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Yustinus Adityawan Dhandun Wacano Gemma Fatahillah Arifin Jati Sukma Endhy Yudhawanto Muh Fahrudin Alfana


[ Geoelectric has valuable and significant value for environmental, geotechnical, exploration, and especially
hydrogeological problems. This research was conducted at Bandung Village, Nanggulan Sub District, Kulon Progo Regency. The aim of this paper is to know how effectively 2D geoelectrical method (ERT) for identifying hydrogeological characteristic especially water table that occurs on research area.]

Final Report of Electrical Resistivity Tomography Test

Yustinus Adityawan *); Dandhun Wacono; Gemma Fatahillah; Arifin Jati Sukma; Endhi Yudhawanto; Muh Fahrudin Alfana.

ABSTRACT Geoelectric has valuable and significant value for environmental, geotechnical, exploration, and especially hydrogeological problems. This research was conducted at Bandung Village, Nanggulan Sub District, Kulon Progo Regency. The aim of this paper is to know how effectively 2D geoelectrical method (ERT) for identifying hydrogeological characteristic especially water table that occurs on research area. Field survey and measurement were used in this research. These could be divided into 2 sub groups were 1) geological surveys and 2) Hydrological survey. The geological survey was done by measured geologic stratification and rocks identification. Hydrological survey include water table measurement and Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) using Wenner-Schlumberger array configuration. The apparent resistivity data that had been taken before, it would be converted into the true resistivity using the inversion methods that exist on RES2DINV software. The picture of true resistivity distribution will be correlate with geologic and water table data, so the occurrence of groundwater and the underground material would be known. The result shown that the geoelectric method especially Electrical Resistivity Tomography configuration Wenner-Schlumberger array was effectively to identify water table. Water table was founded at 2 m below the surface with the resistivity values range was approximately 11 .m. The clay material as the side product of limestone that decayed had the resistivity values range approximately 0 7.54 .m.

Keywords : Water Table, Electrical Resistivity Survey, Hydrological Survey, Bandung Village

1. Introduction Water is an important natural elemens which is needed by human since the prehistoric time. Naturally water that is used by human is derived into 3 sub groups. Those are atmospheric water, surface water, and groundwater. Sharp (2007) stated that groundwater is generally all water beneath the land surface and sometimes, it is

Groundwater is kind of water resources that usually used by human to fulfill their needs because groundwater has valuables value than any water resources. These benefits are seasonal climate;
2) 1)

quantity of groundwater doesnt influence by groundwater quality is more


better than any water resources;


doesnt need space and place to impound it; and 4) the cost for utilizing groundwater is more cheaper than any water resources. 1

more narrowly defined as phreatic water or water beneath the water table (p p

Final Report of Electrical Resistivity Tomography Test

Groundwater has significant relation with hydrostratigraphic groundwater is. which is the place can be Hydrostratigraphic

is geoelectric. Geoelectric is kind of geophysic techniques which is to determine the subsurface resistivity distribution by making measurements on the surface. Herlambang (2011) stated that geoelectric is kind of geophysics which is to determine geologic stratification below the earth, where the important concept is conducting electricity on surface and the electricity current creeping below the earth and each materials which constructed the earth have different ability to conduct it. Geoelectric method have been used for environmental problems for many years such as hydrogeological, exploration, etc. (ERT) for geotechnical, mineral This research was focused on identifying hydrogeological

defined as geologic layer which described about aquifer systems below the earth (Weight, 2004). Santosa (2000) stated that characteristic of hydrostratigraphy at certain area was different with the others. It was proceed by climatic condition, compaction time, geologic structure, geomorphic processes (present and past), and also the characteristic of stratification (dip-strike).

the effectiveness of 2D geoelectrical method characteristic especially water table that occurs on research area.
Figure 1. Hydrologic Cycle
(Source :

At this time, a lot of technologies whichre applied and developed to identify and predict the occurrence of groundwater, such as remote sensing; hydrological survey; and geophysical methods. Geophysical method is the physics of the Earth and its environment in space; also the study of the Earth using quantitative physical methods (, was accessed on Dec 04, 2011). One of the geophysical techniques that commonly used on prospecting of groundwater 2
Figure 2. The Types & Kinds of Aquifer which occur in the nature
(Source :

Final Report of Electrical Resistivity Tomography Test

subsidenced, and folded (Van Bammelen, 1970). 2. Geological and Hydrological Setting Geologic formation that existed on research area is Sentolo Formation. Sentolo Formation had been formed at Tertiary Age (Early Meocene Early Pliocene period). Geological material and structure of Sentolo Formation was influenced by 2 mainly geologic processes. Those are volcanic and geotectonic processes such as uplifted, As consequences of geotectonic and volcanic processes that formed research area, it will be affected on rock material, geologic structure, and hydrological condition. The types of rock which made up are marls and agglomerates on the upper of Sentolo Formation strata, and then on the base are bedded limestone, locally reef limestone, and limestone with marl interlayer.

Figure 3. Micro-Geological Structure on marls (A); Folded on Limestone with marls interlayer (B); and Micro-pitting structure as the consequences of bio-chemical wheathering that occurred on marls with sand interlayer(C).

The types of geologic material have tight relation with hydrostratigraphic aquifer especially groundwater quality and quantity. Based on the type of geologic materials that made up on research area, groundwater will be fulfill the pores of limestones that will be creating fractures

aquifer system. Groundwater will be taking physic-chemical contact with minerals and particles of limestone. Where micro particles of limestone became soluble with groundwater. It would be bad effect for society healthy (kidney desease) if society concumed it for long period. 3

Final Report of Electrical Resistivity Tomography Test

Figure 4. Progo River (A); The lower point of Progo River and Tinalah River on Dusun Semaken Tiga (D); Tinalah River on Dusun Kemesu (B); Kayangan River on Tanjungharjo village (C).

The total rainfall that occurred on this site was 1800 1850 mm/year, based on rainfall data calculation 2010 (Herlambang, 2011). Serang river is effluent type where groundwater fulfill river.It will be affected climatic condition, 3. A Concept of Electrical Resistivity

when summer season the rate of flow would be decrease and when rainy season the rate of flow would be increase. From field measurement, geologic characteristic has the biggest role for hydrological setting on this site. electrical resistivity

as the resistance of a unit


Tomography Geophysical techniques can be used to identify the feature geometries by contrasts in the physical properties (Fehdi et al, 2009). Those are density, magnetic susceptibility, conductivity and electrical resistivity. Ha et al (2009) defined

length of a material, and

an intrinsic property

that depends on the geometry and properties of a material. One of geophysical techniques that had been used on this research was electrical resistivity.

Final Report of Electrical Resistivity Tomography Test

Figure 5. 2D geoelectric measurement (A) and tested the geoelectric equipment and made up wennerschlumberger array configuration (B).






by making measurements on the ground surface (Loke, 1999,2009; Ha et al, 2009; Fehdi et al, 2009; Frid

describe the subsurface resistivity distribution. Resistivity picture can be changed into geologic picture with the knowledge of geologic and geomorphic conditions (field survey and secondary data that can be taken on research or institutional data such as borehole and lithologic data). The purpose of electrical surveys is to determine the subsurface resistivity distribution



2008). true

From of

these the



subsurface can be estimated. The physical properties below the underground is related to various geological parameters such as the mineral and fluid content; porosity and degree of water saturation in the rock (Loke, 1999,2009; Krishnamurthy et al, 2009; Frid et al, 2008).

Final Report of Electrical Resistivity Tomography Test

Table 1. The Range of Earth Material Resistivity & Conductivity

Material Igneous and Metamorphic Rocks Granite Basalt Slate Marble Quartzite Sedimentary Rocks Sandstone Shale Limestone Soil and Waters Clay Alluvium Groundwater (Fresh) Sea Water Chemicals Iron 0.01 M Potassium chloride 0.01 M Sodium chloride 0.01 M acetic acid Xylene
Source : Loke (1999)

Resisvitity (.m)

Conductivity (Siemens/m)

5 x 10 - 10 10 - 10
2 2 2 3 6

10 - 2 x 10 10 - 10
7 8 -9 -9 -6 -3 -8



6 x 10 - 4 x 10 10 - 2.5 x 10 10 - 2 x 10 8 - 4 x 10
3 3 2 8

2.5 x 10 - 1.7 x 10 4 x 10 - 10 5 x 10 - 10
-4 -2 -2


2.5 x 10 - 0.125 5 x 10 - 0.05 2.5 x 10 - 0.02 0.01 - 1 1.25 x 10 - 0.1 0.01 - 0.1 5
-8 -3 -3 -4

20 - 2 x 10

50 - 4 x 10 1 - 100 10 - 800 10 - 100 0.2 9.074 x 10 0.708 0.843 6.19 6.998 x 10

1.102 x 10 1.413 1.185 0.163


1.429 x 10


Igneous and metamorphic rocks have high resistivity values, it depends on degree of fracturing and the percentage of water that filled in on the fractures of rock. The sedimentary

rocks that are more porous than the two others have low resistivity values, because the water content filled in on the fractures.





through two current electrodes (C1 and C2), and measuring the resulting voltage difference at two potential electrodes (P1 and P2). From the current (I) and voltage (V) values, an apparent 6

Schlumberger Array
The resistivity measurements are normally made by injecting current into the ground

Final Report of Electrical Resistivity Tomography Test

resistivity (pa) value is calculated (Loke, 1999; 2009). The systematic explanation and the

equation on above can be seen on Figure 6 and 7.

a = k V/I

a k V I

= apparent resistivity = geometric factor = volt = current

Figure 6. The equation of voltage,current, and resistivity






resistivity sounding method might not sufficiently accurate for such situations (Loke, 1999, 2009; Milsom, 2003). At this time, the improvement of technology has been increase significantly, it will be affecting on geoelectric development including the equipment (computer), the cost, the data accuracy, methodology, and also man-power.

method was the horizontal-captured layer of the underground. We must be realized that the underground geology was the complex settings, it could be composed by the rock materials, geologic structures, mineral compotitions, and also the values of resistivity itself. The traditional

Figure 7. Traditional geoelectrical array

The geoelectric development is increasing significantly, it is because using 2-D geoelectric more cheaper than any other geophysic methods and the important one is the 2-D geoelectric (ERT) relatively same with seismic. Traditional geoelectric didnt effectively if it was used for place which has morphological variation variation will be compared with 2-D/3-D geoelectric. Because topographical/morphological

influence to the noises that resulted from measurement. Loke (1999;2009) stated that accurated model of the subsurface was a two-dimensional (2-D) model where the resistivity changed in the vertical direction, as well as in the horizontal direction along the survey line. Wenner-Schlumberger array configuration was used on this research because its was a merge array configuration between Wenner array 7

Final Report of Electrical Resistivity Tomography Test

and Schlumberger array. The sensitivity for Schlumberger array is slightly different from the Wenner array with a slight vertical or horizontal from reality imaging. To improve the vertical and horizontal captured imaging, so the Wenner and Schlumberger array was combined each other.

Because its a merge from 2 arrays configuration, the geometric factor of each arrays must be different. The geometric factor for each arrays and the procedure represented of ERT on measurement Figure 8 will and be 9.

Figure 8. Geometric of current and potential electrodes for (a) Wenner and (b) Schlumberger (Source : Lowrie, 2007)

Final Report of Electrical Resistivity Tomography Test

Table 2. The Common of Earth Materials and their resistivity

Material Top Soil Loose Sand Gravel Clay Weathered Bedrock Sandstone Limestone Greenstone Gabbro Granite Basalt Graphitic Schist Slates Quartzite Ore Minerals Pyrite (ores) Pryrhotite Chalcopyrite Galena Sphalerita Magnetite Cassiterite Hematite
Source : Milson (2003)

Resisvitity (.m) 50 - 100 500 - 5000 100 - 600 1 - 100 100 - 1000 200 - 8000 500 - 10000 500 - 200000 100 - 500000 200 - 100000 200 - 100000 10 - 500 500 - 500000 500 - 800000 0.01 - 100 0.001 - 0.01 0.005 - 0.1 0.001 - 100 1000 - 1000000 0.01 - 1000 0.001 - 10000 0.01 - 1000000

and Loke (1999) said that there is a slightly greater concentration of high sensitivity values below the P1-P2 electrodes. This means that this array is moderately sensitive to both horizontal


structures. array has a

The slightly



horizontal coverage compared with the Wenner array (Loke, 2009).

Final Report of Electrical Resistivity Tomography Test

Figure 9. Wenner-Schlumberger Array Configuration

4. Research Method Research methods that had been used in this research was field survey and measurement. That could be divided into 2 sub-groups, those were geological survey and hydrogeological survey-measurement. The author had been used genetical process which constructed Sentolo Formation to determine geoelectrical location. The morphological of Sentolo Formation relatively same with morphological of Gunung Sewu Karst that would be the specific matters to verify on this research. Although the genetical process of Sentolo Formation didnt has connection with Gunung Sewu Karst (Herlambang, 2011). Geological survey had been done included geologic structure measurement and the type of rocks identification. Hydrogeological into water surveytable measurement divided

with wenner-schlumberger array. Where each spacing of electrodes was 0.5 meter. Apparent resistivity inputed which was obtained then from would 2D be geoelectrical measurement

into X2IPI

software. The apparent

resistivity data whichs on X2IPI software will be saved on IE2DP format. RES2DINV software was used to invers apparent resistivity into true resistivity using algorithm system that available on that software. The purpose of the inversion was to reduce worse data that was resulted when measurement taken. The result would be correlated with flownet system and the value of rock resistivity, therefore water table and geologic material could be identified. as This methodology flow can be that systemized research chart

represented in figure 10.

measurement and 2D geoelectrical measurement 10

Final Report of Electrical Resistivity Tomography Test

Figure 10. ERT Flow Chart

5. Result & Discussions Resistivity survey was effectively to identify the occurrence of water table and geologic material which constructed on geoelectric site measurement. The knowledge of hydrogeological is needed to analyze the true resistivity which

describe the resistivity distribution below the surface. Where Sentolo Formation dominated on geoelectric site. Sentolo Formation was constructed by limestone, sandstone with marl interlayer, and also clay as the side product of limestone that weathered.

Figure 11. The Electrical Resistivity Tomography Result


Final Report of Electrical Resistivity Tomography Test

Formation contact between Kebobutak and Sentolo Formation had been seen with stratification feature that dominantly 15 - 20/ strike 55/East South direction. The geologic structure survey that finished, gave the important informations. The important informations are 1) Sentolo Formation is folded by Wharton Ridge moved on; 2) Geologic structure that was founded on site was proceed from tectonic and bio-chemical 6. References Fehdi, C., Baali, F., Boubaya, D., Rouabhia, A., 2009. Detection of Sinkholes Using 2D Eletical Resistivity Imaging In The Cheria Basin (North-East of Algeria), Arab J

activities. The geologic materials have important role to resistivity that occurred on site. The resistivity value of clay material is about 2.28 .m. Limestone with marl and clay interlayer has resistivity range value about 2.28 7.54 .m. The water table and puddle have same range resistivity value as 10 .m. The water table exist approximately on 2.5 meter below the surface. To identify those, field survey and groundwater flownet were the important one. Milsom, J., 2003,Field



Geological Field Guide Series 3rd Edition,

San Fransisco : John Wiley & Sons. Santosa, L.W., 2000, Model Hidrostratigrafi dan Hidrokimia Untuk Penelurusan Genesis dan Tipe Akuifer Kecamatan Di Lembah BayatRawa Klaten, Jombor

Geoscience 10: 1007 - 1014.

Herlambang, Y.A., Units D.I. 2011, Aquifer In Study At Nanggulan of Sub Sharp, Hydrostratigraphy Landform District, Various

Laporan Penelitian, Yogyakarta: Fakultas

Geografi, Universitas Gadjah Mada. J.M. Jr., 2007,





Thesis, Yogyakarta: Geography Faculty,

Gadjah Mada University. Loke, M.H., 1999, Electrical Imaging Surveys For

Hydrogeological Terms, The University of

Texas, Austin, Texas. Van Bammelen, R.W., 1970, The Geology of

Environmental and Engineering Studies : A Practical Guide to 2D and 3D Surveys, Loke, M.H., 2009, Tutoril: 2D and 3D Electrical

Indonesia Vol IA : General Geology of Indonesia and Adjacent Archipelagoes,

The Hague, Martinus Nijhoff, Netherland. Weight, W.D., 2004, Manual of Applied Field



Hydrogeology, New York: McGraw-Hill.

Lowrie, W., 2007, Fundamentals of Geophysics





Cambridge 12

University Press.

Final Report of Electrical Resistivity Tomography Test

Special Thanks to my guys (Gemma Fatahillah, Dandun Wacono, Arifin Jati Sukma, Muh Arif Fahrudin, Endhy Yudhawanto,
Mas Lilik, and also Fajrin) that supported the author during his bachelor thesis and field data collecting.