers Ior
the carrying out oI their particular trades, which have been in possession and use oI the
said persons Ior an appreciable time and which are intended to be used by them in the
course oI their occupation.
ARTICLE 27. DOUBLE TAXATION
The two parties shall determine in a separate agreement the measures to be taken to
avoid double taxation on the earnings oI a migrant Ior employment.
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ARTICLE 28. METHODS OF CO-OPERATION
1. The two parties shall agree on the methods oI consultation and co-operation
necessary to carry out the terms oI the Agreement.
2. When so requested by the representatives oI the two parties the International Labour
OIIice shall be associated with such consultation and co-operation.
ARTICLE 29. FINAL PROVISIONS
1. The parties shall determine the duration oI the Agreement as well as the period oI
notice Ior termination.
2. The parties shall determine those provisions oI this Agreement which shall remain in
operation aIter expiration oI this Agreement.
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Migrant Workers (Supplementary Provisions)
Convention, 1975 (No. 143)
The General ConIerence oI the International Labour Organisation,
Having been convened at Geneva by the Governing Body oI the International Labour
OIIice, and having met in its Sixtieth Session on 4 June 1975, and
Considering that the Preamble oI the Constitution oI the International Labour
Organisation assigns to it the task oI protecting 'the interests oI workers when
employed in countries other than their own¨, and
Considering that the Declaration oI Philadelphia reaIIirms, among the principles on
which the Organisation is based, that 'labour is not a commodity¨, and that
'poverty anywhere constitutes a danger to prosperity everywhere¨, and recognises
the solemn obligation oI the ILO to Iurther programmes which will achieve in
particular Iull employment through 'the transIer oI labour, including Ior
employment ...¨,
Considering the ILO World Employment Programme and the Employment Policy
Convention and Recommendation, 1964, and emphasising the need to avoid the
excessive and uncontrolled or unassisted increase oI migratory movements because
oI their negative social and human consequences, and
Considering that in order to overcome underdevelopment and structural and chronic
unemployment, the governments oI many countries increasingly stress the
desirability oI encouraging the transIer oI capital and technology rather than the
transIer oI workers in accordance with the needs and requests oI these countries in
the reciprocal interest oI the countries oI origin and the countries oI employment,
and
Considering the right oI everyone to leave any country, including his own, and to enter
his own country, as set Iorth in the Universal Declaration oI Human Rights and the
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and
Recalling the provisions contained in the Migration Ior Employment Convention and
Recommendation (Revised), 1949, in the Protection oI Migrant Workers
(Underdeveloped Countries) Recommendation, 1955, in the Employment Policy
Convention and Recommendation, 1964, in the Employment Service Convention
and Recommendation, 1948, and in the Fee-Charging Employment Agencies
Convention (Revised), 1949, which deal with such matters as the regulation oI the
recruitment, introduction and placing oI migrant workers, the provision oI accurate
inIormation relating to migration, the minimum conditions to be enjoyed by
migrants in transit and on arrival, the adoption oI an active employment policy and
international collaboration in these matters, and
Considering that the emigration oI workers due to conditions in labour markets should
take place under the responsibility oI oIIicial agencies Ior employment or in
accordance with the relevant bilateral or multilateral agreements, in particular those
permitting Iree circulation oI workers, and
Considering that evidence oI the existence oI illicit and clandestine traIIicking in labour
calls Ior Iurther standards speciIically aimed at eliminating these abuses, and
Recalling the provisions oI the Migration Ior Employment Convention (Revised), 1949,
which require ratiIying Members to apply to immigrants lawIully within their
territory treatment not less Iavourable than that which they apply to their nationals
in respect oI a variety oI matters which it enumerates, in so Iar as these are
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regulated by laws or regulations or subject to the control oI administrative
authorities, and
Recalling that the deIinition oI the term 'discrimination¨ in the Discrimination
(Employment and Occupation) Convention, 1958, does not mandatorily include
distinctions on the basis oI nationality, and
Considering that Iurther standards, covering also social security, are desirable in order to
promote equality oI opportunity and treatment oI migrant workers and, with regard
to matters regulated by laws or regulations or subject to the control oI
administrative authorities, ensure treatment at least equal to that oI nationals, and
Noting that, Ior the Iull success oI action regarding the very varied problems oI migrant
workers, it is essential that there be close co-operation with the United Nations and
other specialised agencies, and
Noting that, in the Iraming oI the Iollowing standards, account has been taken oI the
work oI the United Nations and oI other specialised agencies and that, with a view
to avoiding duplication and to ensuring appropriate co-ordination, there will be
continuing co-operation in promoting and securing the application oI the standards,
and
Having decided upon the adoption oI certain proposals with regard to migrant workers,
which is the IiIth item on the agenda oI the session, and
Having determined that these proposals shall take the Iorm oI an international
Convention supplementing the Migration Ior Employment Convention (Revised),
1949, and the Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention, 1958,
adopts this twenty-Iourth day oI June oI the year one thousand nine hundred and seventy-
Iive the Iollowing Convention, which may be cited as the Migrant Workers (Supplementary
Provisions) Convention, 1975:
PART I. MIGRATIONS IN ABUSIVE CONDITIONS
Article 1
Each Member Ior which this Convention is in Iorce undertakes to respect the basic
human rights oI all migrant workers.
Article 2
1. Each Member Ior which this Convention is in Iorce shall systematically seek to
determine whether there are illegally employed migrant workers on its territory and whether
there depart Irom, pass through or arrive in its territory any movements oI migrants Ior
employment in which the migrants are subjected during their journey, on arrival or during
their period oI residence and employment to conditions contravening relevant international
multilateral or bilateral instruments or agreements, or national laws or regulations.
2. The representative organisations oI employers and workers shall be Iully consulted
and enabled to Iurnish any inIormation in their possession on this subject.
Article 3
Each Member shall adopt all necessary and appropriate measures, both within its
jurisdiction and in collaboration with other Members
(a) to suppress clandestine movements oI migrants Ior employment and illegal employment
oI migrants, and
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(b) against the organisers oI illicit or clandestine movements oI migrants Ior employment
departing Irom, passing through or arriving in its territory, and against those who
employ workers who have immigrated in illegal conditions, in order to prevent and to
eliminate the abuses reIerred to in Article 2 oI this Convention.
Article 4
In particular, Members shall take such measures as are necessary, at the national and the
international level, Ior systematic contact and exchange oI inIormation on the subject with
other States, in consultation with representative organisations oI employers and workers.
Article 5
One oI the purposes oI the measures taken under Articles 3 and 4 oI this Convention
shall be that the authors oI manpower traIIicking can be prosecuted whatever the country
Irom which they exercise their activities.
Article 6
1. Provision shall be made under national laws or regulations Ior the eIIective detection
oI the illegal employment oI migrant workers and Ior the deIinition and the application oI
administrative, civil and penal sanctions, which include imprisonment in their range, in
respect oI the illegal employment oI migrant workers, in respect oI the organisation oI
movements oI migrants Ior employment deIined as involving the abuses reIerred to in
Article 2 oI this Convention, and in respect oI knowing assistance to such movements,
whether Ior proIit or otherwise.
2. Where an employer is prosecuted by virtue oI the provision made in pursuance oI
this Article, he shall have the right to Iurnish prooI oI his good Iaith.
Article 7
The representative organisations oI employers and workers shall be consulted in regard
to the laws and regulations and other measures provided Ior in this Convention and designed
to prevent and eliminate the abuses reIerred to above, and the possibility oI their taking
initiatives Ior this purpose shall be recognised.
Article 8
1. On condition that he has resided legally in the territory Ior the purpose oI
employment, the migrant worker shall not be regarded as in an illegal or irregular situation
by the mere Iact oI the loss oI his employment, which shall not in itselI imply the withdrawal
oI his authorisation oI residence or, as the case may be, work permit.
2. Accordingly, he shall enjoy equality oI treatment with nationals in respect in
particular oI guarantees oI security oI employment, the provision oI alternative employment,
relieI work and retraining.
Article 9
1. Without prejudice to measures designed to control movements oI migrants Ior
employment by ensuring that migrant workers enter national territory and are admitted to
employment in conIormity with the relevant laws and regulations, the migrant worker shall,
in cases in which these laws and regulations have not been respected and in which his
position cannot be regularised, enjoy equality oI treatment Ior himselI and his Iamily in
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respect oI rights arising out oI past employment as regards remuneration, social security and
other beneIits.
2. In case oI dispute about the rights reIerred to in the preceding paragraph, the worker
shall have the possibility oI presenting his case to a competent body, either himselI or
through a representative.
3. In case oI expulsion oI the worker or his Iamily, the cost shall not be borne by them.
4. Nothing in this Convention shall prevent Members Irom giving persons who are
illegally residing or working within the country the right to stay and to take up legal
employment.
PART II. EQUALITY OF OPPORTUNITY AND TREATMENT
Article 10
Each Member Ior which the Convention is in Iorce undertakes to declare and pursue a
national policy designed to promote and to guarantee, by methods appropriate to national
conditions and practice, equality oI opportunity and treatment in respect oI employment and
occupation, oI social security, oI trade union and cultural rights and oI individual and
collective Ireedoms Ior persons who as migrant workers or as members oI their Iamilies are
lawIully within its territory.
Article 11
1. For the purpose oI this Part oI this Convention, the term 'migrant worker¨ means a
person who migrates or who has migrated Irom one country to another with a view to being
employed otherwise than on his own account and includes any person regularly admitted as a
migrant worker.
2. This Part oI this Convention does not apply to
(a) Irontier workers;
(b) artistes and members oI the liberal proIessions who have entered the country on a short-
term basis;
(c) seamen;
(d) persons coming speciIically Ior purposes oI training or education;
(e) employees oI organisations or undertakings operating within the territory oI a country
who have been admitted temporarily to that country at the request oI their employer to
undertake speciIic duties or assignments, Ior a limited and deIined period oI time, and
who are required to leave that country on the completion oI their duties or assignments.
Article 12
Each Member shall, by methods appropriate to national conditions and practice
(a) seek the co-operation oI employers` and workers` organisations and other appropriate
bodies in promoting the acceptance and observance oI the policy provided Ior in Article
10 oI this Convention;
(b) enact such legislation and promote such educational programmes as may be calculated
to secure the acceptance and observance oI the policy;
(c) take measures, encourage educational programmes and develop other activities aimed at
acquainting migrant workers as Iully as possible with the policy, with their rights and
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obligations and with activities designed to give eIIective assistance to migrant workers
in the exercise oI their rights and Ior their protection;
(d) repeal any statutory provisions and modiIy any administrative instructions or practices
which are inconsistent with the policy;
(e) in consultation with representative organisations oI employers and workers, Iormulate
and apply a social policy appropriate to national conditions and practice which enables
migrant workers and their Iamilies to share in advantages enjoyed by its nationals while
taking account, without adversely aIIecting the principle oI equality oI opportunity and
treatment, oI such special needs as they may have until they are adapted to the society oI
the country oI employment;
(I) take all steps to assist and encourage the eIIorts oI migrant workers and their Iamilies to
preserve their national and ethnic identity and their cultural ties with their country oI
origin, including the possibility Ior children to be given some knowledge oI their mother
tongue;
(g) guarantee equality oI treatment, with regard to working conditions, Ior all migrant
workers who perIorm the same activity whatever might be the particular conditions oI
their employment.
Article 13
1. A Member may take all necessary measures which Iall within its competence and
collaborate with other Members to Iacilitate the reuniIication oI the Iamilies oI all migrant
workers legally residing in its territory.
2. The members oI the Iamily oI the migrant worker to which this Article applies are
the spouse and dependent children, Iather and mother.
Article 14
A Member may
(a) make the Iree choice oI employment, while assuring migrant workers the right to
geographical mobility, subject to the conditions that the migrant worker has resided
lawIully in its territory Ior the purpose oI employment Ior a prescribed period not
exceeding two years or, iI its laws or regulations provide Ior contracts Ior a Iixed term
oI less than two years, that the worker has completed his Iirst work contract;
(b) aIter appropriate consultation with the representative organisations oI employers and
workers, make regulations concerning recognition oI occupational qualiIications
acquired outside its territory, including certiIicates and diplomas;
(c) restrict access to limited categories oI employment or Iunctions where this is necessary
in the interests oI the State.
PART III. FINAL PROVISIONS
Article 15
This Convention does not prevent Members Irom concluding multilateral or bilateral
agreements with a view to resolving problems arising Irom its application.
Article 16
1. Any Member which ratiIies this Convention may, by a declaration appended to its
ratiIication, exclude either Part I or Part II Irom its acceptance oI the Convention.
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2. Any Member which has made such a declaration may at any time cancel that
declaration by a subsequent declaration.
3. Every Member Ior which a declaration made under paragraph 1 oI this Article is in
Iorce shall indicate in its reports upon the application oI this Convention the position oI its
law and practice in regard to the provisions oI the Part excluded Irom its acceptance, the
extent to which eIIect has been given, or is proposed to be given, to the said provision and
the reasons Ior which it has not yet included them in its acceptance oI the Convention.
Article 17
The Iormal ratiIications oI this Convention shall be communicated to the Director-
General oI the International Labour OIIice Ior registration.
Article 18
1. This Convention shall be binding only upon those Members oI the International
Labour Organisation whose ratiIications have been registered with the Director-General.
2. It shall come into Iorce twelve months aIter the date on which the ratiIications oI two
Members have been registered with the Director-General.
3. ThereaIter, this Convention shall come into Iorce Ior any Member twelve months
aIter the date on which its ratiIication has been registered.
Article 19
1. A Member which has ratiIied this Convention may denounce it aIter the expiration oI
ten years Irom the date on which the Convention Iirst comes into Iorce, by an act
communicated to the Director-General oI the International Labour OIIice Ior registration.
Such denunciation shall not take eIIect until one year aIter the date on which it is registered.
2. Each Member which has ratiIied this Convention and which does not, within the year
Iollowing the expiration oI the period oI ten years mentioned in the preceding paragraph,
exercise the right oI denunciation provided Ior in this Article, will be bound Ior another
period oI ten years and, thereaIter, may denounce this Convention at the expiration oI each
period oI ten years under the terms provided Ior in this Article.
Article 20
1. The Director-General oI the International Labour OIIice shall notiIy all Members oI
the International Labour Organisation oI the registration oI all ratiIications and denunciations
communicated to him by the Members oI the Organisation.
2. When notiIying the Members oI the Organisation oI the registration oI the second
ratiIication communicated to him, the Director-General shall draw the attention oI the
Members oI the Organisation to the date upon which the Convention will come into Iorce.
Article 21
The Director-General oI the International Labour OIIice shall communicate to the
Secretary-General oI the United Nations Ior registration in accordance with Article 102 oI
the Charter oI the United Nations Iull particulars oI all ratiIications and acts oI denunciation
registered by him in accordance with the provisions oI the preceding Articles.
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Article 22
At such times as it may consider necessary the Governing Body oI the International
Labour OIIice shall present to the General ConIerence a report on the working oI this
Convention and shall examine the desirability oI placing on the agenda oI the ConIerence the
question oI its revision in whole or in part.
Article 23
1. Should the ConIerence adopt a new Convention revising this Convention in whole or
in part, then, unless the new Convention otherwise provides
(a) the ratiIication by a Member oI the new revising Convention shall ipso jure involve the
immediate denunciation oI this Convention, notwithstanding the provisions oI Article 19
above, iI and when the new revising Convention shall have come into Iorce;
(b) as Irom the date when the new revising Convention comes into Iorce this Convention
shall cease to be open to ratiIication by the Members.
2. This Convention shall in any case remain in Iorce in its actual Iorm and content Ior
those Members which have ratiIied it but have not ratiIied the revising Convention.
Article 24
The English and French versions oI the text oI this Convention are equally authoritative.
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
204
Migrant Workers Recommendation,
1975 (No. 151)
The General ConIerence oI the International Labour Organisation,
Having been convened at Geneva by the Governing Body oI the International Labour
OIIice, and having met in its Sixtieth Session on 4 June 1975, and
Considering that the Preamble oI the Constitution oI the International Labour
Organisation assigns to it the task oI protecting 'the interests oI workers when
employed in countries other than their own¨, and
Recalling the provisions contained in the Migration Ior Employment Convention and
Recommendation (Revised), 1949, and in the Protection oI Migrant Workers
(Underdeveloped Countries) Recommendation, 1955, which deal with such matters
as the preparation and organisation oI migration, social services to be provided to
migrant workers and their Iamilies, in particular beIore their departure and during
their journey, equality oI treatment as regards a variety oI matters which they
enumerate, and the regulation oI the stay and return oI migrant workers and their
Iamilies, and
Having adopted the Migrant Workers (Supplementary Provisions) Convention, 1975,
and
Considering that Iurther standards are desirable as regards equality oI opportunity and
treatment, social policy in regard to migrants and employment and residence, and
Having decided upon the adoption oI certain proposals with regard to migrant workers,
which is the IiIth item on the agenda oI the session, and
Having determined that these proposals shall take the Iorm oI a Recommendation,
adopts this twenty-Iourth day oI June oI the year one thousand nine hundred and seventy-
Iive the Iollowing Recommendation, which may be cited as the Migrant Workers
Recommendation, 1975:
1. Members should apply the provision oI this Recommendation within the Iramework
oI a coherent policy on international migration Ior employment. That policy should be based
upon the economic and social needs oI both countries oI origin and countries oI
employment; it should take account not only oI short-term manpower needs and resources
but also oI the long-term social and economic consequences oI migration Ior migrants as
well as Ior the communities concerned.
I. EQUALITY OF OPPORTUNITY AND TREATMENT
2. Migrant workers and members oI their Iamilies lawIully within the territory oI a
Member should enjoy eIIective equality oI opportunity and treatment with nationals oI the
Member concerned in respect oI
(a) access to vocational guidance and placement services;
(b) access to vocational training and employment oI their own choice on the basis oI
individual suitability Ior such training or employment, account being taken oI
qualiIications acquired outside the territory oI and in the country oI employment;
(c) advancement in accordance with their individual character, experience, ability and
diligence;
(d) security oI employment, the provision oI alternative employment, relieI work and
retraining;
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(e) remuneration Ior work oI equal value;
(I) conditions oI work, including hours oI work, rest periods, annual holidays with pay,
occupational saIety and occupational health measures, as well as social security
measures and welIare Iacilities and beneIits provided in connection with employment;
(g) membership oI trade unions, exercise oI trade union rights and eligibility Ior oIIice in
trade unions and in labour-management relations bodies, including bodies representing
workers in undertakings;
(h) rights oI Iull membership in any Iorm oI co-operative;
(i) conditions oI liIe, including housing and the beneIits oI social services and educational
and health Iacilities.
3. Each Member should ensure the application oI the principles set Iorth in Paragraph 2
oI this Recommendation in all activities under the control oI a public authority and promote
its observance in all other activities by methods appropriate to national conditions and
practice.
4. Appropriate measures should be taken, with the collaboration oI employers` and
workers` organisations and other bodies concerned, with a view to
(a) Iostering public understanding and acceptance oI the above-mentioned principles;
(b) examining complaints that these principles are not being observed and securing the
correction, by conciliation or other appropriate means, oI any practices regarded as in
conIlict therewith.
5. Each Member should ensure that national laws and regulations concerning residence
in its territory are so applied that the lawIul exercise oI rights enjoyed in pursuance oI these
principles cannot be the reason Ior non-renewal oI a residence permit or Ior expulsion and is
not inhibited by the threat oI such measures.
6. A Member may
(a) make the Iree choice oI employment, while assuring migrant workers the right to
geographical mobility, subject to the conditions that the migrant worker has resided
lawIully in its territory Ior the purpose oI employment Ior a prescribed period not
exceeding two years or, iI its laws or regulations provide Ior contracts Ior a Iixed term
oI less than two years, that the worker has completed his Iirst work contract;
(b) aIter appropriate consultation with the representative organisations oI employers and
workers, make regulations concerning recognition oI occupational qualiIications
acquired outside its territory, including certiIicates and diplomas;
(c) restrict access to limited categories oI employment or Iunctions where this is necessary
in the interests oI the State.
7. (1) In order to enable migrant workers and their Iamilies to take Iull advantage oI
their rights and opportunities in employment and occupation, such measures as may be
necessary should be taken, in consultation with the representative organisations oI employers
and workers
(a) to inIorm them, as Iar as possible in their mother tongue or, iI that is not possible, in a
language with which they are Iamiliar, oI their rights under national law and practice as
regards the matters dealt with in Paragraph 2 oI this Recommendation;
(b) to advance their knowledge oI the language or languages oI the country oI employment,
as Iar as possible during paid time;
(c) generally, to promote their adaptation to the society oI the country oI employment and
to assist and encourage the eIIorts oI migrant workers and their Iamilies to preserve their
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
206
national and ethnic identity and their cultural ties with their country oI origin, including
the possibility Ior children to be given some knowledge oI their mother tongue.
(2) Where agreements concerning the collective recruitment oI workers have been
concluded between Members, they should jointly take the necessary measures beIore the
migrants` departure Irom their country oI origin to introduce them to the language oI the
country oI employment and also to its economic, social and cultural environment.
8. (1) Without prejudice to measures designed to ensure that migrant workers and their
Iamilies enter national territory and are admitted to employment in conIormity with the
relevant laws and regulations, a decision should be taken as soon as possible in cases in
which these laws and regulations have not been respected so that the migrant worker should
know whether his position can be regularised or not.
(2) Migrant workers whose position has been regularised should beneIit Irom all rights
which, in accordance with Paragraph 2 oI this Recommendation, are provided Ior migrant
workers lawIully within the territory oI a Member.
(3) Migrant workers whose position has not been or could not be regularised should
enjoy equality oI treatment Ior themselves and their Iamilies in respect oI rights arising out
oI present and past employment as regards remuneration, social security and other beneIits
as well as regards trade union membership and exercise oI trade union rights.
(4) In case oI dispute about the rights reIerred to in the preceding subparagraphs, the
worker should have the possibility oI presenting his case to a competent body, either himselI
or through a representative.
(5) In case oI expulsion oI the worker or his Iamily, the cost should not be borne by
them.
II. SOCIAL POLICY
9. Each Member should, in consultation with representative organisations oI employers
and workers, Iormulate and apply a social policy appropriate to national conditions and
practice which enables migrant workers and their Iamilies to share in advantages enjoyed by
its nationals while taking account, without adversely aIIecting the principle oI equality oI
opportunity and treatment, oI such special needs as they may have until they are adapted to
the society oI the country oI employment.
10. With a view to making the policy as responsive as possible to the real needs oI
migrant workers and their Iamilies, it should be based, in particular, on an examination not
only oI conditions in the territory oI the Member but also oI those in the countries oI origin
oI the migrants.
11. The policy should take account oI the need to spread the social cost oI migration as
widely and equitably as possible over the entire collectivity oI the country oI employment,
and in particular over those who proIit most Irom the work oI migrants.
12. The policy should be periodically reviewed and evaluated and where necessary
revised.
A. Reunification of Families
13. (1) All possible measures should be taken both by countries oI employment and by
countries oI origin to Iacilitate the reuniIication oI Iamilies oI migrant workers as rapidly as
possible. These measures should include, as necessary, national laws or regulations and
bilateral and multilateral arrangements.
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207
(2) A prerequisite Ior the reuniIication oI Iamilies should be that the worker has, Ior his
Iamily, appropriate accommodation which meets the standards normally applicable to
nationals oI the country oI employment.
14. Representatives oI all concerned, and in particular oI employers and workers,
should be consulted on the measures to be adopted to Iacilitate the reuniIication oI Iamilies
and their co-operation sought in giving eIIect thereto.
15. For the purpose oI the provisions oI this Recommendation relating to the
reuniIication oI Iamilies, the Iamily oI the migrant worker should include the spouse and
dependent children, Iather and mother.
16. With a view to Iacilitating the reuniIication oI Iamilies as quickly as possible in
accordance with Paragraph 13 oI this Recommendation, each Member should take Iull
account oI the needs oI migrant workers and their Iamilies in particular in its policy
regarding the construction oI Iamily housing, assistance in obtaining this housing and the
development oI appropriate reception services.
17. Where a migrant worker who has been employed Ior at least one year in a country
oI employment cannot be joined by his Iamily in that country, he should be entitled
(a) to visit the country oI residence oI his Iamily during the paid annual holiday to which he
is entitled under the national law and practice oI the country oI employment without
losing during the absence Irom that country any acquired rights or rights in course oI
acquisition and, particularly, without having his employment terminated or his right to
residence in the country oI employment withdrawn during that period; or
(b) to be visited by his Iamily Ior a period corresponding at least to the annual holiday with
pay to which he is entitled.
18. Consideration should be given to the possibility oI giving the migrant worker
Iinancial assistance towards the cost oI the travel envisaged in the preceding Paragraph or a
reduction in the normal cost oI transport, Ior instance by the arrangement oI group travel.
19. Without prejudice to more Iavourable provisions which may be applicable to them,
persons admitted in pursuance oI international arrangements Ior Iree movement oI labour
should have the beneIit oI the measures provided Ior in Paragraphs 13 to 18 oI this
Recommendation.
B. Protection of the Health of Migrant Workers
20. All appropriate measures should be taken to prevent any special health risks to
which migrant workers may be exposed.
21. (1) Every eIIort should be made to ensure that migrant workers receive training and
instruction in occupational saIety and occupational hygiene in connection with their practical
training or other work preparation, and, as Iar as possible, as part thereoI.
(2) In addition, a migrant worker should, during paid working hours and immediately
aIter beginning his employment, be provided with suIIicient inIormation in his mother
tongue or, iI that is not possible, in a language with which he is Iamiliar, on the essential
elements oI laws and regulations and on provisions oI collective agreements concerning the
protection oI workers and the prevention oI accidents as well as on saIety regulations and
procedures particular to the nature oI the work.
22. (1) Employers should take all possible measures so that migrant workers may Iully
understand instructions, warnings, symbols and other signs relating to saIety and health
hazards at work.
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
208
(2) Where, on account oI the migrant workers` lack oI Iamiliarity with processes,
language diIIiculties or other reasons, the training or instruction given to other workers is
inadequate Ior them, special measures which ensure their Iull understanding should be taken.
(3) Members should have laws or regulations applying the principles set out in this
Paragraph and provide that where employers or other persons or organisations having
responsibility in this regard Iail to observe such laws or regulations, administrative, civil and
penal sanctions might be imposed.
C. Social Services
23. In accordance with the provisions oI Paragraph 2 oI this Recommendation, migrant
workers and their Iamilies should beneIit Irom the activities oI social services and have
access thereto under the same conditions as nationals oI the country oI employment.
24. In addition, social services should be provided which perIorm, in particular, the
Iollowing Iunctions in relation to migrant workers and their Iamilies
(a) giving migrant workers and their Iamilies every assistance in adapting to the economic,
social and cultural environment oI the country oI employment;
(b) helping migrant workers and their Iamilies to obtain inIormation and advice Irom
appropriate bodies, Ior instance by providing interpretation and translation services; to
comply with administrative and other Iormalities; and to make Iull use oI services and
Iacilities provided in such Iields as education, vocational training and language training,
health services and social security, housing, transport and recreation: Provided that
migrant workers and their Iamilies should as Iar as possible have the right to
communicate with public authorities in the country oI employment in their own
language or in a language with which they are Iamiliar, particularly in the context oI
legal assistance and court proceedings;
(c) assisting authorities and bodies with responsibilities relating to the conditions oI liIe and
work oI migrant workers and their Iamilies in identiIying their needs and in adapting
thereto;
(d) giving the competent authorities inIormation and, as appropriate, advice regarding the
Iormulation, implementation and evaluation oI social policy with respect to migrant
workers;
(e) providing inIormation Ior Iellow workers and Ioremen and supervisors about the
situation and the problems oI migrant workers.
25. (1) The social services reIerred to in Paragraph 24 oI this Recommendation may be
provided, as appropriate to national conditions and practice, by public authorities, by
approved non-proIit-making organisations or bodies, or by a combination oI both. The public
authorities should have the over-all responsibility oI ensuring that these social services are at
the disposal oI migrant workers and their Iamilies.
(2) Full use should be made oI services which are or can be provided by authorities,
organisations and bodies serving the nationals oI the country oI employment, including
employers` and workers` organisations.
26. Each Member should take such measures as may be necessary to ensure that
suIIicient resources and adequately trained staII are available Ior the social services reIerred
to in Paragraph 24 oI this Recommendation.
27. Each Member should promote co-operation and co-ordination between diIIerent
social services on its territory and, as appropriate, between these services and corresponding
services in other countries, without, however, this co-operation and co-ordination relieving
the States oI their responsibilities in this Iield.
Texts of the ÌLO instruments on migrant workers
209
28. Each Member should organise and encourage the organisation, at the national,
regional or local level, or as appropriate in a branch oI economic activity employing
substantial numbers oI migrant workers, oI periodic meetings Ior the exchange oI
inIormation and experience. Consideration should also be given to the exchange oI
inIormation and experience with other countries oI employment as well as with the countries
oI origin oI migrant workers.
29. Representatives oI all concerned and in particular oI employers and workers should
be consulted on the organisation oI the social services in question and their co-operation
sought in achieving the purposes aimed at.
III. EMPLOYMENT AND RESIDENCE
30. In pursuance oI the provision oI Paragraph 18 oI the Migration Ior Employment
Recommendation (Revised), 1949, that Members should, as Iar as possible, reIrain Irom
removing Irom their territory, on account oI lack oI means or the state oI the employment
market, a migrant worker regularly admitted thereto, the loss by such migrant worker oI his
employment should not in itselI imply the withdrawal oI his authorisation oI residence.
31. A migrant who has lost his employment should be allowed suIIicient time to Iind
alternative employment, at least Ior a period corresponding to that during which he may be
entitled to unemployment beneIit; the authorisation oI residence should be extended
accordingly.
32. (1) A migrant worker who has lodged an appeal against the termination oI his
employment, under such procedures as may be available, should be allowed suIIicient time
to obtain a Iinal decision thereon.
(2) II it is established that the termination oI employment was not justiIied, the migrant
worker should be entitled, on the same terms as national workers, to reinstatement, to
compensation Ior loss oI wages or oI other payment which results Irom unjustiIied
termination, or to access to a new job with a right to indemniIication. II he is not reinstated,
he should be allowed suIIicient time to Iind alternative employment.
33. A migrant worker who is the object oI an expulsion order should have a right oI
appeal beIore an administrative or judicial instance, according to conditions laid down in
national laws or regulations. This appeal should stay the execution oI the expulsion order,
subject to the duly substantiated requirements oI national security or public order. The
migrant worker should have the same right to legal assistance as national workers and have
the possibility oI being assisted by an interpreter.
34. (1) A migrant worker who leaves the country oI employment should be entitled,
irrespective oI the legality oI his stay therein
(a) to any outstanding remuneration Ior work perIormed, including severance payments
normally due;
(b) to beneIits which may be due in respect oI any employment injury suIIered;
(c) in accordance with national practice
(i) to compensation in lieu oI any holiday entitlement acquired but not used;
(ii) to reimbursement oI any social security contributions which have not given and
will not give rise to rights under national laws or regulations or international
arrangements: Provided that where social security contributions do not permit
entitlement to beneIits, every eIIort should be made with a view to the conclusion
oI bilateral or multilateral agreements to protect the rights oI migrants.
Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy
210
(2) Where any claim covered in subparagraph (1) oI this Paragraph is in dispute, the
worker should be able to have his interests represented beIore the competent body
and enjoy equal treatment with national workers as regards legal assistance.

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