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A. Translation Understanding 1. The Definition of Translation Translation is an activity comprising the interpretation of meaning of text in one language-the source text-and the production of a new, equivalent text in another language-the target text, also called translation. Traditionally, translation has always been a human activity, although attempts have made to automate and computers as an aid to translationcomputer- assisted translation. Took from wordiq.com : The goal of translation is to establish a relationship of equivalence between the source and the target text (that is to say, that both texts communicate the same message), while taking into account a number constraints. These constraints include context, the rules of grammar of the source language, its writing conventions, its idioms, and the like.1
http://www.wordiq.com/definition/Translation, download 11 January 2011
Translation is replacement of textual material in one language (SL) by equivalent textual material in another language (TL). Newmark, statement on his book, “Translation is rendering the meaning of a text into another language in the way that the author intended the text”2. Common sense tells us that this ought to be simple, as one ought to be able to say something as well in one language as in another. On the other hand, it can see it as complicated, artificial and fraudulent, since by using another language that pretending to be someone or not. Daniel Weissbort and Astradur Eysteinsson said, Translation has to attend to the language and cultural heritage of such works, for it has the function of extending that heritage, of lending it another kind of historical depth, of transforming it into a cross-cultural tradition.3 Common sense tells us that ought to be simple, as one ought to be able to say something as well in one language as in another. On the other hand, it can see it as complicated, artificial and fraudulent, since by using another language that pretending to be someone or not. Translation has been instrumental in transmitting culture, sometimes under unequal conditions responsible for distorted and biased translation, ever since countries and language have been in contact with each other.
Peter Newmark, A Text Book of Translation, (New York, Prentice Hall, 1988), p. Weissbort Daniel et al, Translation-Theory and Practice, A Historical Reader, (New York, Oxford University Press, 2006), p. 3
Petrus Danielus Hustius said, “A translation, in a text translated in this collection, is a text written in a well-know language which refers to and represents a text in a language which is not the entire relevant question at once.”4 As a technique for learning foreign language, translation is a two-edge instrument: it has the special purpose of demonstrating the learner’s knowledge of the foreign language, either as a form of control or to exercise his intelligence in order to develop his competence. This is its strong point in foreign-language classes, which has to be sharply distinguished from its normal use in transferring meaning and conveying message.
2. Translation Process
The translation process, whether it is for translation or interpreting can be stated simply as: 1) Decoding the meaning of the source text, and 2) Re-encoding this meaning in the target language To decode the meaning of a text the translation must first identify its component translation unit, that is to say the segment of the text (which may be a word, a phrase or one or more sentences), to be treated as a cognitive unit.
Levere Andre, Translation/History/Culture, (New York, Routledge, 1992), p. 1
Behind this seemingly simple procedure lies a complex cognitive operation. To decode the complete meaning of the source text, the translator must consciously and methodically interpret and analyze all its features. This process requires through knowledge of the grammar, semantic, syntax, idioms and like of the source of the language, as well as the culture. Brigitta assumed, “The translation need they seem in depth knowledge to re-encode of the target language is more important, and need to be deeper than their knowledge of the source language.”5 For this reason, most translator translate into a language of which their native speakers. In addition, knowledge of the subject matter being discussed is essential. In recent years studies in cognitive linguistic have been able to provide valuable insight into the cognitive process of translation.
3. Measuring Success in Translation As the goal of translation is to establish a relationship of equivalence between the source and the target texts-that is to say, both texts communicate the same message-while taking into account the various constrain placed on the translator, a successful translation can be judged by two criteria:
Brigitta Englud Dimitrova, Expertise and Explication in the Translation Process, (Amsterdam, Jhon Benyamin B.V, 2005), p. 12
1) Faithfulness, also called fidelity that is the extent to which the translation
accurately renders the meaning of the source text, without adding to it subtracting from it, and without intensifying or weakening any part of the meaning; and
2) Transparency, which is the extent to which the translation appears to a
native speaker of the target language to have originally been written in that language and conforms to the language’s grammatical, syntactic and idiomatic conventions.
A translation meeting the first criterion is said to be a ”faithful translation”; a translation meeting the second criterion is said to be an “idiomatic translation”. The criteria used to judge the faithfulness of translation vary according to the subject, the precision of the original content, the type, function and use of the text, its literary qualities, its social or historical context. The criteria for judging the transparency of a translation would appears more straightforward: an unidiomatic translation “sound” wrong and in the extreme case of word of word translation generated by many machine translation systems, often result in patent nonsense.
Nevertheless, in certain contexts a translator may knowingly strive to produce a literal translation. For example, literary translators and translators of religious works often adhere to the source text as much as possible. To do this deliberately “stretches” the boundaries of the target language to produce an unidiomatic text. Likewise, a literary translator may wish to adopt words or expressions from the source language provide “local color” in the translation. The concept of fidelity and transparency are looked at differently in recent translation theories. The idea that acceptable translations should be as creative and original as their source text is gaining momentum in some quarters.
B. Lyric Song Understanding Lyric (in singular from lyric) are a set of words that make up a song. The writer of lyric is a lyricist or lyrist. The meaning of lyrics can either be explicit or implicit. Some lyric are abstract, almost unintelligible and in such cases their explication emphasizes form, articulation, meter, and symmetry of expression. The lyric traditional musical forms such as Opera is known as a librettist.6 The music class consisted of singing, musical instrument playing, movement, creativity and listening activities. The story telling program was aimed at developing language skills for early reading such as listening,
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/lyric, download 11 January 2011
organization, comprehension, and memory skills. The background music significantly affected behavioral manifestations of tension in specific areas of the body. Background music also significant affected verbalizations associated with pain in all subject, as compared to the same setting with no background music. The behavioral measure supported patients’ verbal reports of music’s effectiveness in assisting relaxation. Music positively affect language accent, memory, and grammar as well as mood, enjoyment and motivation and that pairing words and rhythm properly helps to hold song together, and to improve the ability of the mind to recall it.7 Stansell insist that music and language help each other in the process of learning 17 human expressions, a common goal. Interconnections between the musical and linguistic areas enable music to assist in learning vocabulary and phrases, which task are governed by the linguistic intelligence. High musical ability is common among multilingual individuals and professional singer with thick accents otherwise still sing in a standard dialect. With this appreciation for assistive place of music in the mind, researcher must try to discover ways that music can more effectively awaken students to language learning.
Dagma Siskova, Teaching Vocabulary Through Music, (Brno, Masarky University, 2008), p.17
Use of music is recommended by them for better understanding of language because Jeremy said, “When song and words match in stress and accent, the learner can experience gains in comprehension of word stress, attention span, anticipation of new text, and memory.”8 C. Lyric of Song as Teaching Materials to Translate In choosing songs as teaching materials to translate, we must carefully selected song in the target language also constitutes another suitable pedagogic resource for following reasons: 1) They facilitate in pace of instruction, regardless of what teaching technique and strategies are being used. 2) They represent an entertaining alternative to the main course materials (textbook, workbook, lab tapes or CD-ROM, etc) 3) They increase the level of motivation and interest among students toward the linguistic and cultural contents of course at any given level of proficiency 4) They reinforce the students’ conversational skill through the practice of pronunciation, the exposure and cultural issues in the target language. 5) They facilitate the comprehension of complex grammatical structure analyzed and practiced from the perspective of meaningful context
Jeremy Harmer, The Practice of English Teaching, (UK, 3rd Edition Longman 1998), p. 91
6) They represent an invaluable approach to diverse cultural and historical issues related to the target language
7) They promote an awareness of multiculturalism, i.e. the connections,
challenges, resource, and opportunity of world of diversity. Song may be selected, classified, and implemented according to their possible linguistic and/or cultural objectives. Flexibility in terms of purpose for using songs should not imply in practice a lack of clarity in their presentation. In other words, the specific techniques to be used in the presentation of song in the classroom should be closely related to the teacher’s initial objectives, as well as to his or her knowledge of the different processes involved in listening. For example if we select a song as the introduction to discussion activity, we should give more emphasis to question about the lyric that encourage the students’ background knowledge of the issue to be discussed. That is so say; the students follow a top-down approach to process their prior knowledge of the context and situations described by the song, and then relate it to the task suggested by the teacher. On the other hand, if our purpose is to present a specific grammar item such as a new verb tense, we may prefer to begin by having our students fill in blanks where the new tense appears in the song. In this way, we reinforce a bottom-up approach to listening, by which the students decode the
sounds that they hear in a linier fashion, from the smallest meaningful unit to complete texts.
D. Audio Lingual Method The audio lingual method was developed in the United States during the World War II as the combination of structural linguist theory, contractive analysis, aural-oral procedures and behaviorist psychology. 1. Definition of Audio Lingual Method Audio Lingual Methodology owed its existence to the behaviorist models of learning that were using the stimulus-response-reinforcement models, it attempted through a continuous process of such positive reinforcement to engender good habit in language learner.9 Audio Lingual’s relied heavily on drill to form these habits; substitution was built into these drills so that in small steps, the students was constantly learning and moreover, was shielded from possibility of making mistakes by design of the drill. Audio Lingual repetition drills were design to familiarize students with sounds and structural patterns of the target language (the language which
Jeremy Harmer, The Practice of English Language Teaching, (Longman 2006), p. 79
learners are purpose to learn). Learners supposedly learned to practicing grammatical structures then later using them in translation. The concept of habit formation, of behaviorism, is the theoretical basis of the audio lingual method. Since learners needed to form good habits, lessons involved a great deal off repetition. Students were not supposed to form bad habits. The researcher may infer that the audio lingual method spens a great deal of time of teaching learning activities on the reinforcement and habitformation. Stimulus correct response and reward that are accured again and again in the teaching-learning activities form students’ habit, the more frequently these happen the stronger the habit become. The language teaching theoreticians and methodologists who developed Audiolingualism not only had convincing and powerful theory of language to draw upon but they were also working in a period when a prominent school of America psychology-known as behavioral psychology-claimed to have tapped the secret of all human learning, including language learning. Behaviorism, like structural linguistic, is another ant mentalist, empirically based approach to the study of human behavior. To the behaviorist, the human being is an organism capable of a wide repertoire of behaviors. On Richard and Rogers book’ quotations,
The occurrence of these behaviors is dependent upon three crucial elements in learning: a stimulus, which serves to elicit behavior; a response triggered by a stimulus; and reinforcement which serves to mark the response as being appropriate (or inappropriate) and encourage the repetition (or suppression) of the response in the future.10 The quotations above mean that Audio-Lingual Method is a method in teaching language to improve students’ language competent as the language behavior, in mastering to translate language students must do more practice by do in oral drill and pattern practice, because that the structure of behavior in stimulation own of students. And the most important the method carried with structural linguistic and behavior psychology. Language is primary is use of language in audio lingual theory, translation skills are themselves dependent upon the ability to accurately perceive and produce the major phonological features of the target language fluency in the use of the key grammatical patterns in the language and knowledge sufficient vocabulary to use with these patterns. Basically that all be based on learning process as it is by change people emotional and behavioral response. Where the teacher as the stimulation which to prove behavior of the learner, and the students as the response of the stimulation, that is the way how to create a feedback on students and teacher.
Richard. J and Rodgers, Approaches and Method in Language Teaching, (UK, Cambridge University Press, 1986), p. 50
Audio Lingual repetition drills were design to familiarize students with the sound and structural patterns of the target language. The concept of habit formation of behaviorism is the basis of Audio Lingual Method. Since learner needed to form good habits, lesson involved a great deal of repetition. Students were not supposed to form bad habit, so teacher treated error quickly. 2. Principle of Audio Lingual Method According to William, proclaimed the linguistic principal on which language teaching methodology should be base: “Language is speech, not writing…A language is a set of habits…Teach the language, not about the language…A language is what is native speaker say, no what someone thinks they ought to say…. Languages are different.”11 There the principles of audio lingual method in learning are following: 1) Foreign language learning is basically a process of mechanical habit formation. The more often something is repeated, the stronger habit and greater learning. 2) Know mean form before they are seen in written form. The teachers should provide students with native speaker like model. By listening to how it is supposed to sound, the students should be able to mimic the model.
Ibid, p. 53
3) Analogy provide better than analysis. Students should learn to respond to both verbal and nonverbal stimuli.
4) A linguistic and cultural context and not in isolation. Language cannot
separate from culture. Culture is not only literature and the arts but also the everyday behavior of the people who use the target language. One of the teacher’s responsibilities is to present information about that culture.12
E. Technique of Teaching Translation on Lyric Song Song contains the power of music as well as the power of lyrics. While music touches our hearts, the lyric and their words flow into our minds and so they draw us into their own world. Selected song and lyric in the target language also constitute another suitable pedagogic resource for the following reasons: 1) They facilitate change in the pace of instruction, regardless of what teaching techniques and strategies are being used.
2) They represent an entertaining alternative to the main course materials
(textbook, workbook, lab tapes or CD-ROM, etc) 3) They increase the level of motivation and interest among students toward the linguistic and cultural content of our courses at any given level of proficiency.
Ibid, p. 51
4) They reinforce the students’ conversational skills through the practice of
pronunciation, the exposure to new or recently taugh vocabulary, and the discussion of social and cultural issues in the target language. 5) They facilitate the comprehension of complex grammatical structure analyzed and practiced from the perspective of a meaningful context. 6) They represent an invaluable approach to diverse cultural and historical issue related to the target language
7) They promote an awareness of multicultural, i.e. the connections,
challenge, resources, and opportunities of world of diversity Song and lyric song can be used in a lot of various ways. All the skills such as listening, reading, writing and speaking can be practiced, the same way as linguistic areas starting with vocabulary, grammatical structures, and ending with rhythm, stress, fluency and pronunciation. Songs are also especially good at introduction vocabulary because they provide a meaningful context for the vocabulary. However, it depends on the choice of song since there are also some songs without meaningful context. From grammatical point of view, they provide a natural context for the most common structures such as verb tenses and prepositions. Songs may be selected, classified and implemented according to their possible linguistic and/or cultural objective. The same song may often fulfill
multiple purposes to enhance the listening skill, improve pronunciation, acquire vocabulary, provide examples of grammatical structures, practices reading and writing and sensitize the students to cultural facets. F. Classroom Action Research Action research can be described as: any research into practice undertaken by those involved in that practice, with an aim to change and improve it. It is therefore, a process of enquiry by you as a practitioner into the effectiveness of your own teaching and your students’ learning. Action research is about both ‘action’ and ‘research’ and the links between the two. It is quite possible to take action without research or to do research without taking action, but the unique combination of the two is what distinguishes action research from other forms of enquiry. It is, of course, not restricted to an educational context.
Definition of Classroom Action Research The most important component of action research is that it does include both action and reflection that lead to enhance practice. Kemmis and Mc Taggart distinguish it from the normal practice of teaching in the following way:
It is not the usual thinking teachers do when they think about their teaching. Action research is more systematic and collaborative in collecting evidence on which to base their group reflection.
2. It is not simply problem solving. Action research involves problemposing, not just problem-solving. It does not start from a view of ‘problems’ as pathologies. It is motivated by a quest to improve and understand the world by changing it and learning how to improve it from the effects of the changes made. 3. It is not research done on other people. Action research is research by particular people on their own work, to help them improve what they do, including how they work with and for others.
4. Action research is not “the scientific method” applied to teaching. There
is not just one view of “the scientific method”; there are many.13 However, if action research is different to the normal practice of teaching, to what extent is it ‘research’? Notwithstanding Kemmis and McTaggart’s differentiation between action research and teaching, there is obviously a close connection between the two and it is this close connection that makes the approach a particularly attractive one for practitioners. The self-initiated approach to research and to
The Open University, Action Research A Guide for Associate Lectures (COBE, Walton Hall Milton Keynes MK7 6AA), p. 8
an improvement in practice is another strong attraction of the action research approach. Indeed, some have argued that it is a legitimate part of good teaching. Zeni said: “Action research involves practitioners in studying their own professional practice and framing their own questions. Their research has the immediate goal to assess, develop or improve their practice. Such research activities belong in the daily process of good teaching, to what has been called the 'zone of accepted practice”.14 2. Steps in Classroom Action Research Within all the definitions of action research, there are four basic themes: empowerment of participants, collaboration through participation, acquisition of knowledge, and social change. In conducting action research, we structure routines for continuous confrontation with data on the health of a school community. These routines are loosely guided by movement through five phases of inquiry: Classroom Action Research Cycle:
1. Planning, data collection based on the problem and tested the hypothesis
by empirical measures based on initial observations in general and can be as a reference to reveal the factors supporting and inhibiting the implementation of the action
Ibid, p. 8
2. Action is a variation of careful and prudent practices which are recognized
as the idea into action and used as guidelines for the development of the next actions with a view to improving the situation.
3. Observation serves to document the effect of actions oriented to the future,
as well as providing a basis for reflection now.
4. Reflection is a reminder and an action ponders exactly as has been
observed. Reflection is an activity analysis, interpretation and explanation (explanation) of all information obtained money from observations on the implementation of the action.
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