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GIS APPLICATION IN POWER TRANSMISSION LINE SITING

ALEKHYA DATTA, SHOME VARMA & ASHISH KUMAR GUPTA


SYMBIOSIS INSTITUTE OF GEOINFORMATICS, PUNE E-MAIL ID: alekhyadatta@yahoo.co.in

ABSTRACT
Electricity is an essential part of our everyday lives. The electric distribution company is responsible to manage the power distribution system safely and efficiently, which deliver electric power from Area feeder to out service drops. In India, the main drawbacks of the distribution system are poor maintenance of the installed facilities, lack of planned network, and lack of monitoring and prevent losses and manual updating of consumer records etc. Today Electric utilities are realizing the benefits of GIS technology in the management of facilities for engineering, construction operations, and maintenance and services purposes. The objective of GIS project is to sign-out suitable site locations at Pune city for transmission line. A transmission line is one of essential infrastructures of the power supply system. In the site evaluation process for those facilities, it is necessary to carefully consider not only technical issues, but also the impact on natural environment, the influence on local communities, and various regulations. However, it is getting difficult to find the preferable site for a transmission line, because of the increasing cost of constructions, the increasing concern on environmental issues and the growing consciousness of land owners. In addition, the number of experienced planners and engineers engaged in the siting process is decreasing with generational changes. In general the process of the planning and design of transmission lines consists of the following 5 phases Planning, Survey, Basic Route, Detailed Route and Route for implementation. GIS application in Power Transmission Line Siting requires data (Layers) such as: 1) Landuse Landcover map (Landuse Landcover is required to investigate the electric power of the area under investigation such as industrial requirement residential and municipal requirement. 2) Locations of transformers using GPS. 3) Dynamic data associated with individual transformer. 4) Distribution of high tension wires line map. 5) Utility analysis and network analysis based on terrain features. 6) To investigate the site as per the requirement of the area concerned taking into account the power losses during transmission.

INTRODUCTION

In the last few decades, the electric power industries have been developing power transmission systems to follow up with the rapid growth of the power demand. On the other hand, the suitable site for new transmission lines has been getting restricted, because of development of rural areas and the growing concern over environmental issues. Analyses such as the selection of suitable areas, the optimum path finding, the profile analyses, the engineering design of towers and wires, and the cost estimation can be done using GIS. This will help planners and engineers in the environmental and engineering analyses for transmission line siting. A transmission line is one of essential infrastructures of the power supply system. In the site evaluation process for those facilities, it is necessary to carefully consider not only technical issues, but also the impact on natural environment, the influence on local communities, and various regulations. However, it is getting

difficult to find the preferable site for a transmission line, because of the increasing cost of constructions, the increasing concern on environmental issues and the growing consciousness of land owners. In addition, the number of experienced planners and engineers engaged in the siting process is decreasing with generational changes. GIS allows new processing methods to be used and provides high-quality presentation of processed data. These characteristics make it an unavoidable decision making tool in situations when data relevant to a decision include a spatial component. GIS is by no means a system that will give a final solution to a user, but it will provide the possibilities for a better and more organized analysis of information, which is a prerequisite for making quality decisions. In environmental GIS applications, generating surfaces is a frequently imposed requirement in the early stage of analyses. The importance of generating these surfaces is that these surfaces are used as the basic information to perform further spatial analyses in various applications including site suitability of transmission line. Based on these surfaces, we can carry out additional analyses to answer questions such as distribution of data in a particular area. The area selected for present study is of PUNE and geographically extends between 18030 N to 180 35 N latitude and 730 47 30 E to 730 52 30 E longitude. The selected site for case study area covers moderately populated area (Population: 39 millions), commercial area and tourist area. ArcInfo, TIN, GRID, NETWORK are used to perform various analyses on geographic database which is necessary for the site evaluation. This paper describes the outline of the system, and mentions technical topics on methodologies.

MATERIALS
1. Survey of India topographic maps (scale 1:50000) {47f/10, 47f/11, 47f/14, 47f/15, 47j/2, 47j/3} made available by SIG. 2. Pune municipality map given to us by SIG.

TOPOSHEET OF PUNE

PMC MAP

SOFTWARE
Erdas Imagine 9.1 ArcView 3.2a ArcGIS 9.3 AutoCAD 2009

METHODOLOGY

DATA

TOPOSHEET GEOREFERENCE CONTOUR MAP DEM SLOPE

LAND COVER GEOREFERENCE EXPANSION OF AREA

ANCILLARY DATA VOLTAGE MAP

RESULT

APPLICATION SYSTEM
In general, the process of the planning and design of transmission lines consists of the following 5 phases. Planning: The master guidelines of route constructions are settled based on the long-range power supply plan. The outline is determined for each transmission line planned, which includes voltage, number of lines, starting and ending substations. Survey: Information about natural environment, geological features, local communities and regulations in the area of interest etc. is collected in this phase and several alternative routes are compared in terms of environmental impact, technical issues and cost of construction. Basic Route: Basic route is determined by the position of each tower along the proposed routes and interference of radio wave caused by the transmission line is estimated. All this is done using a medium scale toposheet. Detailed Route: A photogrammetric surveying is performed along the basic route. Based on the results, the detailed position of each tower is determined in the large scale (1:2,000). And engineering design process follows, which includes the determination of tower type, tower height and supporting devices, and the cost estimation. Route for Implementation: In this phase, the detailed field surveying is performed along the determined route. The towers, wires and basement of towers are designed.

POPULATION MAP OF PUNE

DATA ENTRY SYSTEM


This system installs checks and edits the geographical database used in all other subsystems. The database includes Topographical Maps in 1:50,000 (raster images), Environmental Information (Coverage), Land Information Database (Governmental boundaries, roads, railroads, rivers, lakes (coverage), altitude (GRID), Photogrammetric Maps in 1:2,000 scale (raster images), DTM (GRID) etc.

GIS IN POWER: SITE IDENTIFICATION The remote sensing technology is being used for the identification of suitable sites for locating new hydropower projects. The conventional method could not be directly adopted in the inaccessible areas like Himalayas where the water resource potential is high by means of glaciers and intensive rainfall. Similarly the geological, structural configuration is essential to study to understand the strength and weakness of the area so that the project will be implemented in the suitable terrain (ex. aseismic). For geologic mapping, reflectance information of the rocks in the SWIR and emissivity of the rocks information in the TIR are very important. Again, remote sensing data available in the near infrared region (0.8 um - 1.1 um) provides clearly the contrast between land and water features can easily be discernable. Satellite imagery may be used for the identification of catchment boundary, drainage network, perennial streams, Landuse and vegetation cover for these projects. Digitizing the elevation contours and spot heights from topographic maps and using capabilities of various GIS softwares may generate Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of these catchments. The catchment boundary, drainage network and location of major habitation may be overlaid on these DEMs for further analysis.

SUITABILITY MAP AND OPTIMUM ROUTE The existing process of the site evaluation was reviewed for this project. As the result, the environmental information was classified into three categories, natural, social and technical environment. Each of those categories contains such layers as follows. Natural Environment Habitats of endangered species, National parks, etc Social Environment View points, Scenic areas Cultural assets, Temples, Shrines Agricultural promotion area, Forest area, Cities District for urban planning, Airports, etc. Technical Environment Faults, Dangerous district for collapse Snowfall, Thunderstorm, Salty breeze, Wind pressure, etc.

VOLTAGE MAP

400 KV SUBSTAIONS
S.NO. NAME OF THE SUBSTATION 1 2 JEJUNI LONIKAND DISTRICT PUNE PUNE

220 KV SUBSTAIONS
S.NO. NAME OF THE SUBSTATION 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 ALEPAHATA BARAMATI- II BHIGWAN BHOSARI CHINCHWAD DASTARI HINJEWADI- I HINJEWADI II JEJURI KHADKI PARGAON PARVATI PHURSUNGI PIRANGNT TELCO THEUR DISTRICT PUNE PUNE PUNE PUNE PUNE PUNE PUNE PUNE PUNE PUNE PUNE PUNE PUNE PUNE PUNE PUNE

17 18 19

URSE CENTURY INKA PAVANE

PUNE PUNE PUNE

132 KV SUBSTAIONS
S.NO. NAME OF THE SUBSTATION 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 BAWADA BARAMATI BHATGHAR CHAKAN DAUND INDAPUR JANAI KHARADI KOTHRUD KURULI MARKAL MUNDHWA DISTRICT PUNE PUNE PUNE PUNE PUNE PUNE PUNE PUNE PUNE PUNE PUNE PUNE

13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

NARAYANGAON NCL NIGADI PHURSUNGI SANASWADI VARASGAON WALCHANDANAGAR YAWAT VIR

PUNE PUNE PUNE PUNE PUNE PUNE PUNE PUNE PUNE

100 KV SUBSTAIONS
S.NO. NAME OF THE SUBSTATION 1 2 3 4 GANESHKHIND LONAVALA NOCIL TALEGAON DISTRICT PUNE PUNE PUNE PUNE

CONCLUSION
A GIS-based application has been developed for transmission line siting. This system supports from the planning phase to the engineering design phase and provides total solution for the siting process. ArcInfo is employed as a powerful toolbox in this system to perform complex analyses based on geographic database. Furthermore, the combination with other applications, such as a spreadsheet package and original programs coded with C language, makes it possible to support various phases of transmission line siting. Several extension of the system is planned in the next phase of this project. The extensions include the automatic siting of each tower, the use of the result of detailed filed surveying and the simulation of realistic views using CAD packages.