Kovalam Cleanup started on January 28th 2004.

In one weeks cleanup huge loads of discarded plastic water bottles were fished out of the ponds, wetlands and homesteads.

The Zero Waste Centre supported by the Kerala Hotels and Restaurants Association, Kerala Tourism and Indian Coast Guards have embarked on a major cleanup drive at Kovalam. The months of February and March have been declared Cleanup Kovalam months. Organizing awareness programmes, setting up of filtered drinking water kiosks and distributing paper bags and cups to keep the plastics off Kovalam would be part of the programme.

In one week of cleanup which started January 28th 2004, the regular dumping sites behind the Light House beach, the Samudra beach and the Guest House beach have been targeted. 225 sacks of discarded plastic water bottles totaling more than 37500 bottles in number have been fished out of the ponds, wetlands and private properties. Another 100 sacks containing

discarded glass bottles, broken glasses, tube lights and bulbs , other plastics and mostly mucky materials have also been fished out.

Twenty two brands of plastic bottles including the major brands Aquafina, Kinley, Classic, Bisleri, Golden Valley were fished out in abundance. Earlier in October, Greenpeace had organized a cleanup and symbolically packed and transported sacks of PET bottles to Coke and Pepsi demanding "Extended Producer Responsibility". This time the Cleanup has been very exhaustive and is intended to showcase the need for immediate and serious interventions from all stake holders for stopping this dumping culture and a message to the bottled water companies to take responsibility of this waste. In the coming weeks shops, restaurants and hoteliers in Kovalam would be supplied with paper bags and paper cups as part of the awareness drive to stop plastic material use. Use of packaged water would be discouraged and water kiosks selling clean filtered water is also being setup. We shall keep you updated.

Waste is something that is rejected as useless. These are items that are either so badly designed that they can neither be repaired, reused, re-sourced through composting, or safely recycled. Wastes are also created when we dump various items together in a manner that they cannot be easily separated or in a manner that renders them useless even if they are separated. Much of our resources end

The paper cannot be recycled because it becomes wet and dirty for anyone to pick it up and send it to a recycler. The bio wastes then cannot be composted because the compost would be poisonous. containers and so on) • Glass • Paper and Cardboard • Metal Items • Wood Items • Toxics such as batteries etc • Composites that are made up of a combination of two or more of the above item. transport it. Landfills Landfills are those assigned places or holes in the ground where wastes are dumped. The poisons from a landfill leak out from the sides in the form of a black. bury it. flowers. The conventional methods of handling garbage is termed waste management. bottles. Landfill fires. Wastes typically consists of • Bio degradable substances (food wastes. toys and other items. In developed countries. Landfills are a flawed technology and a cancer on the land. Incineration or burning of wastes. Even so-called ‘state-of-the-art’ landfills merely delay. recycling. a common incident for landfills releases heavy metals and other toxic substances such as dioxins and furans into the atmosphere. rather than eliminate. Landfills. centralized composting and recycling are some of the ways of solid waste management. composting. smelly toxic liquid called “leachate” This liquid eventually escapes into the ground surrounding the landfills and contaminate the nearby and underground water sources. Landfills waste resources and compete directly with beneficial resource conserving enterprises such as reuse. For instance when we throw in paper and toxic wastes with bio wastes the entire garbage becomes toxic. That is this approach sees all garbage generated as useless and then goes on to manage these wastes by devising technologies to collect it. dump it or burn it. landfills are holes in the ground lined with plastic sheets and concrete to prevent pollution of the environment due to the poisons that these wastes would release during decomposition. massive pollution to groundwater and are a . garden wastes etc) • Plastics (bags. Landfills also lend to air pollution and attract vermin and other disease causing germs.up as wastes primarily because we do not separate them before discarding. Low lying areas are usually selected for this purpose.

what is technically possible may not always be efficient or economical. It is both a 'back end' solution that maximizes recycling and minimizes waste. Highly contaminated ash then has to be disposed of in specialized landfills. they inevitable release poisons such as heavy metals and cancer causing chemicals including dioxins and furans. unsustainable material especially when safer and sustainable alternatives exist. The most important of them is that not all materials can be recycled. . either in the open (common in India) or in machines. Advanced pollution control equipment cost a lot of money and merely trap the pollutants concentrating them in fly ash and the bottom ash. Take for instance recycling of PVC. taking a 'whole system' approach. mixed waste is allowed to sit for days or weeks before entering the compost process. repaired or recycled back into nature or the marketplace. Incinerators are wasteful because they burn resources that rightfully ought to be conserved for further use. During this time. These poisons are inevitably released during recycling. So many poisonous substances go into the production of PVC. you also recycle the hazard. Centralised Composting In this method. Especially toxic substances should not be recycled because when you recycle a hazardous substance. However. which will also eventually leak. and a design principle that ensures that products are made to be reused. the natural systems that sustain us are suffering from accelerated degradation. Technologies to recycle without much harm to the environment or human health may exist. Nor are landfills. Perhaps the greatest drawback of recycling is that it does not in anyway discourage the use of inherently. Incineration and Open Burning Conventional waste disposal relies significantly on burning garbage. which are usually removed in other types of composting. As human populations and material use continue to increase. Zero Waste embodies approaches that enable rapid waste reduction outcomes. Some materials that are recycled ought not to have been produced in the first place. are by this time too dirty to be viable raw materials for any recycler and end up in a landfill. They are also inherently polluting because incineration involves the combustion of diverse items. Hence plastics and other gross impurities. Waste is not inevitable.leading contributor to global warming. breakthrough strategies rather than incremental change. poisons from the toxic components of the waste stream contaminate the biodegradable substances that will be composted to form soil conditioners. Recycling Recycling has some pitfalls. Waste can and should be designed out of our industrial system. Zero Waste is a new planning approach for the 21st Century that seeks to redesign the way that resources and materials flow through society. The machines are known as incinerators.

The Zero Waste approach considers waste as the visible face of inefficiency. Walking the zero waste way has other added gains too. social and economic benefits. This assumes that material would be consumed.” Zero waste works from this belief. But Zero waste nips the creation of waste at the very stage of the resource. At the end of the pipe. Considerable saving on water. It changes the way resources flow through our society and communities. environmental friendly designs. so to say. and products eliminate creation of waste. Opting for zero waste means we forgo the entire concept of “waste. Thus the zero waste approach shows how this far reaching environmental progress will be achieved by just impacting change at one single point: where and how we empty our bins. and material would become discards. energy. and it enables even those who are locked into the system to challenge their own behavior in a positive way without immediately threatening it. through job creation and civic participation. From its inefficient uncompetitive former alternatives. And Zero Waste addresses. after which the product is rendered useless and ends up as waste while the process of production also generates waste. . Hence while elsewhere waste goes up in smoke in expensive incinerators or goes down the leachate drain in mega land fills. Zero waste presupposes the involvement of the local community in its day-to-day processes. An efficient system should have sustainable movement of materials. Hence it directly leads to the creation of employment opportunities in a society otherwise at loggerheads trying to create new avenues of employment. and waste to wealth ideas to tackle the waste generated. increasing wastage of human resources and erosion of democracy. Clean production. material would change form. the same pile of trash throws up a range of raw materials for new products. and better jobs. Zero Waste poses a fundamental challenge to 'business as usual' by challenging the economic incentives in our political and economic system that reward waste.Zero Waste challenges the whole idea of endless consumption without needing to say so. resources and landfill space makes it an optimum environmental and sustainable option. exciting financial opportunities. composting. zero waste lines up facilities like resource recovery. Material Substitution or the efficient use of materials is one way of achieving the goal of Zero waste. zero waste rechannelises the flow of resources through our societies with marked and substantial environmental. Resources are used for creation of a product or commodity usually designed for time-bound use.

Around the world progressive communities and governments as well as innovative business enterprises have already put on the mantle of zero waste. Initially the New Zealand Zero Waste Trust provides a grant. Secondly. fiber. capital of Australia. All that these enterprises need do is to reuse projects or to take them out as material resources for recycling or for composting. For instance. local economic benefits and employment generation and should not be a burden on the environment. coir. polluting. most of the manufacturing processes today are automated. Moreover. in the case of the coconut shell. the disposal process is non-polluting as these materials are biodegradable and add to the biomass. Thirdly. Today they are well within this path towards zero waste. as materials will be subject to change it has to take an ethical. leaves etc) has always been labour intensive and directly beneficial. For instance. It is hence imperative that any Zero Waste programme should look at proper resource use through material substitution.In a responsible community that is committed to sustainable development. and managers. economical and efficient. the material once used will be discarded. This means that the conversion should be rewarding in terms of value addition. Here 38% of the municipalities will have achieved the goal of Zero Waste by 2015. materials or resources should be efficiently used. shell. economic and efficient path.000 jobs will be created over this entire ten-year period with . the used coconut shell product can still yield carbon black or be burnt for fuel or can still be used for other coconut shell products. But the essential blue print of the same has to be developed within the local community-their officials. in 1996 adopted the Zero Waste strategy and the goal was that by 2010 no waste would go into a landfill. engineers. On the other hand the disposal of a plastic bottle or a tetra-pack packaging is practically impossible without harming the environment or human health. An estimated 40. This means that the selection of material should be ethically justified in terms of its impact on the environment and the economy. The entire concept was still in its bare infancy when Canberra. The government owns the entire infrastructure in Canberra and all they do is franchise these facilities to the various industrial interests to use these resources. The discarding process should also be ethical. energy and capital intensive and not at all labour intensive. It was from Canberra that the idea spread to New Zealand. At the same time the manufacturing products from traditional material like coconut tree (wood.

the latter has managed to cut down 93%. Biogasification (Biomethanation or anaerobic digestion) was proposed and accepted as the most possible option for handling the bio-discards in Kovalam. both recyclables and the non-recyclables. Even more laudable are the efforts of companies here like Hewlett Packard and Mad River Brewing who have actually seen the bottom line. Detailed enquiries were done regarding biogas plants. Here the Nova Scotia province is cutting down on landfills by almost 50%. the ITDC and the IHMCT. Subsequently. The idea is over sixteen years old. two counties in California have adopted Zero Waste strategies. a feasibility study was also done. restaurants. . The biogas plants running at Seaface Hotel. general stores and coconut vendors together generate about 6 tonnes of bio-degradable waste every day during the peak season. Bio Degradable Discards The study – “Towards Zero Waste Kovalam” (downloadable pdf) revealed that hotels. the idea has found eager emulators in California. and it being taken up as a practice and habit in the hotels. Canada is also definitely on the path to Zero waste. Across the seas.the conversion of local transfer units into resource recovery centers and by the predicted spurt of reuse and recycling businesses all over. Samudhra Beach Kovalam were studied. Del Norte and Santa Cruz. petty shops. restaurants and other establishments. Kanyakumari was also studied. provision stores. Plants in other places including the prototype models at the Vivekanada Centre. Of this 4 tonnes of bio-discards are from more than 100 hotels and restaurants. bakeries. By far. A two-bin segregation scheme is suggested . which is running smoothly at the Sea face Hotel was found to a more cost-effective and traditional model. The success of a biogas plant will fully depend on the proper implementation of segregation. with a more accurate quantification of the waste and its composition. And all over the natural environment is becoming a primary driver of a healthy political action and behavioral change. this has established that waste management at the backend alone is a limited proposition. Evidence from all over also suggests that the huge challenges that are present can be met and that the long-term benefits are enormous. While the former has achieved an impressive 90% reduction in their waste stream. The Dheenabandhu model biogas plant.one for the bio-discards and the other for the rest of the discards. And all over it seems to be generating much excitement and enthusiasm. Segregation – Proper segregation of this bio-discard is fundamental to handling the waste issue.

One can say that the tourism industry has much to lose.m. or sold to some hotels. . The KHRA / a society formed for the very purpose can set up a centralized bio-gas facility. Restaurants and other establishments need to be given awareness classes and training sessions for both their managerial staff as well as the operational staff.Awareness and Training – Hotels. This should be done with the active participation of the KHRA. about 75 plastic cups are ending up as discards in streams. there are three sizes of biogas plants that are considered.m and 25 cu. They are the 10 cu. if immediate and concerted action is not taken against this menace. metal tins and parts. which thrives in the city of Thiruvananthapuram (mainly from Chalai). cardboard boxes. These options could be taken as individual systems or in combinations. various options have been proposed. Alternatively. the beach and the sea on a daily basis. have set up their own biogas facility and a Resource Recovery Facility. cardboard cartons. Biogas plants can also a source of income to the SHGs as they produce good quality digested matter in the form of sludge which is excellent manure and has commercial value. The menace that plastic can cause to human health and environment is more evident here than in the literature. especially glass bottles. a Government owned institution near the Samudhra Beach. The Institute of Hotel Management and Catering Technology (IHMCT). nearly 3000 plastic milk sachets. with specific focus on the staff in the kitchen and cleaning work. The action plan was accepted by the Tourism Department and they have decided to part support the projects financially. on a symbiotic basis along with this plant. mostly in crushed and unusable form.m plants. The Venganoor/Vizhinjam Panchayaths can put up a bio-gas facility owned by the panchayath or self-help group/groups and the bio-gas/electricity generated can be used by them for some mini-industrial activity that they can plan. It was also felt that segregation and clean management practices of discards need to be incorporated as part of the accreditation schemes of the Tourism Department as well as the KHRA. some plastic bottles. cloths. the SHG’s can also take up the running of the plant for the hotels/restaurants. Establishment of the bio-gas plant/plants – Regarding establishment of biogas plants. 15 cu. metal items etc and should be sent to the secondary selling market. NON BIODEGRADABLE DISCARDS In Kovalam about 4340 mineral water bottles. which we often prefer to turn to. As of now. there are glass. the regulated bio-discard can then be taken over to this facility to produce gas /electricity. about 2500 plastic carry bags. Many of these materials have a very good reuse market value. Apart from plastic. burnt in the open and dumped in the bushes. cotton etc which are discarded in Kovalam every day.

Proper planning of the collection and redirection mechanism would help much in making it a viable and profit-making center apart from recovering precious resources. like paper bags. tailor waste. PVC. plan and train SHG’s in setting up and running the RRP. Self-Help Groups in the panchayaths can also set this up and run it on a profit.A large part of these discards can be recycled. Both the Tourist and the Hosts must be made aware of the potential threats posed by the use of polluting . PETE etc. material handling. banana etc. But the clearly better option is to reduce the use and disposal of these materials as much as possible. HDPE. Awareness and Training . Bags made from cloth. One resource person from the ZWT – Shibu K Nair has been trained on Zero Waste at the Ecology center. Training on use reduction. setting up RRP etc also need to be done. hotels. The primary purpose of an RRP would be to recover resource to the maximum. who may be interested in this. jute should be good substitutes for the plastic materials that are to phased out. recyclables. PS. paper. as the RRP also acts as a local and direct repository of materials that have been used but cleaned up and ready for reuse.Awareness on the use and hazards of plastic need to be imparted to the local community. A Proper two-bin Segregation and Collection system is being designed to lead all the discarded non-biodegradable materials to the Resource Recovery Park (RRP) . the Plastic Carry Bags. Berkeley to coordinate. remanufacturables and can be redirected to those agencies which would use/recycle them. coconut shells and paper. separated into the reusables. A third category. The following action plans were decided upon for handling the non-biodegradable discards A Resource Recovery Park – A Resource Recovery Park is in simple terms a centre where all the nonbiodegradables can be brought in. mostly the Mineral Water Bottles ( which the manufacturer forces to “Crush after Use” ) . The RRP can be setup by any agency. This may sound similar to the secondary seller. plates and cups from leaves like palmyra. but is a more planned and organized extension of the same. But identifying the recyclable from the non-recyclable is a question of technicality and one needs to be an expert or there must be a number code which identifies the type of the plastic material – as LDPE. preferably with materials that are locally available. Awareness and Campaign for Zero Waste Kovalam – Sustainable Tourism is so much dependent on the materials use and ethical conduct of the tourist and the hosts as much as on other factors. tetra pack and other plastic coated plates and the Plastic Cups can neither be reused nor recycled and hence need to be totally phased out from use. The Venganoor Panchayath has come up with one such proposal to setup the park and have included the stake holders contribution in their 10th five year plan. Alternate good water supply options also need to be explored. coir. Sustainable substitutes to these must be introduced. restaurants and establishments.

restaurants and other establishments. Phase-out Disposable-Plastic Use – The use of Disposable-type plastic material need to be immediately phased out. both domestic and foreign must be instructed to respect the right of the local community to keep their locality neat and unpolluted. PIONEER PAPER UNIT The Pioneer Paper Centre The Pioneer Paper Centre tucked away beyond a coconut grove produces marvelously ornate shopping bag made of paper. as it has been identified in the Stake Holders meeting as the one creating the maximum nuisance to Kovalam. sign-boards. the point where I’d have to enter the lane that would . conduct guides. Barely 50 metres away I could see the autorickshaw stand that I was told was the landmark for the paper center. that tells the tourist from all over the world this message. A tiring climb up the road from the Hotel Management College (another waste to wealth center) brought me to the highway leading to Trivandrum. websites. It is imperative that the Tourism Department. This will include Plastic carry bags and Mineral Water bottles and plastic drinking cups. like mineral water bottles. I could hardly wait to see the center where they design such innovative things. should be introduced. plastic carry bags. exhibitions. This is being taken up with the Tourism Ministry and the Government of Kerala. posters. the travel agencies. need to be implemented with the help of newspapers. The “Zero Waste Kovalam” can go as an icon. Introduce Water Kiosks – Well maintained water kiosks in specific corners in Kovalam. which can dispense mineral water in bottles Introduce that Ayurvedic the Water tourist guaranteed can by an be agency provided such as the from local hotels. plastic cups and other toxic materials. pamphlets. the tourism promotion agencies. Tourist. which can mobilize not just the local stake holders and the panchayath but can be made eventful with the help of even the tourists who would wish to volunteer.materials. For this the following suggestions are made. travel brochures of Government and private agencies and hotel room instructions etc.Alternate drinking water schemes that can replace the mineral water supply. Periodical Clean-up – Inspite of these measures it is expected that Kovalam would need to have a periodical cleanup operation. information desks. A well-planned awareness and campaign programme through media. hotels. Introduce Dispenser Bottles – large 20 litre and more cans. road shows. the local panchayaths and other stake holders participate and supplement this process. roadside displays. dustbins crafted entirely out of strips of paper woven together… having seen the products popping up here and there. panchayath. can guarantee that use and dumping of the smaller mineral water bottles is avoided. banners. travel marts. Phase-in Alternate Drinking Water Schemes .

designed as if there are no limits to our natural resources. which result in soil erosion. I saw them sitting in orderly rows and chatting to each other over their shoulders. Brown paper. soil. We as taxpayers unwittingly encourage this wasteful and polluting behavior through governmental subsidies at three different stages: (1) When resources are extracted to make the product. When I finally wheezed my way to the top. making standard-sized and ordinary-shaped paper bags. They’ve been getting orders for Workshops and Seminars and the Tourism department recently ordered 2500 bags. incidentally. they’re supplying paper bags to be used as disposal bags in all rooms at Hotel Sea Face. it uses up the paper that is segregated from the waste in other participating projects. financial incentives and tax breaks are given to industries that extract virgin resources. and water contamination. and a means to earn money for the project! They started out in January 2003.“lead up” to the center. and developed innovative paper products. Products are born of environmentally-destructive activities such as clearcutting. folded. Our Current Linear Wasting System A costly one-way street Our current production systems are linear. pasted or cut paper. sharp incline. you can hear the sounds of young women chatting and laughing busily. waste paper. habitat loss. hand-made paper there was paper EVERYWHERE! The paper center is a truly brilliant part of the ZWK jigsaw – for one. as their hands busily rolled. and their repertoire now encompasses all kinds of products – including paper beads woven into jewelry! They have started processing commercial orders too – for instance. strip mining and drilling. they now make bags of all shapes and sizes. It led ‘up’ all right! A steep. For another. to replace plastic in the market place. Slowly. as they have gained confidence. it gives the local women an outlet for their creativity. they have started experimenting with their ideas. with little more than the characteristic red soil to grip my feet on. (2) When toxins enter our air and water . The center itself is housed in a pleasant little barn – made entirely out of natural materials. From a distance. and severe air.

supplies during the manufacturing process. we can redesign them to be cyclical. a new. which leak into the groundwater from landfills and billow into the air from incinerators. where there is no such thing as “waste” and materials are kept in the production cycle. An environmentally and economically sustainable system where resources are kept in the production cycle Rather than looking at our production systems as one way and linear. the taxpayer helps pay to clean up these messes through programs such as the federal Superfund program. (3) At the end of the products’ lives. Zero Waste System©: © Eco-Cycle 2005. Zero Waste is emerging as a paradigm shift. Contact Eco-Cycle to use graphics and/or text. Changing the Rules of the Game . Click on each of the Zero Waste components to read more about the Zero Waste System. as in nature. comprehensive socio-technical system that addresses our resource use from product design to disposal. taxpayers pay again for the cleanup of toxins.

or composted products. particularly in the U. Retailers may also support downstream infrastructure such as Resource Recovery Parks through financial contributions or informational displays. hard-rock mining. and the environment. electronics.. The Empowered Consumer The empowered consumer is essential in all facets of Zero Waste. The consumer dollar is the ultimate voice to industry. As long as these subsidies remain in place. Retailers convey consumer habits and preferences upstream to the manufacturers where consumer pressures can lead to better design. giving a financial incentive to industries to make products from virgin materials. and providing the financial incentive for other companies to follow suit. thus rewarding those manufacturers who take responsibility for their products and packaging. Companies unwilling to meet the environmental and worker protection standards in the developed world have simply relocated to exploit the workers and the environment of developing countries. or the product’s eventual recovery. essentially putting policies in place that make it easy to recover materials instead of waste them. distributors expand upon their current roles by acting as a go-between for manufacturers and consumers in both directions. Reduce and reuse also begin with the consumer—they choose materials that are minimally packaged and less toxic. the consumer uses their buying power to demand non-toxic and easily reused. the community. the fastest and cheapest production methods win out above the health and safety of the workers. Such policies would include creating financial incentives for businesses and residents to recycle more and create less waste. First. all products and packaging will be manufactured with the use of non-toxic materials. By providing incentives for clean production methods. Design for the Environment (DFE) It’s time to stop waste before it happens – at the designer’s desk. “Welfare for Waste. and batteries.” direct subsidies to the timber. The Role of Distribution/Retail in the Zero Waste System Within the Zero Waste system. These are not paltry sums driving today’s resource extraction bonanza—according to the report. recycling or composting. Shifting Taxpayer Subsidies Away From Wasteful and Polluting Industries and Into Supporting Environmentally-Friendly Practices Federal tax subsidies created more than 100 years ago to spur our change from an agrarian society to an industrialized society still exist. the devastation of the environment will continue. Instead of designing products without regard for the amount or type of resources used. and will be the driving force in changing our consumption and disposal patterns. under DFE. and ultimately costly practices. recycled. and energy industries reach $2. In all these ways.6 billion per year in taxpayers’ funds.S. the product’s toxicity. Clean Production Under the current system. we can discourage this “fight to the bottom” mentality and award efforts to protect workers and the environment. distribution centers work with manufacturers to reuse packaging such as pallets and crates and to reduce unnecessary packaging. Distributors and retailers serve as education centers to inform consumers about the proper disposal methods for items such as motor oil. . and designed for either reuse.We need to put policies and practices in place that favor environmentally and economically sustainable practices over wasteful. polluting. banning toxic products from landfills or incinerators. prohibiting the sale of unnecessarily toxic or polluting products.

communities working towards Zero Waste invest in recycling. financial. not on the consumer or the local government at the end of the product’s or packaging’s life cycle. and reuse facilities called “Resource Recovery Parks.” When the true costs of environmental pollution resulting from landfills or incinerators are accounted for. Rather than destroying the value of society’s discards in incinerators and landfills. "On a per-ton basis. Investing in Recovery Infrastructure.Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) EPR puts the legal. The end result is a fundamental shift in responsibility and financing so that manufacturers redesign products to reduce material consumption and facilitate reuse. these cleaner Resource Recovery Parks attract the public’s enthusiasm. some recycling-based paper mills and plastics product manufacturers employ 60 times more workers on a per metric ton basis than do landfills. recycling and recovery. the Institute of Local Self-Reliance discusses how remanufacturing offers the biggest pay-off in recycling. Creating Jobs from Discards: The Job Potential of the Zero Waste System Wasting materials in a landfill or incinerator also wastes jobs that could be created if those resources were preserved. Not Landfills Rather than using the tax base to build new landfills or incinerators and then to clean up the resulting contamination. sorting and processing recyclables alone sustains ten times more jobs than landfilling or incineration. In fact. and environmental responsibility for materials entering the waste stream with the manufacturer. pride and market investments. According to the report Wasting and Recycling in the United States 2000. this value is protected and leveraged to create new local wealth." In its report Resources up in Flames. . Recycling-based manufacturers create more jobs at higher wages than sorting operations. composting.

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