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The following summary has been prepared to help in understanding the issues involved, and to appreciate various dyestuff, as well as methods available for dyeing of textiles. One of the basic facts about dyeing, and one, which must always be borne in mind, is that it has inherent limitations. You can not assume that to dye any piece of fabric to a given colour, all you need to do is use a dye of that particular colour. No dye will dye all textile fabrics satisfactorily. This means, simply, that you must choose a dye that will suit the material (or a material that will suit the dye). If you observe one or the other of these governing factors there is no reason why you should not obtain a satisfactory result. In choosing a dyestuff, the conditions to which the finished dyeing will be exposed must be considered. Over 20 distinct and specific fastness requirements can been selected, and the performance of dyeing exposed to these conditions evaluated. The performance requirements of a dye on a swimsuit are totally different from the dye on curtains or a pair of socks. Fastness evaluation is frequently industry oriented and serves as a guide for the suitability for further treatment prior to garment manufacture. Consumer oriented fastness assessments help dyes to decide on a dye that will suit the end use of the article dyed or manufactured. Some of the consumer oriented fastness assessments are as follows: Fading, machine wash ability, boiling, perspiration, dry cleaning, hot pressing, steam pressing, salt water, gas fume fading (from oil heaters) and many others. SYNTHETIC DYES. The discovery by Sir William Perkin, an English chemist in 1936 that a mauve colouring matter capable of dyeing silk could be prepared by the oxidation of aniline started a vast chain of events. It resulted in production of approximately 8,000 distinctly different dyestuffs being manufactured all over the world and sold under 40,000 trade names. Synthetic dyes used in the textile industry are broadly split into 11 groups:.
1. Basic dyes 2. Direct dyes 3. Vat dyes 4. Reactive dyes 5. Azoic dyes 6. Sulphur dyes
7. Mordant dyes 8. Acid dyes 9. Disperse dye 10. Oxidation dyes 11. Mineral and pigment dyes
USE: Basic dyes will dye wool and silk from an acid bath and are used where brightness is of prime consideration. INDIGO. After the dyeing. Natural indigo extracted from the plant 'Indigofera tinctorie' was used by the Egyptians in 200 BC. an addition of salt is required to improve the yield of the dye and obtain deeper shades. Basic dyes dye wool and silk from a dye bath containing acid but dye cotton fibres only in the presence of a mordant usually a metallic salt that increases affinity of the fabric for the dye. probably the oldest dye known to man. Basic dyes include the most brilliant of all the synthetic dyes known. the wash fastness of these dyes is inferior but there are a number of after treatments available to improve the wash fastness of the dyeing.1. Solubilized vat dyes have an affinity for cellulose and animal fibres. and most of them also dye wool and silk. After dyeing. Although the vat dyes may be divided into three chemical groups. This dye can be applied to cotton and viscose rayon by the methods used by applying direct cotton dyes. VAT DYES. Most direct dyes can be stripped of the use of stripping salts (Sodium Hydrosulphite) without harmful effects on the fibres. the fabric is oxidized and the dye again becomes water insoluble. By continuous research this group of dyes has been supplemented with dyes of good fastness to light and washing. coir and wood (toys). malachite green and crystal violet. They do not dye acetate rayon and synthetic fibres. including viscose rayon. were of the same type. DIRECT DYES These are soluble in water and have direct affinity for all cellulose fibres. 3. but unfortunately they have very poor light and wash fastness. Direct dyes can be applied well at low temperatures and are therefore suitable for tie-dyeing and batik work. Some will also dye silk and wool. Because of the time consuming and costly procedure in reducing vat dye into a water-soluble complex. With the introduction of cotton dyes possessing higher fastness properties their use for dyeing cotton has diminished. USE. The first synthetic indigo was introduced to the textile trade in 1897 and had the effect of completely replacing the natural product. dye manufacturers have produced a stabilized water-soluble vat dye. Basic dyes are used extensively for dyeing cut flowers. BASIC & MODIFIED BASIC DYES MAUVENE. Direct dyes dye all cellulosic fibres. raffia. the first to be discovered by Perkin. was a basic dye and most of the dyes which followed. With the introduction of acrylic fibre a new range of 'modified' basic dyes were perfected for dyeing of this material. As these dyes. when dyed without additives. they are similar in that they are insoluble in water and become water soluble when reduced in the presence of an alkali. Generally. also dyeing jute sisal. is one of the most important members of this group. do not exhaust well. 2. dried flowers. Generally these dyes are used where high wash fastness is not required. including magenta. a simple treatment restores the vat dye to its normal insoluble state. 2 .
washing and boiling far surpassed any cotton black known at that time. The deposition of the free pigment on the surface of the dyed fabric produces poor rub fastness. In this form they have high affinity to the all cellulose fibres. and various hairs). USE: Reactive dyes are used where bright dyeing with high light and wash fastness is required. ease of application and good wash-fastness. they are used in Indonesian batik dyeing for green shades. can be used for dyeing on animal fibres. REACTIVE DYES. 4. SULPHUR DYES The first Sulphur dye was discovered in France in 1873. but particularly linen and jute. 5. where a good wash but not boil-fastness is required. but are actually produced within the fibre itself. Most Khaki and Navy overalls are dyed with Sulphur dyes. The main advantage lays in their cheapness. Cold dyeing is used extensively in batik work. Khaki and Navy shades. This is done with impregnating the fibre with one component of the dye. 7. Sulphur dyes are dyed from a dye bath containing Sodium Sulphide and common or Glaubers Salt. 6. This is an entirely class of dye introduced to the market in 1956. Although some reactive dyestuffs have been specially modified to dye wool. The formation of this insoluble dye within the fabric makes it very fast to washing. The word 'Azoic' is the distinguishing name given to insoluble azo dyes that are not applied directly as dyes. cannot be removed by washing or boiling. Bright red is absent in vat dye range. addition of alkali causes the deposited dyes to react with the fibre. USE: The use of Sulphur dyes is restricted to dull brown. but once the loose pigment is removed by boiling the fabric in soap the dyeing becomes one of the fastest available. and are oxidized by airing or with some oxidizing agents (Sodium Bichromate or Hydrogen Peroxide) in a fresh bath. to a lustrous and deep black with excellent wash and light fastness. In their normal state Sulphur dyes are insoluble in water but are readily soluble in the solution of Sodium Sulphide. An outstanding member of this family is Sulphur black. their main usage is in dyeing cotton linen and viscose rayon. natural silk. Only a successfully concluded reaction guarantees a fast dyeing. The general disadvantage of the Sulphur dyes that they produce dull shades and lack a red. Because of the high alkali concentration in the dye bath. therefore large amounts of salt are required to force its deposition on he fabric. pure vat dyes cannot be used on animal fibres. followed by treatment in another component. Basically there are two types of reactive dyes: the cold dyeing and hot dyeing types. Because they are dyed at low temperatures. AZOIC DYES. Solubilized vat dyes. USE: Vat dyes are used in cotton dyeing where high wash and boil fastness required. not requiring the presence of alkali. and further work done by Raymond Videl enabled the manufacture of 'Videl black". After this has been achieved. Its outstanding fastness to light. thus forming the dye within the fibre. (wool. The main feature of the dyestuff is its low affinity to cellulose. It dyes all cellulose fibres. They react chemically with the fibre being dyed and if correctly applied. MORDANT DYES 3 .
The dye bath requires the presence of weak acid (acetic acid) or acid releasing salts (ammonium sulphate or ammonium acetate) from which acid is liberated during dyeing. reliable recipes and instructions are to be followed carefully. Very good light fastness even in pale shades USE: The family of acid dyes is very large and diverse. 4 . b. varying widely in their methods of dyeing. In wool dyeing as 'metachrome' or 'monochrome' process and is extensively used for dyeing of brown and khaki colours. They vary considerably in their basic chemical structure. By mordanting the fibre with a suitable metallic salt and then applying the dye. The main feature is their good leveling properties. By dyeing the fibre and subsequently after-treating it with a suitable metallic salt so as to form an insoluble lake. b. A number of acid dyes are also used to dye nylon. c. All acid dyes can be grouped in three broad sub groups: a. These dyes require great care in application because uneven dyeings are difficult or impossible to rectify. but have one common feature . application and end use of the dyed fabric. fastness.level dyeing. Pre-metalized dyes These dyes represent an extension of mordant dyes discussed in (7) above. silk and nylon.Mordant dyes are so called because to apply them necessitates the use of mordant. ACID DYES These dyes comprise a large number of dyes used for the dyeing of wool. The metal component being already incorporated in the dye during manufacturing process. Selected because of their high and light fastness and are extensively used for dyeing woolen fabrics that are subsequently milled. A choice of dyes should be made considering sometimes-incompatible factors: . not only by the methods of application and dyeing of different fibres. 8. Fustic and Madder (now replaced by synthetic Alizarine) and a large group of synthetic dyes with a widely differing constitution. These dyes produce bright dyeing. Level dyeing acid dyes. By the simultaneous application of the dye and mordant. Care must be taken to use the appropriate method as prescribed for a given dye. Acid milling dyes. This is the basis of 'after-chrome' method used in particularly fast dyeing of black and brown colour on wool. They are dyed from a dye bath containing strong acids (Sulphuric or Formic acid). c. This group of dyes includes natural dyes: Logwood. USE: Since the dyes used in this process vary widely. The mordant dyes can be applied to fibres by three different methods: a.they dye from an acid dye bath. These dyes exhibit low wash and light fastness. brightness and ease of application.
Drimalan-F. available as binders (or adhesives) to secure the pigment to the fabric without inducing a harsh or stiff finish. The most important member of this group is produced by oxidation of aniline and is much used in dyeing of fur and leather goods. 11. It was found that cellulose acetate (or Celanese) fibre had hardly any affinity for water-soluble dyes. but because of their exceptional fastness to light and washing are of great importance. Tetron. ease of application and greater softness of the fabric. MINERAL AND PIGMENT DYES Although it is preferred to use water soluble dyes in textile dyeing for two reasons. as used in paint manufacture. OXIDATION DYES These are not dyestuffs in the same sense as other soluble or disperse dyes. A new dyeing principle was introduced: dyeing with water dispersed coloured organic substances. Hostalan. there are two processes where pigment colouration is used: a. With the addition of 'carriers' or swelling agents these dyes are also used in dyeing of Polyester (Terylene. aniline black was almost exclusively used to dye luster black umbrella fabric. Indanthreen. Dacron. Mineral khaki Cotton army equipment where it is used because of its cheapness and because it also renders fabric resistant to rotting and attack by insects in damp conditions. Levafix. The reason for this is the development of soft and flexible synthetic resins. USE: Whilst the formation of mineral pigment on the fabric is used less and less as a dyeing process. USE: Basically developed for dyeing of acetate fibres. These finely coloured particles are applied in aqueous dispersion to the acetate material and actually dissolved in the fibres. Calendon. can now be applied to any fabric and rendered wash fast after heat treatment. etc. and Indigosol 5 . Mineral and organic pigments. DISPERSE DYES The introduction of a new regenerated cellulose acetate fibre in 1920 led to the necessity to develop an entirely new range of dyes.) 10. and Cibacron Vat: Synthetic Indigo. Following are some of the names in each dyestuff category.9. USE: In addition to fur and leather dyeing. b. Procion. Disperse dyes are also used for dyeing of polyamide (Nylon) and acrylic (Orlon & Acrylan) fibres. Synthetic resin printing The introduction of heat setting synthetic resins has opened new fields in textile printing. Reactive: Drimarene-K. the use of pigment printing is continuously increasing.
Foron. Resolin. Cibaset Modified basic: Astrazon. and Diazo Fast salts Direct: Solar. Synacryl Azoic: Naphtol. Maxilon. Dispersol.Disperse: Polysol. Solophenyl. Lissamine Chrome: Eriochrome. Sandolan. Nylosan. Solochrome 6 . Diamin. Naphtanilide. Irgalan. Sandocryl. and Durazol Acid: Lanasyn.
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