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ZALIKHA BINTI ESA 2008337071
BACHELOR OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (HONS) HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT FACULTY OF BUSINESS MANAGEMENT UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA BANDARAYA MELAKA
THE SYUDY OF PERSON-ORGANIZATION FIT: A CASE STUDY AT PERNEC CORPORATION BERHAD
ZALIKHA BINTI ESA 2008337071
Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the Bachelor of Business Administration (Hons) Human Resource Management
FACULTY OF BUSINESS MANAGEMENT UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA BANDARAYA MELAKA
DECLARATION OF ORIGINAL WORK
BACHELOR OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (HONS) HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT FACULTY OF BUSINESS MANAGEMENT UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA BANDARAYA MELAKA
³DECLARATION OF ORIGINAL WORK´
I, ZALIKHA BINTI ESA (I/C Number: 871220-43-5326)
Hereby, declare that; y This work has not previously been accepted in substance for any degree, locally or overseas and not being concurrently submitted for this degree or any other degrees. This project paper is the result of my independent work and investigation, except where otherwise stated. All verbatim extracts have been distinguished by quotation marks and sources of my information have been specifically acknowledged.
Date: December 2011
Helmy Fadlisham Bin Abu Hasan The Head of Program Bachelor of Business Administration (Hons) Human Resource Management Faculty of Business Management Universiti Teknologi MARA Bandaraya Melaka 110 Off Jalan Hang Tuah. Dear Sir. DECEMBER 2011 En. 75300 Melaka. I hereby submitted this report and I really hope that this work will fulfill the requirement for the Bachelor of Business Administration (Hons) Finance. THE STUDY OF PERSON-ORGANIZATION FIT: A CASE STUDY AT PERNEC CORPORATION BERHAD I¶m required to do a project paper on the above topic. Yours sincerely. ZALIKHA BINTI ESA 2008337071 Bachelor of Business Administration (Hons) Human Resource Management . 75300 Melaka.LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL Faculty of Business Management Universiti Teknologi MARA Bandaraya Melaka 110 Off Jalan Hang Tuah. Thank you.
the most merciful and the most benevolent for giving me the opportunities in completing this research paper. understanding. Last but not least. this study cannot be complete. ideas. I wish to express my deepest gratitude to all my friends. Without their patience. Officer and Staff of Pernec Corporation Berhad. I dedicate this research to my beloved parents and for their endless support. I also would like to convey my deepest gratitude and indebted to librarian of Universiti Teknologi MARA. Bandaraya Melaka. time and commitment.W. and comments throughout this study. Without his untiring encouragement.T. help and encouragement. this research could not be done. I would like to thank to everyone that involved directly or indirectly for their contribution. It would be impossible for me to spent time to complete this study without the grace and help of ALLAH S. Manager. I am greatly indebted to my best advisor Dr Noor Azam Bin Abd Aziz whose excellence in supervision and plays a big role in inspired my work. I want them to know that I really appreciate what they had done to me. . this study would not been the same as presented here. who shared their knowledge. suggestion.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT All praises to almighty ALLAH. Thank you. for their co-operation and help throughout the duration of this research. valuable experience. invaluable support and encouragement they have place on me. Assistant Manager. Without everyone continued support. Beyond a simple thank you.
11 Introduction Background of Company Problem Statement Purpose Research Question Research Objectives Significance of Study Research Model Research Hypotheses Scope of Study Limitation Definition of terms 1.1 1.4 1.7 1.10 1.0 1.9 1.2 1.8 1.1 Person-Organization Fit .6 1.3 1.5 1.11.TABLE OF CONTENTS Page TITLE PAGE DECLARATION OF ORIGINAL WORKS LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL ACKNOWLEDGEMENT TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES ABSTRACT i iii iv v vii x xii CHAPTER 1 .INTRODUCTION 1.
1.11.2 Job Satisfaction 1.11.3 Organization Commitment 1.11.4 Turnover Intention
CHAPTER 2 - LITERATURE REVIEW 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Introduction Person-organization fit Job satisfaction Organization commitment Turnover intention
CHAPTER 3 - METHODOLOGY AND DATA 3.0 3.1 Introduction Research Design 3.1.1 Location 3.1.2 Time Horizon 3.1.3 Unit of Analysis 3.2 Data Collection Method 3.2.1 Secondary Data 188.8.131.52 External Sources 3.2.2 Primary Data 184.108.40.206 Questionnaire Method 220.127.116.11 Personal Interview 3.3 Theoretical Framework
3.4.1 Sampling Size 3.4.2 Sampling Frame 3.4.3 Sampling Technique 3.5 Data Analysis
CHAPTER 4 - FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS 4.0 4.1 Introduction Descriptive Statistic 4.1.1 Frequencies 4.1.2 Descriptives 4.2 4.3 Level of Person-Organization Fit Analyses Measures 4.3.1 Pearson Correlation Analysis 4.3.2 Reliability Analysis
CHAPTER 5 - CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5.0 5.1 Introduction Discussion of the Overall Result 5.1.1 Descriptive Statistic 5.1.2 Pearson Correlation Analysis 5.1.3 Reliability Analysis 5.2 5.3 Recommendation Conclusion
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1 Table 2 Table 3 Table 4 Table 5 Table 6 Table 7 Table 8 Table 9 Table 10 Table 11 Table 12 Table 13 Table 14
Total number of staff employed by organization Gender-frequency Age-frequency Status-frequency Race-frequency Education-frequency Designation-frequency Job satisfaction-descriptive statistic Organization commitment-description statistic Turnover intention-description statistic Person-organization fit-description statistic Correlation between variables Average of variables Reliability of variables
LIST OF FIGURES .
The data will be interpreted by using SPSS. organizational commitment and turnover intention at Pernec Corporation Berhad. The researcher proposed a few recommendations to Pernec Corporation Berhad that should be considered for its future long-term planning. The methodology of this study is using one hundred respondents. .2005). which we can see how many respondents that give responds towards the questionnaire that will be distribute later.ABSTRACT The main purpose of this study is to explore person-organization fit is sufficient tool of organization performance¶s improvement through job satisfaction. This is demonstrated in the finding that those who do not fit their organization tend to look for work elsewhere ( Kristof-Brown et al.
Zimmerman. respectively. 2002). increased productivity. P-O fit is important because it can be used to predict movement across organizations. Fit is defined as the degree of compatibility between an individual and an organization (McCulloch & Turban. 1991). A greater degree of P-O fit has been shown to be related to multiple organizational outcomes including enhanced organizational commitment. 2005). as well as turnover (Kristof_Brown. based on the perception of fit (Cable & DeRue. knowledge. Arbour. and abilities in predicting if an individual will be successful in a particular organization (Erdogan & Bauer. & Johnson. Person-organization fit (P-O fit) construct is one of the most popular used to assess if a person will fit within an organization (Kwantes. The construct has become important in the study of organizational effectiveness because it improves upon the matching skills. .CHAPTER i INTRODUCTION 1. & Cardwell. Chatman. 2005). The success of Pernec Corporation Berhad depends on individuals who can perform well on the job and who are unlikely to quit the organization. and reduced turnover (Van Vianen. Based on measuring specific variables such as job satisfaction and organizational commitment (O´Really.0 INTRODUCTION Employees and employers choose between working for organizations and hiring individuals. and Boglarsky. 2007). 2007). 2000).
Since its formation in 1973. Pernec Corporation Berhad has been providing telecommunications solution to network operator in Malaysia. For more than three decades. in the most cost effective manner. Throughout the years. reliable. switching and broadcasting. Today. In early 2008. Pernec Corporation Berhad strives to create new solutions for consumers and businesses and by driving innovation in the communications and ICT industries. paypoint is currently the leader in the payphone industry in Malaysia. By making telecommunications as the core business involvement in many projects has enable Pernec Corporation Berhad to build up local expertise in various technologies especially in transmission. the mission is to connect people with their world. Pernec Corporation Berhad has consistently provided innovative. joint ventures. Paypoint having acquired . Pernec Corporation Berhad ventured into a service-based business with the acquisition of Telekom Malaysia¶s public payphone division conducting operation under the name Pernec Paypoint Sdn Bhd (Paypoint) Powered by 1334 staffs with 27 main and branch utilities nationwide. and do it better than anyone else. high-quality products and services and highly reliable customer care. As part of its business plans. many major projects have been successfully implemented by Pernec Corporation Berhad. communications and technology companies with a significant presence in the country and the region through the company¶s subsidiaries. the group is making concerted efforts to expand its businesses into the markets with the offerings of its innovative and advanced telecommunications service and products.1 Pernec BACKGROUND OF COMPANY Corporation Berhad is one of Malaysia¶s leading telecommunication infrastructure and information. associated undertakings and investments.1.
universities. business stations. Table 1: Total number of staff employed by organization Month PERNEC CORPORATION BERHAD (PCB) PERNEC TRANSMISSION BERHAD (PTX) PERNEC INTEGRATED NETWORK SOLUTION (PINS) PERNEC ADVANCE NETWORKS (PAN) PERNEC TECHNOLOGIES BERHAD (PTECH) PERNEC PAYPOINT BERHAD (PPP) AUG SEPT OCT NOV 126 128 129 128 223 73 217 246 73 217 73 75 154 147 145 138 129 122 120 80 681 1386 676 1363 671 1355 667 1334 TOTAL . colleges. commercials and business areas. residential areas.7% share of the market with its payphone installed in areas covering public facilities. retirement and also resigned for the purpose found new job. concessionaires. During 2011. tourist focus attraction. hypermarkets. schools. 52 staffs have been resigned due to contract expired. starting industrial training duration from August until November.56. shopping complexes. 313 staffs of executive and 871 staff of non-executive. Pernec Corporation Berhad empowered by 1334 staff consists of 150 staffs of management. airports etc which includes presence in urban rural.
So from that employee will feel unsatisfy which lead to cannot commit to their work. they also faced with the problems which employees and organization are not a good fit. In Pernec Corporation Berhad itself. they will leave the organizations. You need to explain about commitment and satisfaction in this section. late to work.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT Person-organizational fit can be describe as an individual¶s values. security of organization will take their name or their vehicle number and send to human resource department to be recorded. If they are a good fit with the organization. Bell will be ring at 2 pm to inform worker that lunch time is time-out. their name will be taken. 1. interests and behavior which are consistent with the culture of an organization as a whole rather than with a specific role or task. For some reason employee have no authority to voice out their opinion or idea even it can be consider as a good idea. dissatisfaction among employees. A correlational research design will be used to measure the degree of association between these variables using the statistical procedure or correlational analysis. A quantitative method will be used to evaluate the relationship between the variables. So they have no choice unless to follow what the leader said. How do you know they are not fit? You may want to get data such as absenteeism. But if they are not a good fit with the organization. for those who come late. chatting and so on.3 PURPOSE The purpose of the study is to explore the P-O fit in Pernec Corporation Berhad.1. For those still eating. they will be part of and remain with. The degree of . They have to listen on what decisions have been made by their leader. etc. Employees are not agree with the organization¶s system which.
1. What is the relationship between organizational commitment and P-O fit? 4. This study also investigates the effect of P-O fit on both independent and dependant variables.5 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES: 1. To identify the level of P-O fit in Pernec Corporation Berhad.association indicates how the two variables are related and if a change in one variable reflects a change in the other variable (Cresswell. To identify the relationship between turnover intention and P-O fit. What is the relationship between job satisfaction and P-O fit? 3. . 2005). 1. To identify the relationship between organizational commitment and P-O fit.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS: 1. What is the level of P-O fit in Pernec Corporation Berhad? 2. To identify the relationship between job satisfaction and P-O fit. 3.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY This study is enabled the analysis of the relationship between person-organization fit and dependant variables. What is the relationship between turnover intention and P-O fit? 1. 2. 4.
1.7 RESEARCH MODEL JOB SATISFACTION PERSONORGANIZATION FIT ORGANIZATION COMMITMENT TURNOVER INTENTION This model doesn¶t seem right. .organization fit.8 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES Job Satisfaction H0 : There are significant correlation between job satisfaction and personorganization fit H1 : There are no significant correlation between job satisfaction and personorganization fit Organization Commitment H0 : There are significant correlations between organization commitment and person.1.
Legal Department and Finance and Account Department.9 SCOPE OF STUDY The scope of this study would cover and focus on employee in Pernec Corporation Berhad. As researcher face difficulties from employees in giving time to progress in completing the research. 1. Moreover.1 Time Constraint The period of time given by the academic administration is from 1st August 2011 until 16th December 2011. 1.H1 : There are no significant correlations between organization commitment and Person-organization fit. Therefore. Internal Audit Department. . Turnover Intention H0 : There are significant correlation between turnover intention and personorganization fit. the accuracy and depth level of understanding on organization structure is decisive.10 LIMITATIONS 1. the duration on implementing research at the workplace is very constraint.10. Group of Human Resource Department. H1 : There are no significant correlation between turnover intention and person-job fit. Risk Management Department. Pernec Corporation Berhad is divided into Customer Relationship Management Department. The cross sectional study involved sample and data collection for the period of 3 months starting from the date of September 2011 till November 2011.
Budget is seen as limitation because of researcher has to face challenging activity such as printing the questionnaire to be distributed. this limitation is not a big threat for the researcher to proceed with the research study.3 Level of Co-operation In the process of collecting information based on the questionnaire distributed. However. 1. researcher also is confronting with budget drawback.10. Therefore. The process of collecting information from large number of employees at the workplace is challenging. researcher takes action in reminding respondent to answer the questionnaire to be collected.4 Budget Instead of facing limitation in time.2 Inadequate Information Level of information that is generated by researcher is minimal. initiative in collecting information from secondary data has been taken to complete the research thesis. .10. However. Therefore.10. It is because employees are dealing with the job task that they have been assigned.1. Here it shows that level of cooperation from respondents is moderate and it researcher managed to overcome the limitation. researcher find difficulties in obtaining back the questionnaire on time. Most respondents are focusing on performing their job tasks. 1. researcher still find it challenging to come out with the independent variables for the research.
the fit between the firm¶s and the worker¶s values.11. .11. 1.1. and loyalty toward or pride taken in working for their employers.11. Turnover intention. interests.4 Turnover Intention Turnover is the process through which staff leave a business or organization and that business or organization replaces them. like turnover itself. an affective reaction to one¶s job and attitude towards one¶s job. 1. can be either voluntary or involuntary. reluctance to leave. Turnover intention is a measurement of whether a business' or organization's employees plan to leave their positions or whether that organization plans to remove employees from positions. rather than with a specific role or task. and behavior are consistent with the culture of an organization as a whole.11.3 Organization Commitment Organizational Commitment is typically measured by items tapping respondents¶ willingness to work hard to improve their companies.2 Job Satisfaction Job satisfaction has been defined as a pleasurable emotional resulting from the appraisal of one¶s.1 Person±Organization Fit The extent to which an individual's values.11 DEFINITION OF TERMS 1. 1.
CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW Introduction Human resources are definitely the most important resources in an organization.. Job satisfaction is the contentedness of individuals with their job. it has become imperative to add elements in job that keeps employees attached to what they do and stick them to work where they work. The very existence of an organization will be at stake without the efficient human resources. too to increase productivity and decreases staff change day by day. based on a comparison between actual outcomes and desired outcomes (Mosadeghrad. It is very important for organizations to see employees as the fundamental source of improvement. satisfied and are committed to the organization. On the other front job satisfaction. Job satisfaction can be influenced by a variety of factors e. 2003). we can define job satisfaction as an employee¶s affective reaction to a job. Job satisfaction is in regard to one¶s feelings or state of mind regarding the nature of their work. and they put in that extra-effort that plays the crucial role in leading the competition. the quality of relationship with their supervisor. the µenjoyment¶ factor not only motivates the employee but also increases the efficiency on whole. sense of commitment and satisfaction within the organization¶s sphere of influence had never been such an impending necessity. It becomes very important for people to love what they do and enjoy what they do.g. At present times when organizations are facing tough challenges in retaining their key employees. etc. the quality of the physical environment in which they work and degree of fulfillment in their work. Employee job satisfaction is an attitude that people have about their jobs and the organizations in which they perform these jobs. Methodologically. its goal remains unattainable unless its human resources are motivated. organizational commitment and turnover intention have a great impact on the successful performance of an organization? Satisfied and committed employee identifies with the goals and values of the organization. The need for ensuring spirit of cooperation. It can also be discovered through examining the employee¶s values. It is good not only for employees but employers. Job satisfaction . The root source of quality and productivity gains is the employees.
1992. 1996). selected to be a part of. Schneider (1987) argues that organizations are one situation that people are attracted to. that human behavior is a function of the person and the environment and secondly. a compatibility of values and expectations between employee and employer.. or leave if they are not a good fit with the organization. as µgroup think¶ is detrimental to the innovation process. Researchers and practitioners contend that P-O fit is the key to maintaining the flexible and committed workforce that is necessary in a competitive business environment and a tight labor market (Bowen. 1976. 1991. Koch and Steers. organizational practices and relationships with co-workers (Misener et al. The implication of these assumptions is that an organization must have a single. promotion. that the person and the environment need to be compatible. Rynes & Gerhart. and remain with if they are a good fit with the organization. It encompasses specific aspects of satisfaction related to pay. . P-O fit can be conceptualized as the match between an applicant and broader organizational attributes (Judge & Ferris. Angle and Perry. emphasizing the extent to which a person and the organization share similar characteristics and/or meet each other's needs (Kristof. The definition of the term appears to be uncontroversial and the most frequently cited and accepted definition is derived from Kristof¶s work (1996:3) which describes the construct as ³compatibility between individuals and organizations´. Person-organization fit has become the accepted lexicon over the past decade. 1996).is generally recognized as a multifaceted construct that includes employee feelings about a variety of both intrinsic and extrinsic job elements. homogenous and stable µpersonality¶ or character in order for employees to assess their compatibility with the organization. 1974. 1978. 1996): firstly. 1996). The notion of person-organization fit rests on two principle assumptions (Kristof. Kristof. supervision. This is in part due to the vast number of works that have found relationships between organizational commitment and attitudes and behaviors in the workplace (Porter et al. benefits. 1990). work conditions. 1981) PERSON-ORGANIZATION FIT P-O fit refers to the compatibility between a person and the organization. although the concept was originally known as person-environment fit. Ledford & Nathan. It follows that a success criterion for the concept would be measured in terms of a high degree of fit between employee and employer although Payne et al (1990) have questioned the desirability of too great a fit in creative industries. In employee selection research. Organizational commitment has an important place in the study of organizational behavior..
For the organization. some researchers are interested in measuring different facets or dimensions of satisfaction. this definition implies that job satisfaction is a general or global affective reaction that individuals hold about their jobs. and as soon as the threat is lifted performance will decline. and it does seem logical that more satisfied workers will tend to add more value to an organization. Tepeci. . 1989. Second. A satisfied worker is more likely to be creative. much work has been done to understand the antecedents of job satisfaction from three lines of research in organizational behavior. First. Job satisfaction is one of the most frequently measured organizational variables in both research and applied settings for several reasons. Meglino et al. While most of the researchers and practitioners measure global job satisfaction. To the worker. self-respect. and self-development. situational and interactional perspective. who are motivated by fear of job loss.Why POS? What if NOT? JOB SATISFACTION Job satisfaction and occupational success are major factors in personal satisfaction.2). p. 1991. self-esteem. a significant relationship between P-O fit and job satisfaction has been empirically shown in interactional research (Downey et al. will not give 100 percent of their effort for very long. innovative. Increased productivity the quantity and quality of output per hour worked´ seems to be a by product of improved quality of working life. organizations often want to know the state of the employee morale over time because of its influence on employee behavior and job performance and thus.. 1975. 1991. 1991. 1997. it is also a temporary one. Boxx et al. 2001). However. flexible. O¶Reilly et al. Vancouver and Schmitt. the dispositional. job satisfaction brings a pleasurable emotional state that often leads to a positive work attitude. Though fear is a powerful motivator. job satisfaction of its workers means a work force that is motivated and committed to high quality performance. and loyal. studies dating back to Herzberg's (1957) have shown at least low correlation between high morale and high productivity. some form of job satisfaction measurement is often included in employee opinion surveys. It is important to note that the literature on the relationship between job satisfaction and productivity is neither conclusive nor consistent. As cited above. Job satisfaction is defined as ³the extent to which people like (satisfaction) or dislike (dissatisfaction) their jobs (Spector.. Unhappy employees.
peer relationships and organizational politics. 2007). So. Job satisfaction is a result of employees¶ perception of how well their job provides those things that are viewed as important. an individual¶s subjective. 1998). supervision. 1972) or a statement to describe the feelings of employees about their work (Arches. if the pleasures associated with one's job out weigh the pains. working conditions and/or the work itself. supervision. It is also conceptualized as an acceptance and internationalization of organization¶s goals. emotional reaction to his or her work (Abu-Bader. nature of the work and benefits. leadership. affective and evaluative reactions or attitudes when he defines job satisfaction as ³a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one¶s job or job experience´. Another definition for job satisfaction is it is an emotional response to tasks. her promotional opportunities are good. 1998). Tziner and Vardi (1984) defined work satisfaction as an affective response or reaction to a wide range of conditions or aspects of one¶s work such as pay. in essence. 1999). 1991).Measuring satisfaction on the basis of different facets enables researcher to make a more comprehensive examination of this work attitude with regard to critical job factors such as co-workers. Very simply put. Job satisfaction can be conceived of as a multi-dimensional concept that includes a set of favorable or unfavorable feelings by which employees perceive their job (Davis and Newstrom. Brief (1998) wrote: "If a person's work is interesting. there is some level of job satisfaction ORGANIZATION COMMITMENT Organizational commitment defined as the extent to which one identifies with and is involved in an organization. and her coworkers are friendly. her supervisor is supportive. a willingness to work hard to achieve those . as well as other physical and social conditions of the workplace (Stewart. Job satisfaction is defined as the degree to which an individual feels positively or negatively about his or her job (Goodman et al. This statement expresses the gap between what individuals feel they should receive from their work (ideally speaking) and what they derive from the actual situation. 91). job conditions. Locke¶s definition of Job satisfaction considers cognitive. A sense of satisfaction or its absence is. her pay isfair. then a situational approach leads one to predict she is satisfied with her job" (p. job satisfaction is a product of the events and conditions that people experience on their jobs. pay. Others define it as an affective orientation towards anticipated outcome (Wanous &Lawler. thus.
Batemen and Strasser (1984) state that the reasons for studying organizational commitment are related to employee behaviors and performance effectiveness. Herscovitch. job tenure. 2002). Stanley. normative commitment refers to employees' perceptions of their obligation to their organization. and the desire to stay with the organization. Other researchers use similar definitions that refer to an employee's attachment. a willingness to exert high levels of effort on behalf of the organization and a definite belief in. goal congruency. Researchers generally agree there are three "foci" used to classify types of organizational commitment as conceptualized by Meyer and Allen (1991). and acceptance of. Organizational commitment is most often defined as a strong desire to remain a member of a particular organization. if an organization is loyal to the employee or has supported his/her educational efforts. Finally. but there is no clear link to performance. loyalty and allegiance to their organization. and normative commitment. identification.goals. For instance. the employee may report higher degrees of normative commitment. continuous. affective. Organizational behavior 10th edition). and cognitive constructs such as job satisfaction also related to characteristics of the employee¶s job and role. which are affective. Commitment is a broader concept and tends to withstand transitory aspects of an employee's job. such as responsibility and also personal characteristics of the employee such as age. Affective commitment refers to employees' perceptions of their emotional attachment to or identification with their organization. Meyer and Allen (1991) state that organizational commitment is "a psychological state that characterizes the employee's relationships with the organization and has implications for the decision to continue membership in the organization. and Topolnytsky. the values and goals of the organization (Luthans. Continuance commitment refers to employees' perceptions of the costs associated with leaving the organization. It is probably wise not to expect too much from commitment as a means of making a direct and immediate impact on performance.Furthermore. It is possible to be dissatisfied with a particular feature of a job while retaining a reasonably high level of commitment to the organization as a whole. This three-way classification enables the identification of the underlying basis for each type of commitment and researchers have clarified the unique antecedents and outcomes related to each type (Meyer. . Guest (1991) concludes that high organizational commitment is associated with lower turnover and absence. attitudinal. It is not the same as motivation.
they stopped short at job satisfaction and did not examine the consequence of job (dis) satisfaction such as intention to leave.TURNOVER INTENT A study conducted in the United States presented evidence showing that dissatisfied nurses were 65% more likely to have intent to leave compared to their satisfied counterparts (Shields & Ward. low levels of motivation. Purani & Sahadev 2007). Rambur et al. 2006). It is worth noting that job satisfaction has also been found to be a better predictor of intent to leave as compared to the availability of other employment opportunities (Shields & Ward. and to the poor social image of the nursing profession (Tzeng. Purani and Sahadev (2007) used a job satisfaction multifaceted construct as predictor variable and examine its impact on intention to leave among the sales personnel in India. 2007. in addition to poor management and job stress (Rambur et al. Other predictors of intent to leave vary from low salaries and fringe benefits. 2003).. Hayes et al. 2002). Purani and Sahadev (2007) found that employees with long stay at workplace had higher level of job satisfaction and would not incline to quit. Nurses¶ intent to leave linked to situational factors such as family obligations. they did recommend that satisfaction with information cues available to nurses are crucial to determine nurses¶ job satisfaction which may lead to intent to leave or higher job burnout. early retirement (Rambur et al. This finding also suggested that job satisfaction and intention to leave relationship framework must also have other demographic variables consideration into the model of job satisfaction and intention to leave.. El-Jardali et al. . (2007) also found a negative correlation between job satisfaction and intention to leave in Lebanese nurses. if not available. inflexible work schedule (Coomber & Barriball. 2002. However. 2003). 2003). 2001). emotional exhaustion and burnout. and length of service (Larrabee et al.. 2003). Despite Pearson and Chong¶s (1997) insight.. career advancement prospects (Tzeng. 2001.
Finance and Account Department. the objective of research are getting a feel for the data. It is because the researcher wants to establish a link between independent variables and dependent variables. The research site is Pernec Corporation Berhad which will be conducted in few departments which are Group Human Resource Department. Internal Audit Department. There have three variables which are organization commitment. and the testing hypothesis developed for the research. research site (location).0 INTRODUCTION This chapter covered research design. testing the goodness of data.CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY 3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN . Information Technology (IT) Department. For the type of study. design of questionnaire. variables and measures. sampling design. 3. The research design consists of type of study and nature of study. For data analysis. Customer Relationship Management Department. The reliability of a measure is established by testing for both consistency and stability. job satisfaction and turnover intention. The data being collected from secondary sources and choose to use administrative questionnaire in order to get the data. researcher chooses the causal research. The goodness of data consists of reliability and validity. Cronbach¶s alpha is used as our reliability of measure and the stability of a measure can be accessed through Parallel-Form Reliability.
For the purposed of this study.3 Unit of Analysis . descriptive research and causal research by using hypothesis testing. the type of research design that been used is exploratory research which is the theoretical framework.To do this research. 3. identity relevant courses of action. and comprehension of the problem more precisely. Meanwhile.1 Location Questionnaire is distributed to employees in Pernec Corporation Berhad. but over a period of month. For the causal research.1. Information Technology (IT) department. 3. The departments that involve are Human Resource department. This testing proved the relationship between independent and dependent variable in this research.1. The cross sectional study involved sample and data collection for the period of two months starting from the date September 2011 till November 2011. Customer Relationship Management department. It is because exploratory research design is the primary objective to provide insights into. for the descriptive research.1. we use it because we need to identify the truth of hypothesis that was tested into this research. which are descriptive and causal research. and sampling method and deciding on how the variables will be measured. in order to answer the research question. 3.2 Time Horizon This study is done which data is gathered just once. 2004). This research examined the factors that affect the customer perception and customer satisfaction. the researcher has used exploratory research to obtain information needed. questionnaires. Internal Audit Department. It involves acquiring primary data. (Malhotra. Conclusive research has divided into two. or gain additional insights before an approach can be developed. it based on the determination of objectives in this research. Finance and Account Department.
3. this research work is focus on individual based unit of analysis. Although it is individual based.1.2. the data came from articles and journals about person-organization fit. You have no secondary data 3. In published material.2 Primary Data Primary data is collected for the specific purpose of addressing the objective. This is because the area of this research paper covers the employees in Pernec Corporation Berhad. primarily and secondary data. In computerized system.1 Secondary Data The secondary data will be gathered by someone other than the researcher conducting the current study.1 External sources The external sources which the data originated from outside organization are collected through published material and computerized system. . 3.2 DATA COLLECTION METHOD The data used was from two main sources. This data is obtained from the online database. Both primary and secondary data collected in order to fulfill the research requirement. Distributing questionnaire and conducting some interviews are methods of obtaining primary data. will be looking at the data gathered from each individual and treating each employee¶s response as an individual data source.2. Such data can be internal or external to the organization and accessed through internet or perusal of recorded or published information.In this study.2. 3. which is internet. the study. the articles are getting from World Wide Web/ Online database.
In the interview. In multiple-choice questions.2. the employees were asked about the impact of employee¶s performance through person-organization fit. The questionnaire employed both fixed alternative multiple.3. the researcher provides a choice of answer. It is also designated to obtain the information related to the objectives of the study. Internal Audit Department. 3. Information Technology (IT) department.2.choice items and open-ended questions. Finance and Account Department. a measurement scale with 5 categories ranging from ³strongly agree ³to ³strongly disagree´ and also ³strongly aware´ and ³strongly unaware´ because to measure the respondent perception.2. In Likert Scale. Out of 100 questionnaires are distributed to employees in five departments which are Human Resource department. .2 Personal Interview interview? In completing this research. Customer Relationship Management department. You have open ended questions? Structured questionnaire is used in this study.2. There are 37 questions in a set of questionnaire. a Measurement Scale and Multiple Choice Questions. face-to-face interview session with employees of Pernec Corporation Berhad was conducted.1 Questionnaire Method The questionnaire is designed to be user friendly to ease the respondents in answering them. Types of question which had been used in this study were Likert Scale.
(2) Organization Commitment.4 SAMPLING DESIGN .3. The dependent variable is the person-organization fit is the main interest variable. (3) Turnover Intention. 3.3 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Independent Variables (IV) Dependant Variable (DV) Job Satisfaction Organization Commitment PersonOrganization Fit Turnover Intention There are two types of variables that have been identified and used for this study. The variables are independent variable (IV) and dependent variable (DV). The independent variables for this study are (1) Job Satisfaction. The component of dependent variable will be explained by three characteristics of independent variables in this research.
There are four elements to be considered in sampling. In addition. A sampling frame can come from the telephone book. a sampling frame is a representation of the elements of the target population. Probability sampling consists of simple random sampling.3 Sampling Technique Sampling technique divided into two which are probability sampling and non-probability sampling. Uma Sekaran (2003). stratified sampling and cluster sampling. Each of the respondents was asked to answer a question through questionnaire distribute personally to the respondent.??????????? 3. Zikmund (2003) also stated that the sample size must be above 30 responses.2 Sampling Frame According to Malhotra (2002). a computer program for generating telephone numbers. While non-probability sampling consists of convenience sampling. Sampling consists of sampling size. .According to Malhotra (2002).4. a city directory or a map.4. a mailing list purchased from a commercial organization. For this research. U. systematic sampling. A usable sample of 100 participants resulted over a period of two months. a sampling unit is the basic unit containing the elements of the population to be sampled.1 Sampling Size Sekaran. sampling frame and sampling technique. the characteristics of the sampling frames are consists of employees which must be Malaysian citizens. The questionnaire has been distributed randomly to the employees in Pernec Corporation Berhad. an association directory listing the firms in an industry.4. (2003) stated that propose the following rules of thumbs for determining the sample that is sample size larger than 30 and less than 500 are appropriate for most research I don¶t like this justification. 3. 3. The data was accumulated from the Pernec Corporation Berhad with permission of the management.
The first step is to getting data ready for analysis such as editing data.Sampling technique that being used in this research is non-probability sampling which is convenience sampling. Meanwhile. ?????????????????????? 3.0 version of windows software processes the collected data and the result is presented in tables.validated measures are used. some preliminary steps need to be completed. These will helps to ensure that the data are reasonably good and of assured quality for further analysis. Cronbach¶s Alpha testing will be using to test the reliability and validity of the measures. coding data. Due to time constraint. researchers generally used convenience samples to obtain a large number of completed questionnaires quickly and economically. handling blank responses. When well.5 DATA ANALYSIS After data has been collected from a representative population. Convenience sampling involves collecting information from members of population who are easily to provide the information. Before the researcher start analyzing the data to test hypotheses. Non-probability sampling is element in the population that does not have any probabilities attached to being chosen as sample subject. Using SPSS 20. quota sampling and snowball sampling. When time or other factors rather than generalize ability becomes critical. While. convenience sampling refers to the collection of information from members of the population who are conveniently available to provide it. this technique is the practical alternative to obtain quickly feedback from respondents. The reliability and validity of the measures can now be tested. The SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Science) program will be use to analyze the data.judgemental sampling. there is no need to establish their validity again for each study. It is a . Researcher will then proceed to discuss the result of the analysis and interpretation. the researcher will analyze them to test the research hypothesis. creating data file and programming. categorizing data. non-probability sampling is generally used.
The second step is to getting a feel for the data by checking the central tendency and dispersion using descriptive statistics. Any single variable that is needed to be answered will be analyzed by using the frequency distribution method. range. 2003). valid percentage.reliability coefficient that indicates how well the items in a set are positively correlated to one another. It is computed in terms of the average intercorelation among the items measuring the concept. standard deviation and variance in the data will give the researcher a good idea of how respondents have reacted to the items in the questionnaire and how good the items and measures are. This frequency produces a table of frequency account. and cumulative percentage for all the values with that variable. . a frequency table provide information and easy to read. The reason the researcher used this technique is to indicate how well the items have strong relationship to one and another. which are measure based on mean. The mean. percentage. it is an adequate test of internal consistency reliability. Frequency Distribution according to Malhotra (1999) is a mathematical distribution whose objective is to obtain a count of the number of responses associated with different values of one variable and to express these counts in percentage terms. Because the information too detail. Moreover. the researcher must summarize by using descriptive statistic with frequencies. and standard deviation. median. the higher the internal consistency reliability (Sekaran. Moreover. The closer the Cronbach¶s Alpha is to 1.
Also presents the results of the data analysis which is assessing job satisfaction. They are Descriptive Statistic and Analyses Measures where the relationship between each variable can be examined.0 100.0 56. organization commitment and turnover intention on personorganization fit.1.0 56. 4.CHAPTER IV FINDINGS 4. The statistical tests were conducted using Statistical Package Social Science (SPSS).1 FREQUENCIES Come out your own table Gender Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Male Valid Female 44 56 44.0 . The result of the test is enclosed in the appendices for the future reference.1 DESCRIPTIVE STATISTIC 4.0 44.0 INTRODUCTION This chapter will summarize the empirical findings as well as interpretation of the result.0 44. Two types of statistical analysis have been chosen to analyze the variables.
Respondents more than 50 years old the frequency is 7 respondents with 7.0% from the survey while for 31 to 40 years old with 29 respondents which indicate 29.0% while male are 44 respondents with 44.0 1.0 46.0 100.0 100.0 Table 3: Age Based on the result from Table 3 shows that the age of respondents.0 1.0 54.0 29.0% respectively.0 6.0 100.0 93.0 7.0 54.0 100.0 93. Age Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent 18-30 31-40 Valid 41-50 >50 Total 54 29 10 7 100 54.0 29.0 10.0 Table 2: Gender Table 2 shows the gender of respondents which indicates the major gender of respondent is female with 56 respondents which represent 56.0 83.0% of the total respondents.0 47.0 7.0 100.0 99. Status Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Single Married Valid Divorce Others Total 46 47 6 1 100 46.0 6.0 100.0 Table 4: Status .0 47.0 46.0 10.0% of the total respondents.Total 100 100.0% and 41 to 50 years old with 10 respondents with percentages of 10. For the highest frequency for age is aging between 18 to 30 years old with 54 respondents which indicate 54.0 100.
0 Table 6: Education Table 6 shows the education background of the respondent for this survey.0 16.0 100.0% followed by Indian with 2 respondents represent 2.0 100.0% and the lowest percentage is 5.0%.0 29.0 2.0 100. For the highest frequency for status is married with 47 respondents which indicate 47.0 Table 5: Race Table 5 shows the race of respondents which indicates the highest among the respondents are Malay with 98 respondents which represent 98.0 45. For divorce the frequency of respondents is 6 respondents with 6.0% of the total respondents.0% of the total respondents.0 50.0 100.0 5. .0 100.0 16. Below than that is SPM with 16 respondents which are 16. Most of the respondents are degree holder with 50 respondents which indicates 50.0% respectively.0% of Master or PHD holder with just 5 respondents. Race Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Malay Valid Indian Total 98 2 100 98.0 95.0 100.0% followed by lowest frequency is other with 1 respondent which indicate 1.0 5.0 2.0% followed by STPM or diploma holder with 29 respondents which indicates 29.0 29.0 50.0% from the survey while for single is 46 respondents with percentages of 46. Education Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent SPM STPM/Diploma Valid Degree Master/PHD Total 16 29 50 5 100 16.Table 4 indicate that the status of respondents.0 98.0 98.
82 Std.0% followed by 20 respondents of non-executive with 20.0 Table 7: Designation Table 7 shows the designation of respondents which indicates the highest among the respondents are executive with 57 respondents which represent 57.0%.54 3.70 3.82 3.80 3.67 3.893 .0 77.1.921 . Deviation .833 .70 3.0 57.0 20.0 13.0 20. management with 13 respondents represent 13.0 10.792 .86 3.0 10.0 100.0%.2 DESCRIPTIVES JOB SATISFACTION Descriptive Statistics N Minimum 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 Maximum 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 Mean 3.881 Support Jobresponsibilities Improvement Asset Assessed Workenvironment Rewarded Flexible Secure Respect Valid N (listwise) .0 90.84 3.73 3.839 .0% and other designation with 10 respondents which represent 10.0 13.805 .0 100.785 . 4.937 .849 .Designation Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Non-Executive Executive Valid Management Others Total 20 57 13 10 100 20.0 100.0 57.
21 3.812 .55 3.886 .858 .095 .766 .40 3.925 1.799 Table 9: Organization Commitment TURNOVER INTENTION Descriptive Statistics N Newjob Quitting Friendly Enjoyment Myjob Satisfied Dislike Enthusiastic Valid N (listwise) 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Minimum 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Maximum 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 Mean 3.796 .888 .65 3.74 Std.87 3.925 .Table 8: Job Satisfaction ORGANIZATION COMMITMENT Descriptive Statistics N Effort Jobassignment Values Proud Working Glad Care Valid N (listwise) 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Minimum 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Maximum 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 Mean 3.62 3. Deviation .64 3.54 3.72 3.048 .56 3.822 Table 10: Turnover Intention .798 .48 Std.094 1. Deviation 1.61 3.82 3.801 .45 3.
.809 Table 11: Person-Organization fit 4.00 Statistics MINPOF Valid N Missing Mean Level Low Moderate High 100 0 3.82 Std.55 3.868 .67 3.55 3.56 3.33 2.925 .932 .6383 The result indicates that level of person-organization fit is highly moderate because it closes to high.68 ± 5.PERSON-ORGANIZATION FIT Descriptive Statistics N Match Remain Employees Like Reflect Job Valid N (listwise) 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Minimum 1 1 1 1 1 1 Maximum 5 5 5 5 5 5 Mean 3.2 LEVEL OF PERSON-ORGANIZATION FIT Range 1 ± 2.833 .60 3.75 3.809 . Deviation .34 ± 3.
is substantiated because the correlation value for this hypothesis is 0. However it is still can be used as it is significant in influencing person-organization fit.692 of organization commitment. organization commitment and turnover intention and the dependent variable which is person-organization fit. The correlation matrix in table below displays correlation coefficients between the three independent variables which are job satisfaction.1 Pearson Correlation Analysis Pearson Correlation Analysis is being used in this study to test each hypothesis that has been developed to solve the research problem.4.8.3 ANALYSES MEASURES 4. there are significant correlations between all the independent variables (job satisfaction. there is a relationship between job satisfaction and personorganization fit.3. The correlation matrix that is shown table below provided the answer to all of the hypotheses whether they are substantiated or not. It is note that there is a correlation exceeded 0. From below.692 which is significant at 0. This is substantiated by the correlation value of 0. The correlation coefficients indicate the strength of the association between the variables. where all coefficients are larger than 0. which show collinearity problem.01 levels (two tailed). organization commitment and turnover intention) and dependent variable (person-organization fit). The first hypothesis.50. the correlation is suspected of exhibiting multicolinearity.01 levels. Third hypothesis indicate there is a relationship between turnover intention and person-organization fit.01 level. It is also supported by the .688 which is significant at the 0. Second hypothesis stated that there is a positive relationship between organization commitment and person-organization fit. Multicollinearity is a case of multiple regression in which the predictor variables are themselves highly correlated. The highest coefficient of correlation is 0. where a coefficient is considered significant at 0.
7071 3.596 ** 100 1 .692 ** .000 100 .000 100 .839 ** 1 .839 ** . Table 4.000 100 . (2-tailed) N Pearson Correlation PERSONORGANIZATION FIT Sig.626 ** .000 100 .000 100 . Deviation JOB SATISFACTION ORGANIZATION COMMITMENT TURNOVER INTENTION PERSON-ORGANIZATION FIT 3.596 ** 100 1 .688 ** .73016 100 100 100 100 N Table 13: Average of Variables .01 levels. (2-tailed) N ORGANIZATION COMMITMENT Pearson Correlation Sig.626 ** .000 100 .688** .000 100 .596 that is significant at 0.7480 3.692 ** .1(a) (Correlations Analysis) Correlations VARIABLES JOB SATISFACTION ORGANIZATION COMMITMENT TURNOVER INTENTION PERSONORGANIZATION FIT Pearson Correlation JOB SATISFACTION Sig.62439 .626 ** . (2-tailed) N Pearson Correlation TURNOVER INTENTION Sig. Table 12: Correlation between Variables 100 .2.626 ** . Correlation is significant at the 0.62629 .correlation value of 0.66735 .6383 .000 100 100 Descriptive Statistics Mean Std.000 100 .000 100 1 .4888 3.000 100 .01 level (2-tailed). (2-tailed) N **.000 100 .
The summary results of reliability for each independent and dependent variables are shown table 4.4. reliabilities less than 0.3. those in the ranges of 0.920 and Cronbach¶s Alpha coefficient for the other three independent variables which are job satisfaction is 0. Reliability of the independent and dependent variables is very important and crucial for the researcher to know the dependability of their variables.861 . It is important to note that the closer the reliability coefficient gets to 1. it can be concluded that the reliabilities of the independent and dependent variables and the measures used in this study can be considered as good because all the Cronbach¶s Alpha for independent variables are well above 0.8.891 .801 . and those in the range over 0.834 CRONBACH¶S ALPHA .925 .891 and turnover intention is 0.2.70 are acceptable.60 are considered to be poor.2(a) below (Reliability Analysis) VARIABLES Job Satisfaction Organization Commitment Turnover Intention PILOT TESTING .929 .2 RELIABILITY ANALYSIS The reliability of the questionnaire is tested according to Cronbach¶s Alpha measurements.801.920 which is well above 0.929. In general. Therefore.80 are considered to be good.0. the better the result.8 and is considered to be good. The results indicate that Cronbach¶s Alpha coefficient of the dependent variable for person-organization fit is 0. In addition the reliability coefficient of Cronbach¶s Alpha for dependent variable for person-organization fit is 0. organization commitment is 0.
it can be concluded that job satisfaction.1. average of the respondent choose 4 (as indicates by means for each items) as their answers based on the scale from 1 to 5.803 Table 14: Reliability of Variables .0 INTRODUCTION The intention of this study is to explore the impact of employee performance towards person-organization fit.Person-Organization Fit . As stated earlier in the first chapter. this study seeks to examine the relationship between the independent variables (job satisfaction. 5.1 DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS For descriptive statistic of the dependent variable (person-organization fit). organization commitment and turnover intention is vital in leading towards person-organization fit. The standard deviation for all items also less than 1 which means majority agrees to that answers.1 DISCUSSION OF THE OVERALL RESULTS AND FINDINGS 5. The standard deviation for all items is less than 1 that means that majority respondents agree to that answer.920 CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 5. For . 4= agree. 2= disagree. Based on the analysis and findings in chapter 4. 3 = average.(1=strongly disagree. organization commitment and turnover intention) and the dependent variable which is personorganization fit. 5= strongly agree). Descriptive statistic for job satisfaction (independent variable) shows that average respondents choose 4 (agree) as their answer based on 1 to 5 scales.
It is supported and both of the variables are said to have positive relationship due to the value of the correlation coefficient of 0.01 level (2 tailed).01 level (2 tailed). The results of the correlation analysis also indicate that hypotheses which have been developed earlier in chapter 1 are supported.596(**) which is significant at 0. . Organization commitment is important toward person-organization fit. Here it shows that most respondent agree with the answer. Hypothesis 1 stated that there is a relationship between personorganization fit and job satisfaction.692(**) which is significant at 0. 5. hypothesis 2 stated that there is a positive relationship between person-organization fit and organization commitment. The correlation coefficient shows the value of 0. Meanwhile.688 (**) which is significant at 0.01 level (2 tailed).1. Hypothesis 3 stated that there is a relationship between personorganization fit and turnover intention.organization commitment and also turnover intention (independent variable) also shows that majority of respondents choose 4 as their answers to all the items asked in the questionnaire based on 1 o 5 scale. hypothesis 1 is supported. This hypothesis is substantiated due to the correlation coefficient of 0.2 CORRELATION ANALYSIS The correlation analysis shows that all the independent variables are positively related to the dependent variable which is the personorganization fit. This is due to the positive value of the correlation as stated in the table 12 in chapter 4. Job satisfaction can lead to personorganization fit. Thus.
3 CONCLUSION OF THE STUDY NOT A RIGHT CONCLUSION As a conclusion. d. it is also recommend for future researchers to increase number of respondent in their qualitative data collected. It is to ensure that right action plan can be take place to lead the organization toward its succession. 5.6. In order to improve the quality and reliability of the research. It is useful in order to get the accuracy findings later on. This indicates that the variables are good and positively correlated to each other. it also suggested for future researchers to use quantitative analysis instead of using qualitative analysis to provide findings that are more meaningful. 5. The recommendations are: a.1. .929. Besides that. all the variables in this study are reliable because the value of the Cronbach¶s Alpha is well above the acceptable value range which is 0. the future researchers also may longer the period of sample data.801 to 0. In order to improve the quality and reliability of the research. Furthermore the Cronbach¶s Alpha for all the variables is laid between the ranges of 0. it is recommending for futures researchers to increase the number of the observation. person-organization fit can be describe as an approaches in order to improve employee¶s performance and also organization capabilities to cope with changes. b. In other hand.5. c.2 RECOMMENDATION There are several recommendation suggested for further research in exploring person-organization fit.3 RELIABILITY ANALYSIS Based on the chapter 4 and table 14. It also suggested for future researcher to increase or change number of factor value (independent variables).
it can be seen the three independent variables (job satisfaction. . satisfaction and organization commitment. this study can be taken to account as it provides sufficient information on person-organization fit. person-organization fit is a tool to increase employees¶ productivity. Also. it will lead to better performance. organization commitment and turnover intention) has significant relationship with person-organization fit. Therefore. So that.From the findings.
Kristof_Brown. M.B. (2005). C. Phillip Beaumont. (2005). (2000). D.F. & DeRue. NJ: Pearson Education.. 34(3). R.C. Personnel Psychology. Upper Saddle River.Chatman. & Turban. conducting. Consequences of individuals¶ fit at work: A meta-analysis of person-job. The effect of person-organization fit on employee job satisfaction. Erdogan. Personnel Psychology. Muge Karakurum. persongroup. (1999).E. (2002). 15(1). Organisational Psychology. 58(2). 487-512.A. International Journal of Selection and Assessment.C. Journal of Applied Psychology. . Person-organization fit and person-job fit in employee selection: A review of the literature. performance and organization commitment in a Turkish public organization. 63-71... Relationship of organization commitment and job satisfaction: A field study of tax office employee. Chatman. person-organization. Person-organization fit: The potential stumbling block of sub-cultures. Osaka Keidai Ronshu. Cernile Celik. 87(5). Personnel Psychology.. a.REFERENCES Cable. Van Vianen. Zimmerman.D. and person-supervisor fir.M. (2004). M. O¶Reilly. The convergent and discriminant validity of subjective fit perceptions. Using person-organization fit to select employees for high-turnover jobs. Caldwell. D.... D. 281-342.A. 53. T. E. 58(4). (1991). Gwilym Pryce. J. Patrick Nelson & Jon Billsberry. Academy of Management Journal. (2007). McCulloch. Creswell. and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research. Jennifer A. D. Enhancing career benefits of employee proactive personality: The role of fit with jobs and organizations. (2005). Improving interaction organizational research: A model of person-organization fit. (2005). L. & Bauer. Person-organization fit: The match between newcomers¶ and recruiters¶ preferences for organizational culture. J. 113-149. Educational research: Planning. & Johnson. Inc.S. B. Judy Pate. Exploring the impact of person-organization fit on organizational performance. People and organizational culture: A profile comparison approach to assessing person-organization fit.
Johnson. Person-organization fit and person-job fit in employee selection. (2005).Kristof-Brown.Barbara B. Ryan D. Brown. Your cooperation in completing this questionnaire is very much appreciated. Consequences of individuals¶ fit at work: A meta-analysis of person-job.Zimmerman. All answers given will be treated as strictly confidential.30 31 . person-group and person-supervisor fit. (2003). Tomoki Sekiguchi. PART 1 ± DEMOGRAPHIC 1 Gender Male Female 2 Age 18 . student from UiTM Bandaraya Melaka.50 > 50 3 Marital Status Single Married Divorce Others 4 Race Malay Chinese Indian Others 5 Education SPM Degree STPM/Diploma Master/PHD . Erin C. Amy L. Please tick ( / ) in the box provided. The information gathered from this survey is for academic purpose only. APPENDICES QUESTIONNAIRE I am Zalikha Binti Esa. person-organization. Employees¶ organizational commitment and their perception of supervisors¶ relation-oriented and task-oriented leadership behaviors. Bachelor of Business Administration (Hons) Human Resource Management.40 41 .
6 Designation Non-Executive Management Executive Others PART 2 . My senior communicates to me the areas of improvement in my job. My senior clearly defines my job responsibilities. People who are hardworking and result oriented are praised and rewarded in this organization. Management is flexible and understands the importance of 1 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 .INDEPENDENT VARIABLES AND DEPENDENT VARIABLE SECTION A: JOB SATISFACTION Please tick the number bellow with a suitable answer as in the following area. the tasks performed by an individual are assessed with reference to ones experience and expertise. Management has created an open and comfortable work environment. Here we have form a number from 1 to 5. In this organization. 5 4 3 2 1 STRONGLY AGREE AGREE AVERAGE DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE STATEMENT 1 I get support and teamwork from other department in the company. The organization views its employees as assets.
ideas and people. 10 My organization shows respect for a diverse range of opinions. I feel secure about my job. I really care about the fate of this organization. I am proud to tell others I am part of this organization. Here we have form a number from 1 to 5.9 balancing my work. SECTION B: ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT Please tick the number bellow with a suitable answer as in the following area. I find that my values and the organization's values are very similar. I could just as well be working for a different organization as long as the type of work was similar. 5 4 3 2 1 STRONGLY AGREE AGREE AVERAGE DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE STATEMENT 1 I am willing to put in a great deal of effort beyond that normally expected in order to help this organization be successful. I would accept almost any type of job assignment in order to keep working for this organization. I am extremely glad that I chose this organization to work for over others I was considering at the time I joined. 1 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 6 7 .
Here we have form a number from 1 to 5. 5 4 3 2 1 STRONGLY AGREE AGREE AVERAGE DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE STATEMENT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 I will likely actively look for a new job I often think about quitting I believe that the work atmosphere is friendly I find real enjoyment in my job I consider my job rather pleasant I am fairly well satisfied with my job I definitely dislike my job Most days I am enthusiastic about my job 1 2 3 4 5 .SECTION C: TURNOVER INTENT Please tick the number bellow with a suitable answer as in the following area.
I am satisfied with my job.. I like my job. 1 2 3 4 5 4 5 6 . I intend to remain with this organization.THANK YOU FOR GIVING YOUR PRECIOUS TIME. Here we have form a number from 1 to 5.SECTION D: PERSON-ORGANIZATION FIT Please tick the number bellow with a suitable answer as in the following area. . 5 4 3 2 1 STRONGLY AGREE AGREE AVERAGE DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE STATEMENT 1 2 3 My values match those of this organization. The values and personality of this organization reflect my own values and personality.. My values match those of current employees in this organization.
0 44.FREQUENCIES VALUE GENDER Statistics Gender Valid N Missing 0 100 Gender Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Male Valid Female Total 44 56 100 44.0 56.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 56.0 AGE Statistics Age Valid N Missing 0 100 Age Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent .0 44.
0 98.0 100.0 99.0 10.0 47.0 100.0 93.0 47.0 83.0 46.0 6.0 93.0 54.0 7.0 100.0 7.0 29.0 RACE Statistics Race Valid N Missing 0 100 Race Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Malay 98 98.18-30 31-40 Valid 41-50 >50 Total 54 29 10 7 100 54.0 46.0 100.0 54.0 29.0 6.0 98.0 10.0 1.0 1.0 100.0 100.0 STATUS Statistics Status Valid N Missing 0 100 Status Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Single Married Valid Divorce Others Total 46 47 6 1 100 46.0 .
0 16.0 45.0 100.0 2.0 16.0 100.Indian Total 2 100 2.0 100.0 5.0 95.0 50.0 100.0 50.0 100.0 5.0 100.0 EDUCATION Statistics Education Valid N Missing 0 100 Education Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent SPM STPM/Diploma Valid Degree Master/PHD Total 16 29 50 5 100 16.0 29.0 29.0 DESIGNATION Statistics Designation Valid N Missing 0 100 Designation Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent .
833 .0 13.929 .0 20.0 100. Reliability Statistics Cronbach's Alpha Cronbach's Alpha Based on Standardized Items .0 20. Listwise deletion based on all variables in the procedure.0 57.0 .893 .70 3.929 10 N of Items Item Statistics Mean Support Jobresponsibilities Improvement Asset Assessed Workenvironment Rewarded Flexible Secure 3.70 3.792 .0 77.0 10.82 3.0 100.0 57.0 13.80 3.0 90.921 .0 a.73 3.0 10.54 3.0 100. Deviation .86 3.785 .805 .0 100.84 Std.839 .849 N 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 .Non-Executive Executive Valid Management Others Total 20 57 13 10 100 20.67 3.937 .0 RELIABILITY JOB SATISFACTION Case Processing Summary N Valid Cases Excluded Total a % 100 0 100 100.
722 .680 .94 33.226 35.921 .498 .748 3.698 .920 .66 33.535 Std.82 .599 .657 Cronbach's Alpha if Item Deleted .540 3.759 .365 36.695 .301 37.764 Squared Multiple Correlation .919 Scale Statistics Mean 37.755 .64 33.320 1.728 .090 .657 .62 33.665 .148 36.Respect 3.925 .920 .81 33.632 .924 .167 35.881 100 Summary Item Statistics Mean Minimum Maximum Range Maximum / Minimum Item Means 3.654 .678 .860 .638 .788 .48 Variance 44.78 33.398 36.66 36.354 35.010 10 Variance N of Items Item-Total Statistics Scale Mean if Item Deleted Scale Variance if Item Deleted Corrected ItemTotal Correlation Support Jobresponsibilities Improvement Asset Assessed Workenvironment Rewarded Flexible Secure Respect 33.739 37.926 .68 33.766 .660 .918 .537 .923 .673 N of Items 10 .78 33. Deviation 6.919 .75 33.169 37.
Listwise deletion based on all variables in the procedure.87 3.892 7 N of Items Item Statistics Mean Effort Jobassignment Values Proud Working Glad Care 3.801 .62 3.766 .0 100.82 3.64 3.891 .798 .ORGANIZATION COMMITMENT Case Processing Summary N Valid Cases Excluded Total a % 100 0 100 100.812 .0 .858 .0 a.796 .74 Std. Deviation . Reliability Statistics Cronbach's Alpha Cronbach's Alpha Based on Standardized Items .799 N 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Summary Item Statistics Mean Minimum Maximum Range Maximum / Minimum Variance N of Items .54 3.72 3.
645 .013 7 Item-Total Statistics Scale Mean if Item Deleted Scale Variance if Item Deleted Corrected ItemTotal Correlation Effort Jobassignment Values Proud Working Glad Care 22.0 a.085 14.0 .585 .783 .564 .215 14.832 14.871 .870 .695 Squared Multiple Correlation .729 13.520 Cronbach's Alpha if Item Deleted . Listwise deletion based on all variables in the procedure.470 .21 14.370 .062 14.540 3. Deviation 4.95 Variance 19.868 .341 15.751 .220 Std.Item Means 3.23 22.622 .0 100.891 .739 .13 22. Reliability Statistics .41 22.707 3.728 .384 N of Items 7 TURNOVER INTENTION Case Processing Summary N Valid Cases Excluded Total a % 100 0 100 100.31 22.570 .33 22.864 .360 .890 .683 .330 1.870 .08 22.093 .875 Scale Statistics Mean 25.
620 .758 .888 .810 8 Item Statistics Mean Newjob Quitting Friendly Enjoyment Myjob Satisfied Dislike Enthusiastic 3.507 .925 1.715 20.43 20.780 .51 24.21 3.808 .539 .468 . Deviation 1.822 N 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Summary Item Statistics Mean Minimum Maximum Range Maximum / Minimum Item Means 3.650 .56 3.784 .48 Std.094 1.344 .137 .354 18.428 .537 .478 .801 .333 18.45 3.886 .797 .65 3.440 1.095 .55 3.210 3.755 .654 .35 24.30 24.774 Scale Statistics .673 .26 24.36 24.413 .020 8 Variance N of Items Item-Total Statistics Scale Mean if Item Deleted Scale Variance if Item Deleted Corrected ItemTotal Correlation Newjob Quitting Friendly Enjoyment Myjob Satisfied Dislike Enthusiastic 24.594 .40 3.625 .70 24.925 .486 Cronbach's Alpha if Item Deleted .61 3.131 18.775 .839 19.46 24.048 .938 20.562 Squared Multiple Correlation .483 .489 3.730 20.126 .Cronbach's Alpha Cronbach's Alpha Based on Standardized Items N of Items .
921 6 N of Items Item Statistics Mean Match Remain Employees Like Reflect Job 3.932 .833 .0 100.82 Std.56 3. Listwise deletion based on all variables in the procedure.925 .55 3.951 Std. Deviation 4.809 .868 .920 .91 Variance 24.55 3.60 3. Reliability Statistics Cronbach's Alpha Cronbach's Alpha Based on Standardized Items .995 N of Items 8 PERSON-ORGANIZATION FIT Case Processing Summary N Valid Cases Excluded Total a % 100 0 100 100. Deviation .Mean 27.0 .809 N 100 100 100 100 100 100 Summary Item Statistics .75 3.0 a.
071 .903 .Mean Minimum Maximum Range Maximum / Minimum Variance N of Items Item Means 3.27 18.638 3.627 .23 18.658 .014 6 Item-Total Statistics Scale Mean if Item Deleted Scale Variance if Item Deleted Corrected ItemTotal Correlation Match Remain Employees Like Reflect Job 18.83 Variance 19.790 .736 Squared Multiple Correlation .076 .658 13.01 13.193 Std.28 18.907 .024 13.762 .910 .618 Cronbach's Alpha if Item Deleted .28 18.169 14.910 Scale Statistics Mean 21.817 .550 3.820 .902 .662 .697 .638 13.381 N of Items 6 .270 1.694 13.08 18.900 .796 .682 . Deviation 4.738 .
692 ** . Correlation is significant at the 0.000 100 .000 100 . Deviation .000 100 1 .7071 3.692 ** .688 ** .000 100 .839 ** MINTURNOVE R MINPOF ITMENT 1 .626 ** .626 ** .000 100 .PEARSON CORRELATION ANALYSIS Descriptive Statistics Mean MINSATISFACTION MINORGCOMMITMENT MINTURNOVER MINPOF 3.62629 .66735 . (2-tailed) N Pearson Correlation MINORGCOMMITMENT Sig.73016 N 100 100 100 100 Correlations MINSATISFACT MINORGCOMM ION Pearson Correlation MINSATISFACTION Sig.626 ** .000 100 .62439 . (2-tailed) N Pearson Correlation MINTURNOVER Sig.000 100 100 .4888 3.000 100 .000 100 .000 100 .839 ** . 100 .000 100 .626 ** .000 100 .6383 Std.596 ** 100 1 .7480 3.01 level (2-tailed). (2-tailed) N **.688 ** .596 ** 100 1 . (2-tailed) N Pearson Correlation MINPOF Sig.
82 Std.766 .70 3.73 3.798 .67 3.64 3.82 3.921 .54 3.785 .893 .84 3.839 . Deviation .62 Std.792 . Deviation .70 3.72 3.80 3.849 .937 .881 ORGANIZATION COMMITMENT Descriptive Statistics N Effort Jobassignment Values 100 100 100 Minimum 1 1 1 Maximum 5 5 5 Mean 3.805 .DESCRIPTIVE STATISTIC JOB SATISFACTION Descriptive Statistics N Support Jobresponsibilities Improvement Asset Assessed Workenvironment Rewarded Flexible Secure Respect Valid N (listwise) 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Minimum 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 Maximum 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 Mean 3.86 3.801 .833 .
925 .21 3.75 3.095 .925 1.61 3.55 3.87 3.822 PERSON-ORGANIZATION FIT Descriptive Statistics N Match Remain Employees Like Reflect Job Valid N (listwise) 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Minimum 1 1 1 1 1 1 Maximum 5 5 5 5 5 5 Mean 3.888 .40 3.82 3.48 Std. Deviation .925 . Deviation 1.048 .55 3.858 .56 3.56 3.809 .74 .094 1.65 3.868 .812 .932 .60 3.799 TURNOVER INTENTION Descriptive Statistics N Newjob Quitting Friendly Enjoyment Myjob Satisfied Dislike Enthusiastic Valid N (listwise) 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Minimum 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Maximum 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 Mean 3.54 3.833 .Proud Working Glad Care Valid N (listwise) 100 100 100 100 100 1 1 1 1 5 5 5 5 3.809 .796 .55 3.82 Std.45 3.886 .
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