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Chapter 20 Mitosis and Asexual Reproduction 20.1 Mitosis Cell Division 1.

1. All cells come from other cells, usually via cellular division 2. Each time cellular division takes place, its called a cell cycle 3. For unicellular organisms, a cell cycle results in a new organism 4. For multicellular organisms, a cell cycle simply means a new cell Introduction to Mitosis 1. Mitosis is the process of forming two identical nuclei from one dividing nucleus 2. Cytokinesis is the process of filling two cells with cytoplasm from one dividing cell Mitosis and Changes in the Nucleus, refer to page 399. 1. Interphase starts as soon as the cell has completed one division and before it starts the next one. After, the cellular division, the two new cells need to grow and mature before they divide. Chromosomes cannot be seen with a microscope, DNA is called chromatin (thread-like) Centrioles are near the nucleus 2. Prophase Centrioles move toward the opposite ends of the cell (poles) DNA coils and replicates and forms chromatids joined by structures called centromeres (the center of the X)(you can now see it with a microscope) Microtubules extend from the centrioles forming a spindle and attach to the center of the doubled DNA at the centromeres In late prophase, chromosomes move toward the equator or middle of the cell At the end of prophase, the nuclear membrane has dissolved and you cannot distinguish the nucleolus 3. Metaphase Chromosomes are lined up at the equator of the cell The doubled DNA begin to divide, separating at the centromere, the spindle fibers aid in this process 4. 5. Anaphase The now single DNA, move to opposites sides of the cell (poles), with the help of the microtubules Each pole gets a complete set of chromosomes or all the DNA that the original cell had Cytokinesis and cell pinching begins Telophase Chromosomes uncoil and become thread-like again, and are no longer seen with a microscope The microtubules disappear A nuclear membrane forms in each of the daughter cells and the nuclei reappear Cytokinesis and cell pinching ends Telophase ends and interphase begins

Mitosis and Cytokinesis in Plant Cells, refer to page 402 Everything is the same except for two things: 1. Plant cells do not have centrioles, but somehow microtubules do form and pull chromosomes apart. 2. A cell plate forms during telophase across the middle of a cell. It grows outward and joins the old cell wall. New cell wall material is secreted on each side of the cell plate.

Time Span of Mitotic Cell Division 1. Cells that are least specialized undergo mitosis more often than complex cells. Cells in an embryo divide quickly, while cells in an adult may take 16 to 20 hours to divide. Control of the Cell Cycle How does the cell know when it is time to divide? A series of proteins called cyclins. The amount of cyclin inside the cell varies the cells activity. A large amount of cyclin triggers mitosis and a small amount signifies the end of the cell cycle. 20.2 Asexual Reproduction Producing Identical Offspring Unicellular organisms produce identical offspring by the process of binary fission, which is the simplest form of asexual reproduction. One parent cell becomes two identical daughter cells. Binary Fission for Bacteria The chromosome attaches to the plasma membrane and replicates Cell wall forms between the original chromosome and the copy The wall divides the cell in two Each daughter cell has its own complete chromosome Each daughter cell grows and begins the cycle again (sometimes every 20 minutes) Binary Fission for Protozoa An ameba ready to divide becomes round and nucleus undergoes mitosis After nuclear division, cytoplasm pinches in Two resulting daughter cells grow to full size and repeat the process A paramecium has two nuclei, the smaller micronucleus divides by mitosis The larger macronucleus divides by a modified form of mitosis One of each goes into a new daughter cell Oral groove and gullet replicate, and two new contractile vacuoles appear Division of the cytoplasm takes place as the cell pinches in The paramecium also divides sexually

Budding Budding occurs when a small piece of the parent cell breaks off and the small piece goes off to live and grow independently from the parent. Budding is unlike fission because the parent and buds are not the same size. The hydra, yeast, and sponge perform budding. Spore Formation Spores are released from the parent, germinate, and produce new individuals. There are many types of spores;a protective wall usually surrounds a spore. Fungi, algae, and protozoa produce spores. Regeneration The process of replacing lost body parts is regeneration. The hydra, planarian (flatworm), starfish, and EARTHWORM can regenerate. Refer to page 408. Some organisms can regenerate an entire body, like the planarian on page 408, and some can only regenerate a limb, like the crab.

Vegetative Reproduction This is the process of asexual reproduction in plants. Tulips and onions reproduce by bulbs, which is a short stem that is underground. New bulbs sprout from the old one and each new bulb gives rise to a new leafy plant. Potatoes reproduce by tubers, which is an enlarged part of the short stem that is underground. The eyes become tiny buds. Each bud becomes a shoot, which penetrates the soil and grows up. The bud also forms roots. Strawberry plants and grass reproduce with runners, which is a stem that grows sideways and buds. Ferns reproduce by rhizomes, which is a stem that grows sideways and underground. Buds are produced. Artificial Vegetative Reproduction Cutting Cutting the stem, leaf, or root and placing it in water, soil, or hormones stimulates tissue growth. The advantage to artificial vegetative reproduction is that it produces new plants identical to the parent. It is also faster than growing a plant from a seed.