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Sensor Systems Technology
Karlsruhe University of Applied Sciences
Prof. Dr. Frieder Keller
frieder.keller@HSkarlsruhe.de
Prof. Dr.Ing. F. Keller Control Theory (Conversion) cc contents.doc
Karlsruhe University of Applied Sciences Contents page 1 / 1
1 Examples of Control Systems
2 Mathematical Description of Dynamic Systems
3 Differential Equations
4 LaplaceTransform
5 FrequencyResponse Analysis
6 Analysis of ControlSystems
7 Stability
8 TuningRules For ControlParameters
Prof. Dr.Ing. F. Keller Control Theory (Conversion) cc_lit_rec.doc
Karlsruhe University of Applied Sciences Literature page 1 / 1
1) Nise, Norman S.
“Control systems engineering”, John Wiley, 2000.
2) Ogata, Katsuhiko
“Modern Control Engineering”, Prentice Hall
The books are rather theoretical and they cover much more aspects than the lecture.
In 2) it is sufficient to read:
chapter 1
chapter 21, 23, 24 (only the first part up to page 31), 27
chapter 31, 32, 33
chapter 41, 42, 43 (without details)
chapter 51, 52, 53, 54
We also introduce the Nyquist stability criterion (the description in 87 is theoretical
and complicated; we only need the “simple” version as described in the lecture)
It is also recommended to visit the Internetpage:
3) http://www.engin.umich.edu/group/ctm/
which provides a “Control Systems Tutorial”
You can also access this tutorial offline by clicking on “index.html” on the subdirec
tory “tutorial” in my public directory. This tutorial also covers much more aspects than
the lecture.
Prof. Dr.Ing. F. Keller Conversion Course / Control Systems cc control systems examples.doc
Karlsruhe University of Technology Examples of Analog Control Systems page 1 / 1
control knob
heater
temperature
sensor
Temperature Control
inertia
motor
u
n
c
n
r
speed
sensor
n
c
controller
Speed Control
spindle
motor
u
x
c
x
r
controller
position
sensor
x
c
Position Control
q
in
pump
u
level
sensor
controller
h
c
h
r
h
c
Liquid Level Control
coil
iron ball
solar
cell
lamp
Position Control (suspended ball)
Prof. Dr.Ing. F. Keller Conversion Course / Control Systems cc control loop.doc
Karlsruhe University of Technology Structure of a Control System page 1 / 1
controller motor

n
c
x K
s
n
r
x K
s
u(n
r
)
Speed Control System
controller motor

n
c
n
r
x K
s
Equivalent System
controller process

r
c
e
y
General structure of a Control Loop
r: request signal, input signal, reference input
e: error signal
y: controller output
c: controlled variable, plant output
Prof. Dr.Ing. F. Keller Conversion Course / Control Systems cc definitions.doc
Karlsruhe University of Technology Definitions page 1 / 1
Controlled variable:
The controlled variable is the output of the process. It is measured by a sensor
element and controlled.
Reference input:
The reference input is the desired value for the controlled variable. It may be a
constant value or may be a timedependent signal.
Manipulated variable:
The manipulated variable is the output of the controller and the input of the
process. The goal is to affect the value of the controlled variable to minimize
the deviation of the controlled variable from the desired value.
Process:
Any operation to be controlled is called a process.
Disturbance:
A disturbance influences the process and tends to affect the value of the con
trolled variable.
Feedback control or closed loop control:
A system where the controlled variable is measured and compared with the
desired value. Any deviation leads to a controller output which reduces the
difference between the desired value and the controlled variable.
Open loop control:
In an openloop control system the output is not measured and thus not com
pared with the input signal. The effect of disturbances cannot be compen
sated.
Prof. Dr.Ing. F. Keller Conversion Course / Control Systems cc liquid level pcontrol.doc
Karlsruhe University of Technology Liquid Level / PControl page 1 / 1
controller process

q
in
h
c
∆h h
r
LiquidLevelControlSystem
si mout
To Workspace
Step
Scope
s
1
Integrator
2
Gai n
Simplified SIMULINKModel
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2
t/s
e
q
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
t/s
hr [m]
hc [m]
Simulation Result
Observations:
 stable
 no static error, steady state accurate
 no overshoot
Prof. Dr.Ing. F. Keller Conversion Course / Control Systems cc motor speed picontrol.doc
Karlsruhe University of Technology Speed Control System page 1 / 1
controller motor

n
c
n
r
n
e
u
SpeedControlSystem
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5
0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
t/s
ne
u
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5
0
0.5
1
1.5
t/s
nr
nc
Simulation Result
Observations:
 stable
 no static error, steady state accurate
 overshoot
Questions:
 What type of controller is used ?
 How would the signals look like if a Pcontroller is
used ?
Prof. Dr.Ing. F. Keller Conversion Course / Control Systems cc goals in control loop design.doc
Karlsruhe University of Technology Goals in Control System Design page 1 / 1
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
0
0.5
1
1.5
t
r,c
accuracy
overshoot
dynamics
Dynamics, Overshoot, Accuracy
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
1
0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
t
r
,
c
Step Response of an Instable System
Stability, Dynamics, Accuracy, Overshoot
Prof. Dr.Ing. F. Keller Conversion Course / Control Systems cc pid controller.doc
Karlsruhe University of Technology PIDControllers page 1 / 1
The equation of a controller with proportionalplusintegralplusderivative control ac
tion is:
+ + =
∫
e T edt
T
e K y
d
i
P
!
1
An electronic circuit or PIDcontrolaction is shown in the next figure:
u
e
u
a
R
p
R
1
R
1
R
1
R
1
R
1
R
d
C
d
R
i
C
i
PIDController with OPAMPs
Example of other controllers are (not treated in this lecture):
 leadcompensators
 lagcompensators
 leadlagcompensators
 state controllers
Prof. Dr.Ing. F. Keller Conversion Course / Control Systems cc signals and block diagrams.doc
Karlsruhe University of Technology Signals and Block Diagrams page 1 / 1
t
σ(t)
1
t
r(t)
1
0 0 1
t
δ(t)
1
0
t
approximation
for δ(t)
0 ε
1/ε
UNIT STEP UNIT RAMP
DIRAC PULSE
Basic functions
system
input signal output signal
Functional Block
y
G
1
(s)

G
2
(s)
x
summing point branch point
Block Diagram
Prof. Dr.Ing. F. Keller Conversion Course / Control Systems cc differential equations.doc
Karlsruhe University of Technology Differential Equations page 1 / 1
LTI
system
input signal output signal
x(t) y(t)
Linear, timeinvariant system
a
d y t
dt
a
d y t
dt
a
dy t
dt
a y t b
d x t
dt
b
d x t
dt
b x t
n
n
n n
n
n m
m
m m
m
m
( ) ( )
...
( )
( )
( ) ( )
... ( ) + + + + = + + +
−
−
− −
−
− 1
1
1 1 0 1
1
1 0
for technical systems: n ≥ m
Differential Equation
1) Given: x(t), inital conditions Obtain: y(t)
→ solution of the differentail equation
2) Given: x(t)=s(t), inital conditions = 0 Obtain: y(t)= h(t)
→ step response
3) Given: ) sin( ) (
0
t x t x ω ⋅ = Obtain: y(t) for steady state
→ frequency response
4) Given: x(t) and y(t) Obtain: coefficients a
i
and b
i
→ system identification
5) Check the stability of the system
→ stability test
Standard Problems
Prof. Dr.Ing. F. Keller Conversion Course / Control Systems cc laplace transform.doc
Karlsruhe University of Technology LaplaceTransform page 1 / 2
LaplaceTransform
Definition of the LaplaceTransform:
( ) { } L f t F s f t e dt
s t
· ·
∞
− ⋅
∫
( ) ( )
0
Some rules:
( ) { } ( ) { } ( ) { }
( ) { } ( ) { }
( ) { }
( ) { }
L L L
L L
L L
L L
f t g t f t g t
a f t a f t
df t
dt
s f t f t
f d
s
f t
t
+ · +
⋅ · ⋅
¹
'
¹
¹
;
¹
· ⋅ − ·
¹
'
¹
¹
;
¹
· ⋅
∫
( )
( )
( )
( )
0
1
0
τ τ
Small Laplace Transform Table:
σ( ) t
1
s
e
a t − ⋅
1
s a +
t
1
2
s
( )
1
1
a
e
at
⋅ −
−
( )
1
s s a ⋅ +
( ) sin at a
s a
2 2
+
( ) cos at s
s a
2 2
+
für d<1:
1
1
1
1
90 180
2
2
2
+
−
−
−
¸
¸
_
,
· −
−
¸
¸
_
,
°< < °
−
e
d
d
d
t
mit
d
d
und
d
T
t
sin
arctan
ϕ
ϕ ϕ
für d=1: 1 1 − +
¸
¸
_
,
−
t
T
e
t
T
für d>1:
( )
1 1
1
1 2
2
1 2
1 2
2
1
2
−
−
+
−
· t −
−
−
T
T T
e
T
T T
e mit T T d d
t
T
t
T
,
1
2 1
2 2
( ) T s d T s s ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅
Prof. Dr.Ing. F. Keller Conversion Course / Control Systems cc laplace transform.doc
Karlsruhe University of Technology LaplaceTransform page 2 / 2
Some other rules:
( ) { } ( ) { }
( ) { }
0) at t s derivative or their impulses no are there (if ) ( lim ) 0 (
exists) ) f(t (if ) ( lim ) (
) (
0
· · +
∞ → · ∞ →
+ · ⋅
· −
∞ →
→
−
⋅ −
s sF f
s sF t f
a s F t f e
t f e T t f
s
s
at
s T
D
D
L
L L
In practice Laplacetransform is performed using a table and the Laplacetheorems
or a computer program like MAPLE or MATLAB with the symbolic toolbox.
Inverse Laplacetransform also uses tables and computer programs. Sometimes the
partialfraction expansion method can be used to split a complicated expression in a
sum of simpler expressions.
With the partialfraction expansion method an expression B(s)/A(s) is expressed as
follows:
) (
) (
) (
...
) 2 (
) 2 (
) 1 (
) 1 (
) (
) (
s k
n p s
n r
p s
r
p s
r
s A
s B
+
−
+ +
−
+
−
·
Example:
( )( ) 2
1
1
2
2 1
3
+
−
+
+
·
+ +
+
s s s s
s
MATLAB provides the function residue. For the above example it is
used as follows:
[r,p,k]=residue([1 3],[1 3 2])
The MATLAB response is shown in the box on the right.
r =
1
2
p =
2
1
k =
[]
Prof. Dr.Ing. F. Keller Conversion Course / Control Systems cc transient response.doc
Karlsruhe University of Technology Transient Response page 1 / 1
Consider a LTIsystem which is characterized by the following differential equation:
a
d y t
dt
a
d y t
dt
a
dy t
dt
a y t b
d x t
dt
b
d x t
dt
b x t
n
n
n n
n
n m
m
m m
m
m
( ) ( )
...
( )
( )
( ) ( )
... ( ) + + + + = + + +
−
−
− −
−
− 1
1
1 1 0 1
1
1 0
LaplaceTransformation gives:
a s Y s a s Y s a Y s b s X s b s X s b X s
a s a s a Y s b s b s b X s
Y s
X s
b s b s b
a s
n
n
n
n
m
m
m
m
n
n
n
n
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
n
n
( ) ( ) ... ( ) ( ) ( ) ... ( )
( ... ) ( ) ( ... ) ( )
( )
( )
...
+ + + = + +
⇒ + + + = + + +
⇒ =
+ + +
+
−
−
−
−
−
−
−
−
−
−
1
1
0 1
1
0
1
1
0 1
1
0
1
1
0
a s a
G s
n
n
−
−
+ +
=
1
1
0
...
( )
G(s) is the transferfunction.
To obtain the output y(t) with given input x(t) and initial conditions (here considered to
be 0) the following recipe can be used:
1. Obtain G(s)
2. Find the Laplacetransform of x(t)
3. Obtain Y(s)=G(s)X(s)
4. Find the inverse Laplacetransform of Y(s)
Prof. Dr.Ing. F. Keller Conversion Course / Control Systems cc laplace frequ response.doc
Karlsruhe University of TechnologyLaplaceTransform and Frequency Response page 1 / 5
The solution of a differential equation is a superposition of the forced solution and
the transient solution. The following example explains these terms.
Consider a system with a transfer function:
Ts s X
s Y
s G
+
= =
1
1
) (
) (
) ( , with 0 ) 0 ( = = t y .
The input signal is ( ) t x t x ω sin ) (
0
= .
Ts s
x s Y
+
⋅
+
=
1
1
) (
2 2
0
ω
ω
written with partial fractions
Ts
C
s
B As
Ts s
x s Y
+
+
+
+
=
+
⋅
+
=
1 1
1
) (
2 2 2 2
0
ω ω
ω
The coefficients A,B,C are determined as follows:
( ) C
T
x C Ts
s
B As
s
x =
+
⇒ + +
+
+
=
+
2
2
0
2 2 2 2
0
1
1
ω
ω
ω ω
ω
( ) B Aj
Tj
x B Aj
Tj
x s
Ts
C
B As
Ts
x + − =
−
+ =
+
⇒ +
+
+ + =
+
ω
ω
ω ω
ω
ω ω ω
1
1
;
1
1
1 1
1
0 0
2 2
0
( )( ) ( )( )
2 2
0
0 0 0 0
0 0
1
1 1
2
1 1
1 1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
;
1
1
ω
ω
ω ω
ω
ω ω
ω ω
ω
ω
ω
ω
ω
ω
ω
ω ω
ω
ω
T
x
B
Tj Tj
x
Tj Tj
Tj Tj
x B
Tj
x
Tj
x
B Aj
Tj
x B Aj
Tj
x
+
=
− +
=
− +
+ + −
= =
−
+
+
⇒
+ − =
−
+ =
+
( )( ) ( )( )
2 2
0 0 0 0
0 0
1
1 1
2
1 1
1 1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
;
1
1
ω
ω ω
ω
ω
ω ω
ω ω
ω ω
ω
ω
ω
ω
ω
ω
ω ω
ω
ω
T
T
A
Tj Tj
Tj
x
Tj Tj
Tj Tj
x Aj
Tj
x
Tj
x
B Aj
Tj
x B Aj
Tj
x
+
−
=
− +
−
=
− +
− − −
= =
−
−
+
⇒
+ − =
−
+ =
+
With the coefficients A,B,C from the above calculations we can write Y(s) as:
+
⋅
+
+
+
⋅
+
+
+
⋅
+
−
=
s T T
T
s T s
s
T
T
x s Y
/ 1
1
1 1
1
1
) (
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
0
ω
ω
ω
ω
ω ω ω
ω
Prof. Dr.Ing. F. Keller Conversion Course / Control Systems cc laplace frequ response.doc
Karlsruhe University of TechnologyLaplaceTransform and Frequency Response page 2 / 5
Inverse Laplacetransform gives:
⋅
+
+ ⋅
+
+ ⋅
+
−
=
−
T
t
e
T
T
t
T
t
T
T
x t y
2 2 2 2 2 2
0
1
) sin(
1
1
) cos(
1
) (
ω
ω
ω
ω
ω
ω
ω
( ) [ ]
⋅
+
+ − ⋅ =
−
T
t
e
T
T
T t V x t y
2 2
0
1
arctan sin ) (
ω
ω
ω ω
with
( )
2 2 2
2 2
2 2
1
1
1
1
ω
ω
ω
T
T
T
V
+
=
+
+
=
y(t) has two parts: the steady state solution y
steady
(t) and the transient solution y
tran
sient
(t)
( ) [ ]
T
t
transient
steady
e
T
T
x t y
T t V x t y
−
⋅
+
=
− ⋅ ⋅ =
2 2
0
0
1
) (
arctan sin ) (
ω
ω
ω ω
The following figure shows x(t) and y(t) for
T
1
= ω :
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
t/T
y
steady
and y
transient
are depicted in the next figure:
Prof. Dr.Ing. F. Keller Conversion Course / Control Systems cc laplace frequ response.doc
Karlsruhe University of TechnologyLaplaceTransform and Frequency Response page 3 / 5
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
t/T
x
ysteady
ytransient
For this example it can be seen that the amplification factor V is given by:
) ( ω j G V =
and the phase shift is:
{ }
{ }
) (
) ( Re
) ( Im
arctan ω
ω
ω
ϕ j G
j G
j G
∠ = =
These two relations are valid for all LTIsystems. This is shown in the following.
We consider a system with input signal ( ) t x t x ω sin ) (
0
⋅ = and transfer function G(s). The
output signal y(t) has the Laplacetransform:
) ( ) (
2 2
0
s G
s
x s Y ⋅
+
⋅ =
ω
ω
With partial fraction expansion we have:
...
...
...
...
...
) ( ) (
2 2 2 2
0
+ + +
+
+
=
+
⋅ =
ω ω
ω
s
B As
s G
s
x s Y
In this expression all the terms with “...” belong to the transient response which tend
towards 0 for large values of t. This is only the case if the system under considera
tion is stable. For the steady state response it is only necessary to determine the
values A and B.
Prof. Dr.Ing. F. Keller Conversion Course / Control Systems cc laplace frequ response.doc
Karlsruhe University of TechnologyLaplaceTransform and Frequency Response page 4 / 5
Multiplying both sides by
2 2
ω + s we have:
( )
2 2
0
...
...
...
...
...
) ( ω ω +
+ + + + = ⋅ ⋅ s B As s G x
With s=jω and s=jω we have:
B Aj B Aj j G x
B Aj B Aj j G x
+ − =
+ + + + − = − ⋅ ⋅
+ =
+ + + + = ⋅ ⋅
ω ω ω ω
ω ω ω ω
0 ...
...
...
...
...
) (
0 ...
...
...
...
...
) (
0
0
These are two equations for the two unknowns A and B. It can be easily seen that:
{ }
{ } ) ( Im
) ( Re
0
0
ω
ω ω
j G x A
j G x B
⋅ =
⋅ ⋅ =
So we have:
{ } { }
.....
) ( Re ) ( Im
) (
2 2
0
2 2
0
+
+
⋅
⋅ +
+
⋅
⋅ =
ω
ω ω
ω
ω
s
j G
x
s
s j G
x s Y
With the inverse Laplacetransform we obtain:
{ } ( ) { } ( ) [ ]
{ }
{ }
....
) ( Re
) ( Im
arctan sin ) ( ) (
.... sin ) ( Re cos ) ( Im ) (
0
0
+
+ ⋅ =
= + ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ =
ω
ω
ω ω
ω ω ω ω
j G
j G
t j G x t y
t j G t j G x t y
This shows that for a stable LTIsystem gain V and phase shift ϕ are given by:
) ( ω j G V =
and:
{ }
{ }
) (
) ( Re
) ( Im
arctan ω
ω
ω
ϕ j G
j G
j G
∠ = =
Prof. Dr.Ing. F. Keller Conversion Course / Control Systems cc laplace frequ response.doc
Karlsruhe University of TechnologyLaplaceTransform and Frequency Response page 5 / 5
For sinusoidal input x(t) a LTIsystem in steady state is characterized by a magnitude
response and a phase response. Both, magnitude and phase depend on frequency.
Frequency response is obtained as follows:
1. Replace s by j
.
ω in G(s) to obtain G(jω)
2. The magnitude is given by G(jω)
3. The phase is given by ∠G(jω)
Note that s may only be substituted by jω if the system is stable, otherwise a steady
state response does not exist.
Graphical representation of the frequency response is done
with Bode plots and Nyquist plots.
Prof. Dr.Ing. F. Keller Conversion Course / Control Systems cc bode nyquist plots.doc
Karlsruhe University of Technology Bode and Nyquist Plots page 1 / 2
Bode and Nyquist are a graphical representation of ) ( ω j G .
The Bode plot consists of two graphs: the magnitude and the phase
) ( ) ( ω ω j G and j G ∠
The horizontal axis in the Bode plots show the frequency in logarithmic scale.
The magnitude is expressed in decibel (dB):
) ( lg 20 ω j G a
dB
=
The phase is shown in linear scale.
The following figure shows the Bode diagram for a first order system with
s T with
Ts
s G 1
1
1
) ( =
+
=
1
Frequency (rad/sec)
P
h
a
s
e
(
d
e
g
)
;
M
a
g
n
i
t
u
d
e
(
d
B
)
Bode Diagrams
20
15
10
5
0
From: U(1)
10
1
10
0
10
1
100
80
60
40
20
0
T
o
:
Y
(
1
)
1
The plot is generated with MATLAB using the command „bode(tf([1],[1 1]),'k')“
Prof. Dr.Ing. F. Keller Conversion Course / Control Systems cc bode nyquist plots.doc
Karlsruhe University of Technology Bode and Nyquist Plots page 2 / 2
The Nyquist plot shows the real and imaginary parts of ) ( ω j G when ω is varied.
Usually ω is varied between 0 and ∞. The following figure is generated with MATLAB
using the “Nyquist”command
2
. MATLAB varies ω in the range ∞<ω<∞.The graph for
positive ω is shown in red color, negative values ω produce the black graph.
Real Axis
I
m
a
g
i
n
a
r
y
A
x
i
s
Nyquist Diagrams
1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
From: U(1)
2
The plot is generated with MATLAB using the command „nyquist(tf([1],[1 1]))“
Prof. Dr.Ing. F. Keller Conversion Course / Control Systems cc first order systems.doc
Karlsruhe University of Technology First Order Systems page 1 / 1
A first order (lowpass) system is defined by G s
K
T s
( ) =
+ ⋅ 1
.
The following figures show the step response, Nyquist plot, and Bode plot (for K=1).
ω
0
=1/T denotes the break frequency (in rad/s).
0 1 2 3 4 5
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
t/T
h
63% of the final value
at t=T
initial slope = 1/T
step response
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
1
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
Re G
Im G
half circle
phase angle 45
0
;
break frequency
Nyquist plot
10
2
10
0
10
2
10
3
10
2
10
1
10
0
ω/ω0
G
3 dB for the break
frequency
slope: 20 dB/decade
Bode plot (magnitude)
10
2
10
0
10
2
80
60
40
20
0
ω/ω0
ϕ /
o
45
o
for the break
frequency
Bode plot (phase)
Prof. Dr.Ing. F. Keller Conversion Course / Control Systems cc second order systems.doc
Karlsruhe University of Technology Second Order Systems page 1 / 1
A second order (lowpass) system is defined by G s
K
dTs T s
( ) =
+ + 1 2
2 2
.
The following figures show the step response, Nyquist plot, and Bode plot (for K=1).
ω
0
= 1/T denotes the break frequency (in rad/s).
0 5 10 15
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
t/T
d=1.5
d=1.3
d=1.1
d=0.9
d=0.7
d=0.5
d=0.3
d=0.1
step response
3 2 1 0 1 2 3
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Re G
Im G
d=0.1
d=0.3
d=0.5
d=0.7
d=0.9
Nyquist plot
10
2
10
1
10
0
10
1
10
2
10
4
10
3
10
2
10
1
10
0
10
1
ω/ω0
G
d=0.1
d=0.3
d=0.5
d=0.7
d=0.9
d=1.1
d=1.3
d=1.5
slope: 40dB/decade
Bode plot (magnitude)
10
2
10
1
10
0
10
1
10
2
200
150
100
50
0
ω/ω0
ϕ /
o
d=0.1
d=0.3
d=0.5
d=0.7
d=0.9
d=1.1
d=1.3
d=1.5
Bode plot (phase)
Prof. Dr.Ing. F. Keller Conversion Course / Control Systems cc other basic systems.doc
Karlsruhe University of Technology Other Basic Systems page 1 / 1
The last sections treated lowpass filters of first and second order.
Other basic systems are integrators, differentiators, highpassfilters, delayelements.
Integrator:
Transfer function:
s T
s G
i
⋅
=
1
) (
Step response, Bodediagrams and the Nyquistplot are obtained by running
the MATLAB mfile “ISTEPS.M”.
Differentiator:
Transfer function: s T s G
d
⋅ = ) (
Step response, Bodediagrams and the Nyquistplot are obtained by running
the MATLAB mfile “DSTEPS.M”.
First order highpassfilter:
Transfer function:
Ts
Ts
s G
+
=
1
) (
Step response, Bodediagrams and the Nyquistplot are obtained by running
the MATLAB mfile “DT1STEPS.M”.
Delay element:
Transfer function:
s T
d
e s G
⋅ −
= ) (
Step response, Bodediagrams and the Nyquistplot are obtained by running
the MATLAB mfile “DELAYSTEPS.M”.
Another useful MATLABcommand is “LTIVIEW”.
Prof. Dr.Ing. F. Keller Conversion Course / Control Systems cc closed loop control.doc
Karlsruhe University of Technology Closed Loop Control page 1 / 1
c
G
1
(s)

G
2
(s)
r
controller process
The transfer function of a closed loop is easily obtained.
[ ]
) ( ) ( 1
) ( ) (
) (
) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
2 1
2 1
_
2 1
s G s G
s G s G
s R
s C
G
s C s R s G s G s C
loop closed
⋅ +
⋅
= = ⇒
− ⋅ ⋅ =
Accuracy
Accuracy of the control loop can easily be tested by letting s=0 in the transfer func
tion. If G
closed_loop
(s=0)=1, the control loop is steady state accurate.
Stability
A system is stable if all poles are located in the left half of the complex plane.
There exist several criterions (Routh, Hurwitz, ...) to check whether a system is sta
ble (not needed in this lecture)
Nyquist Criterion (simplified form)
A system is stable if the point (1+0
.
i) of the complex plane is always on the left side
of the open loop’s Nyquist curve when ω is varied from 0 to ∞.
The application of this simplified form requires that the openloop system is stable.
However 2 poles are allowed at s=0.
Prof. Dr.Ing. F. Keller Conversion Course / Control Systems cc tuning rules.doc
Karlsruhe University of Technology Tuning Rules page 1 / 1
In the literature various recipes for adjusting the control parameters are described. some
of them are listed here:
• • Compensation of Poles
• • Adjustment of the Phase Margin
recommended value: approx. 60
o
• • Tuning Rule according to ZieglerNichols
This rule was developed for processes with a transport delay in series with a first order
element. But often the rule is also applied to other types of processes.
Start with Pcontrol. Increase the amplification to K
critical
, where the control loop is mar
ginally stable. Measure the period T
critical
of the oscillation. Adjust the parameters ac
cording to the following table:
Controller K T
I
T
D
PController 0.5
.
K
critical
 
PIController 0.45
.
K
critical
0.83
.
T
critical

PIDController 0.6
.
K
critical
0.50
.
T
critical
0.125
.
T
critical
Prof. Dr.Ing. F. Keller Conversion Course / Control Systems cc exercise a.doc
Karlsruhe University of Technology Exercise A page 1 / 1
The following questions refer to the “Examples of Analog Control Systems” which
have been already discussed in this course.
• Complete the following table
Example Controlled vari
able
Dimension
of con
trolled
variable
Disturbances
(name two effects)
Manipulated
variable
Dimension of
manipulated
variable
Temperature
control
Speed control
Position
control
Liquid Level
control
Suspended
ball
• Give an example for an openloop control system
Prof. Dr.Ing. F. Keller Conversion Course / Control Systems cc exercise b.doc
Karlsruhe University of Technology Exercise B page 1 / 2
• Show the differentiation rule for the Laplace transform
• Apply the differentiation rule for the Laplace transform and fill in the following
table:
) sin( ) ( t t f ω = ) cos( ) ( t t f ω =
{ } ) (t f L
dt
t df ) (
{ } ) (t f L s ⋅
dt
t df
L
) (
• Given the following function:
D
D
T t for
T t for
t f
≥
<
=
1
0
) (
Obtain the Laplacetransform of f(t) starting from the definition of the Laplace
transform and evaluating the integral.
• The Laplace transform is a “linear” transformation. Show two equations which are
consequences of this “linearity”.
Prof. Dr.Ing. F. Keller Conversion Course / Control Systems cc exercise b.doc
Karlsruhe University of Technology Exercise B page 2 / 2
• Obtain the inverse Laplacetransform of
2 3
) (
2
2 3
+ −
− −
=
s s
s s s
s F with the help of the
partialfraction expansion.
Prof. Dr.Ing. F. Keller Conversion Course / Control Systems cc exercise c.doc
Karlsruhe University of Technology Exercise C page 1 / 4
• Find the solution x(t) of the differential equation:
b x a x x x = = = + + ) 0 ( , ) 0 ( , 0 6 5 ! ! ! !
• Find ) ( ) 0 ( ∞ → = t f and t f for
2
1
) (
+
=
s
s F
• Find ) ( ) 0 ( ∞ → = t f and t f for
2
1
) (
−
=
s
s F
Prof. Dr.Ing. F. Keller Conversion Course / Control Systems cc exercise c.doc
Karlsruhe University of Technology Exercise C page 2 / 4
• Draw the Bodediagram and the Nyquistplot of
Ts
s G
1
) ( =
P
h
a
s
e
(
d
e
g
)
;
M
a
g
n
i
t
u
d
e
(
d
B
)
Bode Diagrams
40
30
20
10
0
10
20
10
2
10
1
10
0
10
1
10
2
180
135
90
45
0
45
90
I
m
a
g
i
n
a
r
y
A
x
i
s
Nyquist Diagrams
Real Axis
1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Prof. Dr.Ing. F. Keller Conversion Course / Control Systems cc exercise c.doc
Karlsruhe University of Technology Exercise C page 3 / 4
• Draw the Bodediagram and the Nyquistplot of
Ts
Ts
s G
+
=
1
) (
P
h
a
s
e
(
d
e
g
)
;
M
a
g
n
i
t
u
d
e
(
d
B
)
Bode Diagrams
40
30
20
10
0
10
20
10
2
10
1
10
0
10
1
10
2
180
135
90
45
0
45
90
I
m
a
g
i
n
a
r
y
A
x
i
s
Nyquist Diagrams
Real Axis
1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Prof. Dr.Ing. F. Keller Conversion Course / Control Systems cc exercise c.doc
Karlsruhe University of Technology Exercise C page 4 / 4
• Draw the Bodediagram and the Nyquistplot of
Ts
Ts
Ts
s G
+
⋅
+
=
1 1
1
) (
P
h
a
s
e
(
d
e
g
)
;
M
a
g
n
i
t
u
d
e
(
d
B
)
Bode Diagrams
40
30
20
10
0
10
20
10
2
10
1
10
0
10
1
10
2
180
135
90
45
0
45
90
I
m
a
g
i
n
a
r
y
A
x
i
s
Nyquist Diagrams
Real Axis
1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Prof. Dr.Ing. F. Keller Conversion Course / Control Systems cc exercise c.doc
Karlsruhe University of Technology Exercise C page 1 / 4
• Find the solution x(t) of the differential equation:
b x a x x x = = = + + ) 0 ( , ) 0 ( , 0 6 5 ! ! ! !
• Find ) ( ) 0 ( ∞ → = t f and t f for
2
1
) (
+
=
s
s F
• Find ) ( ) 0 ( ∞ → = t f and t f for
2
1
) (
−
=
s
s F
Prof. Dr.Ing. F. Keller Conversion Course / Control Systems cc exercise c.doc
Karlsruhe University of Technology Exercise C page 2 / 4
• Draw the Bodediagram and the Nyquistplot of
Ts
s G
1
) ( =
P
h
a
s
e
(
d
e
g
)
;
M
a
g
n
i
t
u
d
e
(
d
B
)
Bode Diagrams
40
30
20
10
0
10
20
10
2
10
1
10
0
10
1
10
2
180
135
90
45
0
45
90
I
m
a
g
i
n
a
r
y
A
x
i
s
Nyquist Diagrams
Real Axis
1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Prof. Dr.Ing. F. Keller Conversion Course / Control Systems cc exercise c.doc
Karlsruhe University of Technology Exercise C page 3 / 4
• Draw the Bodediagram and the Nyquistplot of
Ts
Ts
s G
+
=
1
) (
P
h
a
s
e
(
d
e
g
)
;
M
a
g
n
i
t
u
d
e
(
d
B
)
Bode Diagrams
40
30
20
10
0
10
20
10
2
10
1
10
0
10
1
10
2
180
135
90
45
0
45
90
I
m
a
g
i
n
a
r
y
A
x
i
s
Nyquist Diagrams
Real Axis
1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Prof. Dr.Ing. F. Keller Conversion Course / Control Systems cc exercise c.doc
Karlsruhe University of Technology Exercise C page 4 / 4
• Draw the Bodediagram and the Nyquistplot of
Ts
Ts
Ts
s G
+
⋅
+
=
1 1
1
) (
P
h
a
s
e
(
d
e
g
)
;
M
a
g
n
i
t
u
d
e
(
d
B
)
Bode Diagrams
40
30
20
10
0
10
20
10
2
10
1
10
0
10
1
10
2
180
135
90
45
0
45
90
I
m
a
g
i
n
a
r
y
A
x
i
s
Nyquist Diagrams
Real Axis
1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Prof. Dr.Ing. F. Keller Conversion Course / Control Systems cc exercise d.doc
Karlsruhe University of Technology Exercise D page 1 / 4
Given a process with
s T
G
i
process
⋅
=
1
. A Pcontroller with amplification V is used.
• Obtain the transfer function of the closed loop.
• The reference input is ) ( 5 ) ( t t r σ ⋅ = . Find the function c(t) (controlled variable).
• Is the loop steady state accurate ?
• For which value t has the controlled variable reached 90% of the reference
input ?
• For which value t has the controlled variable reached 99% of the reference
input ?
Prof. Dr.Ing. F. Keller Conversion Course / Control Systems cc exercise d.doc
Karlsruhe University of Technology Exercise D page 2 / 4
Given a process with
s T
G
process
⋅ +
=
1
1
. A Pcontroller with amplification V is
used.
• Obtain the transfer function of the closed loop.
• The reference input is ) ( 5 ) ( t t r σ ⋅ = . Find the function c(t) (controlled variable).
• Is the loop steady state accurate ?
• For which value t has the controlled variable reached 90% of the reference
input ?
• For which value t has the controlled variable reached 99% of the reference
input ?
Prof. Dr.Ing. F. Keller Conversion Course / Control Systems cc exercise d.doc
Karlsruhe University of Technology Exercise D page 3 / 4
Given a process with
s T
G
process
⋅ +
=
1
1
. A PIcontroller is used with T T
i
= and
amplification V.
• Obtain the transfer function of the closed loop.
• The reference input is ) ( 5 ) ( t t r σ ⋅ = . Find the function c(t) (controlled variable).
• Is the loop steady state accurate ?
• For which value t has the controlled variable reached 90% of the reference
input ?
• For which value t has the controlled variable reached 99% of the reference
input ?
Prof. Dr.Ing. F. Keller Conversion Course / Control Systems cc exercise d.doc
Karlsruhe University of Technology Exercise D page 4 / 4
Given a process with
2 2
4 1
1
s T s T
G
process
⋅ + ⋅ +
= .
• Obtain a PIDcontroller which compensates the poles of the process. What is the
transfer function of the closed loop.
Given a process with
2 2
4 1
1
s T s T
G
process
⋅ + ⋅ +
= .
• Is it possible that the closed loop is unstable with a Pcontroller ? Why ?
• Is it possible that the closed loop is unstable with a PIcontroller ? Why ?
• Is it possible that the closed loop is unstable with a PIDcontroller ? Why ?
Prof. Dr.Ing. F. Keller Control Theory – Conversion Semester ccexercises.doc
Karlsruhe University of Applied Sciences Exercises page 1 / 1
Problem 1:
Given the differential equation: x K y T y ⋅ = + ! with K=5 and T=100ms and x(t)=σ(t).
a) What is the Laplacetransform of x(t) ?
b) What is the transfer function
) (
) (
) (
s X
s Y
s G = ?
c) What is the Laplacetransform of y(t) ?
d) Obtain y(t) by inverse Laplacetransform.
Problem 2:
Consider the series connection G of two systems G
1
and G
2
.
The transfer functions are:
s T
s T
s G and
s T
K
s G
⋅ +
⋅
=
⋅ +
=
2
2
1
1
1
1
) (
1
) (
with K=2, T
1
=1s and T
2
=2s.
a) What is the transfer function G(s) which describes the series connection ?
a) Draw the Bodeplots of G
1
(jω) and G
2
(jω).
c) Draw the Nyquistplots of G
1
(jω) and G
2
(jω).
d) Draw the Bodeplot and the Nyquistplot of G(jω).
e) The input signal of the system described by G(s) is x(t) = σ(t). Obtain the corre
sponding output signal y(t).
Problem 3:
Given a PIDcontroller with input e(t) and output u(t):
+ + =
∫
dt
de
T dt e
T
e K t u
D
t
i 0
1
) (
a) What is the transferfunction of the PIDcontroller
) (
) (
) (
s E
s U
s G = ?
b) Make a sketch of the step response of the controller for K=2, T
i
=1s and T
D
=3s.
c) Draw the Bodediagram of the controller for K=2, T
i
=1s and T
D
=3s.
Prof. Dr.Ing. F. Keller Karlsruhe University of Applied Sciences
Control Theory (Conversion) Contents
cc contents.doc
page 1 / 1
1 Examples of Control Systems 2 Mathematical Description of Dynamic Systems 3 Differential Equations 4 LaplaceTransform 5 FrequencyResponse Analysis 6 Analysis of ControlSystems 7 Stability 8 TuningRules For ControlParameters
Prof. Dr.Ing. F. Keller Karlsruhe University of Applied Sciences
Control Theory (Conversion) Literature
cc_lit_rec.doc
page 1 / 1
1) Nise, Norman S. “Control systems engineering”, John Wiley, 2000.
2) Ogata, Katsuhiko “Modern Control Engineering”, Prentice Hall
The books are rather theoretical and they cover much more aspects than the lecture. In 2) it is sufficient to read: chapter 1 chapter 21, 23, 24 (only the first part up to page 31), 27 chapter 31, 32, 33 chapter 41, 42, 43 (without details) chapter 51, 52, 53, 54 We also introduce the Nyquist stability criterion (the description in 87 is theoretical and complicated; we only need the “simple” version as described in the lecture)
It is also recommended to visit the Internetpage: 3) http://www.engin.umich.edu/group/ctm/ which provides a “Control Systems Tutorial” You can also access this tutorial offline by clicking on “index.html” on the subdirectory “tutorial” in my public directory. This tutorial also covers much more aspects than the lecture.
Prof. Dr.Ing. F. Keller
Karlsruhe University of Technology
Conversion Course / Control Systems
Examples of Analog Control Systems
cc control systems examples.doc
page 1 / 1
control knob
controller nr nc nc u motor speed sensor inertia
heater
temperature sensor
Temperature Control
Speed Control
controller xr xc position sensor
u
motor xc spindle
Position Control
coil
controller hr u pump hc
iron ball solar cell
level sensor hc
lamp
qin
Liquid Level Control
Position Control (suspended ball)
input signal.doc page 1 / 1 nr x Ks u(nr)  nc controller motor x Ks Speed Control System nr x Ks  nc controller motor Equivalent System r  e controller y process c General structure of a Control Loop r: e: y: c: request signal. plant output . reference input error signal controller output controlled variable. F.Prof.Ing. Dr. Keller Karlsruhe University of Technology Conversion Course / Control Systems Structure of a Control System cc control loop.
Disturbance: A disturbance influences the process and tends to affect the value of the controlled variable. Open loop control: In an openloop control system the output is not measured and thus not compared with the input signal. Process: Any operation to be controlled is called a process. The effect of disturbances cannot be compensated. Manipulated variable: The manipulated variable is the output of the controller and the input of the process. F. Dr. . Keller Karlsruhe University of Technology Conversion Course / Control Systems Definitions cc definitions. It is measured by a sensor element and controlled.Ing. It may be a constant value or may be a timedependent signal. Any deviation leads to a controller output which reduces the difference between the desired value and the controlled variable.doc page 1 / 1 Controlled variable: The controlled variable is the output of the process. The goal is to affect the value of the controlled variable to minimize the deviation of the controlled variable from the desired value. Reference input: The reference input is the desired value for the controlled variable. Feedback control or closed loop control: A system where the controlled variable is measured and compared with the desired value.Prof.
8 1.6 0.5 2 t/s 2.6 hc [m] q e 0 0.doc page 1 / 1 hr ∆h  controller qin process hc LiquidLevelControlSystem simout To Workspace 2 Step Gain 1 s Integrator Scope Simplified SIMULINKModel 2 1.2 hr [m] 1 0.Ing.8 1.5 3 3. F.4 0.4 0.5 2 t/s 2. steady state accurate . Dr.5 4 0.2 1 0.4 1.Prof. Keller Karlsruhe University of Technology Conversion Course / Control Systems Liquid Level / PControl cc liquid level pcontrol.2 0 0 0.stable .8 0.5 4 Simulation Result Observations: .5 1 1.6 1.5 3 3.2 0 0.5 1 1.no overshoot .no static error.
overshoot Questions: .5 2 2.5 2 2. Keller Karlsruhe University of Technology Conversion Course / Control Systems Speed Control System cc motor speed picontrol.Ing.5 4 4.5 4 4. F.5 2 u 1 nr 1.5 t/s 3 3.5 5 Simulation Result Observations: .5 0 0.Prof.5 1 1.doc page 1 / 1 nr  ne controller u nc motor SpeedControlSystem 2.5 1.5 1 nc ne 0.5 0. Dr.stable .5 1 1.no static error. steady state accurate .5 t/s 3 3.5 5 0 0 0.What type of controller is used ? .5 0 0.How would the signals look like if a Pcontroller is used ? .
F.Prof.5 1 0 5 10 15 t 20 25 30 Step Response of an Instable System Stability.c 0.c 1.5 1 0. Keller Karlsruhe University of Technology Conversion Course / Control Systems Goals in Control System Design cc goals in control loop design.5 overshoot accuracy 1 r. Accuracy 4 3. Dr.doc page 1 / 1 1. Accuracy. Dynamics. Overshoot. Overshoot .5 2 r.Ing.5 3 2.5 0 0.5 dynamics 0 0 5 10 15 t 20 25 30 Dynamics.
lagcompensators .leadcompensators . F.Ing.leadlagcompensators . Dr.doc page 1 / 1 The equation of a controller with proportionalplusintegralplusderivative control action is: 1 ! y = K P e + ∫ edt + Td e Ti An electronic circuit or PIDcontrolaction is shown in the next figure: R1 R1 R1 Ci Ri R1 ue Rd Cd R1 Rp ua PIDController with OPAMPs Example of other controllers are (not treated in this lecture): . Keller Karlsruhe University of Technology Conversion Course / Control Systems PIDControllers cc pid controller.state controllers .Prof.
Ing. F.Prof.doc page 1 / 1 σ(t) 1 UNIT STEP 1 r(t) UNIT RAMP 0 t 0 1 t δ(t) 1 approximation for δ(t) DIRAC PULSE 1/ε 0 t 0 ε t Basic functions input signal system output signal Functional Block summing point x G1(s) branch point G2(s) y Block Diagram . Dr. Keller Karlsruhe University of Technology Conversion Course / Control Systems Signals and Block Diagrams cc signals and block diagrams.
Dr.+ a1 + a 0 y ( t ) = bm + bm−1 +.. inital conditions Obtain: y(t) → solution of the differentail equation 2) Given: x(t)=s(t). inital conditions = 0 Obtain: y(t)= h(t) → step response 3) Given: x(t ) = x0 ⋅ sin(ωt ) → frequency response 4) Given: x(t) and y(t) → system identification 5) Check the stability of the system → stability test Obtain: y(t) for steady state Obtain: coefficients ai and bi Standard Problems . Keller Karlsruhe University of Technology Conversion Course / Control Systems Differential Equations cc differential equations.Ing... timeinvariant system an d n−1 y ( t ) dy ( t ) d m x( t ) d m−1x ( t ) d n y( t ) + a n−1 +.doc page 1 / 1 input signal x(t) LTIsystem output signal y(t) Linear. F.+ b0 x ( t ) dt n dt n−1 dt dt m dt m−1 for technical systems: n ≥ m Differential Equation 1) Given: x(t).Prof..
Prof. Keller Karlsruhe University of Technology Conversion Course / Control Systems LaplaceTransform cc laplace transform. Dr. 2 = T d ± d 2 − 1 T1 − T2 T1 − T2 t t ( ) .doc page 1 / 2 LaplaceTransform Definition of the LaplaceTransform: L { f (t )} = F ( s) = ∫ f (t )e − s⋅t dt ∞ 0 Some rules: L { f (t ) + g (t )} = L { f (t )} + L {g(t )} L {a ⋅ f (t )} = a ⋅ L { f (t )} df ( t ) L = s ⋅ L { f (t )} − f (t = 0) dt t 1 L ∫ f (τ )dτ = ⋅ L { f (t )} 0 s Small Laplace Transform Table: σ (t ) e − a ⋅t 1 s 1 +a s t 1 ⋅ 1 − e − at a sin(at ) cos(at ) 1− d 2 t − ϕ sin d 1− d 2 e d − t T ( ) 1 s2 1 s ⋅ (s + a) a s + a2 s 2 s + a2 2 1+ für d<1: 1− d 2 und 90°< ϕ < 180° mit ϕ = arctan − d t − 1 − 1 + e T T t 1 (T ⋅ s + 2 ⋅ d ⋅ T ⋅ s + 1) ⋅ s 2 2 für d=1: für d>1: 1− − T2 T1 T2 e T1 + e − mit T1.Ing. F.
. With the partialfraction expansion method an expression B(s)/A(s) is expressed as follows: B( s) r (1) r ( 2) r ( n) = + + .p..[1 3 2]) r= 1 2 p= The MATLAB response is shown in the box on the right. Inverse Laplacetransform also uses tables and computer programs.Prof. For the above example it is used as follows: [r.Ing. Keller Karlsruhe University of Technology Conversion Course / Control Systems LaplaceTransform cc laplace transform. 2 1 k= [] . F. + + k (s) A( s) s − p (1) s − p (2) s − p ( n) Example: −1 s+3 2 = + (s + 1)(s + 2) s + 1 s + 2 MATLAB provides the function residue.k]=residue([1 3]. Dr. Sometimes the partialfraction expansion method can be used to split a complicated expression in a sum of simpler expressions.doc page 2 / 2 Some other rules: L {f (t − TD )} = e −TD ⋅s L { f (t )} L e −at ⋅ f (t ) = F ( s + a ) f (t → ∞) = lim sF ( s ) s →0 { } (if f(t → ∞) exists) (if there are no impulses or their derivatives at t = 0) f (0+) = lim sF ( s) s →∞ In practice Laplacetransform is performed using a table and the Laplacetheorems or a computer program like MAPLE or MATLAB with the symbolic toolbox.
..+ b0 x ( t ) dt n dt n−1 dt dt m dt m−1 LaplaceTransformation gives: a n s nY ( s) + a n−1s n−1Y ( s) +. Keller Karlsruhe University of Technology Conversion Course / Control Systems Transient Response cc transient response.Prof. Find the Laplacetransform of x(t) 3.. F. To obtain the output y(t) with given input x(t) and initial conditions (here considered to be 0) the following recipe can be used: 1. Dr..+ a1 + a 0 y ( t ) = bm + bm−1 +.. Obtain G(s) 2..Ing..b0 X ( s) ⇒ (a n s n + a n−1s n−1 +...doc page 1 / 1 Consider a LTIsystem which is characterized by the following differential equation: an d n−1 y ( t ) dy ( t ) d m x( t ) d m−1x ( t ) d n y( t ) + a n−1 +.+a 0Y ( s) = bm s m X ( s) + bm−1s m−1 X ( s) +.+b0 = G( s) = X ( s) a n s n + a n−1 s n−1 +.+ a 0 G(s) is the transferfunction........ Find the inverse Laplacetransform of Y(s) .+ a 0 )Y ( s) = (bm s m + bm−1s m−1 +.+b0 ) X ( s) ⇒ Y ( s) bm s m + bm−1 s m−1 +. Obtain Y(s)=G(s)X(s) 4.
x0ω = − Ajω + B 1 + Tjω 1 − Tjω 1 1 1 − Tjω + 1 + Tjω 2 + x0ω = 2 B = x0ω = x 0ω (1 + Tjω )(1 − Tjω ) (1 + Tjω )(1 − Tjω ) 1 + Tjω 1 − Tjω x0ω B= 1 + T 2ω 2 x 0ω x 0ω ⇒ x 0ω 1 1 = Ajω + B. x0ω = − Ajω + B s 2 + ω 2 ⇒ x 0ω 1 + Ts 1 + Ts 1 + Tjω 1 − Tjω ( ) x0ω ⇒ 1 1 = Ajω + B.C from the above calculations we can write Y(s) as: ω ωT s 1 1 − Tω ⋅ 2 + ⋅ 2 + ⋅ Y ( s ) = x0 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1+ T ω s +ω 1 + T ω 1/ T + s 1+ T ω s + ω .Ing.B. Dr.Prof. with y (t = 0) = 0 .B. F. Y ( s ) = x0 1 Y ( s) . The following example explains these terms. x0ω = − Ajω + B 1 + Tjω 1 − Tjω 1 1 − 2Tjω 1 − Tjω − 1 − Tjω − x 0ω = 2 Ajω = x0ω = x0ω 1 + Tjω 1 − Tjω (1 + Tjω )(1 − Tjω ) (1 + Tjω )(1 − Tjω ) −T A= 1 + T 2ω 2 With the coefficients A. Keller Karlsruhe University of TechnologyLaplaceTransform Conversion Course / Control Systems and Frequency Response cc laplace frequ response.doc page 1 / 5 The solution of a differential equation is a superposition of the forced solution and the transient solution.C are determined as follows: x0 ω ω As + B (1 + Ts ) + C ⇒ x0 =C = 2 2 2 2 s +ω s +ω 1 2 +ω T 2 x0ω 1 1 C 1 = As + B + = Ajω + B. = X ( s ) 1 + Ts 1 ω ⋅ 2 1 + Ts s +ω 2 written with partial fractions Y ( s ) = x0 ω 1 As + B C ⋅ = + 2 1 + Ts s 2 + ω 2 1 + Ts s +ω 2 The coefficients A. Consider a system with a transfer function: G ( s ) = The input signal is x(t ) = x0 sin (ωt ) .
8 1 0 0. Dr.doc page 2 / 5 Inverse Laplacetransform gives: t − Tω − 1 ωT ⋅ cos(ωt ) + ⋅ sin(ωt ) + ⋅e T y (t ) = x0 1 + T 2ω 2 1 + T 2ω 2 1 + T 2ω 2 t − V ⋅ sin[ωt − arctan(ωT )] + ωT ⋅ e T y (t ) = x0 1 + T 2ω 2 with V= (1 + T ω ) 2 1 + T 2ω 2 2 2 = 1 1 + T 2ω 2 y(t) has two parts: the steady state solution ysteady(t) and the transient solution ytransient(t) y steady (t ) = x0 ⋅ V ⋅ sin[ωt − arctan(ωT )] − ωT ytransient (t ) = x0 ⋅e T 2 2 1+ T ω t The following figure shows x(t) and y(t) for ω = 1 0.5 3 ysteady and ytransient are depicted in the next figure: .6 0. F. Keller Karlsruhe University of TechnologyLaplaceTransform Conversion Course / Control Systems and Frequency Response cc laplace frequ response.5 1 1.Prof.8 0.Ing.4 0.2 0.6 0.5 t/T 1 : T 2 2.4 0.2 0 0.
6 0..doc page 3 / 5 1 0.. . In this expression all the terms with “.Prof...2 0 0.4 0...5 t/T 2 2.. Dr. This is shown in the following. The output signal y(t) has the Laplacetransform: Y ( s ) = x0 ⋅ ω ⋅ G(s) s +ω2 2 With partial fraction expansion we have: Y ( s ) = x0 ⋅ 2 As + B .. F.5 1 1. 2 s +ω s + ω 2 .8 1 0 0. ω G (s) = 2 + + + . Keller Karlsruhe University of TechnologyLaplaceTransform Conversion Course / Control Systems and Frequency Response cc laplace frequ response.. .8 0.” belong to the transient response which tend towards 0 for large values of t.2 0.5 3 x ysteady ytransient For this example it can be seen that the amplification factor V is given by: V = G ( jω ) and the phase shift is: ϕ = arctan Im{G ( jω )} = ∠G ( jω ) Re{G ( jω )} These two relations are valid for all LTIsystems. For the steady state response it is only necessary to determine the values A and B... We consider a system with input signal x(t ) = x0 ⋅ sin (ωt ) and transfer function G(s).6 0. This is only the case if the system under consideration is stable.Ing. .4 0..
. ( ) With s=jω and s=jω we have: ..0 = Ajω + B . ... . s 2 + ω 2 . Keller Karlsruhe University of TechnologyLaplaceTransform Conversion Course / Control Systems and Frequency Response cc laplace frequ response.0 = − Ajω + B ..... = This shows that for a stable LTIsystem gain V and phase shift ϕ are given by: V = G ( jω ) and: ϕ = arctan Im{G ( jω )} = ∠G ( jω ) Re{G ( jω )} . .. These are two equations for the two unknowns A and B......doc page 4 / 5 Multiplying both sides by s 2 + ω 2 we have: ... 2 2 s +ω s2 + ω 2 With the inverse Laplacetransform we obtain: Im{G ( jω )} + . x0 ⋅ ω ⋅ G (− jω ) = − Ajω + B + + + .. . y (t ) = x0 ⋅ G ( jω ) sin ωt + arctan Re{ ( jω )} G y (t ) = x0 ⋅ [Im{G ( jω )}⋅ cos(ωt ) + Re{G ( jω )}⋅ sin (ωt )] + .Prof. x0 ⋅ ω ⋅ G ( jω ) = Ajω + B + + + ... It can be easily seen that: B = x0 ⋅ ω ⋅ Re{G ( jω )} A = x0 ⋅ Im{G ( jω )} So we have: Y ( s ) = x0 ⋅ Im{G ( jω )}⋅ s Re{G ( jω )}⋅ ω + x0 ⋅ + ....... F. .... ...... Dr..Ing...... .. x0 ⋅ ω ⋅ G ( s) = As + B + + + .
Prof. . Replace s by j. F. Keller Karlsruhe University of TechnologyLaplaceTransform Conversion Course / Control Systems and Frequency Response cc laplace frequ response. Graphical representation of the frequency response is done with Bode plots and Nyquist plots. magnitude and phase depend on frequency. otherwise a steady state response does not exist.doc page 5 / 5 For sinusoidal input x(t) a LTIsystem in steady state is characterized by a magnitude response and a phase response.ω in G(s) to obtain G(jω) 2. The magnitude is given by G(jω) 3. Both. The phase is given by ∠G(jω) Note that s may only be substituted by jω if the system is stable. Frequency response is obtained as follows: 1. Dr.Ing.
[1 1]). The following figure shows the Bode diagram for a first order system with G (s) = 1 1 with T = 1s 1 + Ts Bode Diagrams From: U(1) 0 5 Phase (deg). The Bode plot consists of two graphs: the magnitude and the phase G ( jω ) and ∠G ( jω ) The horizontal axis in the Bode plots show the frequency in logarithmic scale. Keller Karlsruhe University of Technology Conversion Course / Control Systems Bode and Nyquist Plots cc bode nyquist plots.Ing. Magnitude (dB) 10 15 20 0 20 To: Y(1) 40 60 80 100 101 100 101 Frequency (rad/sec) 1 The plot is generated with MATLAB using the command „bode(tf([1].doc page 1 / 2 Bode and Nyquist are a graphical representation of G ( jω ) . F. The magnitude is expressed in decibel (dB): a dB = 20 lg G ( jω ) The phase is shown in linear scale. Dr.'k')“ .Prof.
Usually ω is varied between 0 and ∞.6 0.8 0.2 0. MATLAB varies ω in the range ∞<ω<∞.8 1 Real Axis 2 The plot is generated with MATLAB using the command „nyquist(tf([1].2 0. Nyquist Diagrams From: U(1) 0.4 0.2 0 0. Dr.6 0. F.4 0.Prof.2 0 0. The following figure is generated with MATLAB using the “Nyquist”command2.The graph for positive ω is shown in red color.[1 1]))“ .doc page 2 / 2 The Nyquist plot shows the real and imaginary parts of G ( jω ) when ω is varied. negative values ω produce the black graph.Ing.6 0.4 0.6 0.4 Imaginary Axis 0.8 0.8 1 0. Keller Karlsruhe University of Technology Conversion Course / Control Systems Bode and Nyquist Plots cc bode nyquist plots.
2 0. and Bode plot (for K=1). 1+ T ⋅ s The following figures show the step response.7 0. Nyquist plot.4 0.5 0. ω0=1/T denotes the break frequency (in rad/s). F.8 0.2 0.8 1 step response Nyquist plot G 10 0 ϕ /o 0 3 dB for the break frequency 20 10 1 40 45 for the break frequency o 10 2 slope: 20 dB/decade 60 80 10 3 10 2 10 ω/ω0 0 10 2 10 2 10 ω/ω0 0 10 2 Bode plot (magnitude) Bode plot (phase) .5 0.9 0.Prof.doc page 1 / 1 A first order (lowpass) system is defined by G( s ) = K . break frequency 0 0.4 0. Dr.3 0.Ing.1 0 0 1 2 t/T 3 4 5 63% of the final value at t=T initial slope = 1/T 0.9 1 0 phase angle 45 .3 0.1 half circle 1 0.6 Re G 0.2 0. Keller Karlsruhe University of Technology Conversion Course / Control Systems First Order Systems cc first order systems.4 0. Im G 0 0.6 h 0.7 0.6 0.8 0.
Prof.3 ϕ/ o 0 d=0. 1 + 2 dTs + T 2 s 2 The following figures show the step response. Im G 0 1.9 d=0.8 0.2 1 0. ω0 = 1/T denotes the break frequency (in rad/s).1 5 6 3 2 1 0 Re G 1 2 3 step response Nyquist plot 10 1 G d=0.6 0.9 1 d=0. Nyquist plot.1 d=1.6 1.5 d=0.4 1.9 d=1.1 d=0.7 50 d=1.1 4 d=0.doc page 1 / 1 A second order (lowpass) system is defined by G( s ) = K .5 d=1.1 d=0.1 d=0.Ing.5 d=0.9 3 d=1.8 1.5 d=0. and Bode plot (for K=1).3 d=1.3 d=0. F.1 d=1.3 10 1 d=0.4 0.5 10 0 d=0.7 d=0. Keller Karlsruhe University of Technology Conversion Course / Control Systems Second Order Systems cc second order systems.7 10 2 100 d=1.3 d=0.5 d=0.5 10 3 slope: 40dB/decade 150 10 4 10 2 10 1 10 ω/ω0 0 10 1 10 2 200 2 10 10 1 10 ω/ω0 0 10 1 10 2 Bode plot (magnitude) Bode plot (phase) .7 2 d=0.3 d=0.3 d=0.2 0 0 5 t/T 10 15 d=1. Dr.
Bodediagrams and the Nyquistplot are obtained by running the MATLAB mfile “DSTEPS. Delay element: Transfer function: G ( s ) = e −Td ⋅s Step response. Bodediagrams and the Nyquistplot are obtained by running the MATLAB mfile “ISTEPS. F. highpassfilters. delayelements. Dr.M”. Keller Karlsruhe University of Technology Conversion Course / Control Systems Other Basic Systems cc other basic systems. Other basic systems are integrators.Ing. Integrator: Transfer function: G ( s ) = 1 Ti ⋅ s Step response.M”. Differentiator: Transfer function: G ( s ) = Td ⋅ s Step response. differentiators. Bodediagrams and the Nyquistplot are obtained by running the MATLAB mfile “DELAYSTEPS. Another useful MATLABcommand is “LTIVIEW”.Prof. First order highpassfilter: Transfer function: G ( s ) = Ts 1 + Ts Step response.doc page 1 / 1 The last sections treated lowpass filters of first and second order. Bodediagrams and the Nyquistplot are obtained by running the MATLAB mfile “DT1STEPS. .M”.M”.
. Stability A system is stable if all poles are located in the left half of the complex plane. If Gclosed_loop(s=0)=1. However 2 poles are allowed at s=0. The application of this simplified form requires that the openloop system is stable.. Keller Karlsruhe University of Technology Conversion Course / Control Systems Closed Loop Control cc closed loop control.i) of the complex plane is always on the left side of the open loop’s Nyquist curve when ω is varied from 0 to ∞. . Dr. C ( s ) = G1 ( s ) ⋅ G2 ( s ) ⋅ [R( s ) − C ( s )] ⇒ Gclosed _ loop = G1 ( s ) ⋅ G2 ( s ) C (s) = R( s ) 1 + G1 ( s ) ⋅ G2 ( s ) Accuracy Accuracy of the control loop can easily be tested by letting s=0 in the transfer function. the control loop is steady state accurate.doc page 1 / 1 r  G1(s) controller G2(s) process c The transfer function of a closed loop is easily obtained.) to check whether a system is stable (not needed in this lecture) Nyquist Criterion (simplified form) A system is stable if the point (1+0.Prof. .Ing. Hurwitz. F. There exist several criterions (Routh.
Adjust the parameters according to the following table: Controller PController PIController PIDController K 0.Prof.Kcritical 0. Keller Karlsruhe University of Technology Conversion Course / Control Systems Tuning Rules cc tuning rules.5 . Start with Pcontrol.6 .Tcritical 0. Kcritical TI 0.Tcritical . F.83.doc page 1 / 1 In the literature various recipes for adjusting the control parameters are described.50. Dr. Measure the period Tcritical of the oscillation.Tcritical TD 0.125. 60o • Tuning Rule according to ZieglerNichols This rule was developed for processes with a transport delay in series with a first order element.45. But often the rule is also applied to other types of processes. some of them are listed here: • Compensation of Poles • Adjustment of the Phase Margin recommended value: approx. where the control loop is marginally stable. Increase the amplification to Kcritical . Kcritical 0.Ing.
Keller Karlsruhe University of Technology Conversion Course / Control Systems Exercise A cc exercise a. • Complete the following table Example Controlled variable Dimension Disturbances Manipulated of con(name two effects) variable trolled variable Dimension of manipulated variable Temperature control Speed control Position control Liquid Level control Suspended ball • Give an example for an openloop control system . F. Dr.Ing.doc page 1 / 1 The following questions refer to the “Examples of Analog Control Systems” which have been already discussed in this course.Prof.
Ing. F. Show two equations which are consequences of this “linearity”.Prof. Dr. Keller Karlsruhe University of Technology Conversion Course / Control Systems Exercise B cc exercise b.doc page 1 / 2 • Show the differentiation rule for the Laplace transform • Apply the differentiation rule for the Laplace transform and fill in the following table: f (t ) = sin(ωt ) f (t ) = cos(ωt ) L{f (t )} df (t ) dt s ⋅ L{f (t )} df (t ) L dt • Given the following function: f (t ) = 0 for t < TD 1 for t ≥ TD Obtain the Laplacetransform of f(t) starting from the definition of the Laplacetransform and evaluating the integral. . • The Laplace transform is a “linear” transformation.
Prof. s3 − s 2 − s with the help of the s 2 − 3s + 2 . F.Ing. Keller Karlsruhe University of Technology Conversion Course / Control Systems Exercise B cc exercise b.doc page 2 / 2 • Obtain the inverse Laplacetransform of F ( s ) = partialfraction expansion. Dr.
! x(0) = b • Find f (t = 0) and f (t → ∞) for F ( s ) = 1 s+2 • Find f (t = 0) and f (t → ∞) for F ( s ) = 1 s−2 . Dr. F.Prof. ! x x(0) = a. Keller Karlsruhe University of Technology Conversion Course / Control Systems Exercise C cc exercise c.Ing.doc page 1 / 4 • Find the solution x(t) of the differential equation: !! + 5 x + 6 = 0.
Ing.2 0.8 0.2 0 0.6 0.6 0.8 0.8 1 Real Axis .4 0.6 0.4 Imaginary Axis 0. F.2 0 0. Keller Karlsruhe University of Technology Conversion Course / Control Systems Exercise C cc exercise c.4 0. Magnitude (dB) 20 30 40 90 45 0 45 90 135 180 102 101 100 101 102 Nyquist Diagrams 1 0.Prof.4 0.8 1 1 0. Dr.doc page 2 / 4 • Draw the Bodediagram and the Nyquistplot of G ( s ) = 1 Ts Bode Diagrams 20 10 0 10 Phase (deg).2 0.6 0.
Ing.2 0 0.2 0.4 Imaginary Axis 0.4 0.2 0 0.8 1 Real Axis . Keller Karlsruhe University of Technology Conversion Course / Control Systems Exercise C cc exercise c.4 0.doc page 3 / 4 • Draw the Bodediagram and the Nyquistplot of G ( s ) = Ts 1 + Ts Bode Diagrams 20 10 0 10 Phase (deg).6 0.6 0. F. Magnitude (dB) 20 30 40 90 45 0 45 90 135 180 102 101 100 101 102 Nyquist Diagrams 1 0.2 0. Dr.6 0.8 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1 0.8 0.Prof.
Dr.doc page 4 / 4 • Draw the Bodediagram and the Nyquistplot of G ( s ) = 1 Ts ⋅ 1 + Ts 1 + Ts Bode Diagrams 20 10 0 10 Phase (deg).6 0.4 0.2 0. Keller Karlsruhe University of Technology Conversion Course / Control Systems Exercise C cc exercise c.8 0. F. Magnitude (dB) 20 30 40 90 45 0 45 90 135 180 102 101 100 101 102 Nyquist Diagrams 1 0.4 Imaginary Axis 0.2 0 0.8 1 Real Axis .2 0.8 1 1 0.Prof.8 0.6 0.6 0.4 0.Ing.6 0.2 0 0.4 0.
doc page 1 / 4 • Find the solution x(t) of the differential equation: !! + 5 x + 6 = 0. Dr. F. Keller Karlsruhe University of Technology Conversion Course / Control Systems Exercise C cc exercise c. ! x(0) = b • Find f (t = 0) and f (t → ∞) for F ( s ) = 1 s+2 • Find f (t = 0) and f (t → ∞) for F ( s ) = 1 s−2 . ! x x(0) = a.Prof.Ing.
4 0.8 1 1 0.4 0.4 0. F.8 1 Real Axis .6 0.2 0.4 Imaginary Axis 0. Dr.6 0.8 0.Prof. Magnitude (dB) 20 30 40 90 45 0 45 90 135 180 102 101 100 101 102 Nyquist Diagrams 1 0. Keller Karlsruhe University of Technology Conversion Course / Control Systems Exercise C cc exercise c.2 0 0.6 0.2 0.doc page 2 / 4 • Draw the Bodediagram and the Nyquistplot of G ( s ) = 1 Ts Bode Diagrams 20 10 0 10 Phase (deg).6 0.Ing.2 0 0.8 0.
Prof.4 0. Dr.6 0.6 0.Ing.8 1 Real Axis .8 1 1 0.2 0.8 0. Keller Karlsruhe University of Technology Conversion Course / Control Systems Exercise C cc exercise c.8 0. F.6 0.2 0 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0.2 0.doc page 3 / 4 • Draw the Bodediagram and the Nyquistplot of G ( s ) = Ts 1 + Ts Bode Diagrams 20 10 0 10 Phase (deg).4 0.4 Imaginary Axis 0. Magnitude (dB) 20 30 40 90 45 0 45 90 135 180 102 101 100 101 102 Nyquist Diagrams 1 0.
8 0.4 0.6 0.Ing.2 0.8 0.4 Imaginary Axis 0.2 0 0. Dr.6 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.6 0.2 0 0.8 1 1 0.Prof. Keller Karlsruhe University of Technology Conversion Course / Control Systems Exercise C cc exercise c.doc page 4 / 4 • Draw the Bodediagram and the Nyquistplot of G ( s ) = 1 Ts ⋅ 1 + Ts 1 + Ts Bode Diagrams 20 10 0 10 Phase (deg).4 0.8 1 Real Axis . F. Magnitude (dB) 20 30 40 90 45 0 45 90 135 180 102 101 100 101 102 Nyquist Diagrams 1 0.
The reference input is r (t ) = 5 ⋅ σ (t ) . Find the function c(t) (controlled variable). F. A Pcontroller with amplification V is used.Ing. Keller Karlsruhe University of Technology Conversion Course / Control Systems Exercise D cc exercise d. Dr. Ti ⋅ s • • • • • Obtain the transfer function of the closed loop.doc page 1 / 4 Given a process with G process = 1 .Prof. Is the loop steady state accurate ? For which value t has the controlled variable reached 90% of the reference input ? For which value t has the controlled variable reached 99% of the reference input ? .
Is the loop steady state accurate ? For which value t has the controlled variable reached 90% of the reference input ? For which value t has the controlled variable reached 99% of the reference input ? . Keller Karlsruhe University of Technology Conversion Course / Control Systems Exercise D cc exercise d. F. The reference input is r (t ) = 5 ⋅ σ (t ) .Ing.Prof.doc page 2 / 4 Given a process with G process = used. Dr. Find the function c(t) (controlled variable). A Pcontroller with amplification V is 1+ T ⋅ s Obtain the transfer function of the closed loop. • • • • • 1 .
Dr. A PIcontroller is used with Ti = T and 1+ T ⋅ s Obtain the transfer function of the closed loop. Is the loop steady state accurate ? For which value t has the controlled variable reached 90% of the reference input ? For which value t has the controlled variable reached 99% of the reference input ? .Ing. • • • • • 1 .Prof. The reference input is r (t ) = 5 ⋅ σ (t ) . F. Keller Karlsruhe University of Technology Conversion Course / Control Systems Exercise D cc exercise d. Find the function c(t) (controlled variable).doc page 3 / 4 Given a process with G process = amplification V.
Ing. F. What is the transfer function of the closed loop. Dr. Given a process with G process = • 1 . Keller Karlsruhe University of Technology Conversion Course / Control Systems Exercise D cc exercise d.doc page 4 / 4 Given a process with G process = • 1 . 1 + 4T ⋅ s + T 2 ⋅ s 2 Obtain a PIDcontroller which compensates the poles of the process.Prof. 1 + 4T ⋅ s + T 2 ⋅ s 2 Is it possible that the closed loop is unstable with a Pcontroller ? Why ? • Is it possible that the closed loop is unstable with a PIcontroller ? Why ? • Is it possible that the closed loop is unstable with a PIDcontroller ? Why ? .
a) What is the Laplacetransform of x(t) ? Y ( s) b) What is the transfer function G ( s ) = ? X (s) c) What is the Laplacetransform of y(t) ? d) Obtain y(t) by inverse Laplacetransform. .doc page 1 / 1 Problem 1: ! Given the differential equation: y + Ty = K ⋅ x with K=5 and T=100ms and x(t)=σ(t).Prof. c) Draw the Nyquistplots of G1(jω) and G2(jω). T1=1s and T2=2s. a) What is the transfer function G(s) which describes the series connection ? a) Draw the Bodeplots of G1(jω) and G2(jω). Obtain the corresponding output signal y(t). Ti=1s and TD=3s.Ing. The transfer functions are: G1 ( s ) = T ⋅s K and G1 ( s ) = 2 1 + T1 ⋅ s 1 + T2 ⋅ s with K=2. Problem 3: Given a PIDcontroller with input e(t) and output u(t): t 1 de e + ∫ e dt + TD u (t ) = K dt Ti 0 U (s) ? E (s) b) Make a sketch of the step response of the controller for K=2. Problem 2: Consider the series connection G of two systems G1 and G2. Ti=1s and TD=3s. a) What is the transferfunction of the PIDcontroller G ( s ) = c) Draw the Bodediagram of the controller for K=2. Dr. d) Draw the Bodeplot and the Nyquistplot of G(jω). Keller Control Karlsruhe University of Applied Sciences Theory – Conversion Semester Exercises ccexercises. F. e) The input signal of the system described by G(s) is x(t) = σ(t).
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