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THE

CHRISTIAN TOPOGRAPHY

OF COSMAS INDICOPLEUSTES

CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS


ILonilon:

C.

FETTER LANE, E.G. F. CLAY, Manager

(Siimfiurgi):

, PRINCES STREET
ASHER AND CO. F. A. BROCKHAUS
PUTNAM'S SONS
CO., Ltd.
G. P.

ISfdin: A.
ILeipjig:
i^b3

lork:

Uombag

anti (ffalcutta:

MACMILLAN AND

Ad

Rigkis reserved

THE

CHRISTIAN TOPOGRAPHY
OF COSMAS INDICOPLEUSTES
EDITED

WITH GEOGRAPHICAL NOTES

BY

E.

O.

WINSTEDT,

LATE SENIOR DEMY OF MAGDALEN COLLEGE, OXFORD

Cambridge
at

the University Press

1909

Camiriuge:

PRINTED BY JOHN CLAY, M.A.

AT THF UNIVERSITY PRESS.

/^7^^

PREFACE

THIS
I

book

is

the partial result of a journey to

Italy in

the spring of 1904, and another to Mt. Sinai and again


to Italy in 1905.

grants liberally

Of both journeys the costs were defrayed by made me by the Craven Committee, to whom

owe

my

sincerest thanks.

My

gratitude

is

no

less

due to the
electing

President and Fellows of Magdalen College,


to a Senior
this

who by

me

Demyship gave me the opportunity of spending on and other research work time which must otherwise have
liveli-

been devoted to the weariness and vexation of earning a


hood.

For the suggestion of this particular author I hardly know whether I am most indebted to Prof Heiberg of Copenhagen, from whom the suggestion originally came, or to Monsieur Seymour de Ricci, who passed it on to me, and whose friendship enlivened days spent in collating a text, which even the most ardent admirers of Cosmas if there are any such must admit

is

not exhilarating as a whole.

Since the main interest of the work

is

geographical, the

Syndics of the Cambridge Press desired


geographical portions
task to the best of
;

me

to

add notes on the

and

my

ability,

undertook and carried out that though I could not help feeling

geography is a subject with which I am little familiar, and since in Cosmas' case there are special difficulties. The famous Adulitic Inscription, for instance, demands an intimate knowledge of the geography of Abyssinia and Ethiopia in the third or fourth century of our era and those who have claimed such knowledge and treated of the subject, differ so greatly in their conclusions, and in some cases spend so much time and energy in throwing stones at one another, that, after wading through a sea of their pamphlets, I ended much where I began with no personal views on the
diffidence, since
:

some natural

vi

PREFACE

geography of those countries at such an obscure epoch. I have therefore generally contented myself with endeavouring to summarize such views as appear worthy of mention without attempting to decide between them. For these and any other notes that I have given I am under
great indebtedness to McCrindle's annotated translation in the

Hakluyt Society's publications and

to

Mr

Beazley's section on

of Modern Geography^ the fullest and most illuminating sketch of Cosmas' work which has yet appeared. Those who have seen or heard of the MSS. may perhaps

Cosmas

in his

Dawn

wonder why the magnificent illuminations with which all of them are furnished, are not reproduced. The chief reason is that of the illuminations of the oldest MS., which are far the best, Monsignor Stornaiolo was already preparing a facsimile and, though it might have edition, which has now appeared been interesting to some few readers if the illuminations of the Laurentian or Sinaitic MSS. had been given in full for comparison with the Vatican volume, it would have increased the cost of publication materially, and besides, to be properly treated, would have required a greater knowledge of Byzantine art than I can With the concurrence of the Press, I therefore thought claim. it better to limit the illustrations to such few plans and pictures as seemed necessary for the comprehension of the text and even those had to be further reduced to such as were likely to look more than a smudge when reproduced. Hence a few
:

of the interesting pictures of animals described in the eleventh

book had to be omitted. For the selected plates which appear in the volume I am indebted partly to the kindness of Prof. Biagi of the Laurentian library, and partly to the courtesy of Mr Beazley and the Clarendon Press, who have allowed me to
reproduce the plates given in the

Dawn

My

thanks are also due to

in two Cambridge MSS., what looks like a reference to and to Mgr. Stornaiolo for examining one or two doubtful points
in the

Dr Cosmas

of Modern Geography. M. R. James for sending me

Vatican MS.

for

me.
E.

O.

W.

November

1909.

CONTENTS
PAGE

Preface

Addenda and Corrigenda


Introduction
List of MSS.
.

ix
i

and Textual Criticism

-15
34

List of Signs
List of Contents of

the Books as given

in

the
35

MSS
Text
Notes
Index of Biblical Quotations

37
2>2>3

359
363
367

Index of Personal Names


Index of Geographical Names

General Index
Plates

370
at

I XIV

end of book

.C7

ADDENDA AND CORRIGENDA


References to and quotations from Cosmas are so rare even in Greek MSS. that one is disposed to regard him as a voice crying in the wilderness

and certainly one would not look to find any traces of him in the western world. But Dr M. R. James has very kindly pointed out to me a passage occurring in two MSS. of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, both of English origin, which may almost certainly be reckoned as a reference to the Christian Topography. The two MSS. are nos. 183 and 320, and are probably of the tenth and eleventh centuries respectively, though Stubbs dated the latter of them as early as the eighth century. And the passage in question, which is on fols. 68^ to 69^" of MS. 183, reads as follows: Christianus historicus dicit longitudinem mundi esse Xli milium, latitudo VI miliorum. Longitude templi

IX cubitos in longitudine et
altitudine.

XXX

cubitos in latitudine et

XXX

cubitos in

Tabernaculum habens longitudinis cubitorum XXX, latitudinis X, De area noe CCC cubit in longit, in lat L cubitorum, altitudinis aeque X. As Dr James remarks, the dimensions of the world in altit XXX cubitorum. here given correspond exactly with those of Cosmas, and the name Christi.
. .

anus Historicus
passage in a

is

not inappropriate.

He

has also pointed out to

me

York (767 to 781 A.D.), to Mainz which he thinks may perhaps throw light on the composition Lullus of The passage may be found in Jaffa's Mofiumenta Moguntina^ of the MSS. Illud vero, quod de libris inquisisti, marinis aestibus terram and runs p. 291, advectantibus, omnino incognitum nisi quia falsum est. Ceterum libros nee alia apud nos cosmografiorum, necdum nobis ad manum venerunt exemplaria nisi picturis et litteris permolesta. lam sepius mihimet perscribere forte, tuis adiutus destinavi, sed non illorum potui scriptores adquirere
letter

of Koaena, archbishop of

subplicationibus.

The

difficulty of finding copyists

may
:

perhaps point to Greek as the

language of the cosmographers referred to but in any case the presence of a copy of Cosmas, or of extracts from his work, in the west seems sufficiently
attested
I

by the passage just quoted. append a regrettably long list of corrigenda, including some corrections of misprints and some alterations of the text, the latter mainly derived from a recoUation of the portions of which photographs appear in Mgr. C. Stornaiolo's recently published work Le Miniature delta Topografia Cj'istiafia

di

Cosma

hidicopleuste (Milano, 1908).

ADDENDA AND CORRIGENDA


8,
1.

26 read
11.
1.

'

been,

still'

II,

and

31 read 'Erythraei.'

40, 62,
62, 62,
74, 82,

1.

34 after 'om. S' add ov V. Noror with V. 3 read


6 read
31 read 15 read

1.

1.

\ with V.
comma.

altering the footnote to

V^

1.

with V.

1.

2 delete the
1.

20 read dVTpos
32

(,
rightly.

with V.

1,

1.

24

V V

has
omits

.
-^^.
V

1.

28 read

with VS.

1.

13 read Aeanorov

1.

24

reads

with V.

1.

32 the heading should end at

begin with
1.

and the paragraph

3o delete

6.

1.

1.

36 for V^ read 18 V omits


14 read

1.

1.

1.

3 read 20 read oItos


17 read iv
17

..
for

(man. rec).

with V.

1.

1.

omits

.
^for.

with V.
with V.

89
91
91

1.
1.

20 omit
12 read

with V.

1.

25

omits

95 208

I.

19 read
19,

II.
1.

20 read eVl

209 210
224,

26 read
18 omit

I.

1.

227
271

1.

30 for
22

37 read Gen. i. 26 and add the read


is

1.

..
with V.

eTfpov deleting the footnote.

deleting the footnote.

with V.

same reference

to 223,

1.

25.

omitted by V.

INTRODUCTION
"What
earth, the
in

scholar has not laughed at the idea of Kosmas, the Alexandrian,

that the sun retired behind a

mountain to spend the night? And that the ocean and the fabulous mountain were all included and enclosed a luminous oblong box of the exact shape of the tabernacle of Moses?"
(M. Crawford, With the luunortals^
p. 208.)

some curious investigator had succeeded in obtaining from that " King of Arragon, a great mathematician, but not much troubled with Religion," who " said That had God consulted him when he made the World, he would have told him how to have framed it betterV' a complete scheme of the universe as he wished to fashion it, it would certainly have afforded hardly more, however, considerable amusement to the reader than the ideas of Cosmas Indicopleustes, a man much "troubled with religion," who set about to mould " this sorry scheme of things " not by any means according to his heart's desire for
If
;

in spite

of the grotesqueness of his conception of the world, he

seems

to

have been

fully

convinced that

all

had already been

made

for the best in this best of all possible

worlds

but accord-

ing to the statements

made and

the hints conveyed by the ''great

cosmographer Moses." ^ His scheme still exists in all its details in the work he called the Christian Topography but of the author himself little is known. Indeed his very name is by no means certain. Photius^,
;

'^

quoting

.^,. - -" ' \$ - ^. ^ -, $,


Glanvill's trans, of

Le Bovier de Fontenelle's Plurality of Worlds

As

the earliest reference to Cosmas, the passage from Photius {Cod. 36)
It

in extenso.
ets

runs:

^- ,
'

(1702), p. 16.
is

worth

\os,

rats

Taweivos

W.

INTRODUCTION
work under the very
indefinite title

the earliest authority


his

who quotes him, mentions and summarizes


and

two of the three MSS. give no name\ It is only the Laurentian MS. which contains the name Cosmas and many scholars from Voss to Beazley have held that this is a mere nickname or invention of the scribe due to the fact that the work dealt with quoting in support of their theory the nickname the Climacus given to one John who wrote a work called Climax. But the argument does not seem very conclusive, as one would have expected him in that case to be called Cosmicus rather than Cosmas. Besides the Laurentian MS. is supported by the MSS. of the Gospels which quote paragraphs from the fifth book of the Topography as catenae and the name Cosmas was a very common name in Egypt, the writer's native land. Consequently
:

there seems
at

little

reason for refusing to accept

it

provisionally
if

any

rate, for

the sake of calling him something,

not with

, , ,, ' " -^ $, . ' ' ' 5 , , . , , % ,, , . , ) ? ., ^}, . ^


absolute certainty^

$
7^^.

rrjs

kowtjs

'

'
oi

yrj,

''$,

irpos

ttjs

o'rt

wavTes

avTois

ttj

$ ^',
tovs

'

tovs

^ooovs.

Ay '
^,

$ $,

ttJs

oi

'^'/

^$ '
s

''

^^
byoov

ttjs

'

{ yap vs

^.
referred to
^

,
oi

^^/
The
is

by the Scholiast on Apol. Rhod.

can hardly be our Cosmas, since he speaks of the Egyptians as the oldest

of peoples, which

Cosmas would hardly have allowed.

Vat. MS. has at the end of bk. vii.

,,
contains
2

merely a mistake for

ya

, 5 .
work

tovs

os

ets

p6s
iv.

vyav.

'
is

.^

The

/;?

262 as the author of a book called

The

ypav

erasure of a shorter name.

;
MS. at

but that

Smyrna
but the

entitles

the fragments

it

name

written over an

Some have

referred the

to

oos,

Pappus,

who

is

mentioned by Suidas

yyovs
ets

Xpoyaa

... $ , /^;?

INTRODUCTION

For such details of his life as are known we are entirely dependent on hints gleaned from his book and from that we learn that he was a native of Egypt, probably of Alexandria, and in early life a merchant. In that capacity he travelled far and wide, visiting Ceylon\ the Sinaitic Peninsula and Ethiopia. He was at Adulis^ in Justin's reign at the time when the
:

Axumite king

Ellatzbaas,
(circ.

was preparing
A.D.).

to invade the country


in
life

of the Homeritae

525

Later

he settled

in

Alexandria, developed indigestion, ophthalmia and various other

and probably became a monk The last statement again rests solely on the authority of the Laurentian MS., which calls him but it seems intrinsically probable, and a parallel instance of a merchant turning monk can be adduced from the second book, where Cosmas mentions a friend, Menas by name, who may perhaps have set him the precedent by
ills,
^.
;

turning

monk

at

Rhaithou.
or not
Christian.

One

thing at least

is

only too evident,


others on which

that whether

monk

Cosmas was a
It is

Christian and a most


all

uncompromising
likely to regret.
fail

the fact of

he prided himself, and the one point which his readers are most

Indeed the most pious of readers could hardly


interesting

to reflect

how much more

,
^

for all his piety would have been, had his zeal been less. there is grave doubt whether his Christianity was orthodox.

and Yet

useful his

book

tovs ev

,
But the
it.

and
list

used by Moses of Khorene as

one of his geographical authorities.

does not agree with that which

Cosmas gives and

there seems no reason for the identification.

Vincent {Navigation of the Ancients, i. p. iii and n. 480) expresses a doubt whether Cosmas had ever sailed l)eyond Bab-el- Mandeb, though he admits that he

mentions Socotra as though he had seen

Others too

(e.g.

Tennent and Lassen)


all his
:

have doubted whether he ever reached India or Ceylon, and thought he got
information about the latter from Sopatrus
their
^
'^

who

is

mentioned

in the

Xlth book

but

arguments are not very conclusive and good authorities


Probably he like Scholasticus took ship at Adulis.

(e.g.

Yule) disagree.

According

to

D. T. Schermann (" Propheten und Apostellegenden," Harnack's


3,

Texte tend Untersuchtmgen, Bd. 31, Heft


ascribes the tract

1907, p. 144)
to

on the Apostles generally attributed


life

Dorotheus

Codex Athous Iviron 60 to Cosmas IndiDorotheus.

copleustes and in the introductory

That makes him bishop of Tyre


at

by Cosmas himself.
I

^,

gives Cosmas'

name

in place of that of

in the
it

days of Diocletian and martyr under Julian


is

which

is

absurd, as

quite inconsistent with the details given


INTRODUCTION
Croze
^

denounced him as a Nestorian on the internal In it Cosmas confesses evidence furnished by the Topography. himself a pupil of Patricius. Theodore of Mopsuestia and Diodorus of Tarsus, and a friend of Thomas of Edessa, who were all Nestorians, and many of his ideas were borrowed from

De La

them-.

Again

in his

denunciation of pestilent heretics he omits

the Nestorians; and,

when speaking

of Christ^ and the Incar-

nation of the Word, he uses Nestorian

modes of expression.
in

McCrindle adds another argument, that he speaks

glowing

terms of the growth of the church in the east, which was due to But he raises a doubt as to Cosmas' Nestorian missionary zeal.
Nestorianism on the strength of one and only one passage
"

that in which

Cosmas addresses Mary

as the

Mother of God

If that (313 C), an expression abhorrent to the Nestorians." is the only plea of defence, Cosmas, I fear, must stand convicted,

words^ Monk, heretic, or both, at any rate he took to writing books, The rest are known of which the Topography alone survives. only by name and such description as Cosmas himself gives when mentioning them. Two of them, the Delineation or Image
as the best MS. omits those

of the Universe

of the artificial sphere of the Pagans, and a treatise thereon addressed to the most pious Deacon Homologus, and the Commentary on the Song

and of the

Stellar Motion^

made

in imitation

of Songs^^

may

be passed over without further mention and witha real and irreparable loss to students of ancient

out regret: but the third, a work on geography addressed to one

Constantinus,

is

geography and indeed to the world in general. In it he described "all the earth, beyond the Ocean and this side of it, and all lands; and the southern parts from Alexandria to the south sea, namely the Nile and its neighbourhood, and the nations of all Egypt, and of Ethiopia; besides, the Arabian Gulf and its neighbour^

Hist,

2 e.g. in ^ e.g.
*

du Christ, des Iiides, i. pp. 40 book v. pp. 252 6 he insists

56.
to

he invariably attaches

;?

that only four

J.

Kennedy ("The Child Krishna,


1907, p. 959) refers to

Christianity," etc

Psahns apply to Christ.


KUpios to
,

and
as

/.

Journal of

the

Royal

Asiatic Soc.^ Oct.

Cosmas

"the great Nestorian

traveller

and monk."
''

Some have

attributed to

him

also an

"Explanation of the Psalms," but as

I shall

presently show, there seems no reason for attributing such a

work

to him.

INTRODUCTION
hood, and the nations again as far as the Ocean there
places and the nations in
as
;

the land between the river and the gulf, and the cities
it."

and also and the


and

The book

is

much

to be regretted,

Cosmas had

travelled over a great part of the

ground

where he was not bound to a theological theory, his enquiring mind and his faculties as a raconteur could hardly fail to have produced a book of travels that would bear comIt is possible that the so-called parison even with Herodotus. eleventh book of the Topography, the book on Ceylon, is really an extract from this work. There is little doubt that it is not
here,

part of the Topography, as the best MS. omits

MS. states clearly that

it

is

Whether
pamphlet,

it,

and the Sinaitic


?}?
is

it it

belongs to his geographical work or


at

a separate

any

rate gives

some idea of what


is,

that

work must

have been\

Of what
^

his existing
as

work^
it

it

would require a universal


it

The Topography
It at first

we now have

is

not in the state in which

was

originally

edited.

consisted only of five books addressed to a certain Pamphilus.

Then

books

VI. to X. v^^ere

produced separately
signs, as I shall

to explain difficulties felt

by readers and

answer attacks.

it was not Cosmas himself who collected ihem and published them as a whole: and possibly part of book X. which is not found in V was added by the editor. Books xi. and Xll. have little or no connection with the rest of the work, and would seem to have been added

There are

endeavour to show

later, that

from among Cosmas' loose papers, or possibly taken from his other works.
^

The
at

date of the book

is

tolerably certain, though the exact year of


it

its

publication

cannot be fixed.

In the second book Cosmas says

is

25 years more or less since he

the Ilomeritae.

there when Elesbaas was preparing for his expedition against That expedition probably took place in 525 a.d. (cp. Noldeke, Tabari, p. 188), though some (e.g. McCrindle and Beazley) date it 522 and others (e.g. Muir, Life of Mahomet) 523. Again at the beginning of the sixth book Cosmas refers to two

was

Axum, and he was

eclipses in the present indiction, giving the dates as

Mechir 12 and Mesori 24: these

Krall identifies with the eclipses of 6 Feb. 547 and 17 Aug. 547 {Sitzungsb. der k. Akad. zu Wien, cxxi.). The book would therefore be written about the middle of the
sixth century.

Montfaucon argues that as he


books, to Timothy the younger as

refers in

book

x.,

which

is

one of the additional


to

rereXeuTT^/cws,

which he takes
at

dead," and to Theodosius of Alexandria as an exile

Constantinople,

mean "lately when the first

died in 535 a.d., and the latter was exiled in 536, Cosmas must have completed the
original

Topography before that date and already have begun to make additions.

therefore assumes that the date in the second


edition

book was
But

was published

(cp. also

Beazley

i.

p. 279).

to the eclipses should also

have been added.

Besides Theodosius lived an exile

567 or 568, and an indefinite phrase like

^
it is

He

altered

when

a collected

unlikely that the reference


till

cannot be too closely

"

INTRODUCTION
or definition.

specialist to give a clear idea

indescribable medley,

the fact that while

how indescribable may Cosmas himself called it a


title

an be inferred from
is

The book

Christian Topo-

graphy

an

excellent
to

as

it

cannot possibly convey any

anybody Photius, for lack of a sufficiently comprehensive term, drew a bow at a venture and defined it as a Commentary on the Octateuch. One can hardly deny that the work might as well be called that as anything else, since Cosmas quotes and comments on a considerable portion of the Octateuch. That however was not the main object of his work. His intention was to refute the theory that the earth was round, and to prove that Moses' tabernacle in the wilderness was a model of
particular

meaning

the universe^

The

earth he reiterates

is

flat surface, its

length
it,

twice

its

breadth^ like the table of Shewbread, and above


is

over the visible firmament,

a second story consisting of the

two heavens =\ supported by walls at the end of the earth and "glued" to it. That was what the division of the Tabernacle into two parts by the veil signified'*. This quaint idea had not
even the merit of being original several grave fathers of the church had interpreted Paul's mystical words that the Tabernacle
:

and its contents were vrrohei'y^aTa and (Hebrews ix. 23, 24) to mean that it was a model of the earth, and consequently had imagined that they were living in just
such an excentrically shaped world as Cosmas described.
It

was probably Theodore of Mopsuestia^ that he mainly followed


pressed.

Nor need

bishop

a successor

the title "bishop of Alexandria" mean that he was still legally was appointed in 538 as it would be the readiest way of dis-

tinguishing
^

him from other Theodosii even

after that date.

It is

noticeable that both the shape of the world and the comparison to a place

of worship were old Egyptian traditions.


of the world as

known

to the Egyptians.
its

hollow plane, longer than


like an

width.

"The (Egyptian) temple was built in likeness The earth as they believed was a flat and The sky according to some extended overhead
to others, like a
2 ed. p. 90).

immense

iron ceiling,

and according
tr.

(Maspero,

Manual

of Egypt. Arch.,

Edwards,

It is

huge shallow vault improbable how-

ever that Cosmas, though a resident in Egypt, was influenced by profane art.
^ ^

Cp. Theodore of Mopsuestia. For two heavens cp. the Coptic


p. 51).
it

treatise

on the Mysteries 0/ the Creek Letters

(ed.

ilebbelynck,
^

lie compares

too to Noah's ark.

Cp. John Philoponus,

On

Creation-, ill. 9.

INTRODUCTION
in

7
:

his description

as

in

his

interpretations of Scripture

but

others,

Diodorus of Tarsus

\ for instance, Severianus-^ of

Gabala

and Eusebius, regarded earth and heaven as a kind of twostoried house Cosmas however was apparently the first, and one hopes the only person to collect and develop into a system the strange cosmographical ideas which are hinted at in early theologians. He in all seriousness tries to produce an entire cosmic system based on the words of the " great cosmographer
^.

Moses," and not content with defining the shape, size and position
of the earth, the heavens above the earth and the waters below
the earth

and

above

if* too, for

that matter

all

come

in for a

share of his attention.

The

size of the sun, its nightly disappearrises

ance and revolution round a huge mountain' which

where up
as

in the north*^

someout of the middle of nowhere presumably,


its

Cosmas does not


in

define

precise position

the

eclipses of

sun and moon, the stars and their courses are

all

duly registered

and explained

accordance with a

flat

world and Holy Writ.

Even the
^

location of the terrestial paradise presented no difficulty

Cp. the summary of his book


Orations on Creation^ especially no.
3.

in Photius

Codex

223.

On

Geography,

the cosmographical opinions of the Fathers cp. Beazley, Dawn of Modern i. part V. Beazley refers to Letronne, " Opinions Cosmographiques des
(tr.

Erdkiinde

Peres" ^Rev. des deux Mondes, March 15, 1834, p. 601); Marinelli bei den Kirchen-Vdtern, Santaren, Essai sur Cosmographie,

Neumann),
i.

vol.

pp. 314,

315; Penkl, Geschichte der Erdkunde, pp. 85 90; Charton, Voyageurs Anciens et Mod.', and F. Denis, Le Monde Enchante. He also gives the following references to the
Fathers: Lactantius, Inst. Div.
iii.

Homily XIV. on Hebrews;


(e.g.
I.

for the

24; Augustine, De civ. Dei,xwi. 9; Chrysostom, comparison of the world to a tent or tabernacle and

other points, Diodorus (ed. Migne),


4j 5> II 3>

1562 1580;
2, 4, 5
;

Severianus,

Orations on Creation

4 on the firmament; in.

against a round world); Procopius

of Gaza,

On

Genesis; Athanasius, Contra Gentes


(e.g.

Caesarius, Dial.

i.

for

almost

all

Cosmas' theories

the length of the earth, the mountain behind which the sun sets,

Theodore of Mopsuestia in John Philoponus, i. 16, 17, ni. Hexaem. ni. 9; Cyril, Hieros. Catech. ix. 76; Eusebius, Comjnentaty on Isaiah {Col. Nov. Pair. u. 511 B) Avitus, On the Creation, which is almost the same as Cosmas on Paradise.
9,

the duties of the angels),

10; Basil,

*
^

Cp. Ambrose on Gen.


This also
is

ii.

5.

parallel to the ancient

Egyptian

belief,

and

is

found

in

Theodore of

Mopsuestia.

For this mountain (89 c d) cp. the Ravenna Geographer, and Aethimus ch. 21, where it is placed in the M^est. According to Beazley it is an Indian conception continued by the Arabic geographers.

INTRODUCTION
It

to him.
this

lay to the east

beyond the ocean which

encircles

world
Sir

H. Yule not inaptly compared Cosmas' two-storied world with its rounded top to " one of those huge receptacles in which female travellers of our day carry their dresses." And one can
hardly help thinking

how

curiously similar

it

is

to Rossetti's

Only Rossetti made a grave picture of the Blessed Damozel. mistake about his angels, and placed them, if we may believe our author, in the wrong story. Cosmas indeed seems to have
had a wonderfully poor opinion of the angels, and gives as the reason for the six days of creation that the deity, who could just as easily have accomplished it in one, took six days about it for the angels' sake, as their weak intelligence would not otherwise have grasped the mechanism of the thing. Moreover, he argues
at great length, they are confined to this lower terrestial story,

and are for ever running up and down a Jacob's ladder with a door at the top, through which they are not allowed to pass till we lords and ladies of creation have wiped out mother Eve's little peccadilloes and supplied them with the key. Their one
recreation or

employment

is

the

management of
"

a star apiece^:
in
"

and yet they are quite contented with keen air that blows between the worlds

their position

the

perhaps, one

cannot

help thinking, by reason of their aforesaid weakness of intellect.

Though we who have


but
little

inherited the

wisdom

of the ages have

right

to laugh at scientific pioneers,


;

however wrong

their conclusions

can hardly, except as a


the

may have been still theories such as these as Mr Beazley has justly observed, appeal to us monument of unconscious humour. Unconscious
certainly

humour

was

to

Cosmas these

ideas were

the

serious scientific side of his book,


faith.

and the very touchstone of


in

He

is

never tired of inveighing against those obstinate


a round world and the

wrong-headed pagans who believe

This was the prevalent opinion among theologians, though Photius in his epitome
(iii.

of Philostorgius
jecture.

p. lo),

who made

the

same

assertion, admits that

it

is

pure con-

Philostorgius also and Severian {Or. v. 6) agree with

Cosmas

in

making the

four rivers of Paradise run under the earth

and reappear

in the Nile,

Euphrates, Tigris

and Pison.
'^

This duty

is

also assigned to

them by Theodore of Mopsuestia.

INTRODUCTION

existence of Antipodes \ whose inhabitants must "incessantly stand on their head " and submit to the curiously uncanny

Line upon line and verse upon verse of Holy Writ is hurled at his opponents with wearisome iteration-: and, as if that were not sufficient, he adduces
sensation of rain raining upwards.

a whole book of quotations from the Fathers in support of his

system, a fortunate accident which has preserved almost


survives of the Greek text of Athanasius' Festal Letters.

all

that

Yet when he can momentarily get free from the obsession of his the " great cosmographer Moses " his King Charles' head work is full of the most miscellaneous interest and fortunately he was of a discursive mind and frequently gave way to digressions, reminiscences, and anecdotes.

Theologians have unearthed other fragments of

lost texts of

the Fathers besides those oi h.x.\\d.x\diuw^' Festal Letters, information

about the date of the Nativity, the


icity of the

rites

of baptism, the canon-

Catholic Epistles according to the various Churches

and

authorities,

and the spot where the passage of the Red Sea

took place.

Interesting details too are given as to the spread of

Christianity in Cosmas' day.


is

The ordinary layman

at

any

rate

somewhat surprised

to find that in the sixth century churches

and missionaries were at work from France and Spain in the west to India and Ceylon in the east, as well as across the whole of North Africa and Arabia, and still more surprised to find Persia
as the missionizing centre for the east.
tion of the MSS.

Nor has

a fresh examina-

been utterly unrewarded, as

it

has added two

other passages of

some

little

interest to theologians,

another

small quotation from the Athanasian Letters and a scholion


referring to the spuriousness of the Gospel of Infancy (p. 144)1

Most of the Fathers objected


Dei, xvi.
9.

to the

Antipodes on one score or another, cp.

Lactantius, Inst. Div. in. 24;

Chrysostom, Homily

XIV. on

Hebreivs\ Augustine,

De

civ.
^

Many Pagans

agreed with them,


is

e.g. Pliny,

N.H.

il.

d^,.

The

value and applicability of such quotations

well illustrated by the fact that

Maundeville ch. xvil.uses precisely the same text (suspendi terram ex nichilo) to prove
the existence of the Antipodes as

Cosmas

several times (e.g. pp. 79,

183) uses to

disprove
^

it.

It is

perhaps worth noting that Cosmas, though he seems to use the Sept. version

of the O.T., once refers to Theodotion's version (93 b). It is therefore possible that he may preserve some variants taken from the unusual versions.

INTRODUCTION
and geographers the man who knew the source of the Blue Nile centuries before it was " discovered " in quite modern times, who first noticed the Aramaic inscriptions on the rocks in the Wady Mokatteb, and who recorded incidents of voyages in eastern seas and travels across eastern lands as early as the sixth century is no unimportant figure. One cannot indeed claim for him the honour of being the first or the sole early authority on the lands he visited, as we have scattered references to others who, as merchants or ambassadors, traversed much the same ground but, if not the first, he is one of the fullest and most reliable. A very close parallel to Cosmas' travels is found in the Pseudo-Palladius or Ambrosius, De BracJimanorum. There the author recounts that his informant, one Scholasticus, Shipping himself with certaine Merchants in the Red Sea, first came to the Towne of the Adulites, or the bay Adulicus, after that to the promontory Aromata, and a mart of the Troglodytes, and hence to places of the Assumites, and many days after to Muziris the mart of all India on this side Ganges, and having stayed a while there he passed over to the ile Taprobane^" lambulus too, a merchant, according to the account in Diodorus Siculus (bk. . 55), visited the coast of Ethiopia^, was taken prisoner and set adrift in a boat as a purificatory offering. He reached Ceylon, and after seven years was turned out of the country as a knave and went to India but for all the reliable information he gives one about the countries he visited, he might as well have gone to the mountains of the moon. Strabo (XV. 4) mentions merchants of his day, unlettered men, like Cosmas according to his own confession, who sailed from Egypt to India by the Nile and Arabian Gulf. Pliny too speaks of merchants visiting Ceylon in Claudius' reign {N.H. VI. 24); and Ammianus Marcellinus (xxii. 7) of a mercantile treaty between the Romans and the people of Ceylon while Julian was Emperor.
travellers
:

Among

'*

Purchas, His Pilgriines (ed. Hakluyt Soc.


It is

i.

240).
as, after Caracalla's

probable that Cosmas too took ship at AduHs,


in

massacre

at

Alexandria

215 a.d. put an end to direct trade with India, trade was transferred

partly to Adulis, partly to the Persian Gulf (cp. J.

Kennedy, yoiirn. of Royal As.

Soc.

1907. p 953)

INTRODUCTION

For Ethiopia again we have a few fragments of the account of Nonnosus, a contemporary of Cosmas, who was sent by Justinian (circ. 535) on an embassy to Caicus, ruler of the Saracens, and thence on to Elesbaas at Axum (cp. Photius and also the anonymous Periplns maris Erythaei. Cod. 3) But then the narratives of Scholasticus and lambulus are
;

little

better than fairy talcs, and second-hand fairy tales to boot,


is

while Nonnosus' work

lost

save for a few insignificant fragleft

no accounts behind themV In Cosmas' case, on the other hand, though his separate geographical treatise is lost, there remain at any rate a whole book on Ceylon, the celebrated inscriptions of Adulis, which with the notes added by Cosmas give much information on Abyssinia, and other scattered passages most regretably buried
ments, and Strabo's merchants probably
in a

dreary waste of theological sand^


regret,

Perhaps however we must not give way too much to


for

Cosmas' monasticism

may have

been as fortunate an accident

as
for

Marco

and imprisonment by the Genoese, but which he would probably have gone down into the grave
Polo's capture
It is
;

without recording his experiences.


virtue

not the only possible

point of comparison between the two

they possess at least one

and a certain number of descriptions in common. Their common virtue is a rare one in travellers veracity^: the words of Marco Polo's preface: "Some things indeed there be therein which he beheld not but these he heard from men of credit and veracity. And we shall set down things seen as seen, and things heard as heard only, so that no jot of falsehood may mar the truth of our Book, and that all who read it or hear it read may put full faith in the truth of all its contents," apply as well to the geographical and anecdotal part of Cosmas' book as to

journeys in

same lands as Cosmas. He too visited Axum in Zoscales' reign (circ. 77 89 A.D.) and voyaged as far south along the coast of Africa as Rhapta; and had crossed to Western India by the monsoon. Like Cosmas he was a Greek-speaking
the

The author much

of the Periplns maris Erythaei however has

left

an account of his

inhabitant
^

of,

or settler in, Egypt.

There are
to us.

too, as Beazley points out, the earliest Christian

down
^

Photius says unjustly "

. ^' - ,. ,
'^

maps which have come

12
his

INTRODUCTION
own.

have had doubts of Cosmas' veracity, pointing to such an unimportant detail as the mention of a seal, an animal by no means common in tropical seas. But, apart

Some,

believe,

from the

fact that the first cousin of a seal

may

be found floating

about the Red Sea answering to the name of a "dugong," a sixth


century traveller
ness.

who

states quite openly that he has never seen

a single unicorn requires no further testimony to his truthful-

To be

sure he gives a picture and description of one after

the pattern of four brazen statues which he had seen on the


turrets of the king's palace in

Ethiopia, but that was natural

enough in an age when belief in unicorns was universal. Messer Marco was wiser in his generation, and knew that the unicorn was none other than the rhinoceros, " a passing ugly beast to look upon, and not in the least like that which stories tell of as being caught in the lap of a virgin." Cosmas had seen a rhinoceros in Ethiopia "standing at a safe distance," but had
failed

to

trace

the connection, probably because

the

statues

represented the beast under the form of which stories

tell.

He

and Polo share too descriptions of the giraffe, of the musk-deer, of the hippopotamus all at least that either of them had ever seen of a hippopotamus, which was nothing more than one of its teeth, of coconut milk, which both seem to have overestimated, and of the king of Ceylon's giant ruby, the Kohinoor of early days. Only in Cosmas, and according to Yule in a Chinese historian of the next century, the gem is placed on the top of a pagoda, where " it shines from afar especially when the sun lights upon it, a spectacle glorious and beyond compare." Cosmas however is speaking from hearsay so, if there is any exaggeration as regards the size and splendour of that ruby, one cannot hold him guilty of it. It would surely be unfair to charge him with his informants' lack of veracity provided that he sets down fairly "things seen as seen, and things heard as heard"; and that is his invariable practice. If that distinction be borne in mind, it will, I think, be found that what he records as his own experiences are facts demonstrably true or at any rate intrinsically probable. For the stories reported from the mouths of friends or natives unfortunately the same cannot be said generally indeed

INTRODUCTION
"they are
just the rude tales that
in

13

one hears

sadness or mirth,
;

the records of wandering years

and scant

is

their worth."

That however is little to be regretted as it contributes some few amusing passages in a work which is sadly in need of them. Besides Cosmas is at his best in such passages and proves so that even the that he had considerable narrative ability
:

ordinary Gallio,

who

cares not a jot for a sentence or a half


little

page more or
exactness
in

less

of the Church Fathers and very

for

regard to the geography of Abyssinia in the fourth

century, will find

much

to interest

and more

to

amuse him

in

Cosmas' travel-sketches. Here for instance is a description of a voyage somewhere towards Zanzibar which bears a strange resemblance to a passage in Coleridge's Ancient Mariner. "There was," says Cosmas,
"

much tempestuous wind


"And now

in the place,"

the Storm-blast

came and he

was tyrannous and strong,


he struck with his o'ertaking wings

"And on

our right as
call

which they

"At

,
if it

and chased us south along."

we entered we saw

a flock of birds flying,

the albatross,"
it

length did cross an Albatross,

thorough the fog

came.
soul

As

had been a Christian


hailed
it

we
It

in

God's name."

was not however the bird that Cosmas' fellow-passengers hailed in God's name, but the helmsman to " put her about, and sail to the left up the bay, for fear we get swept away by the stream and carried into the Ocean and perish." With the usual timidity of old-world sailors they had no desire whatsoever to be
"the
first

that ever burst

into that silent sea."

They were apparently

successful in avoiding that disaster,

and as they retired "the albatross did follow for a great distance, which showed that we were near the Ocean." Then there are curious tales of bartering under difficulties

14

INTRODUCTION
neither party

when
ago,

knew

the other's tongue

"

and there was a

sad lack of interpreters"; of

how

Sopatrus, his friend of 35 years

was set on an elephant and drummed in honour through town by the king of Ceylon for his ready wit in proving the the

superiority of the

Roman Emperor

over the Persian King of

Kings by a comparison of their respective coins^; and of how he himself and his friend Menas set out at the request of the king of Axum with notebook in hand, like a pair of modern archaeological tourists, to copy the Ptolemaic inscription which he records. Quaintest of all is the yarn about the dyp6ov(;, the yak apparently, about which " they say that if it catches its tail in the fork of a' tree, it never lies down, but stands there unwilling After a while come the natives and cut to lose a hair of its tail. off its tail, and then it runs and leaves its tail behind it." Again there are amusing sidelights on the methods of old-world science. We have a delightful picture of a grave father abbot, Stephen of Antioch, "a true Christian and one who may be numbered among
the perfect, thoroughly versed in lunar calculations, according,

mark you,
Scriptures,
eclipses,"

to the

system we have
his

laid

down

following the

Holy

Antioch and Constantinople to calculate the size of the sun; and of Cosmas himself triumphally brandishing a round ball on the end of a pin in the face of the profane and godless persons who declared that a small
at

and able measuring

to foretell with ease both solar

and lunar

shadow

body illumined by a larger body casts a conical shadow: "and to tell you the plain and honest truth they went away with their mouths open and their eyes dejectedly cast down."
circular

One cannot help admiring the enthusiastic the man and yet with it all there is the narrow
spirit of the

inquisitiveness of

bigoted monastic

"Carved on the back of the throne we (he is speaking of himself and Menas examining the throne near the Ptolemaic inscription) found Herakles and Hermes. And my good friend and companion Menas said that Herakles was the symbol of might and Hermes of wealth. But I remembered the Acts and to the latter said him nay, remarking that Hermes For so it is should rather be taken for the symbol of speech.
dark ages.
^

This

may have been an

old

traveller's

yarn

cp.

Pliny,

JVM

Y{.

24 and

Solinus 56.

INTRODUCTION
written
in

15

the Acts

'

They

called

Barnabas Zeus, but Paul

Hermes, because he was the chief speaker.'" If only Menas had been able to convince him that " they didn't know everyBut it would have been difficult to thin' down in Judee"! he was obviously " a man addicted to opinions convince him which I know not whether hee did holde more strangely or
:

strongly."

MSS. AND Textual Criticism.


The
MSS. of an author so

of readers as

Cosmas
all

are,

wide circle as one would expect, but few indeed


little

likely to attract a

only three at

complete MSS. are known to

exist.

Of

these

the oldest, and, in

my

opinion, the best,

is

V( Vat.
It

Gr. 699), an

uncial MS. of the eighth or ninth^ century.


first

contains only the


is

ten books, and, as the index of books, which

the beginning by the


as the tenth book,
it

same hand

obviously never contained any more.

which partially corresponds but it omits the introductory to the second prologue of L prayer, first prologue and beginning of the second prologue
the index
it

begins with a

which are found

in

and Montfaucon's

The
leaves

)) {^
208 c
(eV

192 C

{) {}
yfj)
I

following passages are

ovv)

212 A

201

224 C 384 C
in a

, () ) ( ()
;

written at

as the text, only extends as far

After

edition.

now missing owing

to loss of

Several leaves were misplaced


believe,

{
A

after

f.

44,

after f 47, 221


f.

)
I

after

54,
f.

D and 381 D

after

108.

when

first

collated the MS.,

but have,

now been

restored to their original position.

Accents except
criticus as

very few cases are not by the original

hand, but by the corrector,

who

is

referred to in the apparatus

VI

Occasionally a later hand or later hands have


illegible passages,

altered
rectly.
^

words or inked over

not always cor-

Kondakoff, Hist, de Part Byz.

I.

pp. 136

151

argues for the seventh to eighth

century; Unger, Byz. Kimstgesch. for the tenth.


plate 24 dates
it

New

Palaeographical Soc.

pt.

n.

as ninth century.


i6

INTRODUCTION
The whole work
is

magnificently illustrated with illuminations

which are generally held, except by Kondakoff, to be close copies There is much to be said for the view of an antique original. that Cosmas was his own artist, as some of them portray subjects with which any chance monastic artist would not have been The first picture in V (f 12) for instance is one which familiar. has no connection with the text, and depicts an antelope between two banana trees. At any rate the artist must have worked

drawing such pictures as the chair and pillar with inscriptions seen by Cosmas at Adulis and Cosmas apparently added the descriptive headings round and
under Cosmas' direction
in
:

within the rim of the pictures.


native words
(e.g.

That

is

proved by the use of


the mention

.6 Ar.

}^

a banana) and

of the
f.

little
I

known

port of Adulis, Gabaza, in the picture on

have however in most cases omitted these pictureheadings as they are generally of no value, and belong rather to a work on the illustrations such as that which Prof. Stornaiolo
I2\
is

producing than to an edition of the


Reproductions of pictures from

text.

V may
III.

be found

in Vincent's

Navigation and Commerce of the Ancients (the Adulis monument);


Garrucci, Storia delta arte Crist.
theological series chiefly from the
plates 142

153

(a long

fifth

book)

Kondakoff, Hist,
Lateran. pariet.

de Part Byz.
tab. VI.;

I.

pp. 136

151; N. Alemanni,

De

D'Agincourt, Storia

deW
pt.

arte, Picture, tav. 34,


II.

and the

Nezv

alaeographical Society,
no.

p.

24.

S=
It is

II

86 of the Greek

MSS. in

the Monastery of St
Cat.

Katherine at

Mt

Sinai (Gardthausen,

Cod.

Sin.

p.

241).

a folio of 211 leaves written in the eleventh century.

Like

it

contained twelve books, but


differs

is

now

breaking off at the words

and L. On f. prologue or first prologue as L and Montfaucon call on f. 2 is the index of the twelve books
both from

The beginning

deficient at the end,


C).

). ^
as in
in

Then follows the V. At the end of


it

beginning
the
fifth

^
it

book, the end that


is

then
is

is

the

to say of the original work,

has a prayer which

omitted

L, though in other respects

and S are very closely con-

nected.

17

INTRODUCTION
The following leaves are missing One page after fol. 5, which ends
begins Aopoc
a.
fol.

Two

pages after

41,

TrepiypaTTTOuv (132 C) to eV

Two more after fol. 69 And one after fol. 103 Like L and V it is profusely
cally the
in

(,

(
at
Tjj

(57 A), while

fol.

causing the omission of


yfj

^ev- (136

C).

end of book
6

249 A

illuminated, containing practi-

,
is

IV.).

252 ).

same

illustrations as L.

few of these are reproduced


vol.
I.

Kondakoff, Histoire de Part. Byz.,


Laurentiait Pint. IX. 28.

136

foil, vol.

II.

plate
59).

i.

(cf also his Putesestvie na Sinai, pp. 137

143, plates 39
MS. (L)
:

numbered Plut. IX. cod. 28 in the Laurentian Library at Florence and is written in a minuscule hand of the eleventh century. This was the MS. from which Montfaucon edited his edition with only occasional glances at V, and so it contains in the main outlines for to strict exactness Montfaucon's edition can at any rate

The Laurentian

make no

claim

the text as there printed.


title

It

omits the

summary

of contents and begins with the

(Migne 52) in red. At the place where V begins the two texts do not fit exactly, L having a much shorter and to me untranslatable version of the first thirteen yap It runs lines of page 56.
:

Ps.

.
In

ypa
Where

//////

have indicated a space the top corner of the page containing some four letters has been cut off: but it seems impossible to find any word of that length which would
connect the sentence.

for

as in

several transpositions
after
fol.

taken place.

The order
ol iv Trj

and losses of pages have $6 4 which ends at


57

)
fol.

should be
13

^6
57

23

fol.

20

eV iv

fol.

fol.

19

6C
The
rest of

C.

(a mistake
find.

04

D.

64

could not

fol.
fol.

yap 6$ A fol. 1 8 end of book I, 8o 24 beginning of book II. fol. 29


14

.
2

w.

i8
fol. 5 r^pa<^riv

INTRODUCTION
67 ovBevl 8o A
is

fol.

12

Bia-

92

A.

Then from
After

fol.

30 on.
a leaf or more missing, as Montfaucon

fol.

104 there

has indicated by a row of dots on page 200 D. Unfortunately V too is deficient here and S only partially fills the gap, so that one

cannot
iydo

tell

exactly

how much
ovB^

is

missing

but the next six lines


as
fol.

are inserted

by Montfaucon,

105

begins with

.
is

Shortly after this there


containing containing
(2
1

another transposition

(204 d)

6 A)

^ <;

fols.

108

(236 c) and (2i6 A)

122 123 30
1

should

change places. Between fols. 139 and 140 and 233 234 there are gaps on pages 249 A and 393 which are however filled by V. L like V and S is elaborately illustrated, though the illuminations are not so finely executed as those of V. The MS. has been corrected throughout by another hand and in most cases where corrections occur, the first hand of L
;

agrees with

and S:
rfj

e.g.

313

VSL, where and V^ proposes another solution, adding


TriareL

? ... U ^
corrects
after

to e^eiv

221 C ov SoKei
the last two words to

elvai

Ll VL^S, 200 D These are rather favourable specimens of the work of the and and second hand, as in the first and last cases might well be confused in an uncial hand, and may come from the same and in the second case
words occurring
suspicious changes of bad

* .

VSL\ v/here

L^ alters

and
MSS.

may

well be

not a careful writer (cp. a similar instance, 225


rarely L^ agrees with

VL^), or even with V^

'^
'
just below.

Generally

its

corrections are rather

grammar

to good, e.g.

197 D, where the

Nom.
c).

^,
he

of the other
is

due

to forgetfulness

on Cosmas'

part, as

Much more
L,

(e.g.

297 D

(e.g.

269 A

V,

as

Where V stands alone, both here and in the none were used by the original scribe of V.
^

j4p/>. criL, I

generally omit accents,

INTRODUCTION
Par. Snppl. Gr. 844
the pictures in L.
Phillips 2581.
(s.

19

XVIII.) consists of copies of

some of

By

the kindness of Monsieur de Ricci,


in the Phillips library at

who

informed

me of a copy of L

Cheltenham,

and of Monsieur H. Omont, to whom he applied for information about it, I am enabled to quote the latter's description of it, though I have not myself seen the MS.
"

Cosmae

Indicopleustae Topographia Christiana.


Plut.
'

Die 21

junii 1682.
i
:

28 Bibl. Laurent. Florent.


in theolog.
I.

Au bas du fol. Nesselii Bibl. Caes. XVI I^ s. Pap. petit in-4 (sans valeur).
Ce
on
fol.

p.

326

ss.'

MS. a la reliure en velin des MSS. de Meerman."


Gr. 2426 (Hainault Reg. 2733) (s. XVI.) contains 12 foil. "Cosmae Indicopleustae excerpta de Taprobane,"
la

Paris
1

copied by Nicholas de

Torre.

The

excerpts are from book XL,

and consist of the whole of that book as far as (449 A), except the section on the seal, dolphin and tortoise, and the list of Indian towns (445 D 446 B). The text is handled freely, and seems, so far as one can judge from Strzygowski's specimens of

the

Smyrna
I

MS., to

resemble closely that manuscript.

As

specimen

have given the readings of the early part of book XL, the sections on the beasts etc., in full, but have not continued to do so afterwards, as the variants are perfectly worthless. It was
copied by Nicholas de la Torre possibly from the archetype of Z,

though

it

contains more of the eleventh book than Z.

= Smyrna
Kerameus
in his

8.

catalogue of the

<.
...

no.

48

e/9

/,

"

09 eXaXrjae irepl

<;
The

^ /,. ^ ',
This MS.
is

described by Papadopouloslibrary (1877) p. 32,

Smyrna

g6

yevov^

iv

TiaXaia

/.

does not mention the Cosmas, but Strzygowski has published a lengthy description of the MS. in the Byzantinisches

He

Archiv

2 (1899).
is

Cosmas

over a shorter erasure.

^,
pp. 156

part which contains the selections from


it

192, and

bears the

title
is
it

but the

name Maximus

added

later

Strzygowski describes

as merely a

collection of pictures, with short passages of text attached to

^ . ,9 . ^ , , ?
20

INTRODUCTION
is,

them

and even what text there


158

is

not as a rule faithfully

copied but shortened.


fols.

159,

The passages Migne 93 C

it

contains are:

g6

yap

fols.

irpoeLiretv

fols.

169, . 224 ^ ^ 184 19^) book XL except


168

/i

the sections on the

which appear

in the first

part of the MS., containing the

(pp. 125, 126, 135, 136).

Strzygowski dates it as near iiooA.D. and suggests that it may be derived from the Sinaitic MS. If we may judge from

the passages quoted by him, the text has been cut

down and

shortened with the greatest freedom.


the MS.

have not myself seen


there
is

W=
Kollar.

Vienna Theol.
is is

9.

At Vienna
cod. Theol. 9

another fraga

ment which
It

described by Lambecius and more carefully by

numbered
"
f.

(olim 272), and

is

quarto volume

mediocriter antiquus," brought by A. Busbeck

from Constantinople,
heading

^ ,' ) ^ ^
.
Then
follows

, .

28

The Cosmas

text begins with the

XejovTc^
Be

. 6C

72

adding
title

On

fol.

32

it

resumes with the


yG A

80 A

84 A

yy

followed

by

.
6

^
^
and on

6
fol.

) ...

^.

33^

The Cosmas
to the

selections

end on
It

end of the page.

34 with 337 seems to be copied from S or


fol.

more probably from a MS. closely similar to S. A number of MSS. of the Psalter and of the Gospels prefix sections from the fifth book of Cosmas as catenae. Of these I have examined several.
R'^= Vat. Gr. 363 (s. X.) fol. i, catena on Matthew. beginning has been lost what remains is
:

['\

The

. .
fol.
fol. fol.

288 D to the end of the page, and a in V, but omitted in L and Migne
48, catena

R^ =

fol.

MS.

Joachim hieromonachi, postea e monasterio apud montem Atho in Angliam advectus A.D. 1727."
(289):
fol.

first 7Tapaypa^)r).

Bodleiatt Arch. Seld. 29 (A.D. 1338),

These I have collated, and have given some readings from the first two as specimens of their worthlessness rather than for any value attaching to them. Others are mentioned by Scrivener and Gregory, and Papadopoulos-Kerameus in his catalogue of the Evangelical school at Smyrna p. 50 copies the catena on Mark 2 apparently without identifying it, though he from codex elsewhere^ mentions another MS. with these sections from Cosmas
as catenae to the Gospels.

. . ^ , .
21

INTRODUCTION

^
entitled

which

is

found

on Mark (288 A

B)

//, ^IvhiKo-

78^,

catena on

Luke (289

125, catena

on

292) John (292 293)


XI.

/?

Vat. Gr.

756

(s.

XII.) fol.

98

187\6
):
(s.

M.apKou evayyeXtov (289 A

154^ catena on

Luke (289
in

Cromwell

292) Bodleian Library the

XI.),

"

olim

75 evayyeXtov

fol.

112, catena

on Luke (289

292) ending at the end of the


fol.

116, catena

on Luke

The
in

MSS. which use a section from the

Topography as a catena to
lies in

book of the the Psalms are equally numerous and


fifth

themselves equally unimportant.

Their only interest indeed

the confusion which has prevailed about them and caused

and others to ascribe to Cosmas a separate tractate on That the Psalms, for which there is absolutely no evidence. confusion is partly due to the fact that the section chosen as a where a leaf is catena is chosen from a passage (248 249 missing in L, and Montfaucon with incredible carelessness has only copied a small part of the missing text from V. The consequence is that, as the MSS. which use the passage as a catena
editors
^

Catalogue of the

? ^
.
e^

no.

2.

22

INTRODUCTION

naturally preserve the whole text

and somewhat strangely add

the headings which occur in various parts of a picture which

have been led to suppose that the text was not a simple copy of the Topography. The confusion has been increased by the ascription

was attached

to the section

on David,

people
MSS.

of the passage to other authors in


is

some

for

example

it

printed
p. 532,

among Chrysostom's

spurious works in Migne, Pair,

where the title is taken from a codex Ottobonianus and by the wilful alteration of the text in other MSS. R. 25 MSS. of the simple class, containing the complete passage from Cosmas and the headings from the picture are
Gr,

eh

)9 <;.
Vat. Gr. 525

Vat. Gr. 342

(s. XII.), fol. 7^,

/ ^^^ '^
:

(s. Xll.), fol.

,^^ eh
eh

Venice Marc. Gr. 498

Bodleian Baroc. 15

.
(s. (s.

i, id.

XIV.), fol. 270,

/^ ^^^
'IvBLKoirXevarou

XII.),

fol.

22,

'^^.

Other similar MSS. are mentioned by Karo and Lietzmann (e.g. Turin B. i. 10, Ambros. B. (s. X.), Moscow 358 (s. XI.),
Vat. Gr. 1747). Two Parisian MSS. which
I

have also examined

remark.

J.

eh is the cod. Colbertinus mentioned by Montfaucon (Migne, p. 27), and both from the reference there and from the entry in Omont's catalogue one would be led to infer that Cosmas was the author of a commentary preserved in the MS. Really there is only the usual paragraph followed by a short section on the various ancient editions of the Psalter, taken from some author unnamed or concocted by the scribe. This is followed by quotations from Athanasius, Basil, Gregory, etc. and there is no reason for attributing anything but the ordinary section to Cosmas.
:

Paris. Gr. 2743 (olim Colbertinus Diassorinos),

Ko^\vhio^kevo

^
1476,
s.

call for special

s.

xvi. copied

^,
by

Par. Gr. 169 (Mazarin-Reg. 3450,


cisely the

XIV.)

is

a MS. of pre-

same kind, though in this case Omont attributes the long commentary contained in the MS. to Cosmas. But Cosmas' TrpoXoyoq is succeeded by quotations from Gregory, Josephus

INTRODUCTION
to the authorship of the

23

and others, and any one of them has as good claims as Cosmas

Commentary.

Some
later,

later MSS., this

mostly belonging to the fifteenth century or


section in an

expanded form, with additional matter on the editions of the Psalter, differing from that menhave

same

tioned above, but equally worthless.

How

utterly unreliable
in

they are
the
titles

is

proved by the confusion of names of the three which I have examined.


sufficiently

Vallicellianus

^IvStKOTrXevarov

been published by Sim. de Magistris ad

^, }
C.
4,
fols.

Patrum de

.
[i.e.

LXX.

vir.

Par. Gr. 3179, copied by Bigot,


Vat. Gr. 711,

"^. }.
fol.

196,

Cosmas

Vestitor]

worthy of the high-sounding title "A Commentary on the Psalms," or of Cosmas' pen and apart from them there is not a tittle of evidence for such a work. As I have already treated the textual history and some of the more important questions concerned with it in an article in the Joiir7tal of Theological Studies^, I shall here content myself
Certainly none of these
is
:

^ ^
vers., Dissert. IV.
II.

434

5,

^\^\^
<; '\<^.

..
This has
Daniel. Apol. sent.
p.

452 sqq.

et9

with a brief

summary

of

my

views.

The

three

more or

less

complete MSS.

fall

clearly into

two

families distinguished

among

other things by the fact that while


as the index of

contains only 10 books

and,
is

books

at the

beginning shows, never had more

ending too of the tenth book


that in

and S being

fuller.

and S contain 12. The different in the two recensions, Again, the paragraphs on the
in

Prophets are arranged

in the

Septuagint order

V,

in

the order

of the Vulgate, except that the Major Prophets are inserted in

more or

less

chronological order

among

the Minor, in

and

S.

The end of
also in the

the eighth and beginning of the ninth book varies


;

book differs in all three MSS. In deciding on the merits of these two recensions, the second point is the most important, and the
two recensions
while the beginning of the
first

textual

critic

is
^

unusually favoured, as that point


Vol. vni. no. 32 (July, 1907), p. 607.

is

settled

24

INTRODUCTION

without any possibility of dispute by an indubitably genuine passage which occurs in the text of all three MSS. and in the

That passage is perfectly natural if one keeps the order given by V, and utterly absurd if one follows L and S. The difference is that V follows the Septuagint order, treating first the twelve Minor Prophets, then the twelve Major, while LS arrange them in the order Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Isaiah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk,
parallel text of the Chronicoii Paschale^.
^

Cosmas, the Chronicon PascJiale, the Psettdo-Dorothetis

etc.

have the following

paragraphs in

common
Chron. Pasch. (ed. Dindorf)
33.

Cosmas
224 A 228 A

Cosmas
268
268 c
268 D

Chj'on. Pasch. (ed. Dindorf)

134.

281,

59

34.

317
1636, 9 142, 8

281, 18

229 D
232

232

35. 41,

269

282, 6
2

292,

5293,

C 233

269 C

283, 295. 298,

618
15296, 4

236 D
237 D
241

237 A
240 c

92,

515
13103,
16
I

269 D
272
21
2

lor,

244 A
245 248

104
108.

105, 109,

272 A 272 C 272 D 273 A


273

413
2

284,
284,

3
11]
I

13285,

26o A 260 A 260 D 261 A


261

142, 158,

274, 275,
278, 276, 279,

264 A 264 C
264 D

4143, 17 12168, 3 18275, 13 15276, 12 8279, 3 16277, 5

285, 15
286, 20

273 D 276 D 277 C

280 C

301

276 D 277

287, 378,

287, 289, 6

286,

15379

II

om.
443. 438,

280 c
296
297 A 297 c

285 C

7 i2
21280, 5 8290, 14

11449. 19 1439' 7

279,
289,

433. 439'

5^9
9443.
7

265 A 265 D

268 A

277, II

278,

For the relationship of the various versions see Mercati's

article in the

Theological Studies^ April 1906, p. 404 (cp. also Oct. p. loi).

yonrnal of Mercati there suggests

But the matter that possil:)ly Theodore of Mopsuestia or even Cosmas was the author. has been gone into more thoroughly by D. T. Schermann, " Propheten und Apostelle-

genden" {Texie 2ind Unters.^ 1907) He shows that there are various texts and that Cosmas is the earliest representative of the Doroiheus text, and argues that he is not the author because he adds Seeing that Cosmas had a perfect mania for adding that is no very certain proof: but combined with the fact that Cosmas omits the lives of the various personages, it is sufficient to lend great probability if not conclusive proof to Schermann's view. Schermann sees no reason for placing the composition of the original work, from which Cosmas and the other authorities borrowed those sections, later than the second or third century, and thinks it may go back to a Hebrew or Syriac version. One may cite as a parallel for the existence of such books of biblical characters the fragments of a Coptic book of the same kind published V)y myself in the yoiini. Theol. S/iid., April 1908, p. 372.

, .

INTRODUCTION

25

^'
Jeremiah,
Malachi.

Zephaniah,

Ezekiel,

Daniel,

Haggai,

Zechariah,

Now

at the

end of the paragraph on Malachi occur


eirl

in all

the MSS. the words Xotirbv

,
It
is

//,?
which clearly assume
that

the Septuagint order.

obvious then
the

V
in

is

in

this

case

the

better

MS.

as

in

order adopted

LS

those

words occur at the end of the paragraphs on all the sixteen There they are perfectly meaningless and it is prophets.
:

inconceivable that, as Montfaucon suggested,

Cosmas himself

should

in

second edition

have altered the order without


it

noticing the absurdity.

Indeed

is

strange that any Greek-

speaking Christian should have altered the Septuagint order


for
far

one so eccentric
to
seek.

but the object of the change


of

is

not

Theodore
first

Mopsuestia,

as

we

learn

from

Junilius

Africanus,

advocated
sight
to

an

almost

identical

arrange-

ment.

This at

attributing

that order

would seem a strong argument for Cosmas who, as has already been

shown, was probably a Nestorian and certainly a follower of

But such an argument has no weight against the clear evidence in the text for the other order. If Cosmas was a Nestorian and a monk, then the community to which he belonged were no doubt Nestorians too and even if he were not a monk, still most of his friends would be of the same persuasion. It is therefore highly probable that Cosmas' literary executor, whether it was the abbot of his monastery or merely
Theodore.
:

a friend
noticed

who superintended
that

the recopying of the Topography^

Cosmas had employed the ordinary Septuagint

order and corrected the slip blindly in accordance with Nestorian

was probably he too who added from Cosmas' loose papers the eleventh and twelfth books, which are not included in V for, discursive as Cosmas is in his writing, he would hardly have added two books which have no conceivable bearing on the question discussed in the Topography, the shape
principles.
It
:

of the world.

This conclusion,
it

if

accepted,

is

of considerable

shows that the editor of the LS recension was a man of some knowledge of patristic literature, and one who
importance, as

thoyght himself entitled to take great

liberties

with the text

26

INTRODUCTION
:

and consequently one cannot help regarding with the gravest suspicion any additions one may find in LS. Most likely, as I have suggested elsewhere, he was responsible for two references to Athanasius (i6i C and 372 d), for the addition of paragraphs on Zachariah, Elisabeth, Mary, Anna, Simeon, and Christ (277 c 280 c). The latter are omitted both by V and by the Chronicon Paschale^ which has the paragraphs immediately preceding and following. To his account too one may lay the additional paragraph at the end of book VIII. and probably the supplementary quotations from the fathers in book X, (428 441). The question of additional paragraphs is one of particular
he was editing

difficulty in

this

work, as Cosmas admittedly wrote his

own

and would seem to have added some in the margin as Those in the margin were well as inserting others in the text. of course likely to be entirely omitted by a copyist, or else to be
notes,

inserted in the

wrong place

so that even with the assistance of

sometimes doubtful to decide whether a note is original or not. But at any rate sufficient sins can be laid on the
it

is

shoulders of the editor of the recension represented by

LS

to

show that his work is entirely unreliable in comparison with V. With regard to the mutual relation of L and S, Gardthausen's suggestion that S might be a copy of L cannot be accepted, since S occasionally contains words which are omitted by L
(e.g.

the gloss, ol

has crept into the text of S and VV after


Besides the two MSS. begin differently,
cation to Pamphilus which
is

^
L
and
first

containing a dedi-

,
Sia

6o

C).

omitted both by S and V.


of

How

that dedication

fits
it,

on to the
it

S,

and who was

the author of

is

exceedingly

difficult
it

to say.
fit

The only
at
all,

suggestion that occurs to

me

is

that

does not

on

but

was added

in

the margin by the editor,

who thought

a special
first

dedication to Pamphilus necessary at the beginning of the


as well as the second

book is really addressed to all right-minded Christians, and Pamphilus is only mentioned later. Being in the margin it was omitted by S, but added by L, without being properly connected to the opening words of the vTrodeaif;. The matter is however complicated by
:

book

whereas the

INTRODUCTION
the erasure of

27

some four or five letters just at the point of juncture in L. However that may be S is obviously not a copy of L but of its archetype, and, I think, a rather more reliable copy than L. Certainly it is more reliable than L in its present
condition, for

has had the misfortune to be corrected through-

out by another educated


of

man who thought

himself a better judge

what Cosmas ought to have written than Cosmas himself The result is that where VS and the first hand of L agree in an ungrammatical construction, L^ generally offers unimpeachable Greek. That of course might be accounted for by assuming that L drew his corrections from a better MS. but there are instances where L^ makes a correction where there would have been no necessity for correction had not L made a simple slip of the For example at 228 A V and S read iartv 6 "AySeX pen.
:

?
here

iv
6

^,
in

became

09 in

L,

and

then

"

corrected

"

' ^
and

to

W
omit
61 C

would seem
6l

similar to S,

from S or from a MS. closely Both as they often omit or add the same words.
to be copied

i/c

in

7r\KLv:

both add

after

and the words ol (6o C). There however

W continues after

..

(6$ C)

quoted above after


with the words

which are not found in S. Those words might have been added by the scribe, but on the other hand occasionally contains words omitted by S (e.g. omitted by homoeoteleuton after KoX 84 A) so that it is most probably derived from a twin of S rather than from S itself.

The
led

excellence of the illustrations in the Vatican copy has

Montfaucon to suppose that V may have been copied directly from Cosmas' manuscripts But though it is near enough in point of time for such a thing to be possible, there is one objection, which appears to me to be insuperable. Cosmas, as he admits himself (57 b), annotated his text and the evidence of the MSS. makes it practically certain that, while some of his notes were
;

Bayet, Z'^r/

.,

p. 723, also suggests that

it is

copied from an original of the

time of Justinian.

28
written in the

INTRODUCTION

body of the text and only separated from it by a heading 7aaypa, others were added in the margin. These naturally have occasionally crept into the text at the wrong place: and in some instances (e.g. yy where 6 precedes the quotation on which it is a comment) these wrong

insertions are found in all three MSS. alike.

We

have therefore

obviously to assume at least one

common

archetype later than

Cosmas' copy as the parent of both recensions. This objection is fatal too to Montfaucon's view that V represented an earlier edition and L a later edition made by Cosmas
himself: as in that case
different MSS.
it

is

inconceivable that copyists of two

would have inserted the same marginal note in the same wrong position in the text. Montfaucon speaks too as if the additional paragraphs and notes were always in L and not in V but that is not by any means true. For example, both V and S preserve at the end of the fifth book, the end that is to say of the original Topography^ a prayer which is omitted in L. Besides on Montfaucon's hypothesis one would expect that, when in one recension a note appears in the margin and in the other in the text, it would be V, the representative of the earlier recension, which has it added in the margin, and LS in the text whereas the reverse is almost always the case (e.g. irpcuTov <^ Wveatv l6o C and pay 'Efe/c/ou 165 A, which in V are written in the text, in LS in the margin as scholia)^ These marginal additions would therefore seem to be an
:

,^

integral part of the text on

which both recensions are based,

and quite distinct from the alterations made in all probability, as I have suggested, by an editor after Cosmas' death. Of course, as he took considerable liberties with the text, he may have made additions to the notes too; but it is almost impossible to detect them when the original notes were added in such a confusing manner, and in most cases it is safer to credit Cosmas
^

The

confusion resulting from these

the addition of explanatory notes to the pictures, which have occasionally been trans-

posed with the

illustration, or

even attached to another


after

transposed in V, so as to
inapplicable).

come

For other examples see y. T.

^ ?
S.,

is

rendered worse confounded by

(e.g. e/s

.
p.

is
it

under a picture to which

is

July 1907,

610

foil.

INTRODUCTION
himself with the notes, unless there
is

between the two recensions

and LS.

At any
frequent
in

rate as the additional

view that

LS than in V, they afford no support to Montfaucon's L is a representative of a later edition than V while
:

'

29

a very clear difference


are not

more

the addition of the eleventh and twelfth books in LS,

and the

nature of the transposition of the paragraphs on the prophets

make
person

it

extremely improbable that Cosmas himself was the


those alterations and edited the archetype

who made

and S are derived. According to my view then the stemma codicum of the only important MSS. would be
from which

Cosmaa copy

In that

stemma
is

represents the

existence

it

necessary to assume between Cosmas' copy and

which are found placed in the same obviously wrong position in both recensions and
our MSS. because of the
"
;

common

archetype whose

Cosmas' death in which the additions of the last two books and the transpositions in the fifth book took place. Of course I do not wish to imply that there were no copies between Cosmas' copy and X, or between X and V, and X and the " Revised copy " there may have been any number, but they would not
"

Revised copy

the

revision

by some

editor

after

materially affect the scheme.

On

the whole the manuscript evidence for the text


it

is

fairly
all

good, as

is

based on MSS. of two different recensions and

30

INTRODUCTION
But
is

of a respectable age.
certainly the best MS.,

in point of

far

orthography V, which is most corrupt and one cannot the


:

help reflecting whether

in

the case of a MS. so near the author's

age, the corruptions are all

due

to the scribe or

whether some of
All

them

at

any

rate should not be laid to the author's charge.

travellers

good scholars or grammarians. Silvia^ for instance wrote her peregrinations in a most barbarous Latin, though she was in all probability quite as well educated as Cosmas, who confesses that he had not received any elaborate
are not
training.
ally
It is therefore

not unnatural that he should occasion-

lose himself in

a long sentence or use strange forms of


I

words.
so,

Accordingly
there
is

when

have not hesitated to allow him to do good evidence, though in matters of simple

orthography, which
I

may

just as well be referred to the copyists,


rules, unless there

have generally adhered to ordinary


for departing

good reason
write

from them.
of

Thus when L

seemed and S, the


I

only MSS. extant for the passages, both on two several occasions
instead
it

(441 C, 445 A),

have

allowed

to remain.

Other strange forms too well attested to


for

abandon are
(381 A, 365
B),

(209 ),
for

for

Seppei^;
1

^tairepovvre^, aporptovv (44 1 B).


I

have written

{ed> A).

or

(165 D,
of

88

B),

On

the analogy of the two last

for

(368 a) and apKeros (223 A) again seem to be used as


adjs. of

two declensions, and


for for

Whether

the senseless

V^LSW

as one of three (204 A).

(313 c) and (ioqb) are admissible

But considering the uncertainty of the spelling in general I have not aimed at uniformity in the For example I admit case of geographical and proper names. (go b) though SieXeSifia is the form used in the eleventh book, and follow V in writing 'ASovXla (97 D) in spite of (loi a), (Acc. 105 c) and (loi C). I have also endeavoured to follow V in the spelling of the name Moses, and V's usual practice is to write as the Nom.,

^ ^;
is
^

perhaps more doubtful.

"^

?
cf.

keep the usual form, though the name was apparently Etheria,

M.

Ferotin,

Le

viritable aiUeur de la Pcrcgr. Silviae la vierge espagnole Elhcria (Par. 1903).

INTRODUCTION
but to use the short form

31

for the oblique cases.

LS
eva

prefer

the longer form throughout

Among
several

grammatical forms the most curious


C,

is

used

309 C, 445 C) in place of eV. With so many instances to support the form it can hardly be considered a mere slip of the copyist, and so I have retained it.
times (284

Compare

(377 A). Constructions according to sense

for

to nonsense

rather

are of frequent occurrence.

and to el? eh (212 a); which may perhaps be support enough to warrant elvai (140 C), but hardly the reading eh (196 d), where sense gets the better of grammar. But carelessness gets the better of both sense and grammar
attention to

.,.
in

the case of false concords like


oTTep

and

paratively

^
6

^
)
d).
(e.g.

and occasionally according


strict rules

than according to

Among

the former one

of

grammar

may

call

\...6/\

(ii2

^9,
.

common

Nominative Absolutes too are com200


Accusative Absolutes not so
(i8l

.^,

4^5 ^

yap
iroieL...)
;

^, .,.
)
seems
certain.

(213 A)

common, but

Cases indeed are strangely handled.

instance figures as the subject of a verb in 248

...

hoaiv

7,
(6
re

MSS. at 209 C

for

,
.

an instance which supports the reading of the


irepav yrjv

,
to

An

Accusative for

^^......'-

Even

less respect is

of cases in the sentence

...
Nom. and
197
^

(328

.
D
T,2g

and makes McCrindle's emendation

) unnecessary.
shown

^\<;

), where

^.,. ,
name
I

grammatical rules
6

? -^' .,.^ or
(e.g.

for the use

a Gen. takes the place of a

Nom.

agrees with an Ace.

Both constructions

lack of construction

find

parallels elsewhere in

A
Owing
to the frequent

occurrence of the

Cosmas

and
this in the

do not mention

ApJ> crit.

32

INTRODUCTION

269 A

< '^.
is

Such instances support the reading


whole sentence there

. ^? ).
(68 A), though the

Again the construction frequently changes in an alarming way from a Gen. Abs. to a main clause or a kind of Nom. %eov Abs., e.g. 197 D and 129 D 6^^...\ ..., which <yap
. .

support V's reading

Somewhat

Nom., unless that is a corruption due to the Datives preceding it. There is good MS. evidence too for such readings as <y...av (65 A); and, (336 a) and as they can scarcely be called more ungrammatical than some

.-^'^. . .. ^
very uncertain.

. .^',
.

.,.

(124).

similar

is

the use of

(316 A) for the

...
Finally
in

of the uses already mentioned,


I

would

call attention to

the phrase

can find no

have admitted them.


the strange use of the

word

(69 A), a use for which

parallel.

But

409 A must surely be a

corruption rather than a

new word.

(352 c) and avhpeLw (104 c) both seem to be used


intransitively; unless

one prefers to follow Dillmann and Dittenfor


in the latter

berger in reading
while
is

passage;

found governing an Ace. (45 1 A). V often preserves strange constructions which are changed so as to conform with normal rules in LS. Of course these may be
corruptions due to the scribe of V, but
it

is

more probable that

the abnormal use should have been changed to the normal than
vice versa.

For example

at

285 c

read iv

and the reading is supported both by the MSS. of the Chron. Pasch. and by the parallel use at 360 D iv V also favours the plural of abstract nouns (e.g. 224 D,
place of the frequently recurring phrase

, .

.,.

in

297

A).

W.

LIST OF SIGNS
V = Vat.
Gr. 699

(V2 = corrector)
(L2 = corrector)
(S^ = corrector)

L = Laur.

Plut. ix. ?8

S = Sinai Gr. 1186

P = Par. Gr. 2426 = Smyrna

W = Vienna Theol. 9
Ri = Vat. Gr. 756
R'^

= Vat.

Gr. 363
text (ed.

m = Montfaucon's

Migne)

49

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xxii. 28.

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xxii. 30.

26.

Cor.

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19.
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iiroiT)

242,

W.

16

242

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Ps. xix.
i.

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13

Ps. cxlviii, 4. 27.

23.
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Ps. cxv. 16.

Deut,

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27.

m.

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2 Cor. xii. 2.

12.

2 Cor. v. i.

Hebr.

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i.

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ix. 11, 12.

246

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vii.

14.

vi.

16

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12.
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xiii. 14.

Cor,

vii.

31.
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17,

iii.

1,2.

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16.

23.

Matt. xxv. 34.

John

xiv. 2.

6 D ^\|,
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,
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349 "^
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NOTES
(p. 48,
1.

4.)

Agathias {Hist.
ovv

II.

,
shocks
(oi

Alexandria

in
hr\

554 a.d. mentions this belief that Egypt was free from such

aeUaOai

ivTevOiv re

(. 48, 1. .) Cosmas is probably referring to the overthrow of Antioch by an earthquake in May 526 A.D. (cf. Evagrius IV. 5): a similar occurrence took place in July 551, but the book seems to have been written before that Evagrius mentions other earthquakes at Antioch in 459 A.D. (ll. 12), date. 580 A.D. (v. 17), and 589A.D. (VI. 8).
(p. 60,
cf.
1.

^, 4. 4).
.
On
in the

, ^, ' 15)

speaking of a slight earthquake

at

el

de y

21.)

ancient views of the position of the Terrestrial Paradise

Baring-Gould, Curious Myths pp. 250


it

65.

Most of the ancient theologians


In a 9th century
in

placed

like

Cosmas
it

East beyond the Ocean.


early

map

at Strassburg

and several other


is

maps

it is

placed

China.

In Prester

John's letter

stated to be three days' journey from his kingdom, while


it

several authorities of the 12th or 13th centuries regard further south, opposite the

as an island rather
it

mouth of the Ganges,

or even identify

with

Ceylon.

modern Cadiz. It received the name Gadir Gades) from the Phoenicians, who in early times settled a colony there. Many other names were given to it, for example Eumelus (Plat. Critias 114), Cotinussa, and Aphrodisias, though some (e.g. Tzetzes VIII. 715) distinguish between Cotinussa the town and the island Gades.
(p. 61,
1.

4.)

raSeipa = the

(Gr. raSetpa, Lat.

It

was
36.

also

sometimes

identified with Tartessus.


list

Compare Pliny
III.

A^.

H.

IV.

120 where a long


6,

of

names
Orb.

is

given, Strabo

168,
for

Dionysius
suggested

Per.

455,

Avienus Descr.
Barbaria
is

Terr.

610

16:

and

etymologies, Stephanus Et.


(p. 61,
1.

Mag.
a vague term for the east coast of Africa.
Straits of

5.)

McCrindle notes, "Barbaria extended from the


the Aromatic Cape,

now

called
iv.

Cape Guardafui."
7.

Bab-el-Mandeb to Ptolemy however in his


a general
designation

Geog7'aphy

(i.

c.

17

and

4)

applies

it

as

East Africa from the Aromatic Cape (i.e. Guardafui, the southern point of the land of the Troglodytes) southward as far as
to the coast regions of

Zanzibar, beyond which his knowledge did not extend.

The author

of the

334
Peripiiis

NOTES
Mar. Er.

'? \, , , "^ . . , "....^ ' . .,., ( . ," ?, , .


him Cosmas
(p. 61,
1.

the south of Egypt, not far from the Tropic, to the Aromatic Cape, and with
agrees.

,
13

{Geogr. Gr. Min. 258) again says that Barbaria,

extended southward from Berenice, the great seaport in

foil.)

Tovs:

pev

"

town was Rhapta according to Ptolemy. With this passage compare Josephus Ani. Jud.
Its chief

I.

KaXovpevovs, Topapels de Xcyopevovs,

'

de tovs

npoaayopevopivovs.

eOvos,

'

OLTives iv Tols

pev

Qeipas pev

eKokecrev

AloXels

yap

'^/

ea^ev.

Von Gutschmid

says

Cosmas followed Epiphanius, who


11.

also speaks of

the division of the nations {Adv. Haer.

703)

and who

is

the authority

from

whom Cosmas
1.

took several of his theories.


belief that the

Caspian was a bay of the Ocean was common in antiquity. Hecataeus made it a bay of the Eastern Ocean and Patrocles in Alexander's time asserted that one could sail from India to it.
(p. 62,

17.)

The

Herodotus however and Aristotle and Ptolemy knew that it was a landlocked sea: but after Ptolemy geographical knowledge to a great extent relapsed, and the old belief occurs in Strabo, Arrian, Pliny, Solinus, Martianus Capella and others. Some of the Arabs too, Abu Zeyd for
instance,
(p.

make
1.

the

same mistake, but not Mas'udi.

62,

26.)
I.

'=

South Arabia; comp. Lipsius, Apokr.

Apost. Gesch.
(p. 62,
1.

283

Bab el-Mandeb.
p. 56,

in Cosmas denotes the East coast of Africa beyond Zaneddin 'Umar ibn al-Wardi, cjuoted in Salt's Travels says that the "land of the Zinji lies opposite to that of Sind" and that
27.)

'/

foil.

"its inhabitants traffic in elephants' teeth, panthers' skins and silk." The modern name Zanzibar contains the same word and means " sea of Zinzi." Ptolemy I. 17. 9 and I v. 7. 11 mentions a similarly named promontory Zt'-yyiy, generally identified with Ras el-Kire. It is noticeable that Cosmas here quotes (p. 66, 1. 27.) another of the Greek versions of the Old Testament, and not as usual the Septuagint. It was apparently the edition of Theodotion which read

and
{also

(p. 68,

only found in late Gr., and also in late Latin {inetaxa or mataxa), in the sense of silk, though in the sense of "a rope" it is as
It
is

( ] .
or
1.

/]

in place of the Sept.

-^.

22.)

The form

of this word varies between

early as Lucilius (Fest.

v. Rodus). It was more commonly called and sericiim from the name for the inhabitants of Northern China, the Seres, from whom it was imported. It was brought

s.

cf.

bk. XI.)

NOTES
chiefly

335
(Gibbon, ch. XL.) and thence

by an overland route

. ,
bk. XI.

dispersed to the west.

which was also Cosmas' time, it Cosmas refers also to its importation by sea through Ceylon from the land of the Sinae, which may mean Southern China, or more probably Malaya, Cochin China and the coast of the Gulf of Siam. and For 2eXeSi/3a or see notes on (p. 68, 1. 28.)
were formerly called
but
in his time,

,
;

to Persia or India

Hence according

to Procopius the clothes

made

of

On the Brachmans and their learning cf. the book De 32.) (p. 68, Moribus Brachnianorum attributed to Palladius (and to Ambrose), and also
1.

Marc, xxiil. 6; XXVIII. i. Sina or Thina {Periplus M. E. 64) is the ordinary name (p. 68, 1. 32.) of the country of the Sinae and Tzinista is simply a Persian or Indian form meaning "land of Tzina." Sina seems to have been the name of the silkbearing regions reached by sea. Cochin China and possibly Malaya: while
Seres was the
Yule, Cathay,
title
i.

Amm.

of the Chinese proper, reached

p.

33

foil.

Gronovius

in his note

by overland routes. Comp. on Pomponius Mela I. 2

suggests Siam as the land of the Sinae.


the time of Ctesias

The

Seres were

known
to

as early as

and Onesicritus; the Sinae do not seem


5.

have been

known

so early, but are mentioned by Ptolemy vii.


1.

Persian Gulf has a length of 650 English miles, while the distance from Ceylon to the Malacca Peninsula
(p. 69, 6.)

McCrindle

states,

"The

only
to

is

nearly twice that distance,"


is
1.

and from the mouth of the Persian Gulf


two thousand miles."

Ceylon
(p. 69,

" not very far short of


II.)

For the routes used in the silk trade compare Gibbon, Decline and Fall ch. XL, where he specifies an overland route from China to Syria via Persia, and another through Thibet to India and thence by sea. Cf. also the Periplus 64 and Ptol. l. 11.
(p.

69,

1.

18.)

Ovvv'ia

is

probably the right reading as the Huns are

mentioned
(p. 69,
1.

in bk.
24.)

XL

as inhabiting northern India.

Cosmas' estimate of the world's size is rather larger than some mathematicians had measured it in his time and it 400,000 stadia (about 40,000 miles) and he accepts their estimate. found Eratosthenes made the circuit 250,000 stadia; and the length and breadth of Posidonius reduced the circuit the habitable world 77,800 38,000 stadia. Cf. Tozer, to 180,000 stadia (Strabo 11. 2); and Ptolemy followed him.
usual.

Aristotle says

Class. Geogr.
(p. 69,
1.

by Procopius, by Ptolemy and by Stephanus, by Malalas, is the modern Axum in the land of Tigre. The name of the town itself is first found in Ptolemy (iv. 7, 8) though the Periplus generally spelled already mentions the inhabitants of Cosmas several times write afterwards correcting though the MSS. it, while once in V it is altered by the second hand to ASOon a coin (cf. Littmann is found on an inscription, and
chair,

"

169

foil.

30.)

"^/$,

also called

by LS

in the picture of

Ptolemy's

^,

, ^.

336

NOTES
Nonnosus speaks of
it

Zs. f. Assyriologie XX. (1907), p. 172 foil. largest town and the capital of Aethiopia.

as the

Adulis is the modern Thulla or Zula ('7fA = plain) near (p. 70, 1. 13.) Annesley Bay. It is reckoned by Nonnosus as 15 days journey from Axum, though it is really less. According to Pliny {N. H. vi. 172) it was founded by runaway Egyptian slaves, but the story is probably based on a false etymology. The fact that this and some other inscriptions from the neighbourhood are in Greek need not incline us to accept Pliny's story, as there were undoubtedly a number of Greeks resident in and visiting it as an important trading centre with the East at this time. Strabo does not mention it but by the time of the king who erected the inscription which follows it was the main port of the Troglodytae and Aethiopians. Its importance was probably partly due to the fact that the old trade-route to Aethiopia through Meroe was destroyed about 22 B.C., partly to the massacre at Alexandria by Caracalla which interrupted direct intercourse with India. Both Cosmas and Scholasticus seem to have shipped at Aduhs
;

to sail east.

On

a recent excavation there


11.

cf.

{Le

Monde

Orie?ital^ vol.

fasc.

(1907), p.

15),

Sundstrom Adults^ ruiner and a translation with

supplementary matter by Littmann {Zs. f. Assyriologie XX. (1907), p. 172). The form of the name is uncertain. Procopius, Nonnosus and Palladius which Stephanus says was the better form. The Periplus have (or 'ASouXei). The Cosmas MSS. vary here between (ch. 4) gives

"?
and

picture that follows

/
in

in the

has a

Gen.

is

found

VL^S

in loi c,

At 105 D V^ has the Ace. while LS have and between The Homeritae or (Nonnosus and Malalas 456) (p. 70, 1. 14,) inhabited Arabia Felix and are first mentioned by Pliny (A". //. vi. 158, 161) and the Periplus 23. Compare also Marc. Per. Maris Ext. 18 (Miiller Geogr. Gr. Min. 527) and Ptolemy in. 7. 19. Up to the middle of the first century they were subject to their neighbours the Sabaeans. Cosmas is wrong in identifying them with the Arabitae, as they seem to have

;, ',

' ;?. , ;/. .


Dat.

they

all

read

loi c

while

in the

Nom.

and a Gen. A similar where L^ has changed the form to which is probably correct, changed by V^ to The MSS. of Ptolemy (iv. 7. 2) vary

;?.

is

inhabited territory to the north-west of the


(p.

latter.

thought

For Sasu compare p. 76 below. Cosmas apparently same as Sesea, which would be in the south-east part of the Somali peninsula near the Italian colony Hobia and so would be the
70,'
it
1.

27.)

the

eastern rather than the western boundary of the king's conquests.


therefore proposes to read Kasu, which

Glaser

mentioned in the Axumite inscription and was near Meroe. But Miiller opposes this view, quoting the Periplus (18), which says that the ocean took a turn to the west along Aethiopia and Africa: and, considering the uncertainty which prevailed about the south of Africa, it seems unnecessary to alter the text, especially as Harris heard of a kingdom called Sousa towards the south and south-west

NOTES
of the Schoa.

337

This Saint-Martin believed to be identical with Kafa. The earlier writers Niebuhr and Mannert proposed to identify Sasu with Schoa, but that is improbable. Zaneddin 'Umar ibn al-Wardi mentions a country

al-Dhab adjoining the eastern borders of the Zinji of which he most remarkable product is the quantity of native gold " and probably the unnamed mines mentioned by Agatharcides in Diod. Sic, ill.,
called Sofalat

says " the

12

14 are the same.


(p.

70,

1.

30.)

"The Agau
This

people

is

the native race spread over the

Abyssinian plateau both to east and west of Lake Tana."


(p.

(McCrindle.)

71,

1.

5.)

dumb commerce

is

frequently mentioned by older

travellers in all parts of the world.


(iv. 196),

In Africa, for instance, by Herodotus

I., p. 192), and Shaw's Travels passage which closely resembles in Ceylon by Pliny N, H. VI. 24 this: in China by the Periplus M. E. 65 (comp. Tennent i. 568) and in the Land of Darkness by Ibn Batuta (ed.

Catamosto (comp. Beazley,


(ed.

Dawn
;

through Barbary

Mavor
:

xii.

125), a

Lee, 79).

(p. 71,

-] }(
1.

9.)

For

the Schol. says

Abh.
A

p.

227 and Rel. hir.

\ ^ , , ^.
this

word

cf.

AnthoL

Pal. XV. 25.

7,

8 es -^ap

be

eccl.

Gr. pp. ix.,

x.,

where Cf. Lagarde Ges. where he compares it with


nayh'Ta

Aethiop. nrV[\C} = Tona(Lov, Arab.jbcij (tankar) = chrysocolla, Afghan aSj3


or aSiXj (tankah or tangah) = gold.
(p. 71,
1.

27.)

The

Nile here spoken of

is

the Blue or Abyssinian Nile,

rediscovered by the Portuguese in the sixteenth century, and again later by

Ptolemy (iv. 7) already knew Seneca ('^ Q. vi. 8) gives the account of two centurions sent by Nero to find the source of the Nile. They reached great swamps and a rock from which the stream seemed to spring. Compare also Pomponius Mela I. 9 and ill. 10 and Solinus 29. Julius Honorius (p. 29, ed. Riese) speaks of it as flowing from the lake Foloe, which seems to be a
the Jesuits, and by Bruce in the eighteenth.
it

of the two lakes from which

flows.

mistake for Koloe.


(p.

72,

1.

6.)

Ela

is

Akabah

or Elanitic Gulf.

Elana of Ptolemy
Philostorgius
(p. 72,
1.

v. 17. i,

ill. 6.

25.)

After

between two trees, with the heading


'lvdr]KLvoi,

'
It
is

the

modern 'Akabah

at the

head of the Gulf of


ii.

identical with the Elath of Deut.

8,

the

the Ailane of Josephus viii. 6 and the Aeila of

has on

f.

12 a picture of

aVt

does the word

Again on the verso of f. 12 is a picture of the $ In the picture the column and els and chair of Ptolemy are represented and some place-names are given,
Cosmas.

TcXoovioi^

neither

Gabaza nor Samidi occur

^ .'. , ', ,
though there
(

It

an antelope

is

nothing

in the text to call for

such a picture nor

= Arabic Ja^,

a banana or plantain; occur in the text of

"^

/,

is

noticeable that the port of

in the text.

The former was

w.

22

33
Adulis,

NOTES

and according to Greek authorities was 20 stadia from Adulis. Sandstrom thinks it is rather to be identified with a town at the foot of the hills called Gamez, south-east of Zula, though now they are some distance from the sea, than with the modern port Malcato, which is further north. This Abyssinian king's name has been recognised by (p. 72, 1, 28.) Ludolf as equivalent to the Ethiopian Ela Asbeha (or Asbah), to which the approaches more closely than the various forms reading of V Nonnosus, Mart. Arethae., found in other Greek writers Malalas in. 196). He was also called Photius and Theophanes,
Caleb and afterwards regarded as a martyr.
identifies

{ ^
6.

Salt

-e

to

Abys.

p.

468)

him with Anda or Amda. that the main occasion of the expedition here referred to was the murder of St Arethas. MUller {Geogr. Gr. Min.) refers it more
Salt says

generally to the slaying of Christian merchants at the instigation of the

Jews, while the Diet. Chris. Biog. 11. 70 foil, says Dhu So too Jew and persecuted Christians in retaliation.
to Ludolf, Hist. Aeth.
11. 4,

Nuwas became

Beazley referring

T. Wright, Early Christianity in Arabia., and

188) gives the Arabic up by a Jew whose children were murdered to fight the Nefranians. They called in the king of Abyssinia, Ellatzbaas, who did not need much persuasion as he had previously been king of Yemen. He made elaborate preparations from 525 526 A.D., and called on Justinus to furnish him with ships of transport. In 526 he sailed from Adulis, defeated the army of Yemen, took the city Taphar and slew the king of the Homerites. This passage is particularly important as it fixes the date of Cosmas' travels and more roughly the date of the publication of his work. As Cosmas was there during the preparations, this makes the date of his

John Malalas,

pt.

II.

193

Noldeke

{Tabari., p.

version that

Dhu Nuwas

of

Yemen was

stirred

travels in Abyssinia 525 a.d.,

and the date of the publication of the book


later circ. 550 a.d.

"some

five
1.

and twenty years"


I.)

(p. 73,

'VdiBov

is

the ancient
It is

the biblical
to

EHm (comp.
still

p. 139).

Meccah and
(p. 73,
1.

contains a small

name of Tor, which is identified with now the quarantine port of the pilgrims monastery of Greek monks connected
up
this inscription

with that of Sinai.


14.)

The Ptolemy who

set

was Ptolemy

III.

Euergetes (247221 B.C.); and it is the only surviving inscription recording his achievements in the expedition to Asia against Seleucus II., which he undertook soon after his accession. His father Ptolemy II. Philadelphus married in succession two ladies of the name of Arsinoe, the first of them,

Arsinoe daughter of Lysimachus of Thrace, being the mother of Ptolemy III. Theocr. xvii. 26 also ascribes descent from Hercules to (p. ^^, 1. 19) the Ptolemies: probably because some supposed Ptolemy I. to be the son of Philip of Macedon, not of Lagus, and Caranus the oldest king of Macedon

was a son of Hercules.


(p. -),
1.

2o.)

The subject-kingdoms here mentioned

are no exaggeration.

NOTES

339

Cyrenaica had been regained by Ptolemy II. Philadelphus, and other inscriptions bear witness to the fact that the south coast of Asia was subject to the Ptolemies (e.g. Dittenberger, Or. Gr. Inscr.^ nos. 55, 57, 58) and to
the subjection of the Cyclades
(p. 2>>

seems to be the invariable form in Greek inscriptions and in Latin MSS. and conforms with the name as it appears in hieroglyphic Egyptian inscriptions and Pliny. In Greek MSS. both Tp^yohvrai and are found, but the latter is probably a later alteration in
1

the case of the older authors.

23)
III.
1.

(e.g.

Ditt. 25).

Here, as Dittenberger suggests, Cosmas

is

probably responsible for the


I.

fault.

On

the Trogodytae
xvii.
i.

compare Diod.

Sic.

30. 3,

32

33;

and Strabo xvi.

4. 4,

53.
I.

(p. 7^,

24.)

On

Ptolemy's invasion of Ethiopia compare Diod. Sic.

37

(p.

7;^,

1.

27.)

possessions of Ptolemy Philadelphus

Theocritus xvii. 87 refers to Cilicia and Pamphylia as II. so that apparently they must have
Possibly, as Niese {Gesc/i. der gr. Staaten
II.
li.

been

lost in the interval.

p. 139)

suggests, they were given to Antiochus

at the

peace between him and

Philadelphus in the year 250

B.C.

Only Ephesus and Miletus are known


Ptolemies, but possibly part of Ionia
Niese,
(p.

to

have been under the rule of the


to

may have belonged

them

too (comp.

p. 135).
7'}).,

1.

28.)

An Egyptian
v.

hieroglyphic inscription from


:

Latonpolis

supports this statement with regard to Thrace

compare

also for

Thrace

and the Hellespont Polybius


(p. 73,
1.

34. 7

8.
:

29.)

The Indian

elephants were apparently taken from Seleucus

Seleucus Nicator had received a present of 300 from Sandrocottus, king of


Palibothra.
(P

?>

1-

31)

Niese

(11.

p.

148) doubts

if

he crossed the Euphrates:

but Jerome {Commentary


" superiores partes trans
1

o?i

Daniel^ XI. 8) speaks of his conquest of the


et

Euphratem,

propemodum universam Asiam."

The Latonpolis inscription also mentions Persia, Susa and 32) (P 73) Armenia among the conquered countries: comp. also Justin xxvil. i, 9.
(p. 74,
1.

I.)

Ptolemy won his

title

Euergetes by recapturing the statues


his successors.

of the gods carried off by

Cambyses and

These canals are a very doubtful point. Bigot translates as (p. 74, 1. 3.) though he thought they were canals dug by Ptolemy on purpose to transport his troops, but does not commit himself to suggesting where they were dug. Vincent believed the phrase referred to the canals near Susa, as Susiana

was intersected by canals. Chishull thought he meant the canals of the Euphrates and Tigris (comp. wStrabo xvi. i. 9). Droysen prefers the expedition But this rather through those canals mentioned by Pliny N. H. ix. 6.
disagrees with the account given in other authors
(e.g.

Justin XXVII. 19)


at

which says that Ptolemy was recalled from Asia by sedition


Niese
(11.

home.
ex-

p. 149) follows

Boeckh

in

assigning this clause to a

new

pedition through the Nile canals after his return from Asia.

22

340
(p. 74,
1.

NOTES
6.)

Salt

was the

first to

point out that the inscription on the

chair was not a continuation of the other as

Cosmas wrongly

states,

but

much

later production, thereby dispelling the


to its genuineness.

doubts which had previously

been held as

He

at first referred the inscription to

king

Aeizanas, the author of another Greek inscription which he discovered at

Axum, who

is

known also from

the letter of Constantine to Aizanas

and Sazanas,

preserved by Athanasius {Apol. ad Const., Migne, xxv. 636). This would have made its date about 350 A.D. But the suggestion was soon refuted on the ground that the changes both in the language and in the Axumite

kingdom proved this inscription to be much earlier than that found by Salt and he himself afterwards withdrew his suggestion. Saint-Martin proposed Ela Azguagua (144 221 A.D.), or Ela Auda (loi 131 A.D.), because they were the-only kings, except one of the fourth century, who according to the
;

Abyssinian

list

reigned

27

years.

Others

(e.g.

Miiller

in

his

Epigr.

De7iki)idler aiis Abess.

1894) have suggested Zoscales, the

Axumite king
in the

mentioned

in the Periplus, as the author.

Mommsen

thought this inscription

more recent than


are mentioned.
believe
it

Zoscales, because in

it

the Moscophagi,

who

Periplus

are subject to Zoscales, are under petty tyrants, and no Arabian possessions

to

be

earlier,

But Dillman and the most recent editor Dittenberger probably dating from the first half of the first century,
founder of the Axumite kingdom.

as

it

refers to the

They suppose
war of

that the

deeolation of the old trade route through


in 22 B.C.,

Meroe

after the

C. Petronius
VI.

a desolation which lasted to the time of Pliny (comp. N. H. 185) gave the Axumite king the chance of extending his kingdom. 181

Glaser however, partly on the same ground as Mommsen and partly because he maintains some of the names to refer to Arabian possessions not subject to Axum till later, argues for a later date, about the end of the third century.

He
is

also has doubts whether

it is

by an Axumite king
impossible that

rather

by a

victorious enemy, possibly the Himyaritic king As'ad.


it

same time he does not think


of Aeizanas; and
it

is

it

and suggests it At the should be by Ptolemy.


at all,

But, as Miiller points out, the formulae closely resemble the inscription

would use Greek. and expressly says he was the first Axumite king to conquer the surrounding districts, some of which certainly belonged to Zoscales.
;

extremely doubtful that As'ad or any Himyaritic king Besides the man refers to Arabia as
is

'/

(p. 74,

of Tigre

name
Aeth.

Salt identified with Ade-Gada, a town in the north 10.) but Saint-Martin and more recent authorities recognise in it the of the Abyssinians, who spoke what is still called Geez. Ludolf (///si.
1.
:

^;

I I. and Comm. 56) shows that till the seventh century the Agazi survived. Pliny also mentions a town Gaza, south of Adulis {N. 174), and this Glaser prefers.

name
//. vi.

(p. 74,

1.

10.)

'Aya'jLte]

Agame

is

still

an important province of Tigre


with Tzigam, a Dillmann thinks this

east of

/^]

Axum.
Saint-Martin connects
tribe,

Sigye (or Siguene)


:

large

Agau

now west

of

Lake Tzana

but

NOTES
people
is

341
here speaking of places close

too distant, as the inscription

is

to AxLim.

probably identical with the Hawa (or Elwa) of the (Lipsius, Apokr. Apost.-Gesch. II. 2. 85). Acts of It is also mentioned by the Periplus M. E. (Miiller, G.G.M. I. 257) and
(p. 74,
1.

12.)

is

Andrew and Bartholomew

Moses of Khorene's geography (cf. Saint-Martin, Meinoires hist, ei geogr. sur rArmenie II. 344). Nonnosus, the contemporary of Cosmas, tells us that It is generally identified with Adoua ( = city is between Axum and Adulis. modern capital of Tigre though Bent {Sacred City of the Eth.y of Oua) the p. 143 foil.) and Miiller prefer Yeha, on the grounds that there are ancient remains there and none at Adoua, and an inscription found by Bent at Yeha reads "He built his house AW." Miiller thinks that the name was connected with the Sabaean worship of Baal-Ava, and that the Aualites on the Aualitic Gulf (Ptol. IV. 7. 10), further south of Zula, were Arabian settlers and had a fortress at Yeha to trade with the Sabaeans.
:

in this inscription
in

and in Salt's inscription of the fourth century, but with a tz Cosmas' note, and remarks that the sibilant is still preserved in the modern name Ceyam. The name occurs several times in Abyssinian geographical
Tsijamo i^^^'PiS, but the exact position
is

Dittenberger notices that this

name

is

written with a simple

inscriptions as Sijamo or

unknown, though Dittenberger thinks Cosmas is wrong in placing it across the Nile. Glaser compares it with the Arabic ^1^5 (Tihamah) or ^Li> (Tiam).
Zingabene is unknown, unless it is, as Dillmann suggested, a mistake for, or an alternative form of, Zingarene, which might be the modern Zia

Zangaren
(p. 74,

in
1.

Hamasen.
22.)

ra/i/3eXa=Gambela, a valley
text.

in the

province of Enderta.
not the Nile

Montfaucon recognized these words as a marginal note by Cosmas which


has been wrongly inserted in the
proper, but
its

The

river referred to

is

eastern tributary the Takazze which joins the Atbara in

Nubia

before

it

reaches the Nile.

Together they formed the Astaboras of the though Glaser

ancients.

Angabe
thinks
it is

like

Tiama

defies the ingenuity of the critics,

possibly identical with tx'il'H (Angab or Angabe) of Schwein-

furth's inscription at Kohaito.

He

also refers to Ptolemy's

"--

This however does not determine its position. in Arabia Felix, but admits it is not

likely.

Athagaus and Kalaa Saint-Martin identified with Addago and Kalawe, two districts to the left of the Takazze near the mountains of Semen. But Dillmann rejects this identification, and agrees with Montfaucon in making the former part of the Agau people, and the latter the people now called Glaser and Dittenberger recognise in the latter the Koloe of the Kelau. Periplus ( 4) and Ptolemy (iv. 78), which was possibly Halai in the S.E. corner of Tigre, or according to Bent Kohaito where there are ancient ruins. The Periplus describes Koloe as three days' journey inland from Adulis, and

342
five

NOTES
from Axum.
in

Glaser also compares the Arabic


:

name

p*i)l^ (Kala')

found

Yemen

and with Koloe the

plural

c^:^

(Kulu') or

a^^JL^

(Kulu'ah):
(Atakh).
(p.

and with the former people the Hadhramitic race-name


1.

^\

74,

13.)

/iii/e

or

"^

without doubt indicates the modern


feet.

Semen Mountains, which


(108 c)
tells

rise to

a height of 15,000
" *

Cosmas elsewhere

us they were used as a place of banishment by the kings of


^-^,^-*^

Axum.

Glaser gives the Arabic form as


1.

Sumain.

(p. 74,

16.)

Lasine was identified by Saint-Martin vith the land of the


frontier of Tigre,

Basena or Bazen on the northern


Lasta and Aina
:

by Van Kloeden with


(la'asanah), the plural

and compared by Glaser with iUwuj


the
it

form of ^^1*)

(li'san),

name

of a race in the

Tihama

of

Yemen.

It

seems,

however, better to leave

uncertain with Dillmann and Dittenberger.


identified
is

the older commentators

with

Tsocha

in

the

east

of

Begemder, but again the identification


Glaser compares with

uncertain.

AJLek. (Jebelah) in the

Mountains of South

Yemen.
(p. 74,

But probably

the north of
1.

Axum
17.)

Jezirat al-^arab 83, 3. Dittenberger rejects this and all other suggestions without committing himself to any new view. With Beya compare the of Epiphanius, Haeres. of Salt's inscription, and the
II.

all

three of these doubtful places are to be sought to

(Dittenberger).
is

compared by Glaser with^lJift

in

Hamdani's

703,

and the
in the

OjJ

of the Geez inscriptions.

Dillmann says the name

is

Geez inscriptions and in Arabic geographers. Saint-Martin identifies them with the modern nomadic Nubian tribes called Bicharieh. In an expanded Coptic translation of Epiphanius' work De Gemniis^ the name occurs in the form Bougaioi (cf The Classical Quarterly^ Vol. iii., p. 196), and in the Latin translation of that work as Bugaei.
(p. 75,
1.

common

I.)

The Tangaites, according


and have given
their

to the

same

authorities, are part

of the

same
75,
1.

tribe,

name

to the

country of Taka,

extending from the river Atbara in Tigre to Sauakin on the


(p.
4.)

Red

Sea.

^Avvlve Koi Merive']


all

These

tribes

have been assigned by


Saint-Martin put
is

various commentators to

four points of the compass.


:

mentioned lie south or west towards the Sahara. McCrindle states that the fact that they lived in a mountainous region shows that their position was eastwards towards the Red Sea. And finally, Glaser compares the former with the Hebrew and Arabic words
as the northern boundary, and these should rather

them northwards from

Axum

but Dillmann objects that Egypt

iW

or

ajJs-\

(A'nanah) or

jlu-!

(Ahnanah), without stating anything


AXic (Matinah) at the foot of

further about those names,

and the

latter with

Jebel Hadir Nebbi Su'aib

but he hesitates to state that they are identical.

NOTES

343

"^,"
Issa."

says Saint-Martin, "ought to designate a part at least of the


still

Somali people, of which one of the principal tribes bears

the

name

of

Glaser compares the name with the Arabic name ^<-nr^ (Sa'si'ah). But again it seems safer to leave it uncertain with Dillmann and Dittenberger.
(p. 75,

which according
others,
(iv. 8),

Montfaucon thought the Rhausi were the people of Rhapta, to Ptolemy was the capital of Harbaria (iv. 7. 41): and among them Franz and Saint-Iartin refer to the Rhapsii of Ptolemy
1.

8.)

who according

to

Saint-Martin

still

exist in the interior to the south of

Abyssinia and are called the Arousi.


distant to be the persons here referred
(p. 75,
1.

But Dittenberger thinks they are too


to.

10.)

2,
Ditt.,

probably

to the south of

Adulis on the seashore

(Dittenberger).
(p. 75,
1.

15.)
(cf.

The Red Sea

is

here used in the extended sense of the

Arabian Gulf

Or. Gr. Insc7\ 69).

Axumite king must have obtained his fleet cannot have had an extensive one himself.
(p.

Dillmann suggests that the largely from the Romans, as he

75,
;

1.

15.)

The

'AppaiSiTm are generally taken to

mean Arabs

in

general

but Dittenberger observes that the Cinaedocolpitae were also


it

Arabs, so that probably


north of the

denotes a special branch of them, living to the

Cinaedocolpitae. Lagarde placed them near Leuce Come. Dillmann and Glaser take this and the succeeding names to indicate the tribes of the Arabic coastland from Janbo to the north of Yemen. For the and their towns compare Ptolemy VI. 7. 5, vil. 20. 17 and 23. 10. Saint-Martin thinks them to have been a branch of the tribe of Kinda, who occupied the Hedjaz. Dillmann compares the Arabic

name Kinana.
(p.

compare Strabo XVI. 4. 23 1 9, which says it was two and Per. or three days' sail from Mvoy on the way to Petra and the Nabathaei. It was the extreme south point of the Nabathaei and the Roman Empire, and is probably identical with the modern port Hauara. Dittenberger thinks
75,
1.

/
de

18.)

For

yrjs

..

elsewhere.

of the note to be a corruption, as that name is not found At any rate, as Lagarde pointed out, eVt must be used in the sense of Opposite to,' as the Blemyes lived in Nubia, not in Arabia, and

the

it is

therefore preferable to

etf,

the reading of V.
i.

Mem.

Acad, des Inscr. 1874, Ser.


(cf.

On

this tribe cf Revillont,


is

with one

the form

used by the poets


inscription.

Pauly-Wissowa

III. p.

They were

generally located in

566 sqq.) and is found in Salt's Nubia on the Upper Nile, but

Cosmas seems to imply that they extended to the shore of the Red Sea. By some they were credited with a mouth in their breasts and no head (cf. PHny N. H.\. i. 46 Mela I. 6). On the Sabaeans compare Ptolemy vi. 7. 1> Strabo xvi. 4. 2 and 19, Pliny N. H. VI. 161, xii. 66 and Mela iii. 79. Their capital was Mariaba (Marib), and they were masters of the Homeritae, not, as Cosmas says, merely a part of them. The Adanitae were the inhabitants of the modern Aden, (P 75) 1 35)
;

' 4
Mela
(p.

344

anciently

known

as
7.

;
9,

NOTES
(Philostorgius, Hist. Ecc.
26).
III.

4)

or

(Ptol. VI.

(hi. 80)

Arabia.

not this town, but the whole country of


76,
1.

3.)

For

Salt's

inscription

In the Axumite inscriptions the form

( ^
The
this
de
;

6,

Periplus

Pliny calls

Athenae (vi. 159), here mentioned is of course


it

Yemen.

address to Ares compare Aeizanas' words

in

yeviaavros

apyopcuov eva
is

y eV ayaOiu.

Mahrem, which Lagarde thinks

equivalent to the
(p. 76,
1.

Bahram

of the Persians.

17.)

Ethiopia, as this passage

among

others shows, was not in

ancient times a

name

for the territory of the inhabitants of the

Abyssinian

mountains and Tigre, but


south of them.
(p. 82,
1.

for that of the people of the plains to the west

and

16.)

The

KaTaypa^T) referred to

is

a coloured oblong, the length

being about three times the breadth, with a rim round the outside.

compass at the centre of the top votos; at the on the left-hand side at the top on the in the centre and at the bottom in the centre and at the bottom right at the top It is found on V fol. 96, L fol. 196 v. and S fol. 146 v. For the early spread of Christianity, compare Gibbon 3 foil.) (p. 119, {Decline and Fall, ch. xx.) and Arnobius {Adversus Gejites, 11. 12). The latter writing in the third century, says "Enumerari enim possunt, atque in usum computationis venire ea, quae in India gesta sunt, apud Seras, Persas, in Arabia, Aegypto; in Asia, Syria; apud Galatas, Parthos, et Medos Phrygas; in Achaia, Macedonia, Epizo in insulis et provinciis omnibus, quae sol oriens atque occidens lustrat." Tertullian also {Adv. Jud. i. 7) mentions Babylonia, Persia, India, Ethiopia, Asia, Germany, Britain, Mauretania, the Getuli and the Romans, as people to whom Christianity had extended: and Sozomen {Hist. Eccl. 11. 6) the Gauls, Goths, Celts and Iberians. Legend attributed the conversion of most nations to the Apostles (cp. Lipsius, Apokr. Apost.-Gesch. i. 25 foil.). Many of them according to
it

,.
;

are given the points of the

centre of the bottom

,
;

Round

, ,

1.

different legends visited different countries, so that, except in such cases as

that of

Thomas,

to

whom

India, one cannot assert the localities very definitely.

legend consistently attributes the conversion of But among countries


call attention to

mentioned by Cosmas one may


to Scythia,

legendary

visits of

Andrew

Matthew to Parthia and Great Armenia, Bartholomew to India, Abyssinia and Upper Egypt, Jude to Armenia and the Blemyes, and Simon
of

Cana

to the Iberians.

For notes on Taprobane, Male and CaUiana, see

bk. XI.

When

Christianity reached India

is

a subject of

much

dispute.

According

and India were visited by St Thomas, and he first planted a church there. Bartholomew also was supposed to have visited India, and we have it on the authority of Clement and Origen that their
to early tradition Parthia

friend Pantaenus went to South India towards the end of the second century

NOTES

345

and found there men acquainted with the Gospel of Matthew in Hebrew, which had been brought thither by Bartholomew. Eusebius {Eccl. Hist. V. lo) also refers to his mission. Sir W. Hunter inferred that those men were a Jewish colony, and that Thomas really did visit Persia and Afghanistan, and Bartholomew Malabar: but Milne Rae {Syrian Church in India) doubts if there were any Jews there so early, and appears to doubt too whether the tradition about the Apostles and the statements of Clement and Origen had
any foundation
in fact.

He

prefers to assign the foundation of a mission in

India to the Nestorians of the early sixth century, supporting his view by

hold of the Nestorians.

Cosmas' statement that the bishop came from Persia, which was the strongThere are other proofs of Nestorian influence at that time, for example an inscription from a Nestorian tomb as early as 547 A.D. quoted by Chwolson {Trans, of Russian Arch. Soc. Or. Sect.., Vol. ill., pt. I, 1886 7): but there seem to be earlier traces of Christianity in Ceylon

Labourte {Le Christianisme dans Vejnpire Perse., p. 606) monastery of St Thomas there in the middle of the fourth century. Besides the statement of Clement and Origen seems fairly definite. There was also a curious tradition that Ceylon was visited by the Eunuch of Candace (cf Hough, Hist, of Chi'istianity in India., Vol. II, pp. 30, 32, 42). Christianity probably died out there soon after Cosmas' time, as Ibn Wahab
at
rate, since

any

refers to a

and Abu Zeyd

do not refer to it, though they mention Jews and Manichaeans. Marco Polo too refers to the people as idolaters. Dioscorides is the Greek name for Socotra, which according to McCrindle is derived from the Skt. Dwipa Sukhadara (Island abode of bliss). The
(9th cent.)

and the fact that there were Greeks there is mentioned in the Periplus Maris Erythraei (ch. 30). Christianity there is mentioned also by the two Arab travellers of the ninth century and by Abu'l-feda. If, as is probable, it is the island from which Theophilus the apostle to the Homeritae came, it may have been converted by him when he returned to it on his embassy in 356 A.D. Marco Polo (lll. 32) states that "Their archbishop has nothing to do with the Pope of Rome, but is subject to the great Archbishop who lives at Baudas (Baghdad)," which agrees with Abu'l-feda's statement that
island

they were Nestorians.

Yule, however, notes that certain practices of their

church

(e.g.

circumcision)

support

De

Barros' statement that they were

Jacobite Christians of the Abyssinian stock, and says that Christianity has

now entirely disappeared. The Huns here referred to are probably the White Huns (cf. bk. XI.), who according to Drouin {Memoire sur les Huns Ephthalites) adopted the
Nestorian alphabet in the
nations between the
fifth

of that century, for the statement that Christianity

Roman

Drouin quotes Elisaeus, an Armenian had spread over all the dominions and India in the time of lazdgerd II.
century.

(438457

A.D.).

account, given by Sozomen (ll. 8), Moses of Khorene (ill. 8), and Agathangelos (in 132), places the conversion of the Armenians under Tiridates by Gregory in the middle of the fourth century. Sozomen thinks

The ordinary

346
the

NOTES

But Persians were afterwards converted by intercourse with them. Euseb. {Eccl. Hist. iii. 23) states that the Persians were converted in the

Apostolic age, and elsewhere {Praep. Evang. vi. 10) he quotes Bardaisan, a writer of the third century, for references to Christianity among the
Parthians,

Medes and

Persians.

Besides, at the Council of Nicaea appeared

John, bishop of the church of Persia and Great India (i.e. North India). On the Armenians see F. Tournebize, Etude siir la conversion de VArmenie
{Rev. de
Or. Chret., Ser.
its
II.,

tome

2,

1907).

The Ethiopian and Axumite

foundation according to Rufinus to Frumentius early in the fourth century. Frumentius had been taken prisoner there as a child, and after returning to Egypt was sent out by Athanasius as bishop. Rufinus, it must

church owed

be admitted, refers to the place as India, but the letter of Constantine to the king of Axum in Athanasius' Apology to Constantine shows that Ethiopia is
meant.

Sozomen
(ill.

(11.

24)

and Theodoretus
if

Philostorgius

6)

speaks as

same story but Theophilus converted them in 356 A.D.


(i.

33) give the

More probably Theophilus was Frumentius' successor. The Homeritae of Arabia Felix were apparently visited by missionaries Philostorgius (in. 6) states that about the same time as the Ethiopians.
Theophilus, a native of Divus, or Socotra,

him a Blemyan was sent also Socrates, H. E. iv. 36


stantinopolitanum (June 3) preached there as well as
that Origen
"

though Gregory of Nyssa calls them by Constantine in 356 A.D. (compare Rufinus, H. E. II. 6). The Synaxarium Conpreserves a tradition that the Eunuch of Candace
to
;

was sent

to

Eusebius {Hist. Eccl. vi. 19) states Arabia by Demetrius of Alexandria to preach at the
in

Ceylon.

request of the ruler of Arabia.

The Garamantes were

the inhabitants of the great oasis in the Libyan


often used in a

desert called Phazania,

and now Fezzan, but the name was

wider sense to denote the people of northern Africa


the Syrtis" (McCrindle).
Pentapolis, so called from
its

who

lived to the south of

five chief cities,

Cyrene, Berenice, Arsinoe,


;

Ptolemais and Apollonia, denotes the province Cyrenaica means the land between it and Mauretania.

while Africa

Southern Gades, Yule suggests,

may be

Tingis, or

Cape

Spartel, called

by

Strabo Koteis. But it does not seem impossible that go with the whole of the last words, not with Gades alone.

should

Gibbon

(ch. xlii.) says that the Lazi

were a tribe on the north of Colchos

in the time of Pliny, Arrian

and Ptolemy, but that they afterwards " imposed their name and dominion" on the kingdom of Colchos, and that after a relapse "in the beginning of the sixth century their influence was restored by the introduction of Christianity, which the Mingrehans still profess with becoming zeal." The Heruli were a tribe originally German, who with the Goths under Odoacer overthrew the western empire in 476 A.D. They dwelt north of the Euxine, and were converted in Justinian's reign {c. 537 A.D.); compare Evagrius IV, 20, Procop. Got/i. 11. 13 foil. The Goths according to

NOTES
Philostorgius
(li.

347

were converted by captives taken from Cappadocia and Afterwards under their bishop Urphilas or Galatia in Valerian's reign. Ulphilas they embraced Arianism (comp. Socrates iv. 34, and Theodoretus
5)
IV. 37)'

(p. 135,

1.

12.)

Cosmas here

at the

end of book IV draws a picture of four

men
tion

standing at the four poles of a round world.

The

ridicule of the theory

is intensified by the disproporbetween the size of the men and the world on which they are standing. Ananias of Shirag objected to a round world on the score that the people on it would look "like flies round an apple," but even he did not figure them as Cosmas' objections were shared full-sized men standing round a child's ball. by a host, indeed by the majority, of the Fathers, as one may see from Beazley's note on the passage, and many classical authorities agreed with them, for example Herodotus. The Pythagoreans were the first to suggest the sphere, not because they had any proofs to give in support of it, but because they considered it the most perfect figure. Proofs were not forthcoming probably till the time of Eudoxus. Aristotle sought to prove it from the law of gravitation and from the spherical shape of the moon at eclipses. Strabo first used the inference from the disappearance of ships at sea. At the same time he, like Eratosthenes, regards the habitable part of it as an irregular oblong, comparing it to the Greek chlamys, which was about twice as long as it was broad with an irregular piece at each end. The result would be almost the same shape as that given in Cosmas' map (cf Tozer,

of a round world and people at the Antipodes

Class. Geogr. 167


(p.

8, etc.).
at the

138,

1.

5.)

branch of the adding that it was so called from the town too {Hae?-. 11. 668) mentions to
ports of the

The name Clysma is given to the whole of the western Red Sea by Eusebius and Philostorgius (ill. 8), the latter
head of it. Epiphanius as one of the three

Red
23.)

Sea, apparently in the position of or near Suez.

Compare

also the Pej-egriiiatio Silviae (ed. Gamurrini, p. iii).


(p. 242,
1.

The

represents the sun as a circular ball, with a


in
it.

man's head and shoulders clearly visible

Below

it

is

the earth,

a slightly smaller circular ball with ten small square excrescences starting
dicular rays

near the centre of the top and running round the right side. Six perpenfall from the sun striking the five uppermost excrescences, which
It is

are presumably supposed to represent the

fol.

96

V.
1.

and S
2.)

fol.

found on

fol.

16

v.,

33

v.

(p. 318,

This

title is

misleading and probably not genuine, as

many

of the animals included are admittedly not natives of India, but of other

countries visited by
1.

Cosmas e.g. the giraffe, hippopotamus, etc. Cosmas appears to have known only the African species, 4.) (p. 318, the two-horned rhinoceros. As a rule ancient authors refer rather to the
:

one-horned species,
(^.

e.g.

Agatharcides

(Miiller, Geogr. Gr.

Min.

i.

158), Pliny

viii. 71).

34
p.

NOTES

Both Sperman {Voyaj^c an Cap de Bonne-Esp. ii. 307) and Salt {Travels^ 416) mention the mobility of the horns as facts confirmed by natives. The
is

hostility of the rhinoceros to the elephant

commonplace of
158) says

all

ancient
nepl

authors

who

del

^^
1.

refer to the beast.

Agatharcides

{ib, p.

'"''

\(.''
"hostis elephanto" and Solinus {Fo/. 30. 21)
also the account of the

Pliny

(A^. //. vill. 7) calls it

follows him.

Compare
15.)

method of fighting

in

Sindbad's

Second Voyage, and the modern account


(p.

in Marryat's Biishboys.

318,
p.

If

{Travels,

417) suggests,
h^ris).

we read we get
In

instead of
the

modern Tigre name


to Salt

as Salt

for the rhinoceros

aC^

"V^ft (arwe

Amharic according

it is

}\(D*^

'liCil

Cosmas is correct too in his it auraris. component parts, as "arwe" is Amharic for a "beast" and "haras" or "'aras" means "to plough" according to Isenberg (Amh. Diet.) and Dillmann {Lex. ling. Aeth.). Ludolf took the latter part for the Arabic
(aweer haris): but Isenberg writes
translation of the
u--^j* (harish)
(p.

"unicorn."
buffalo,

states that

The is presumably the was originally Indian and was brought during the Middle Ages.
318,
1.

23.)

though Cuvier

it

to

Egypt and Europe

(P

3I9j

I)

Cosmas apparently

thinks his picture sufficiently describes

Pliny {N. H. Vlll. 18. 27) and Solinus neck is like that of a horse, its feet like those of an ox, its head like a camel's head and give the Aethiopian name as iiabun. Sindbad (Voyage 3) says that in shape and colour it is like a camel. Compare also Marco Polo (ed. Yule), 111. 34. As the pictures of the giraffe and several other animals are not reproduced, it may perhaps be as well to describe them here. On fol. 267 v. of L are drawings of the giraffe on the left and the on the right
the giraffe, as he gives no description.
(30 19) state that its
;

-^^
it

facing each other.


it is

meant

to

The giraffe is surprisingly like a be one. The only faults one can find
it

giraffe,

considering that
are that
its

with

neck

is

not so long as

should be and as

it

appears in Montfaucon's plate, nor do

its hindquarters drop properly. On the other hand it is correctly fitted with two short horns, which Montfaucon has omitted, and its nozzle is raised, not drooping as he represents it. The colouring is much rubbed, and I am not sure whether it was originally dappled or not. The is an ox-like animal with a bushy tail, which is unaccountably caught in the perfectly smooth trunk of a short tree. Its neck is preternaturally long, about as long as the giraffe's, and nearly as thick as the animal's body. Behind the tree

-^^

stands a figure in a short tunic with a girdle and a kind of skull-cap or


helmet, with his
to the girdle,

arm

raised, brandishing a sword.


is

By

his left knee, attached

hangs a bag, which

omitted by Montfaucon, who also repre-

sents the animal's forelegs as far too

which

cannot see

in the original.

much advanced and gives it a mane, The picture of the pepper tree is more

faithfully

reproduced by Montfaucon.

On

the right are two short trees with

NOTES
straight stems
easily indicated

349
is

and tops as in Montfaucon, only broader. The shape by an outline. Below these tops hang on On the left rises a each side two pods like coco-pods. trailing vine-like plant which after running up straight for some height bends in an arch to the right and hangs horizontally over the tops of the two short trees. Between it and
the nearest of those shorter trees stands a negro with a bag,

most

who

is

gathering something from the foliage of the short


all

tree.

This and the next three animals

occur together in the

bottom margin of fol. 269 r. For the seal the best I can say is that it looks less of a moon-calf than Montfaucon's draughtsman chose to make it: but a sea-calf it certainly is with two pointed ears and a muzzle raised to It is seated on a tail which is curled under the body and stands up bellow. perpendicularly on the other side of it, culminating in a kind of fan with two pointed ends. The body is something between a seal's and a bear's and in front it rests on two fins prolonged until they look more like a bear's paws than a seal's fins. They are not, however, calves' legs as in Montfaucon's
;

illustration.

The dolphin
defined as
fin
it is

is

very

much more
is

like
:

a dolphin.
there
is,

Its

head

is

not so clearly

in

Montfaucon's picture

as there should be, a dorsal

on

its

back, and the animal

"taking a header," not swimming on the


is

surface of the water,

indeed there

no water.
it,

The

is,

as Montfaucon represents

a spotted circular body with

two protruding arms and a head.

On
that
it

fol.

272

r.

is

a picture of a lion killing a horse, as in Montfaucon, save


is

and
in

^.
is

turned the other way, which

also the case with the seal, dolphin


to the left, not to the right as
tail,

On

272
It

v. is

an elephant facing
off.

Montfaucon.

that

appendage has been rubbed


foil.

all the animals existed in S, foil. 201 5. But the and 205 have been cut off, and the picture of the rhinoceros, giraffe, and elephants are now missing. 1. II.) The is the "yak" or "bos grunniens." "This (p. 319, " mentioned by Aelian, was originally from the mounanimal," says Cuvier, tains of Thibet. Its tail constitutes the standard still used by the Turks to

Similar pictures of
201

margins of

,
chowri
is

does not appear to have been graced with a

unless

designate their superior officers."


refer to the

McCrindle, however, takes Cosmas to

{^y^^)

or fly-flapper used in India, particularly

on

occasions of state and parade.


horse-tail standard,

t^L (tugh), the Turkish

name

probably the word here represented as


is

yak's

tail is

similarly used by the Chinese.


1.

.
I.

for the

The

(p. 319,

19.)

Cosmas
is

correct in his description of the musk-deer

the

musk

bag, which

confined to the male.

country he visited, being found in

and not a native of any the mountainous region between Siberia,


But
it

is

China and Thibet.

Compare Marco

Polo's description (ed. Yule

57).

350
KastLiri

NOTES
(^j^^**.^)
1.

is

Hindustani

for

"musk," but Lassen says that

in

the Himalayas the


(p.

319,

25.)

name is also applied to the animal. The belief in a unicorn among the Greeks was
:

at least as

old as the days of Ctesias

and subsequent writers recognise more than one,

perhaps as many as five different species, the one-horned horse, the onehorned ox, the Indian ass, the oryx and the monoceros. Aelian {Ahit. An, XVI. 20) mentioned a one-horned Indian beast which was of the size of a horse
with feet like an elephant,
to
tail like

a pig, and a twisted horn


Pliny {N.

it

was too wild

be caught except when young.


it

H.

viii.

^ and

Solinus (52. 39)

describe

in

almost the same terms, and both of them mention another

one-horned Indian beast of somewhat similar appearance, called by Pliny


" leucocrota,"

by Solinus "eale."
the

recognises two
describe them.

^,

Aristotle

{Nat.

A?t.

in.

p.

668)

also

oryx and the

Indian ass, but does not

Most modern commentators identify the unicorn with the rhinoceros, which agrees well enough with Marco Polo's account (ill. 9, "They have hair like that of a buffalo, feet like those of an elephant, and a horn in the middle of the forehead, which is black and very thick"), but not so well with this horse-like beast, and still less with the two " unicorns in the temple of Mecca, not very common in other places," described by Varthema {Travels^ Considering his extreme accuracy and veracity, his ed. Hakluyt Soc. p. 47). account is worth quoting "The elder is formed like a colt of 30 months old, and he has a horn in the forehead, which horn is about three bracchia in length. The other unicorn is like a colt of one year old, and he has a horn about four palms long. The colour of the said animal resembles that of a dark bay horse and his head resembles that of a stag his neck is not very long, and he has some thin and short hair which hangs on one side his legs are
:

slender and lean like those of a goat; the foot


part,

is

little

cloven in the fore-

and there are some hairs on the hind-part of the said legs." This description fairly fits the picture given by Cosmas, and according to Varthema they came from Ethiopia. That he saw them there is practically no doubt; and they were not rhinoceroses, as he knew the rhinoceros (cf. p. 87 at Zaila, " I also saw here other cows, which had a single horn in the forehead, which horn is a palmo and a half in length, and turns more towards the back of the cow than forwards"). It is possible, as the editor suggests, that they were freaks of some species of antelope. This view is supported by the detail mentioned by Cosmas, that in jumping down a height it turns a somersault on to its horn, which according to Yule and McCrindle holds good of the oryx.

and long and

goat-like,

The

biblical unicorn
is,

is

generally identified with the wild ox.

was in Hue's day, a Chinese tradition too that the unicorn exists in Thibet, and Lon-Hoa-Tchon says it is called " serou," a name still known to Indian sportsmen. According to G. Maxwell {In Malay Forests, p. 168) it is identical with the Naemorhaedus or "goat-antelope," but is not one-horned. Lon-Hoa-Tchon states that the Mongols confound this unicorn
or

There

with the rhinoceros.

'NOTES
(p.

351
in

320,

1.

14.)

The name "hog-deer" has been


two small Indian deer,

to three different animals,

modern times applied Axis porcinus and Axis


the illustration the

maculatus, and the Indian hog or Sus babyrussa.


latter

From

would appear

to be the
is

animal intended by Cosmas, though Yule

thinks this species

confined to the Archipelago.

He compares

Pliny's

description of an Indian swine (N.


(p.
1.

H.

viii.

78).

For hippopotamus' tusks comp. Marco Polo (ill. '}^'^. He 320, 17.) had only seen the "boars'" tusks weighing 14 lbs., and speaks of the beast from hearsay as a "boar as big as a great buffalo." Pliny (iV. //. xii. 26) and Solinus (55) compare the pepper19.) (p. 320, tree or plant to the juniper, and notice two different kinds, piper album and piper longum. Closer to Cosmas' description is that of Maundeville, ch. XV., "And you shall understand that the pepper grows like a wild vine, which is planted close by the trees of that wood to sustain it the fruit hangs like bunches of grapes." Cp. Ibn Khardadbah (Yule, Cathay i. clxxv.), "The mariners say every bunch of pepper has over it a leaf that shelters it from the rain. When the rain ceases the leaf turns aside if the rain recommences,
too
1.
;

the leaf again covers the fruit."


(p.321,1. 2.) j/apy6XXta
narjil.

= Skt.

^^^, narikela, Pers. and Hind,


mentioned
in

jj-^flj-ju,

According
321,
6.)

to

Tennent

it is first

Ceylon

in the

Mahawanso

(161 B.C.).

For the coco-nut milk compare Marco Polo (ill. 10), meat of the nut is filled with a liquor like clear fresh water, but better to the taste, and more delicate than wine or any other drink that ever existed"; and Ibn Batuta (ed. Lee, p. 60), who says it is made of the nut taken out and macerated, which then becomes milk in taste and colour. Yule {Cathay 11. 362), commenting on John de Marignoli, whose descrip(p.
1.

"The

inside of the

tion

Nargil is the Indian nut. Its tree has a most delicate bark and very handsome leaves like those of the dateis

very like that of

Cosmas
is

"The

palm....

Inside the shell

a pulp of some two fingers thick, which


Inside of this there

is is

excellent eating

and

tastes almost like almonds....

a liquor which bubbles like


suggests that "possibly

new milk and turns to an excellent wine" Cosmas has confounded the coco-nut milk with the coco-palm toddy (i.e. sap drawn and fermented). For sura is the name applied on the Malabar coast to the latter. Roncho may represent lanha, the name applied there to the nut v.'hen ripe, but still soft." For the of Ceylon comp. Ael. N. An. xvi. 17. (p. 321, 14.) The Periplus also refers to their exportation from Ceylon (61) and from
1.

/
6, 7).
if it

Adulis and the Aualites (


(p.

321,

1.

14.)

The
which

cannot have seen seals in his voyages

means

"seal,"

is

a puzzle, as Cosmas
;

in eastern

and southern seas


resembles
it,

but the
in

dugong

(Halicore),

to the uninitiated closely

is

found

the

Indian Ocean and the Red Sea. Tennent {CeyloJi il. 557) says there are plenty on the coast near Adam's Peak. Their flesh was represented to him

352
as closely resembling veal.

NOTES
Though according
to Cuvier " the

head of a seal

resembles that of a dog," and Albinovanus Pedo (quoted by Seneca, Suas. i. 15) calls seals "aequorei canes," Cosmas' picture certainly rather exaggerates
the resemblance.
(p.

321,

1.

24.)

The name

2ieXeSi/3a for

Ceylon

is

obviously the same as

the

modern Arabic s,^jJ^j^^ Serendib

(cf.

the Serinda of Procopius, the

embassy from the Serendivi and Divi in Amm. Marc. XXII. 7. 10, the simple Dibou of Philostorgius), and the Sirindibenoi of the Coptic translation of
Epiphanius

De Gemniis

{Classical Quarterly
of the Salai

III. p.

218).

It is

compound
the

meaning apparently the island

as Ptolemy

(vii. 4. i) calls

inhabitants; the latter part -diba being the Skt. ^t"^, dvvipa (Hind. w-J^,
dib), while the

former part is preserved in the name Salike, mentioned by Ptolemy (vii. 4. i) and Stephanus (sub voce Taprobane) as the name of Ceylon in their days, and probably also in the more recent forms Zeilan, According to McCrindle and Burton {Ar. Nights VI. Sailan, Ceylon, etc. p. 64) the source of these forms is "Sihalam" (pronounced Silam), the Pali

form of the Skt. T''^^'^^, sinhala (from T'^B^"^ "a lion") a name that was applied to the hero Vijaya. The Greek name Taprobane is at least as old as Megasthenes {c. 300 B.C.)

and
a

is

the

commonest
it

classical

name

for the island.


"

Authorities differ
leaf,"

as to whether

is

a corruption of Tamraparni,
its

copper-coloured
(cf.

name given Mahawanso, p.

to
55),

Ceylon by
or of
writers.

Indian

conqueror Vijaya

Turner's

Dwipa-Ravana (Island of Ravana), a name used

by the Brahmanical

generally mentioned as the old


the

\8
None
of

some

of the classical writers seem them mention another name


;

,^
to
is

know

the proper reading

Marc. Heracl.); or in most cases doubtful. This is

the Skt.

name Lanka

but

modern name

(e.g.

the Periplus (Miiller,

modern name and


Possibly Pliny
the

(A^. //. VI.

name

of the

probable than the suggestion of


"Prius, ut opinor,
fuit

most celebrated town there. That at Is. Voss in his note on Pomponius Mela
Palou vel Polou Indis est insula.
est,

itaque

Siamensium

.
24)
insula,

of the island as opposed to by Ptolemy, Stephanus and Marc. Heracl. 35), but Geogr. Or. Mi?t. 301) seems to speak of this as the as the old name.
is

name

,,

right in stating that

Palaesimundus was any rate seems more

ill. 7,

hoc

Sinensium, ut iam diximus."

Van der Tunk, however, thinks it is a Javanese name, puloh selan = island of gems comparing it with the Skt. Ratna-dwipa and Arabic Jezirat al-yakut (O^yt OjjJ.-) (cf. Yule, Marco Polo 11. p. 255).
;

Pliny also says

that

the

inhabitants
to

of

Ceylon were
(A^.

at

first

called

Antichthones, as

it

was supposed

be the Antipodes

H.

vi. 22),

and

also Palaeogoni by Megasthenes.


(p. 321,
1.

26.)

The pepper country


al-falfal).

is

Malabar: comp. the Arabic name

JaAaJI jJ^ (balad

NOTES
(p.

353

These islands are apparently the Maldives and Laccadives. Ptolemy also mentions them, giving their number as 1378. Palladius (in Pseudo-Callisthenes 111. 7) calls them the Maniolae. Palladius {Laus. Hist. in. 7) mentions these islands under the same name, but gives their number as 1000. They are possibly the Divi of
321,
1.

26.)

Ammianus.
(p. 321,
1.

29.)

The word
still

yavbia according to

note)

is

the

word

in

use in Ceylon in the form

man can walk in an hour.. .a according to the nature of the ground to be traversed."
the distance a
(p.

Tennent {Ceylon 11. 543 "gaou" and "means somewhat indeterminate length
size,

321,

1.

29.)

The

ancients were very badly informed as to the

shape and position of Ceylon.


with that of Ptolemy
(vil. 4. i),

Cosmas' estimate of the

size

almost agrees

who makes
its

ancients, following Eratosthenes, give

900 miles by 750. Most of the extent as 7000 stadia by 5000 (Pliny,
it
it

N. H.

VI. 22).

Strabo

(ii.

i.

14,

XV. 14)

makes

5ocx) stadia in the direction

makes it reach to the extreme south of the habitable world. Hipparchus, quoted in Mela (ill. 7. 7), regarded it as a separate continent and Ptolemy makes it reach 2 below the equator and nearly 3 higher than it actually extends. The ambassadors to Claudius (Pliny vi. 22) exaggerated still more, speaking of icxdoo stadia and the mistake continues as late as the time of Marco Polo, who makes it
;

of Ethiopia and 8000 in the direction of India and

in circuit in his day, and formerly as much as 3600. Almost the only dissentient voices are Onesicritus and lambulus (cf. Diod. Sic. II. 55), who reduce it to 5000 stadia in circuit. According to Tennent the Hindus and Arabs have the same extravagant ideas but Sindbad is nearly right in estimating it as 250 miles by 100. Fa Hian also, nearly a century and a half before Cosmas, was almost correct in his estimate. Its extreme length is actually 27 li miles, and its greatest width 137^, its circuit somewhat under 700 miles. Its position too was uncertain. Onesicritus counted it 20 days' sail from India, Strabo (xv. 14) seven days south of India. Ptolemy (l. 17. 9) located it east of the mouth of the Indus, while the author of the Peripius thought it extended so far west as almost to touch Africa, and the Scholiast to Dionysius Periegetes (596) counted it an island of Africa. Sulaiman, one of Renaudot's two Mahommedan travellers, (p. 322, 1. I.) also speaks of two kings, and Abu Zaid says that Kalah, which he regards as an island, was subject to the king of Zabedj, an extensive maritime kingdom

2400 miles

including Malacca, Borneo, Java, etc.


(p.

There is some doubt as to the meaning of the words The most natural meaning would be that assigned it by Thevenot, "the part of the island where jacinths are found," i.e. the southern part. In which case the port referred to would probably be that suggested by Bertolacci {Ceylon^ pp. 18, 19), Mantotte, not far from the old capital Anarajapoora. But Tennent (i. 563 foil.) objects that the port was at the south end of the island, and Pliny certainly states as much definitely. Tennent consequently takes the "hyacinth country" to mean the part whose
322,
1.

.
W.

2.)

'

23

354

NOTES

" which ruby was king possessed the celebrated great " ruby of Ceylon a carbuncle or amethyst and the port to be "Point de Galle," as probably Abu Zaid calls it Kalah (cf. also the Garshasp Namah in Ouseley's Travels I.

48),

and not Trinquemale as Gibbon supposed.


it

Is.

Voss

{Mela., p. 572)

had

already identified
(p.

with Point de Galle.


to

mention of the famous great ruby "As long as one's hand, and as big as a man's arm, without spot, shining like Hwen Thsang, fire, not to be bought for money" (Marco Polo iii. 14). later than Cosmas, tells us that it was at Anarajapoora on the a century It is also spire of the Buddha Tooth temple, and the Arabs knew of it. mentioned by Jordan de Severac about 1323. Corsali (in Ramusis, vol. I. p. 180), however, thought it was a carbuncle, and in that case it may be the "red palace-illuminator" which, according to Chinese records, was sold to the Emperor of China early in the 14th century. Tennent, however, on the authority of Dana's Mineralogy (11. 196), thinks it was probably an amethyst, a stone " which is found in large chrystals in Ceylon, and which modern mineralogists believe to be the 'hyacinth' of the ancients." The eminence on which the temple stood Tennent identifies with Mihintala, the sacred hill
322,
1.

9.)

This seems

be the

first

near Anarajapoora [Ceyloti


(p.

i.

543, 4).

For the extensive trade with Ceylon in early times by Chinese, Arabs, Persians, Indians and Tamils compare Tennent (l. 540), and
322,
1.

13.)

for the trade of Persia in particular

il.

100 notes.

which Tennent (i. 541) thinks The Periplns also mentions must have been manned by Malabars, Arabs, Persians, etc., as the Cingalese had no shipping worth mentioning themselves. = ea.st of Cape Comorin. (p. 322, 1. 14.) Tennent (i. 590) says that sandal-wood (Skt. chandana) is mentioned by the Chinese travellers as an export from Ceylon, but is no longer found there. Male is probably the Malabar coast, though Voss (Mela (p. 322, 1. 17.) 571) decides for one of the Maldive islands, saying that the natives declare that the name of the group is derived from Male, the chief island and seat of

the king.
(p.

322,

1.

17.)

Calliana = Kalyana (fortunate

city),

near Bombay.

It is

mentioned also
(p. 322,
1.

in the Peripliis 52, 53.

18.)

]
is

mentioned also

in the Peripius.

Yule

identifies with "sissi" or " shisham,"


(p. 322,
1.

a valuable Indian timber.


at the

19.)
cf.

Iivhov

is

probably Diul-Sind

mouth

of the Indus

(McCrindle,
(p.

Yule).

322,

1.

27.)

Orrhotha
like

of Gujarat, being

Pliny's

probably some place on the western coast Horatae an incorrect form of Sorath, or
(vil. i, 2)
:

Saurashtra, the Surastrene of Ptolemy


that
is

and the Peripius

(ch. 41),

Gujarat.
in

Others identify

it

with Surat

but that was not a place of

importance
Sibor
the
is

ancient times.

called Simylla by

Ptolemy
identifies

(vii.
it

i.

6),

Arab geographers.

Yule

wkh Chaul

and Saimur or Jaimur by or Chenwal, 23 miles

NOTES
south of Bombay,

355

and 227) compares it with Ptolemy's Suppara, Jordanus' Supera, Ibn Haukal and Ednsi's Subara (four Reinaud thought it or five days from Kambaia), Abu'l-Feda's Sufalah. = Mangalor. Mangarouth represented the Sanskrit SubahHka. On Salopatana, Nalopatana, Poudapatana, McCrindle (p. 322, 1. 29.) notes, "These three ports appear to have been situated on the coast of Cottonarike, the pepper country somewhere between Mangalor and Cahcut. The termination paiana means town.' Poudapatana means new town,' and the place so called may be identified with Ptolemy's Podoperoura." Yule {Cathay 11. 453) identifies it with the Pudripatam, Pudipatanam, Puripatanam, etc. of various mediaeval travellers, and with Budfattan of Ibn Batuta, " In Ibn Batuta's time it was under the same prince as Jurfattan (which we have identified with Cananor), was a considerable city on a great estuary, and one of the finest ports on the coast." Tennent (11. 129 and 556) suggests that the reference (p. 322, 1. 32.) is either to the chank fishery at Mantotte (comp. Abu Zaid), or possibly to oyster fisheries at Bentotte. Compare Marco Polo iii. 16 on the pearl fisheries between Ceylon and India. Yule {Cathay I. clxxviii.) suggests Marava or Marawar opposite Ceylon Walkenaer a town apparently otherwise unknown, " Morilloum opposite Ceylon." With compare Ptolemy's Chaveris, which is identified by Burnell with Kaveripattam, a little to the north of Tranquebar, at the mouth of
i.

and {Cathay

clxxxviii.

'

'

the Podu-Kaveri.
(p.

322,

clxxviii.)

1. 33.) is uncertain. Yule {Cathay i. notes that " Pliny speaks of alabandic carbuncles and of an alabandic

Kaveran cffX^"^^ means The meaning oi

saffron in Skt.

black marble, both called from a city in Caria. The French apply the name almandine or albandine to a species of ruby (cf. Pliny, N. H. xxxvil. 25 XXXVI. 13). If rubies be meant it is just possible that Pegu may be in
;

question."

Cosmas was the first who laid down China's correct boundary on the east by the Ocean" (McCrindle). Tennent (l. p. 542, note 2) makes the following comment (p. 323, 7.) on this passage: "Cosmas wrote between A.D. 545 and a.d. 550; and the voyage of Sopatrus to Ceylon had been made thirty years before. Kumaara Daas reigned from A.D. 515 to A.D. 524." Beazley (i. p. 191) thinks this date too early, the voyage probably being made after A.D. 527. But Cosmas
(P

323,

2.)

"

1.

actually states that the

man had been dead


and there
is
it

in 515 A.D. at the latest;


this

no
to

35 years, which puts his death reason for supposing that he took

voyage
to

in his last

year and toid

Cosmas

at

once

he would rather

Consequently the voyage should be relating an old adventure. probably be dated considerably earlier, near the beginning of the sixth century. So far as the story is concerned Sopatrus need never have been

seem

to

Ceylon

at

all,

for

it

is

probably an old traveller's

tale, at least

as old as

the time of Pliny,

who

relates a tale (A^.

H.

vi. 24)

which looks

like the original

from which

this is derived

by a natural process of exaggeration.

232

356
(,
323,
1.
1

NOTES
8.)

Vincent

(li. p.

511) has noted the fact that in his interview

with the Greek native of Egypt the king addressed him as the traditional name of any race ruHng at Constantinople.
(p.

323,

1.

25.)

72 to the

lb.

of gold.

]
silver

'^

(= \^3j)y

The aureus

of Constantine, of which there were

iaLov = the
\ 42.
(p. 324,
1.

drachm, 20

to the daric or stater:

cf.

Periplus^

6.)

given to the
Caspian.
that

first

The White Huns was according to Gibbon (ch. 26) a name colony of Huns that left their native land in the fourth century
to the plains of

and migrated south west

Sogdiana, on the eastern side of the

They were also called the Ephthalites or Nephthalites. The fact Cosmas here mentions them in northern India supports, as Sir W.

Hunter has pointed out {Indian Empire, p. 170), Dr J. Ferguson's idea that it was the White Huns who overthrew the Guptas between 465 and 470 A.D. Dr Ferguson "places the great battles of Korur and Maushari, which freed India from the Sakas and Hunas," between 524 and 544 A.D. Yule {Cathay i. clxxx.) calls them the Yueichi or Yetas and refers to Lassen 11. 771 and III. V. Saint-Martin and Drouin have written special monographs on them. 584. They are first mentioned in Dionysius Perieg. 730. Compare Hdt. vii. 42, where Xerxes' army drank up the (p. 324, 1. 12.) Scamander. "Emeralds were found in the mines of Upper Egypt, and (p. 324, 1. 14.) were no doubt shipped from Adule for the Indian markets by the Ethiopian traders who bought them from the Blemmyes. If taken to Barygaza (Bharoch) they could be transported thence by a frequented trade-route to Ujjain, thence to Kabul, and thence over the Hindu Kush to the regions of the Oxus"
(McCrindle).
(p.

324,

1.

27.)

Marco Polo

111.

17 (and

l.

15, etc.)

mentions the importa-

tion of horses from Persia, Kis

India,

and Hormes, Dofar and Soer and Aden to because the i^w native horses there were "wretched wry-legged weeds,
to ride."

not

fit

(p.
II.

325,

1.

3.)

On

Ethiopian elephant taming comp. Yule's Marco Polo

3678.

Berosus was by birth a Babylonian and a priest of Bel (p. 325, 1. 32.) he wrote a book in Greek on Babylonian or Chaldaean history, which he The work is now lost, but 262 B.C.). dedicated to Antiochus I Soter (281

fragments of
fathers,

and some of the Christian have derived their knowledge of it mainly from Apollodorus and Alexander Polyhistor. McCrindle suggests that Cosmas borrowed his knowledge from Josephus but he must certainly have used other works
it

are preserved in Josephus, Eusebius


to

who seem

as well, as the

names

of the ten kings before the flood are not found in

Josephus.

Cosmas seems to be quoting from Plato's Timaeus III. from memory or perhaps merely from hearsay. It is not Timaeus who makes the statement about Atlantis, but Critias quoting the
(p.

24

25 A, either

326,

1.

16.)

NOTES

357

words of an Ej^yptian priest to Solon. Nor again are the ten generations mentioned in the dialogue. Later Cosmas makes an even worse mistake, substituting Solomon for Solon. This list of names is derived froni the second book of (p. 327, 1. 4.) Berosus, and is also preserved in Eusebius {Chron. p. 5, ed. Mai) and Syncellus They seem to have derived their information from Apollodorus (P 39 i^) and Alexander Polyhistor. The names as given in Miiller's edition {Frag.
Hist. Gr.
II.

499) are

Alorus

Alaparus

Almelon

Ammenon
Amegalarus Davonus Edoranchus

". ?. ^. ^^.
?. ^.
^,.
^Ay\rLv.
Meyakapos.

Amemphsinus
Otiartes

Xisuthrus

But

their estimate of the time the kings reigned

.
is

seems

to

be more moderate
it

than that of Cosmas.

Eusebius, following Berosus, gives


priest

as 120 sari,

"Nempe

quadraginta tres annorum myriadas annosque bis mille."


1.

Manetho was an Egyptian II.) (p. 327, Egypt drawn from the priestly records, which
the surviving fragments are

who wrote a history now unfortunately lost,

of
as

among

the chief authorities for the early history

of Egypt.

Josephus attacks him in Contra Apioneni I. 26 foil. Chaeremon was an Alexandrian and probably head of the Museum.
33) accuses of wilful falsehood,
is

He

was afterwards one of Nero's preceptors.


Josephus {Contra Ap.
for a few fragments.
I.

His history of Egypt, which

now

lost

except

Apollonius, surnamed Molon, or better son of Molon, was a famous


rhetorician of Rhodes, who, while teaching oratory at

Rome
;

from 81

B.C.,

instructed both Cicero

Josephus {Contra Ap.

and Caesar (cf. Cic. Brut. 307, 312, 316 Suet. Caes. 4). II. yj) and Alexander Polyhistor mention a work by
of the latter half of the

him against the Jews. Lysimachus was an Alexandrian grammarian


second century.

Josephus (C. Ap. I. 34; which was probably by him.

II.

14. 35)

mentions a work called

under Tiberius and Claudius (cf. Pliny, TV. H. praef. 25). He wrote a work on Egypt in which he attacked the Jews, and a separate diatribe against the Jews, which provoked an answer from Josephus in the Contra Apionem 11. foil.
Apion, a native of Egypt, taught rhetoric in
(p.

327,

I.

17.)

Comp. Manetho
AiyvTrrov
Plato's

in

Josephus {Contra Ap.


ill.

avTov

4\(
1.

e^opiaai

(p. 328,

18.)

Comp.

Timaeus

.
i

Rome

I.

28)

yap

22

B.

It

is

of course the

358
Egyptian priest
Plato.
(p.

NOTES
who makes
the

remark

to

Solon,

not

Solomon

(!)

to

330,

1,

16.)

(p. 330,

1.

22.)

Comp. Josephus, Ant. Comp. Josephus, Ant.

XI. 8.

5.

xii.

2.

Tryphon
11.

is

a mistake for

Demetrius Phalereus the librarian of Alexandria. Comp. Josephus, Contra Ap. (p. 330, 1. 32.) reigned from B.C. 170 117.

5.

Ptolemy Physcon

INDEX OF BIBLICAL QUOTATIONS^


Genesis.
156 D, 161 c, 176 c, 181 D, 380 c), 2, 3 (420 a), 24 (140D), 3, 5 (149BX 6 (140 D, 420c, D), 8 (81 d), 20, 24, 27 (141 a), 26 (176 D, 309 B, 312 A, C), 27 (236 C). I (76 A, 380 C), 2 (380 C), 3 12 (161c), 4 (76 A, 161c), 10 (452 a), 17 (229 a), 18 (260 B), 23 (160 B). III. I (120D), 5 (149A), 15 (124A), 17 19 (92 d), 19 (120 d), 20 (224 D), 22 (236 , 328 c, 413 B). IV. 25 (93 B), 15 (229 ), 7, 16, 2022 (173 D), 25 (225 B). V. I (380 D), 13 (225 B, C), 29
I.

Deuteronomy.

(76

II.

7 (216 b).

VIII. 4, 5

(216

b).

X. 14 (84 B, 341 d). XVIII. 15 (245 c, 296 b), 18 (245 c).

XXIX. 4 (216

b).

XXX.
I.

8,

1214

XXXII. 8 (320

b),

(96 a), 12 (256 d). 43 (364 D).

Kings.
XVIII. 44 (129 c).

II.

Kings.

XVII. 32 (60 b). XX. 10 (393 c).


I.

Chronicles.
8, 9 (452 a). XV. 30 (249 a). XVI. 7 (249 a).
I.

(92 C).
VI. 16

II. b).

Chronicles.
26, 31 (389 b).

(232

XXXII.
c, D), 3, 4 (93 a),

IX.

14, 6 (233
C),

XXXVI.
Job.

22, 23 (397 B).

24 (232
X.
XI.

2627

27, 22 (85 C). 4(136 D), 7 (312 B).

(232 D, 233

A).

XXVI.

7 (80 A, 184 D, 381 A).

xxxviiL

XIV. 19 (76 b), 22(760). XIX. 23 (424 b). XXII. 16 (241 c).
C). 7 (76 XXV. 23 (237 c, 329 a). XXVII. 28 (421 b), 29(241 d). XXVIII. 13 (244 D), 14 (237 D, 240 D). XLix. 812 (244 B), 33 (245 a).
2,

(80 a), 6 (381 B), 7 5 (149 B, 425 c), 37, 38 (81 A, 184 c, 381 b).

Psalms.
9 (252 a). (404 B). 4 (252 d). XVI. 8 (256 c).
II.

XXIV.

IV. 7 viii.

XVIII.

(84 a).

Exodus.
VIII. 19

(140

c).

XX. 617 (200 D), II (76 A, 365 B, 380 c, 420 b). XXV. 23 (97 c d), 39 (205 c), 40 (161 D, 200 B).

Numbers. XV. 3841

(135 XXIII. 22 (444 c). XXIV. 17 (245 c).


^

D 136 A).

XIX. I (341 c), 6 (424 B). XXII. I (257 a), 19 (256 C, D), 21 (444 c). XXIX. 6 (444 c). XXXIII. 6 (425 a). ll 10 (133 a). lxv. 9 (404 a), 1 1 (404 A, 405 d). LXVIII. 18 (256 c). LXIX. 21 (256 C). LXXV. 6 (89 b).

References are to marginal numbers, except

when

the page and line are given.

36
Psalms,
lxxviii. (216 c).

INDEX OF BIBLICAL QUOTATIONS


Jeremiah.
15,

16

(200

b,

c),

20

X. II 14(77 B). xxxi. 31 34 (269

LXXXIV.
CII.

2 (133 a).

EZECHIEL.
xxxvii.
XLVii.
8,

b).

25 (76 D), 25, 26 (369 B). I (133 a), 2 (p. 226, 1. 21), 20, 21 (405 A), 24(341 c). CIV. 2 (184 c), 2, 3 (81 D, 365 c, 380 D), 3 (184 c, 381 A, 417 D), 5 (80 A, 184D, 381 B), 9 (365 c), 27 (404 B), 32 (129 c). cv. 39 (197 d), 41 (200 c). ex. I (293 D), 2, 3 (256 A, B). CXV. I 5 (76 C), 1 6 (84 B, 341 C, 41 7 D, p. 297, 1. 17). cxix. II (133 a). cxxxv. 6 (76 c). cxxxvi. 5 (84 d). cxxxix. 810 (132 d). cxLViii. 14 (p. 226, 11. 7, 12), I (84 C, 364 D), 2 (364 D), 3 (365 A), 4 (84 A, 341 B, 365 A, 421 A), 5 (365 B), 6 (365 B, 372 B), 7 (84 C), 13 (84 c, 365 B). CL. I (420 D).

23, 24 (269 d).

cm.

9 (272 a).
(109 D,

Daniel.
II.

34, 35 (112 A, D).

272 ),

44

Ill

5759
(p.

60
VII.

II,

(365 D), 59, 74 ^11 c), 226, 1. 16). 12 (iI2A), 13, 14 (112 B,
a).

272 b), 14 (256 IX. 25 (272 b).


X. 13, 14 (132 c).

HOSEA.
VI.
I,

2 (260 D), 2 (261 a).

IX. 12 (261 a). XI. 12 (261 a).


XIII. 4 (76 d), 14 (261 a).

Joel. II. 26

Amos.
IX.

32 (261
(264 b). (129 d),
b).

b).

IV. 13
5

6 (129

c),

II,

12

ECCLESIASTES.
I.

(264
185 D, 209 C, 408
B,
I.

5,

6 (89

C,

Obadiah.
15, 17

424 d). SlRACH.


I.
I

(264

c).

Micaiah.
V. 2

(176

b).

Song.
I

vii. 19,

(268 a). 20 (268 a).


II.
I

2 (433 c).

Nahum.
I.

II.

4 (433

B).

15,

(268

b).

VII. 5 (433 c).

Habakkuk.
I.

Isaiah.
VI. 2, 3, 7 (265 A), VII. 14 (388 c).

5 (268 c).
1 1

3(3I2B).

Zephaniah.
II.

(269

c).

XI. 10 (265 c).

III. 9,

10, 14, 15

(269
b),

c).

xxviii. 16 (265 c). XXXVIII. I (389 B), 1014 (392 D), 14, 16 19 (393 A, B). XXXIX. 3 8 (400 A c). XL. 22 (77 B, 81 A, D, 184 B, 380 D,

Haggai.
ir.

6 (129 D, 353 (272 d).

7(3160), 23

Zechariah.
IX. 9 (272 d).

396
XLII.

C,
5

397

C,

424

A,

(76 D, 184 C, XLIV. 24 (76 D).

457 D). 396 C).


12,

X.

(129

c).

XLV.

14

.
(77 A),
I.

(396

D),

18

XI. 12, 13 (268 d). I (76 d). XIII. 6, 7 (273 a).

13 (397 A). XLViii. 13 a).


LI.

{ 6(42oD),
9
I
I I

Malachi.
II (273 B).
I

Lin.
LXI.

3, 437 B).

13 (77 a), 16 (77 b). II (265 B, c), 7 (393 A,

III.

IV.

25

(273 b). (273

c).

L Maccabees.
1.9(1090).

LXIV. Lxvi.

(265 c). (129 D).


a).

Baruoh.
III.

29,

30 (96

c).

INDEX OF BIBLICAL QUOTATIONS


Matthew.
(288 a). II. 5 (268 A). III. I, 2 (288 D), 12 (356 D). IV. II (121c). V. 45 (285 B). VI. 24 (192 a). VIII. 1 1, 12 (177 D), 29 (165 C). IX. 33 (145 B) XI. 12 (281 B), 13 (112 C, 280 B, 281 B), 14 (273 c), 25 (77 c). XII. 3, 4 (257 B), 38, 39 (144 D), 40 (264 d), 42 (100 a). XIV. 30 (165 c). XV. 17 (133 a). XVI. 18 (168 d). XVII. 4, 5 (257 B, C, D). XVIII. 10 (132 c), 16 (433 b). XIX. 4 (224 a). XX. 23 (348 d), 24 (281 c). XXI. 9, 16 (252 b). XXII. 2 (284 D), 28 (336 C), 30 (177 C, 288 D, 336 D), 43, 44 (253 D), 44 (256 a). XXIII. 37, 38 (168 b). XXIV. I, 2 (168 C), 14 (168 D), 29 (408 D), 2931 (316 c), 30, 31 (424 B), 35 (369 B), 38 (281 B), 40 (177 c, 312 D). XXV. 12 (128 c, 284 c), 21 (177 c,
I.
I

361

Luke.
XVII. 21 (133 b). XIX. 39 (252 b), 40 (252 c). XX. 36 (320 c). XXII. 44 (437 B), 2830
I.

(p.

296,
a).

24).
B),

XXIII. 43 (124 D, 133 XXIV. 50 (180 c).

44 (437

John.
16 (308 a), 29 (196 a, 212 B, 277 a). 15 (145 c, D), 16 (145 D), (148 a), 18, 19 (145 a), 20 (272 d). III. 13 (361 C, p. 226, 1.25), 17 (148 B).
I.

II.

IV.

6 (437 d).

V. 16, 17 (257 A). VI. 27 (272 d), 66


VIII.

69 (145

b).

56 (240 A, 241 C). X. 30 (440 a). XII. 24 (356 c), 32(177 c), 34 (388 D). XIV. 24 (348 c, d). XVI. 7 (440 c), ^^ (1 24 A, 168 D). XX. 17 (292 d).

Acts.
(180c). (129 D), 46, II (137 b), 22 4 24, 3236 (293 B, C), 24 (293 D, 297 A), 36 (293 D). III. 19 26 (296 B, C). 21, 24 IV. 27 (249 d). VII. 22 (140 a), 60 (297 B). VIII. 32 (265 B). X. 4 (429 C), 3843 (296 A), 42 (253 B). XII. 13 (132 c). XIII. 1641 (360A 361 a), 32, 2>1> (249 d), 41 (268 c). XIV. 12 (104 a), 15 c). XVII. 18, 19 (357 c), 2231 (356 D), 24 (77 c), 24 28 (176 d), 26 (129 D), 30, 31 (253 A), 32 (357 C).
I.

10, II

II.

416
34

c,

p.
B,

296,

I.

33, p. 297,

I.

8),

(57

128 c,

177

c,

281 c,
B,

284 C, 313 D, 320 B, 333 D, 348 425 c, p. 298, 1. 15), 41 (128 284 b). XXVI. 17 (417 A), 39 (437 A, B, C). XXVII. 9, 10 (269 a), 50 (133 b). XXVIII. 18 (256 a), 19(3120).

c,

Mark.
XV. 2>, 39 (133 ).

Luke.
I.

XXV. 19(3570).
XXVI.
(301
7,

13 (2I2A), 4 (289c), 33 (113 B), 43 (277 D), 4855 (277 D), 76 (277 C). II. 2 (113 A), 14(121 , 137 A, 292 B, 329 c), 22 (280 A), 26 (392 B),

8 (301 B, 357 d),

2123

B,

357 D).

Romans.
III.

29
III.

32
17

(280 b). (277 B), 23

a), 22 (72 B), 23 (157 A). 15 (208 B, 209 D). IV. 15 (125 d), 17 25 (240 B).
I.

20 (376

(197 A),

38

(289 D).
IV. VI.

18 (265 C).

36 (429 B). IX. 33 (257 c).

X. 10 (124A), 18 (125 c, 148 d), 19

(124 A, 132 a). XV. 7 (153 D, 225

D).

(224 c). VII. 8 (125 d). VIII. 17 (180 a), 18 (368 b), 1921 (120 a), 19 (361 D), 20 (124 D, 408 D), 20, 21 (225 D, 364 A, B, 409 a), 21 (125 a), 22 (125 B, 368 D), 24 (300 A), 32 (241 C), 34 (436 A).
V. 14

362

INDEX OF BIBLICAL QUOTATIONS


II.
I.

Romans.
X. 6 (256 d). XI. 25 (320 b).
I.

Thessalonians.

7 10

(313 a).

I.

Timothy.
III.

Corinthians.
II.

15 (304 a),

16(1480).

9 (285 B, 368 B, p. 226, 1. 5). IV. 9 (132 B, 337 A, 361 D), 18, 19
(361 B).

IV. 8
II.

(300

c).

Timothy.
5

III.

(72 B).

V. 7 (196 A, p. 297,1. 5). VI. 2, 3 (301 d).

Titus.
II.

13 (128 c, 300 c).


I (376 b), 3 (80 A), 4 (413 a), 8, 9 (253 b,c), 14 (120 a, 301 c, 364B,

(300 c, 348 B, 372 c). X. 4 (200 c), 21 (192 b). XI. 7 (309 c). XII. 8 II (264 a), 28 (416 a). XIII. 9 (377 D). XV. 3 (259 D), 1217, 21 22, 29, 30 (349 BD), 19 (300 a), 21 (221 ), 3538, 4250 (352 D), 49 (353 D), 50 (412 d), 51, 52 (317 A), 55 (261 a), 54, 55, 57 356 a). (353
VII. 31

Hebrews.
I.

408 D, 412
II. 5

C).

(252 D), 6-8 (253 A), 9 (252 D), 16 (372 B), 1719 (240 A). III. I (180 a), 14 (303 d). IV. II (177 D, 301 B, 345 A), 14
(345
B)

V. 4, 5 (256 B). VI. 1620 (348 a),

II.

Corinthians.
6 (361
I

18

20 (i8od), 20
17 (345 D),
d).

17

20 (300
298,
1.

a),

(p.

20).

III.

IV. 17,

V.

B), 18 (305 D). 18 (368 c). (73 B, 344 A), 17 (125 D, 128 A,

VII. 14,

2326

(344 D),

26 (180
VIII.

372
VI. 14

16 (192
(p.

A).

b).

VII.

29). XII. 2 (344 a), 2, 3 (409 b). XIII. 3 (361 c).


I
1.

296,

Galatians.
III.

IV.

16 (240 a), 19 (217 26 (180 a).

d).

Ephesians.
c, D, 432 c), 9 (433 A), 128 A, 372 a), 20 (125 D, (357 B), 21 (384 A). II. 2 (117 c), 6 (180 A, 300 a), 19
I.

8,

9 (429

10

(1 III.

80

a).
B).

10 (228 A, 364

IV. 13 (380 a). V. 32 (224 a).

Philippians.
II.

I (201 c, 344 B, 432 a), 2 (301 A, 345 D), 4, 5 (408 c), 6 (432 A), 8 12 (269 a), 12 (p. 298, 1. 20). IX. I (381 B), I, 2 (201 B, 205 D), 6, 7 (344 c), II, 12 (201 c, 208 A, 212 A, 334 B), 1923 (180D), 24 (180 C, 201 C, 208 A, 381 b), 27 (228 c). X. I (193c, 208 B), It 14 (345 c), 19, 20 (345 B), 20 (p. 298, ]. 29), 19 21 (208 B), 19 23 (180 D), 34 (300 , 348 A). XI. 5 (232 a), 9, 10 (180 a), 10 16 (300 a), 15, 16 (301 a), 14 (180), 16 (348 B), 38 (368 a). XII. II (22 1 c, 376 d), 1 8 23 (p. 298, 1. 9), 22 24 (180B, 228 a), 28 (300 B, 316 c, 345 A). XIII. 14 (180B, 300 B, 348 A, p. 297,

6 (252
13
1.

III.

15 (300c), 14 (180 A,

c),

10 (132 a).

1.

12).

p.

298,

I.

Peter.
I.

6), 20 (84 B, 341 D, 369 a), 20, 21 (179 A, 300 c).

12 (368 D).

V. 13 (113 d).
II.

COLOSSIANS.
I.

Peter.
12 (369 c, 372 c).

15 (224 B).
B).

III.

9 (233 B). III. I, 2 (300 D, 348


II.
I.

II.
I

John.
I

(373

A).

Thessalonians.
IV.

14

17 (301

III.

John.
I

a), 16

(440 d),

16

(373 A).

i8(3i6d).

INDEX OF PERSONAL NAMES

IN

THE TEXT

c, 256 B. 204 C. 2l6 D. "A/3fX 93 B, 173 A, 220 D, 225 A, B, 228 A, B, 229 A, B, 329 B. 212 A. 237 c, D, 240 A, C, D et passim. "

' /3
/i

{^References are to the

marginal numbers.)
248
*

1/2 D, 217

C,

249

A.

D.

85

C.
1
1

.
C.

^ *77
^yya\o^
1

lyi

201 D.

245 C. 1 04 A.

29 D, 272 C, 30 1 B, 357 C, D.
C.

*/ 224

173

?
(o
1

^-?)
D.

A,

^f

passim.
121

,
C,

C,

293
1

C.

400
C.

l6l

372

40

B.

248

"Apetos 281 A,

/? " *

^ ? *
69

^'^ . , , 46
453 C. 68

^ ^
^^
,

Bapov;^ 96

B.

^73
B.

A.

BeXmX 192

I04 A. 172 C.

452 C. 437 . 96 .
232 D.

I09 A,

11^

*
453

453 ^ 453 C. 208 C 453 C. 453 C. 453 ^ yjl D 129 ? ^) 264 4^0 D

?
,,
265

raioy 373 /xep 85

.
.

449 . Fpeyopto? 4^6 D. 264 C.

26 1 D, 28 . 68 , 09 C,
D.

3^1 . (? another) 340


1

. ,.

^4) 77 112 276 , 400 D. /$ 453 460 . 249 ^ ^


<^;

26

D.

C,

209

272

C,

'
Atds

C.

et passi7n.

13 C, 276

45^

C.

28

";?

'

(
yy

. ^)
1

453

^'

iy6 D.
C.

I05 C, D. 169 C, I04 A. iy6 B.

76

453

A.

^ '^
'E^e/ctas

bk, VIII. passim.

yj2 D, 373

A.

85 C.

?
/5

460

,
D,

172 C. 85 .

\.
221

197
C.

277

C, D.

364
*Ev(us

INDEX OF PERSONAL NAMES IN THE TEXT


453
173
B,

"
329

C.
C,

220
C.

D,

229

B,

D, 232 A,

453 C. 428
397

I04 A.

.
B,

Eva 124 c, 225


136 C.

309 c [see also /)].

7
C,

453

C.

85

C.

iy6
l6l

.
D.

6 , { ')
76

28 1

, 372 . , C, D.
129

^ ^-) ) ^
/3
173 ^ 292 C.
C.

'/// ( , (

145

373

(?/

passim.

2y6 D 429
184

277 C,
.
257

(?/

passion.

/3 8 ,
38 1

;^),9)
1

149
D,

C,

425 C. 144 D, 264

6.
C,

244

329

45^

(father of
/xos

J.

C.) 261 D.

C, 272 D, 277 C. 196D, 197 ^5 212 .

217

,
C.

457

.
177 A,

KmV 93 ,
229

173 A,

225

A,

Zevy 105 D.

.
453

272 D. 224 D [see also

/],

360

.
112
C.

)?
312

^ '
77

129 C, 229 D, 257 B>C, 260 273 , C, 277 329 c

/7/;/

305

C. C.

04 .

Kope 216 D, 248

201 D, 293 D.

249 D. 76 D, 184C, 265


et passtju.

D,

276 D,

09 ,
Aaadav 39^

437 D. 39^
53

397

24 1 D.

^^^

1 1

3 D

43^ C, 43^ ^ () 289 (2) 417 (3) 388

C, D.

?
305
D, 244

.
C,

292 C. 92 C, 173

328

C,

453

l8oC,
C,

197

289

292 ,

C.

.
.

357

C.

85 . eo/SfX 173 C, D. 85 . 73

45^ ^ 453 ^.
85 85 .

264
C.
C.

C.

453

/3
329
348

113

364
197

c, C,

8, 220 .
421 257

D,
28 1 C,

,
85

373 . 64 .

264

'? /6^/

log

453 273 453 D.

C.

C.

292

/^$

164

.
232 D, 233

453

C.

^)?

248 C. 'le^e/ctr/A 269 D. 'Ifpe/xuxy 96 , 208 D 265 C, 360 . 217 [ 329 . 200 C.

^8

.
397

?
.
C,

and

].
,
277 ^

28 ,

318 C, 333 , 33^ [see also 320

, D.

288

] ^

269 ,
C,

(8(
300

288 ),

28 . . 145 , 177 C, 269 , 289 , C, 305 .


1

285

D
, C,

221

248

76 , l8oD, 236 D, 256 345 ^> 348 . 249 . (poet) 204 .

/
400 D.

INDEX OF PERSONAL NAMES IN THE TEXT


C.

365

Meuavdpos (historian) 456 396 . 85 C, 452 .


D,

{co7itinued)
(6)

Physcon 460

C.

105
1

.
.

04 .

268 . 217 C, 221 C, 248 , 3^9 . NiKO;fxoff 292 C, 361 C. 84 C, D, 85 92 C, D, 93 C, D, ^/ passim.

^ ^
32 265

400 D.

-^
<?/

(7) the geographer 168 A, 176 B. (8) (vague) 68 b, 169 b.


1

36

C,

69

D.

D 208 .
C.

3^7

85

245 ^

248 ,
1

passim.
2 D,

'
/3

l6 D.

'^\
273 D,
85

388 D. 237 C, 329 A. 'VuvB 276 C.


C.
B.

09

293

265 A, 312 B, 396 A, 400 288 D, 336 C. 292 C. 221 A, 296 B, 360 B. 248 , 276 C, 360 .

" / ^

17

.
-'^5

452 Dj 453

C.

^
and
288
373

457

.
C

^ ((
240

.
437
C.

125 C, 14^ D.

53 ^ 3^5 -^

173
85

68 , 2)73 173 ^ 388 D, 397 265

C.

373

177

, 4^7 C. , 225 ,

C,

245

C, D,

453
C.

309D, 453

C.

172

(of Jerusalem) 53

1^1

72 C,
161 B,

181 c, 396 c. (bp. of

Caesarea)
[see also

372 D, 373 A. 109D,

], .
(St),

13

73 204 297 C 3^5

132 C, 145

Ilerpos (friend

^?

, 293 , ,.
of

passim. 257 , 201 296 C, D, 332


^5

^^

Bj

C,

,
A,

C, 232 D, 233 Sg C, 100 , 209 , 276 48 C, 424 1^5 [456 c]. [456 C], 456 D. 269 C. (protomart.) 297 C. (of Antioch) 321 . 201 D, 28 , 392 . 1 69 D foil, 44^

C,

45^ ^^ 453 , 45^ C. (of Alexandria) 437

C.

/ ?
456
C.

Cosmas) 385
169 D,

D, 401 A.

136

c,

176

B,

453

249 D.

I05 D.

/^,

453

.
Soter 1 04 . Philadelphus 460 B. Euergetes loi
109 A,
1

(Paul's friend) TtVoy 305 A.

1480,3040.

460

204
1

13 C.

(l)
(2)

85

.
1

104 A,

(3)

12 B,

104A, 328 A.
B,

26 D, 28 . 40 , , 96 , .
288 D. 357 . 3^5 .

(4) (5)

Philometor 1 12 B. Dionysius 1 12 B.

366

INDEX OF PERSONAL NAMES IN THE TEXT


201 D, 265
B.

433 . 452 A [see also


85 c.

],
,
45^

Xavavaios 237 . 85 C, 452 . passim.

Sub

85 A,

453 . 452 .

"
.

172

C.

85 C, 232 D, 233

'.

6 D,

385

. 26

D.

INDEX OF GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES IN THE TEXT


{References are to the marginal numbers.)

"
^

I04 D. loo . 1 05 A.

452 204 .

45^ D.

04
97 D,
A, C, I05 C,

D.

' '
440
B,

(-,

-;)

169

C.

448 A, B, 449 A. kBayaovs I05 A. D, 356 D. 304 , 356 , 457


85 C,

113 D, 269 D, 272

273 D,

276

.
396

400

,,

D.

136 , et passim. A'iyvnros 53 ^j ^7 ^^> ^8 A, et passim. 85 C, 97 C, I16 C, 324 A,

04 C, 109 C. {-) 09,

12

, ,
D.
1

, 36 ,
,
C, D,

D,

397 D,
C.

400

40

449

B, D.

04

" ^ "(
^
360
A.

^
'
85

53 A, 69 A, 85 A, 97 C, D, 100 A, 105 C, 108 B, 117 B, 169 B, 269 C, 32 1 A, 328 A, 440 C, D, 444 B, D,

445 D, 449 B, D. 265 .


A,

'AXe^avSpeta 53 A, 72 D, 97 C, 321 A, 372 D, 436 c, 460 C.

416

D.

I05 A.

68
(in

,
C.

69

C,

32 1

B, C.

Pisidia)

249 D, 268

C,

^ ^ ^
1

, , , 05 , , 7 . 05 .

85 C, 97 1^5 169 88 85 , 96 D, 97 C, D,
C,

328

8,.
196
C.

C.

208

C,

449

C,

^21 D.
1

69

C.

']^

97

321 C.
C.

321

97 C, lOO

69

C,

A,

32 1 A, 324 A. I05 C.

evdaipoves 169 C. 85 A, 169 C, 272 A. 85 A, 1 05

. .

2
1

04

. 85 , ,
7
D.

05 ,

y]^
97

,
,
.

417
169

C,

453

D,

lOO A, 1 84 D. 53 , 85 A, D, 88

105

8.

"
453

84 D.

35^ ^ 452 D.


97

304

272

8 .
69

.
C.

05 .
169
C.

C,

04 , 09

C,

69

C,

117 89 109 C.
1

456 D.

05 .

85 C, 3^8 D, 3^9

C.

169

'
368
ei

INDEX OF GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES IN THE TEXT


20I
B,

92 , l6l D, passim. 'E5e> 117 B, 452 A. y^ A.

217

B,

" "
248

'

85 C, 1 69 . 197 D, 200 'EWadLKOL 85 , 109 C. log c, 457 , D. gOD, 1 36 , \?>gO^ei passim. I04 , 321 D. l6g C. I05 , 1 41 A, 1 96 ,

^
397

*',

268 288 D, 3^8 D, 396 456 . log C, 112 D, II3D, 121 e/ passim. 201 A, 263 A, , 269

,
C,

26. 97 , 69 C. 140 , 26, 241 D, et passim.


1

46

140

C, D,

^,

144

^^

passim.
85
*

. 04 .

85 D.

48 . 05 .
l6g

452

" ^
$

.
C,

,
69

445 ^) 44^
C.

449

456

Kara 292

C.
1

?
85

89 , 104 , 117 304 , 429 C. 292 , 304 D, 373 268 . 26 1 .

.
241

04 .
433

.
1

88 97 84 D

C.

05 .
05 . ,.
II 6

97

C.

.
169 C. 1 05 ,

85

Ziyyiov 88

/ ^
^
453
348
1^
^

69

304

C,

3^3

3^6

D.

, 04 .

?
349

85

. 04 ,

ig6 136 C. 3^4 C. 117

8
304

C.

397 . 97
113 C,

26

D, 300

409

209
C,

,
396

4^0
C.

,
^/

igy 72 C,

,,
217

"
^

passi7/1.

) 8,
)
^1

221 C,

3' 7

68 305 457 305 1 04 . 85 , 104 , 428 C. 32 1 C, 436

. .

C,

3^7

, .

372 D. i6g C. 96 C, 97 449 , 452 .

05 .
441 C,

457

.
C.

44^

,
05
85 C. 85 C,

105
C.

l6g

*16,

444 , 445 ^^^ 448 , 449 , D, 452 . 96 C, 97 , 117 , 169 , 445 . 85 C, 96 D, II 6 15, 169 , 445 , , 449 . 117 , 448 , 449 . 217 C, 221 C.

88 117

. ,

04 , 09
C.

C,

169

C.

'

456 D y]2 D.
77

04 .
44^ . 96 C. 113 C, D, 263
1

8
.

INDEX OF GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES IN THE TEXT


140

.
2l6

321 D.

MuKedoves I 12 I). MaKcdovia 460 A. 169 , 460 . MaXe 169 A, 445 D, 448 448 A.
117 A.
1

A,

449

B.

' ' '


'
'? '

' ' '

369

105

200

. .
321
C,
C, D.
1

85 85

. ,

84 D.
113

112 D,

^, D,

156 D, 109 C, 224 85 D, 88

) ,

240 , 304 9^ ,

3. ,

69 C. 321 C, 324 A. Meppa 1 97 D, 200 A. 04 C, 169 McTLve 105 A. I04 C.


1

'

449 D 448 D. 44^ C. 97 , 289

.
C.

C.

' /
456 D.
174
-'^

85 . I09 A,

112 A,

69

40I A,

452
C,

05

6
C,

44^ , 276 . 317 C, 333

. 8 .

05 ,
D.

293 C, 296 A. 416 C, D.

97

8 ,

33^

C.

C.

105 C,

8.

NeiXos

293 C, 296 53 A, 89 A, 100 D,

(^(
105 A,

117

B.

97 . 169
85

C.

C,

97 D,

05

B,

I08

C,

448

A,

/ ^ ' ?
\.
113

452 A. lOO A, 328 A, 449 D. 449 . 97 , 449 D. 169 , 449 .


328

'

, /
141

97 . 136 C. 1 05

448

04

,
D.

449

. ,
448

85 C.
D, 445

248

. ()2 ,

449 C

140

200

,,

D
1

[see also

253 D. 445 D, 448 1 , 228 209 C.

8
85

, ,

449 . 204 C,
169
C,

205 C,

, 05 .
1

6,
C.

C,

264

igj D.

8,
04
C.

69

C,

221

04

44^
97

.
1

69 C. 104C, 44^ , Hepaappevia 89 A, II7 . 1 69 ,

>

et

passim.

^
'
04

^
97

85 D, 88 , ()6 C, 117 ) 1^4 D, 448 D, 97 D, 84 D, 73 C, 113 ^? 1^9 445 C, D,

44 , ,

{)
445

449 C, D. 249 ^? 208 D, 3^0


44^

321 D.

?
.
1

321 C, 324 109 C, 04

.
1

2>73

, .
1

69

C.

05

.
D,

97

69

05

[see also D, 97 445 D. 1 04 D, 05

].

89

117

. 04 .
C.

217 457

, .

45^

'VaWov

D,

197

88 109

.
C.

W.

24

370

INDEX OF GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES IN THE TEXT


1

84 D.

69

C.

200
117

4//

44^ \ 449 ^h 45^ 3^4 C. 217 1^7 457 1^ 04 , 1 69 C. 85

397 D,

73 , 1 3^ 453 1^ 360 . 85 C, 237

24 1

328 D,

20 .

197 C.

GENERAL INDEX
{References in ordinary tyPe are to
those in italics to pages.)

Abyssinia v.Ai^ioTTta and Inscriptions


at Adulis.

Adanitae j^j.

Angabe

^
(
V.

marginal numbers

ift

the texl^

Anarajapoora 333, 334.


44^
A.

Addago J4J. Ade-Gada J40. Aden 3434. Adoua 341.


Adulis J, 10, 336, Aeila 337. Aeizanas 34.0.^ 344. Agame 340. Agatharcides jj/. Agathias 333. Agau JJ7, 340. Agazi 340. 341.

34/. Angels, creation of 149 A; functions of 8, 117 D, 124 B, 152 D, 301 c, 405 D, 429 A ; place of abode of S, 361 c, 412 B, 422 A. Annine 342. Antelope 33/.

Carbuncle.

Antichrist 229 D. Antichthones 332.

"

Antioch, earthquake at 68 B, 333. Antipodes S, , 56 C, 64 B, 65 picture of 34/. 132 A, 192 Aphrodisias 333.
;

C,

Agincourt

(d') 16.

Apion 33/.
(planet) 381 D.

Ailane 33/.

Akabah

Albatross 88

8
Aina 342.
SSJ-

V.

Yak. 453 D, JJ/.

Apollodorus 33/. Apollonius of Rhodes, Scholiast on

2.

Molon 33/.
448
C.

33/.

33J.

Alemanni

16. at

Alexander Polyhistor 33/. Alexandria 3, earthquakes


Aloes 445 D.

"
68
A, B,

Arabitae 336, 343. Archangels, functions of 132

C.

Ares 344.
(planet) 60 A.

Arethas 33S. Arians 333 B.


Aristotelians 59
c.
6,

Ark (Noah's)

Ambrosius

10.

Amda (or Anda) 33S. Amethyst 445 c, 448 B.


88 D.

84 D, 92 c, 96 A, 136 c, 232 B, 452 D. Ark of testimony, 161 A, 201 D. Armenians, conversion of 343.
V.

Rhinoceros.

Ananias of Shi rag 34/.

Arousi 343.

GENERAL INDEX
Arragon, king of Arsinoe jjS.
/,

371
;

with
V.
B.

334

pearl fisheries at

333

also

Taprobane, Sielediba and


33"/.

Arts, invention of 172

Ruby.

As 'ad

J40.
2
I

Chaeremon
3 A.
I

Chair
101

at
B,

Adulis
c.

with

inscription

Astaboras j^t. Astronomy, bks. Atbara j^/.

104

and

vi passim.

Athagaus

^4.1.
p, ^d,

Athanasius, Festal letters of 161 B, 372 D, 416 B. Atlantis jj/.


Aualites J41.

Axum

(
Bayet

(Aiir;)

341.
A.

; ;

Chaldaea, kings of 33'/. 452 C, 453 Cliaul (Chenwal) 334. Chaveris 333.
v.

C,

45^ C.

China 333.
Hog-deer.
;

Christ, his conception 193 B, 196 D; birth earthly life 197 A, 289 C

204

J, 10,

335

foil,

340

foil.

Babel, tower of 136D. Bab-el- andeb j, 333.

Banana jj/.
Baptism 221 B, 248 dead 352 A.
Barbaria 333.
A,

289

for the

288 C temptation 288 c miracles transfiguration 257 b; 144 B, 165 passion 124B, 193 D, 273 A; resurrection 261 A foil., 304 ascension 288 D, 440 D second coming 312 D, two natures of 128 A, 333 B. 332 Christianity, nations converted to
;
;

>,

9,^ 344.

Basena 342.

Chronicon Paschale Chrysostom 22.


Cinaedocolpitae 343.
passi?n.
B.

24.

2y.
-?,

Beazley

5 and

Circle, squaring of 176B.

342.

Circumcision 76

c.

Bells, the

golden 213

Clysma 34/.
Cochin-China 333. Coco-nuts 12, 444 D, 331.
Coleridge 13. Cone, shadow cast by 324
;

^ ^
Busbeck

Bentotte 333.

Berosus 336

7.

Blemyes 343.
2

B.

34^ 342. Brachmans 333. Bud fat tan 333. Buffalo 348.
20.

Constantmus 4. Cosmas, his name 2 his travels j, 13, 14; a monk? 3; a Nestorian? works of 4, 3 date of Topo4, 23 graphy 3, 338, 333 subject of T.
;
;
;

6 foil. science
;

Caber 333.
Cadiz 333. Caicus II. Caleb 338. Calliana 334.
Canals, dug by Ptolemy 104
c,

Commentary on Psalms 21 3 Cosmas and Chron. Pasch. 24]


;

veracity of // ideas of MSS. of 13 foil. ; 8, 14


;

marginal notes 26 tions /d, 2/, 348;

29

illustra-

grammar 3032
33g.

spelling and v. also Topo-

Carbuncle 452 B, 334. Caspian sea 334.

graphy. Cotinussa 333. Cupping-glass 68

C.

Catholic epistles 372 373 B. Qeyam 341. Ceylon j>, 10 derivation of name jj^; size and various names of 332 shape of 333-, position of 333; Christianity in 343 conversion of 343 early travellers to /o, 11 trade Julian's treaty with /o, //
;

Day and night 185 D. Death, why inflicted how introduced 288

\
Dhii

220
B.

C,

226 C

Demetrius Phalereus 338.

Nuwas

338.

248 D. Diassorinos (J.) 22.


24-

372

GENERAL INDEX
in notes.

Dibou j^2. Dillmann.j^o and passim


Diodorus of
Sicily lo.

Eunuch of Candace 265 Eunuchs 400 D.

B,

343, 346.

of Tarsus 416.

Dioscorides j^j. 205 A. Dittenberger j2, J4.0 and passim in


notes.

Eusebius . Evagrius 333. Exodus, the 196 B, 329 mentioned by Egyptian writers 453 D.
;

Fathers, cosmographical ideas of the

Diul-Sind jj^. Divi 332, 333. Dolphin 445 A, j^p,

church (5, 7. Fezzan 346.

Dorotheus

Dugong

3. V. Seal.
B,

Firmament 305 c, 420 c and passim. Flood 93 c, 164 c, 192 mentioned by writers on Chaldaea 453 B.
;

Dumb

barter /j, 14, 100

jj/.

V.

Seal.
7.

Dwipa R a van a 332. Dwipa Sukhadara 343.


Earth, shape of 6 one here and one beyond the ocean 84 c, 453 divided among the sons of Noah 85 A divided into three continents 85 c; length and breadth of 97 A, flat 325 A made of four 333 elements 129 A; why not made in one d.iy 153C; not eternal 176C; not suspended in air 65 A. Earthquakes 65 D, 129 C, 333. Easter 172 a, 437 D. Eclipses 60 a, 168 a, I72A, i88a, 313 c, 321 B, 405 B, 461 A.
; ; ;
;

Foloe 33/.
Fontenelle, le Bovier de

Frumentius 346.

Gabaza

16, 33/.

Gades, southern 348. 64 A.

Gambela

341.
26.

Garamantes 346. Gardthausen 16,

Garrucci 16. 445 C, 333. Gaza 340. V. Gaza.


Giraffe /2, 348, 441 D. Glanvill 7.

Egyptian temples 6. Ela 33. Ela Asbeha 338. Ela Auda 340. Ela Azguagua 340.
Ian a 337.

Glaser 336 and passim in notes. Gold mines 100 B. Gospel of infancy p, 144 B. Goths, conversion of to Christianity
to Arianism 34/. 346, 34/ Gravitation, law of, illustrated 80 B. Greeks, invective against 458 C and passitu relapse into infidelity
; ;

Elath 33. Elements, the four 60 c, 64 c, 69 B, 129 A fire and water 421 A a fifth 60 c. Elephants 104 B, 418 D, 419 C, jjp,
; ;

460 D.
Gulfs, the four 148 B,

184 D.

349, 336.

Elesbaas

v.

Ellatzbaas.

Halai 341. Harris 336.

Elwa

Ellatzbaas j^/.
of 2>77
C.

4, 11,

338.
in the

Hawa
womb,
fate

341.

Embryons, dying
Emeralds 336.
Ephthalites 336. Epicycles 119D.

Heavenly bodies 117C, 148c; motions of 128c; course of, bk. IX. Heavens, indissoluble 344 D fixed 60 D, 65 A number of d, 164 D, not spherical 313 C, 189 A, 344 A
; ; ;

Epiphanius

19, 334, 342.

Epiphany 197 A

c.

Etheria 30. Ethiopia j>, 77, 344


34^'

conversion of

duration of, bk. vii.; glued to earth 81 A. (planet) 381 D. Heruli 346. Hieroglyphs, Egyptian, symbols not
;

432 c

letters

137 d.

GENERAL INDEX
Hippopotamus 444 c, 12^ j>j/. Hog-deer 444 c, 351. Homeritae j, 336, 33S, 343; conversion of 346.

373
B.

Kpuk

(planet) 61 C, 193 (planet) 381 D.

Horses, Persian, imported to Ceylon 449 c, 336. v. Amethyst.


^

Laccadives 333. La Croze (M. V. dc) 4

Lambecius Lanka 332.


Lasine 342. Lassen 3. Last a 342.

20.

Huns

333, 343, 336.

lambulus /o, //, 333. Illustrations Cosmas' to


27.

text

/<5,

India
of

j,

in 343',

conversion oi 344 6 Jews Nestorians in 343; visits


;

Latonpolis, inscription at 33Q. Lazi 346.


AcvKT]

343-

AevKoytjv 343-

Thomas and Bartholomew

to
I 1

88 A, 97 C
7

foil.

3445
Indiction 321 A, 437 c, D. Inscriptions, at Adulis loi A foil., 338 foil. on rocks at Sinai /o, 217 A; on walls of inns 217 A; at
;

Ludolf 340.

Lysimachus 33/. MacCrindle


notes.
4,

j,

31 and passiin

in

Latonpolis jjp.
YovhaiKO.

460

.
and clothed
in

Israelites,

how

fed
c.

wilderness 216

Jaimur 334.
Jasper 452
B.

John Climacus 2. Josephus 334, 3368. Judgment, last 357 B.


Junilius Africanus 23.

Justinus 3.

Kalaa 341. Kalah 333, 334. Kalawe 341. Kalyana 334.


v.

261 D. Magistris (Simon de) 23. Mahrem 344. Malaya 333. Malcato 338. Maldives 333, 334. Male 334. Man, created in God's image 152 153C; upright figure of 156 D. Manetho 337. Mangarouth (Mangalor) 333. Maniolae 333. 200 A.

Magi

D,

Giraffe.

Mantotte 333, 333. Marallo 333. Mara war 333. Marginal notes in MSS. of Cosmas
26, 2g.

445 D.
v.

Muskdeer.

Kasu 336.
Kaveripattam 333.
Kellar 20.

Marignolli (Giovanni dei) 331. Maundeville g, 331.

Kennedy
I

(J.)

4^ 10.

17

.
of,

Kinana 343. Kinda 343. Kings, book

321 C;

written 276 diagram oi 34/.

how

c.

^ ^
Mercy
v.

Maximus Menas j,

ig. 14.

Mercati 24.
seat 161 A, 201 D. 193 D, 3^5 D.
Silk.

Kohaito 341. Koloe 33/, 341.

Metine 342. 448 D, 336. Millennium 317 A.


Mithras, worship of 165 A. Mommsen 340. Money, Roman, current everywhere 1 16 A; Roman versus Persian /^,

Kondakoff
Koteis 346. 448
Krall 3.

13, 16, ij.


A.

448 D.

374
Months, cycle of 404 A Moon, circle of 404 D
the
full

GENERAL INDEX
foil.
;

Periplus maris Erythraei //,


at

JJ4 and
;

created

passim
Persia,

in notes.

425 D.
<5,

Moscophagi ^40. Mountain in north


i6.

185

foil.

sends conversion of 346 bishop to Ceylon 445 C. vicissitudes of Persian empire,

Moza

jj6. Miiller (D. H.) jj6 and passim in


notes. Miiller (Karl) notes.

(
61 c.

113 c, D.

jj8 and passim

in

v. Carbuncle. Photius /, 2, 6, S, II. Plagues of Egypt 140 c foil. motions Planets 381 D, 408
;

of

Muir

J.

Music, instruments of 248 C. Musk 444 B, S4.g. Musk-deer 12^ 444 a, 445 D, J4g. Muziris 10.

Point de Galle ^^4. Polo (Marco) 7/, 12, 345, 34g, 350,
353-, 354-,

356
B.

Pomegranates, the golden 213

Poudapatana 333. Prester John 333.


Priests'

Nalopatana jjj. vapyiXkiov 444 D,


11/ . Nephranians jjS.

raiment 212 D.

JJ"/

Prophets,

Nativity, date of 197 A.

276 A

book
c.

of,

how

written

Propitiation, ark of 209 D.

Nephthalites jj6. Nestorian church j^j. Niese jjp. Nile, blue 10, jjy. Noldeke jj8. 448 D, J^6.

Psalms, contents of, and how comsung in all posed 249 c foil. churches 260 A.
;

Psellus 23.

Pseudo-Dorotheus

24.

Pseudo-Palladius 10. Ptolemies 338 g; conquests of jjp.

Nonnosus

//, J41.

Ptolemy Physcon 338.


Punishments, the future 285
A,

Northern regions, uninhabitable 88 c;


lofty 88 c.

313

B.

Quirinus, church of St 437 D.

Omont

(H.) /p, 22. Onesicritus jjj.

Orrhotha jj^.
(

= the

how produced Red Sea 343.


Rain,
16.

68

b,

129

b.

palate) 421 C.
i^;,

Palaeographical Society

Palaesimundus ^2. Pamphilus 5, 26. Papadopoulos-Kerameus Pappus 2.

\
;

ig.

212 Paradise, position of 84 C, 96 C, 117 B, jjj expulsion from and Passion on 6th day 124 B. Passover 193 A. Patricius 4. Paul's Ep. to Hebrews written in Hebrew and trans, by Luke or Clement 305 b. Pentapolis J46. Pepper 169 A, 444 D, 448 A, jj/. Pepper-country j^2. Pepper-tree 444 d, J4S, jji.

Resurrection 288 D, 316 c, 336 c, 349 c foil. Rewards, nature of future 284 C, 305 D, 317 A. Rhaithou j, 338. Rhapsii 343. Rhapta 334, 343. Rhausi 343. Rhinoceros 12^ 441 B, 34/', confused with unicorn 330; hostility of elephant \.o 348; Tigre name oi 348.
Ricci (S. de) ig.

445

A,

33 1.
A.

Roman
Rossetti

empire 113
8.

Ruby

of Ceylon 12, 445 c, 334.

Sabaeans 336. Saimur 334.


Saint-Martin jj/and/i'r.f.f////
in notes.

GENERAL INDEX
Salike j^2.

Salopatana jjj.
Salt 334.

Samidi jjy.

Sandalwood 445 D, JJ4. Sarapammon, church of


Sasu jj6, 337. Saurashtra 334.

St 437 C.

Schermann Schoa 337.

j,

24.

Scholasticus j, /o, //, 336. Seal 12, 445 A, 348, 33 1. Seleucus 338, 33g iambic verses of
;

^.
motion of 8, 60 D Stephen of Antioch 14.
Stars,
10.
foil.

6
Strabo

375

57 D, 375 C. Spartel, cape 346.

Spheres, the nine 189D, 381 D.

Stornaiolo /6.

205 A. Strzygovvski ig, 20.

Subahlika 333.

Subara 333.

Basil to y]2i A. Self-identity 353 B.

Suez V. Clysma and Sufalah 333. Suidas 2.

Sun 381 D;

size of, bk. vr,; circle of


B,

Semen, mountains of 342.


Septuagint, composition of 460 B. Serendib 332. Seres 333. Serinda 332. Serou 330. Sesame 445 i), 334. Sesea 336, 343. Severianus of Gabala 7. Shadows, various lengths of 321 C; shapes of 323 c retrogression of, on Hezekiah's dial 393 c. Shewbread, typifying months 401 C, table of 6. 408 A Sibor 334. aiy 205 A. Sigye 340. Sielediba 332; v. also Ceylon and
;
;

404 D; daily course of 89 424 c. Suppara (Supera) 333. Surastrene 334. Surat 334.

188 A,

Tabernacle, prepared by Moses 56 c


foil.;

description of 192 D foil.; outer and inner 208 C entry 208 C curtain 201 D, 204 a court 212 c;
;
;

veil

table pillars 264 209 D 201 D; pattern of the world 6, 72 D, 81 B, 201 a, 205 c; tribes
; ;

round signified months 408


rayxapas lOOC, 337.

A.

Taka

342.

Taprobane.
Silk 97 A, 445 D, 334. Silk trade, routes of 333. Silvia 30.

Takazze 34/. 436 A. Tamraparni 332. Tangaites 342.

Taprobane 332 and


Sielediba.

v.

Ceylon and

Simoundou 332. Simylla 334. Sinae 333.


Sinai
J;

inscriptions at 217 a.

Sindou 334. Smyrna, MS. of C at 2. Socotra j, 343 Christianity


;

Tartarus 336 B. Tartessus 333. 44 C, 34^ Temple of Jerusalem 145 460 B.


1

A, C,

168 c,

Tennent
in

3.
24.,

343

Nestorianisin in 343. Sofalat al-Dhab 337. Solate 343.

Theodore, church of St 436 D. Theodore of Mopsuestia ./, d,

Solomon

338. Sopatrus 3, 14, 333. Sorath 334. Souls, pre-existence of 384 c nature circumscription of 72 A, 149 C transsumption of 336 B, 132 384 c. Sousa 336.
(
;
;

= Solon)

Theodosius of Alexandria 3. Theodotion 9, 334. Theophania, church of 436 C. Theophilus 343 6. Thomas of Edessa 4.

Tiamo 341. Timaeus 336,


Timothy
3.

337.

Tingis 346.

376

GENERAL INDEX
World, creation of 125 D foil. shape of, bk. IV., JJ7 roundness of, denied 58 D, 125 B, 128 c foil., in;

Tongues, the gift of 296 D. Topography, Christian, recension of, after Cosmas' death 2^,28', addition xil. not to by editor 26; bks. XI.

consistent

with

the

kingdom of
;

part oi 2^.

Tor

Rhaithou. Torre (Nicholas de 444 A, J4g.


V.

la) ig.

Tree of knowledge 413 B, 425 A; of life 224 D, 413 B. Travellers, early, to Ceylon /o, //.
Trinity 308 D, 333 c. Trinquemale j^^. Troglodytae /o, 336, jjg.

heaven 336 B, 384 theory of roundness invented by Chaldaeans ^35 B? 138 c, handed on by them to the Egyptians and from them to the Greeks 135 B, suggested by Pythagoras j^/, supported by Aristotle etc. 34^. Writing, introduced by Moses 207 A; practised by Hebrews in desert 217 A; taught by Hebrews to Phoenicians 217 B, by Phoenicians to Greeks 217B.
c, 348, 34g. Year, length of 404 c. Yeha 341. Yemen 338, 342, 344. Yetas (Yueichi) 336.

Trojan war 460 A.

Tryphon 338.
Tsijamo v. Tiamo. Tsocha J42.
Turtle 445 A, J49.

Yak 444

Tyrian antiquities 456

c.

Tzana J40. Tzigam J40.

Yule

J, 8.

Unger

/j.

Unicorn

12^

444

B,

j^o.

Zaa 342.
Zabedj 333.
Zevs (planet)

Urim and thummim 213 A.


Van Kloeden
Vincent
J42.
B.

60 D, 61

D, 381 D.

Varthema ^50.
Victor, church of St 437
j,

Zia Zingaren 341. Zingabene 341.


Zinji 334, 33Y.

j6.

Voss

2,

334.
A.

Walls joining heaven and earth 81

Zodiac 61 C, 408 A. Zone, torrid 324 B. Zoscales 340. Zula jjd, 338

Woman,

creation of 157D.

CAMBRIDGE: PRINTED BY JOHN CLAY,

M.A.

AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS,

Plate I

-ro*

*i^I

The waters above


From
L,
fol.

91, after

the firmament.
(p.

128,

1.

22).

[Reproduced by permission of the author and the Clarendon Press from Beazley's

Dawn

of Modern Geography.']

The firmament.
From
[Reproduced
l)y

L, iol. 90'', after (, 128, 1. 30). permission of the author and the Clarendon Press from Beazley's Dawn of Geography.
'\

Plate II

The world and


From

the pillars of heaven.

Plate III

L, fol. 92, after rti/os (p. 129, 1. 21). [Reproduced by permission of the author and the Clarendon Press from Beazley's Dawn of Modern Geography.
'\

"

>,

\
jQ.T,'T^,'^:1ifiilteil,l^'**^.'ay^ **

^^ C^W^ ^jOCr'aiS^,
*=*

The world and


From
[Reproduced
l:)y

the ocean.

Plate 1''

L, fol. 93, at the top, after (p. 130, 1. 2). permission of the author and the Clarendon Press from Beazley's Dawn of Modern Geography. ^

The mountain
From
L,
fol.

95, after

[Reproduced by permission of the author and the Clarendon Press from Beazley's Dawn of Modern Geography
.'\

in the north.
(p.

Plate
1.

132,

12).

The
From

universe.
(p.

Plate
132,
1.

VI

L, fol. 95^, after [Reproduced by permission of the author

ii).

and the Clarendon Press from Beazley's

Dawn

of Modern GeograpJiy.'l

Map
From

of the world and paradise.

Plate

VII

L, fol. 92"^', after roibvhe (p. 130, 1. 2). [Reproduced by permission of the author and the Clarendon Press from Beazley's Dawn of Geography.^

Plate

VIII

The
From
L,
fol.
98'^,

antipodes.

at the

end of bk.

iv. (p.

135,

1.

12).

[Reproduced by permission of the author and the Clarendon Press from Beazley's

Dazun of Modern Geography.']

Plate

IX

>i
I

<

-*

-rp -TTtBo/y
I

c*i> or

*.*

c*r

r^f^l

The sun and


From
L,
fol.

189^, after

the climes.
(p.

234,

1.

24).

Plate

The two
From
L,
fol.

storeys of the universe


195^',

after

(p.

24 ,

1.

30).

<

'
*

C d

rt
its

00

3
rt

( .
G

CO

U <

^
c

<

C U

ON

&
C

<
3
00

a,

, ,

t/)

OS

kJ

Plate

XIV

Coco-nuts.

From

L,

fol.

270, illustrating p. 321,

1.

1.

vO
C
I

^->

9
CO

<

. a
ci-

CD

tJ

->
CO
Ci-

Cosmas Indicopleustes

^ONlifWAl INSTITUTE OF MEDIAEVAL STUUIES


59 QUEEN'S

PARK CRESCENT TORONTO-5, CANADA

19288