ASSIGNMENT Subject code: MB0031 (3 credits) Set 2 Marks 60 SUBJECT NAME: MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS Answer the following

questions: 1. What are limitations of MIS? What are the factors which lead to the success and failure of MIS in an organization? (10) Answer: Limitations of MIS 1. Highly sensitive and requires constant monitoring 2. Budgeting of Budgeting extremely difficult 3. Lack of flexibility to update it. Factors Contributing to Success If a MIS is to be success then it should have all the features listed as follows: • • • • • The MIS is integrated into the managerial functions. It sets clear objectives to ensure that the MIS focuses on the major issues of the business. An appropriate information processing technology required toν meet the data processing and analysis needs of the users of the MIS is selected. The MIS is oriented, defined and designed in terms of the user’s The MIS is kept under continuous surveillance, so that its openν system design is modified according to the changing information needs. MIS focuses on the results and goals, and highlights the factors and reasons for non achievement.

Lack of training and appreciation that the users of theν information and the generators of the data are different. The MIS does not provide that information which is needed by theν managers but it tends to provide the information generally the function calls for. the design of the MIS has such features which make up a user-friendly design. The MIS recognizes that a manager is a human being andν therefore. The globalization of information in isolation from the different objectives leads to too much information and information and its non-use. • The MIS concentrates on developing the information support toν the top management manager critical success factors. has a basic potential capability to quickly meet new needs of information.• • • MIS is not allowed to end up into an information generationν mill avoiding the noise in the information and the communication system. It concentrates on the mission critical applications serving the needs of Factors Contributing to Failures Many a times MIS is a failures. Adequate attention is not given to the quality control aspectsν of the inputs. and they have to play an important responsible role in the MIS. The MIS is developed without streamlining the transaction processing systems in the organization. therefore. • • • • Under estimating the complexity in the business systems andν not recognizing it in the MIS design leads to problems in the successful implementation. The MIS then becomes an impersonal system. the process and the outputs leading to insufficient checks and controls in the MIS. MIS recognizes that the information needs become obsolete and newν needs emerge. The common factors which are responsible for this are listed as follows: • • The MIS is conceived as a data processing and not as an information processing system. the systems must consider all the human behavioral factors in the process of the management. The MIS recognizes that the different information needs forν different objectives must be met with. therefore. The MIS design. . • • The MIS is easy to operate and.

mass customization. • The MIS does not give perfect information to all the users in the organization. wrong coding and deviating from the system specifications result in incomplete and incorrect information. so that documents are worked upon more easily and efficiently. DSS. Latest software are used and accordingly the business procedures are modified. organizational culture and processes. Team based organization. Such changes are often necessary for profitability or even survival. Lack of administrative discipline in following theν standardized systems and procedures. ES. What is Business Process Re-engineering? Explain in detail the focus of BPR on the current issues in Business. This is called as workflow management. With Business process being reengineered. Reengineering involves changes in structure. AI (discussed later) allows business to be conducted in different locations. lack of user-friendly system and the dependence on the system personnel. Business process reengineering is a major innovation changing the way organizations conduct their business. The support system in any organization plays a important role in BPR. provides flexibility in manufacturing permits quicker delivery to customers and supports rapid paperless . the organizations have to change the workflow and business procedures for efficiency in the organization. 2. Many concepts of BPR changes organizational structure. (10) Answer: The existing system in the organization is totally reexamined and radically modified for incorporating the latest technology. BPR is employed when major IT projects such as ERP are undertaken. an inability to get the processing done in a particular manner.• The MIS does not meet certain critical and key factors ofν its users such as a response to the query on the database. empowerment and telecommuting are some of the examples. • • A belief that the computerized MIS can solve all the management problems of planning and control of the business. This process of change for the betterment of the organization is called as Business process reengineering.

Employees work in team comprising of managers and engineers to develop a product. a company might use a database to store information about their products. and updated. and MySQL is designed to help companies and individuals organize large amounts of information in a way where the data can be easily searched. FileMaker Pro. This leads to the formation of interdisciplinary teams which can work better than mere functional teams. The coordination becomes easier and faster results can be achieved. increase in quality. Data Mining . The entire business process of developing a product gets a new dimension. For example. BPR – the current focus Apart from the usual ways of managing a process in any business information system. and financial information. This has led to reengineering of many old functional processes in organizations. It enables these companies to determine relationships among "internal" factors . Expert systems can enable organizational changes by providing expertise to non experts. Some of the concepts of information management for effective information systems are the traditional concept of database. It is difficult to carry out BPR calculations using ordinary programs like spreadsheets etc. Database software. and marketing organizations. it is necessary to enhance the value of the process and also the methods used in improving the process. sorted. their employees. communication. by companies with strong consumer focus retail. Databases are now also used in nearly all ecommerce sites to store product inventory and customer information. such as Microsoft Access. improvement in speed and service. Reengineering is basically done to achieve cost reduction. financial. BPR enable a company to become more competitive in the market. Concept of Database – Database is a data structure used to store organized information. A database is typically made up of many linked tables of rows and columns.Data mining is primarily used as a part of information system today. Experts make use of applications with simulations tools for BPR. manufacturers and retailers. the emerging concepts of data mining and data warehousing.transactions among suppliers.

In performing these tasks the analyst must always match the information system objectives with the goals of the organization. This data is stored for a long time permitting the user an access to archived data for years. at a single site. 3. stored under a unified scheme. a retailer could use point of sale records of customer purchases to send targeted promotions based on an individual's purchase history. By mining demographic data from comment or warranty cards. Data Warehousing – A data warehouse is a copy of transaction data specifically structured for querying and reporting. Setting up queries on individual processes may be tedious and inefficient. Data warehouse may be considered under such situations. or staff skills. What is meant by Feasibility of systems ? What are the various types of Feasibility study? (10) Answer: The system analyst is the person (or persons) who guides through the development of an information system. The main output from data warehouse systems are either tabular listings (queries) with minimal formatting or highly formatted "formal" reports on business activities. And. Data warehouse is an archive of information collected from wide multiple sources. it enables them to "drill down" into summary information to view detail transactional data. and "external" factors such as economic indicators. and corporate profits. and customer demographics. Most common responsibilities of System Analyst are following . Explain the various role of a Systems Analyst. Role of System Analyst differs from organization to organization. This becomes a convenient way to handle the information being generated by various processes.such as price. it enables them to determine the impact on sales. Decision makers require access to information from all sources. product positioning. Finally. customer satisfaction. the retailer could develop products and promotions to appeal to specific customer segments. With data mining. Big companies have bigger problems and complex problems. This concept is useful for big companies having plenty of data on their business processes. The data stored and the subsequent report generated out of a querying process enables decision making quickly. competition.

he has to be multifaceted person with varied skills required at various stages of the life cycle. Interpersonal skills: Such skills are required at various stages of development process for interacting with the users and extracting the requirements out of them Problem solving skills: A system analyst should have enough problem solving skills for defining the alternate solutions to the system and also for the problems occurring at the various stages of the development process. . and programming: Here Analyst is also required to perform as a programmer. he should be familiar with the general functioning of all kind of businesses. 3) Systems analysis. In addition to the technical know-how of the information system development a system analyst should also have the following knowledge.1) System analysis It includes system's study in order to get facts about business activity. Due to the various responsibilities that a system analyst requires to handle. Feasibility analysis is the activity by which the feasibility is measured. design. • Business knowledge: As the analyst might have to develop any kind of a business system. Analyst is also responsible for the designing of the new system/application. where he actually writes the code to implement the design of the proposed application. • • Feasibility of Systems Feasibility is a measure of how beneficial the development of an information system would be to an organization. It is about getting information and determining requirements. Here the responsibility includes only requirement determination. not the design of the system. 2) System analysis and design: Here apart from the analysis work.

benefits and feasibility of a proposed project. It is also known as cost benefit analysis. flexible computer based information system. in . If the management approves these recommendations of the report the development process can continue. It uses rules and models for processing data. The data is first collected for the feasibility study. d) Schedule feasibility: It is a measure of how reasonable the project schedule is.Feasibility study is a preliminary study which investigates the information needs of prospective users and determines the resource requirements. What are the components of DSS and explain DSS model?(10) Answer: Decision Support Systems Introduction to DSS DSS is an interactive. costs. b) Economic feasibility: It is the measure of the cost effectiveness of a project. the findings of the study are formalized in a written report that includes preliminary specifications and a development plan for the proposed system. to support various managerial levels. The feasibility of a proposed system can be evaluated in four major categories: a) Technical feasibility: It is a measure of a technology’s suitability to the application being designed or the technology’s ability to work with other technologies. c) Operational feasibility: It is a measure of how comfortable the management and users are with the technology. It measures the practicality of a specified technical solution. Explain the significance of DSS. Later on. ranging from top executives to mangers. Types of feasibility The goal of feasibility study is to evaluate alternative systems and to propose the most feasible and desirable system for development. 4.

The DSS software system includes software tools for data analysis. The DSS database is a collection of current or historical data from a number of applications or groups. Optimization models such as linear programming are used to determine optimal resource allocation. medians. software with models. deviations and scatter plots. choice and implementation.their decision making. As such. A model can be a physical model. which is continuously being updated. design. TPS External Data DSS database DSS software system Models OLAP tools Data mining tools . It can be small database or a massive data warehouse from a large company. They contain various OLAP tools. It is user friendly with strong graphical capabilities. a mathematical model or a verbal model. DSS components The components of a DSS include a database of data used for query and analysis. It supports all phases of decision making: intelligence. data mining tools or a collection of mathematical and analytical models. data mining and other analytical tools and a user interface. Most commonly used are the statistical functions such as means. A DSS is usually built to support the solution of certain problem and does not replace the decision maker. it is called a DSS application.

User Interface User Component of a Decision Support System Model of DSS The model of a DSS may be represented as a block diagram as indicated below – Database Management to Support decision Making process Use Of Appropriate Decision Support Software Managing the Decision models MANAGER 5. Read the following case and answer the question (20) .

Joel Orr in April and May 2000 and the August column by Digital Media Editor Lynne Brakeman on collaboration software exhibited during the A/E/C Systems show earlier this year. might be counterproductive. Read the columns on extranets that were published by Dr. Some of these sites allow you to download "demo" versions. You make a mental note to change the notification sound to an evil laugh. Most professionals know by now that eventually they will have to deal with e-business. Your reading pile is teetering. threatening to put out of misery the plant you haven't watered in three weeks. and says. Welcome to e-hell. Your boss strides into your office. Depending on the stock market. I'd also recommend visiting Orr's Website ( for a comprehensive list of sites. some might be desperate enough to come to your office. here are a few survival tips: read about e-collaboration to get a general impression of what it is and how it works and then visit some Websites where some of the more popular products exist and try them out. that an email message has just been added to your stockpile of unread messages gathering electronic dust. six faxes in your in-basket. you make a few e-comments about what he can e-do with his eletter.extranets. .. We just got a project that requires us to `collaborate over the Internet'-whatever that means-and since you're the computer guru around here. choose the Information Technology (IT) Tips area. These three columns introduce you to collaboration software and point you to some products that are tailored to our industry. throws a letter under your nose. You wonder who the strange people are in the picture on your desk. If this happens. it's your spouse and kids. Visit the HPAC Engineering Interactive Website at www. Look around you. Trying out the software demo will help you decide which method is right for you and possibly your whole company. Call some of the vendors and ask if they provide training either online or at a nearby facility.. Did PCs lead to a paperless office? Waiting for the e-collaboration to stabilize or shake out.You have 10 messages on voice mail. . under Heavy Duty Content. again. however. Your computer just beeped to inform you." As he leaves. you have to get a handle on it and teach us all what to do by next Thursday. It's too early to tell if e-collaboration will resolve the communications overload engineers are facing today or just clutter the available bandwidth even more. three people standing outside of your office waiting either for you to get off of the phone or finish speaking with the guy sitting in your office (whichever comes first).com and. You might find yourself in a situation like the one described above where you'll have to "e-collaborate" in a pinch.hpac. "Read this. Oh yeah.

This e-business is a tough nut to crack. Inc. you may be able to sway them toward a decision that benefits you and your company. List out all the advantages and disadvantages what you feel is appropriate in this case. 1 pgs.If your firm is being required to e-collaborate. 1) To begin with. which mentions about Collaboration over Internet. Hence his boss comes to him and hands over a letter to him. I recommend that you do further research and get others in your company involved. Here he seems to be senior most and most computer literate among others in the office. Answer: In the above Case presentation – the Question has 3 parts: Concept of MIS being spoken about in the case. E . Michael G. which we feel. in the above Case presentation. E-Collabration. Copyright Penton Media. 72. the initial paragraph is on the typical work scenario faced by a Manager in most of the service sector organization. Further there are information on how to get more information on Business and E Collaboration. try and find the people who are leading the e-collaboration effort and ask them what method they're using. The best way to deal with it is proactively. as the story goes above. is appropriate in the case. The manager is supposed to go through the contents and brief everyone by Thursday. Iss. It represents a pivotal time in our industry. Vol. There are references of various Internet sites given to gather more inputs on E-Enterprise. Issues related to MIS in the above case Advantages and Disadvantages. The matter is related to E-Collaboration and E Business. Heating/Piping/Air Conditioning Engineering: HPAC. If you need to teach others in your company how to use ecollaboration tools or make a corporate-wide procurement/standardization decision. 9. The amount of pressure he is in during his daily routines work. To learn more about introducing new information technologies gradually into a company. Sep 2000] Question: Which particular concept of MIS is being dealt here in this particular case? List out all the issues related to MIS mentioned in the above case. Cleveland: Sep 2000. 9. . If they have not made a decision on which product to use.. [Source: Proquest by Ivanovich. read the IT Tips column "Strategic Planning for Information Technology" in the December 1996 issue. pg.

The process is called collaboration. Some of the developments are recent and some are still in the development stage. They come together to perform a task to achieve some results. reach. Since. The groups could be teams or virtual teams with different member strength. access to different databases and servers. Its effectiveness is increased by software 'GroupWare' that enables the members of . The biggest advantage of E-collaboration is that it taps the collective wisdom. They can be at different locations and form a virtual team to work on project or assignment. E-collaboration works on an Internet platform and uses web technology. To understand and discuss about the above terms we need to know that MIS has been evolving in different forms under different levels of management. With the emergence of Internet. namely E commerce. cultural. E communication and E collaboration. E business enterprise has a global market. Therefore. In this Enterprise business operations are performed through E Communication and E Collaboration initiatives. About E Collaboration Every business has a number of work scenarios where group of people work together to complete the tasks and to achieve a common objective. These capabilities help to create collaborative work systems and allow members to work together cooperatively on projects and assignments. which put these teams in network with Internet support for communication. E business enterprise is more process driven. E-collaboration uses E-communication capabilities to perform collaborative tasks. It has no geographic boundaries as it can extend its operations where Internet works. The collaboration team or group could be within the organization and between the organizations as well. technology – enabled and uses its own information and knowledge to perform. and qualitatitive change and a new organization structure has emerged which is known as E business enterprise. The collaboration now is possible with e-technologies. knowledge and experience of the members. business organization has undergone structural.E business systems lay foundation of other Enterprise applications. source and global competition. work group / team need not be at one physical location. or project assignment. The research continues.

Application packages are software suit. material database.the group to share information. This technology offers a solution to communicate. co ordinate and collaborate with customers. Intranet. It is supported by databases present on various servers like mail server. and knowledge management. It is effectively used for strategic planning for survival and growth. E-business enterprise is open twenty-four hours. which help process customer requirements. 3) Advantages and Challenges: Internet and networking technology has thrown challenge to enlarge the scope of organization where customers and vendors become part of the organization. Knowledge management system is formally recognized as a part of MIS. Extranet and LAN. 2) MIS for E-business is different compared to conventional MIS design of an organisation. workflow applications. MIS produces more knowledge-based products. 4) Automate processes after reengineering the process to cut down process cycle time. event. project management. To achieve the said benefits of E-business organization. WAN networks for communication through GroupWare tools. 3) Allow people to work from anywhere. document server and so on. E-collaboration helps work effectively on applications like calendaring and scheduling tasks. The role of MIS in E-business organization is to deal with changes in global market and enterprises. and being independent. The organization structure should be lean and flat. GroupWare is collaboration software. customers transact business any time from anywhere. . E-collaboration system components are Internet. work group applications. it is necessary to redesign the organization to realize the benefits of digital firm. document creation and sharing. increase in profit and productivity and so on. vendors and business partners. managers. invoke an application and work together to create documents and share them and so on. knowledge server. vendors. browsers. 2) Get rid of rigid established infrastructure such as branch office or zonal office. Make use of groupware technology on Internet platform for faster response processing.

. They are supported by the rule-based transaction processing system. MIS in E-organization deviates from traditional report formats to automated intelligent knowledge driven system. It means changing the organization behavior to take competitive advantage of the E-business technology. artificial intelligence (AI) systems. Challenges: One challenge is to convert domestic process design to work for international process. and laws of security are to be adhered strictly. MIS in E-organization deviates from the conventional model of 'Capture Compute Process Analyses Report Think and Act' to 'Point Click Respond Act. considering multiple locations and multiple information needs arising due to global operations of the business into a comprehensive MIS. decision support systems. expert systems.It has no geographic boundaries as it can extend its operations where Internet works. This is just not a technical change in business operations but a cultural change in the mindset of managers and workers to look beyond the conventional organization. country specific accounting practices. All this is possible due to Internet and web moving traditional paper driven organization to information driven Internet enabled E-business enterprise. Most of the decisions of middle and operational management are delegated to IT-enabled information and knowledge driven systems. The last but not the least important is the challenge to organize and implement information architecture and information technology platforms. where integration of multinational information systems using different communication standards. and data warehouse and mining systems. It enforces manager to act quickly to response displayed on the screen.

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