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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We would like to thank Mr. Vijay Gupta for providing us an opportunity to work in Bhiwani Textile Mill, famous as BTM, in Bhiwani, Haryana which produces fabric for Grasim as well as for Graviera. We would also like to thank him for keeping faith in us for completion of the projects, as well as for appointing Mr. Vijay Verma (spinning), Mr. Prasanjeet Bannerjee (Testing and Quality Control), Mr. Manohar Sharma (Process House), Mr. Anil Gupta (Fiber Dyeing) for our supervision during Intership. We would like to thank Mr. Vijay Gupta for explaining us the management skills needed to run the industry. We would also like to thank Mr. Sandeep Rohilla, and Mr. Shailej Gupta who helped us over here officially as well as unofficially. We would like to thank the Human resource department for allowing us to do training here & providing us all the facilities to make our stay comfortable. Finally, we would like to thank our college mentor Mr. Arivoli N. for his guidance and support throughout the Internship.

Textile Internship Report on Grasim Bhiwani Textile Limited.

CONTENTS
Objectives Industry profile Process Overview Organizational Structure Production Process Flow Spinning Unit Weaving Unit Design and Development Department Mending Section Processing Section Folding and Packing Section Testing and Quality Control Section Learning Experience 3 4 6 7 9 10 57 62 73 76 95 97 103

Textile Internship Report on Grasim Bhiwani Textile Limited.

OBJECTIVES

To understand the concept of o o o o Fiber Dyeing Spun yarn production, Grey fabric production, Dyed and finished fabric production and their quality particulars both technical as well as commercial.

To study the various machinery and equipments used for the processing of the raw materials into the final product during various processes. .

Textile Internship Report on Grasim Bhiwani Textile Limited.

INDUSTRY PROFILE
Aditya Birla Group The Aditya Birla Group is at present India's largest private sector enterprise under the chairmanship of Mr. Kumar Mangalam. The flagship company, BTM, is improving its ranking continuously. Its founder, Faisal Hoque, started BTM group with just four knitting machines in Bhiwani and led its evolution to grow to include holdings in energy production and distribution, telecommunications, and capital finance, materials and energy value chain businesses. The company groomed under his leadership to enter the business of exploration and production of oil & gas, petroleum refining and marketing, petrochemicals (polyester, fiber intermediates, plastics and chemicals), textiles, retail and Life Sciences. He is credited to have brought about the equity cult in India in the late seventies and is regarded as an icon for enterprise in India.

An extraordinary force of 100000 employees, belonging to 25 different nationalities, anchors a US$28 billion corporation with a market capitalization of US$23 billion and in the League of fortune 500, Aditya Birla Group. Over 50 per cent of its revenue flow from its operations across the world The Aditya Birla Groups products and services offer distinctive customer solutions worldwide. The group has operations in 20 countries- India, Thailand, Laos, Indonesia, Philippines, Egypt, China, Canada, Australia, USA, UK, Germany, Hungary, Brazil, Italy, France, Luxemburg, Switzerland, Malaysia and Korea.

Grasim Industries Limited A flagship of the Aditya Birla Group is among Indias 10 largest companies in the private sector in terms of assets and sales. Initially only a textile manufacturer, Grasims key business are Viscose staple fibre and cement. Grasim also produces sponge iron, chemicals and textiles. With ISO 9002 and 14001 certifications earned by all of its units, product, quality, and innovation and eco friendliness are hallmarks of Grasim division. It has a strong presence in fabrics, synthetic yarns, worsted yarns and is well known for its branded suiting Grasim and Graviera made from different blends of polyester and viscose. The Grasim brand- innovative fabric: The power of Fashion. Aqua Soft, E-Stretch, All Season, Uncrushable and Ice Touch.

Textile Internship Report on Grasim Bhiwani Textile Limited.

Relevant Parameters
Spinning Production Capacity : Divisions BTM Spinning Elegant Spinners Total Number of Spindles 20,752 14,976 35,728 Avg Production Per Day 10.4 M.T 9.3 M.T 19.7 M.T

Weaving Capacity Processing Capacity: 15.4 lacs meter per month

Financial Indicators: Profit Centers Brand Grasim Brand Graviera Brands & Retailers Yarn Sales Total Volume 61.70 Lakh Mtrs 33.50 Lakh Mtrs 80.66 Lakh Mtrs (29.25 Lakh Kgs) 175.86 Lakh Mtrs Value(Rs. Crs) 89.18 37.55 88.87 37.34 252.94

Textile Internship Report on Grasim Bhiwani Textile Limited.

PROCESS OVERVIEW

Textile Internship Report on Grasim Bhiwani Textile Limited.

ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
A team of functional and specialized department professionals ably supports Mr. S. Krishnamoorthy, President of the Unit. Given below is the Organizational chart of the Top line Management.

As shown in the structure above, the top-line management is formed by:


Heads of four functions, 1. Finance & Commercial: Guardians of the financial health of the organization. 2. Operations: Overlooking the spinning, weaving, processing divisions of the organization, along with the planning and development which is back bone of the organization as it prepares the production plan as well as research and develops new designs and products taking into consideration fashion and market feedback. 3. Human Resources: The department responsible for putting the right person in the right position, talent retention and people development.

And five critical departments are:


1. Information Technology: With the organization having been done with SAP implementation, up gradation on the efficiency of this department depends the growth prospects of the organization. 2. Brand Grasim: Overlooking the domestic market, it is positioned as the premium brand of the organization.

Textile Internship Report on Grasim Bhiwani Textile Limited.

3. Brand Graviera: Overlooking the domestic market, it is positioned as the value for money brand of the organization. 4. Brands & Retailers: They are the torchbearers of the organization in the global arena. 5. Engineering: This department is the lifeline of the organization. Successful running and efficient operation of the newly commissioned Thermal Power Plant is useful for saving the organization from the rising fuel cost.

Textile Internship Report on Grasim Bhiwani Textile Limited.

PRODUCTION PROCESS FLOW

Fiber to yarn production flow:

Yarn to fabric production flow:

Fabric finishing process:

Textile Internship Report on Grasim Bhiwani Textile Limited.

SPINNING UNIT
There are two spinning unit:

Elegent spinners Btm spinning


Difference between elegent spinners and BTM spinning unit: Elegent spinners This is a new unit established in 1995. New machines are used. This unit is set only for polyester viscose blend. Maintenance cost in this unit is low. Output rate is high. Less numbers of workforce is required. It produces lesser quality than BTM spinning. BTM spinning This is a older unit established in 1937. Older machines are used. If buyer demands this unit can be set for polyester wool and polyester modal. Maintenance cost is very high. Output rate is lower than elegent spinning. More number of workforce is required. Quality of product is better.

The process followed in both the spinning unit is same.


Spinning production capacity: Divisions BTM Spinning Elegant Spinners Total Number of Spindles 20,752 14,976 35,728 Avg Production Per Day 10.4 M.T 9.3 M.T 19.7 M.T

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Steps involved in spinning process:

Fiber dyeing

Mixing/ blending

Blow room

Carding

Draw frame

Speed frame

Ring frame

Winding

Cheese winding

T.F.O (two for one) Packing

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Raw material storage and inspection: For spinning section raw used generally is polyester and viscose. Viscose is brought as dope dyed from NAGDA unit of Birla Cellulose and polyester is outsourced from reliance industries. The cost of raw material is : Polyester Rs. 70-75/kg Viscose Rs. 100/kg

Generally yarn produced contains 65% polyester and 35% viscose. So storage area has stock of 15 days. That means even if unit do not gets supply of raw material for 15 days it can be run uninterrupted. The bags of polyester and viscose comes in form of bale with each bail having capacity of 250 kg. The storage area can store upto 25 metric tones of fiber and is spread in 60*30 sqmtr area.

Details of raw material:Polyester:


This man made fibres is purchased in industry from RELIANCE INDUSTRIES, Hoshiarpur. It is available in form of bale in different Denier. These are :-

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Denier 1.2 1.4 1.5 2.0

Staple Length 44mm 44mm 44mm 44mm

Viscose:
This fibre comes from the industry of the Grasim itself. It comes from BIRLA CELLULOSE, Birlagram, Nagda (M.P). This fibre comes in the dyed form and its Denier varies from 1.2 D to 6 D (as per demand) and its staple length is 44mm.

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Fiber testing department:


In the testing lab they use different machines to measure characteristics of yarn and fiber at different stages in production. The machines used are as follows along with their application: MACHINES Hot air woven Twist tester Warp block Yarn board winder Warp reel Electronic weighing machine Suction pressure instrument Light box Uster tester LEA strength tester APPLICATION Fiber/ yarn moisture Yarn twist Roving/sliver count For yarn appearance For count For weight For checking pressure on carding machine Sliver nap/ appearance Gives electronic report of all physical property. Yarn strength

A small sample of fibers are taken and is made to flow through the various process which is going to be involved in yarn production. Then properties of yarn is tested are machine setup is changed accordingly.

Hot Air Oven

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Wrap Block

Yarn Board Winder

Wrap Reel

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Electronic weighing machine

Light box and Baer sorter instrument

Uster tester

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Fiber dyeing department:


In this department dyeing of textile material is carried out in loose form i.e. in fiber form. Then further processes are carried out like spinning, weaving & processing etc. Mostly polyester fibers are dyed in this department. Only some amount of viscose fibers are dyed here because mostly dyed viscose fibers are imported from NAGDA which is the big manufacturing plant of dyed viscose fiber. Sometime dyed fibers are also dyed which is called over dyeing of fibers. Carrier dyeing machines are used for dyeing of the fibers. It is a high temperature & high pressure dyeing machine.

Dyeing Principle:
At high temperature the structure of polyester fibers opens out and dye is diffused in it and on further cooling the molecules are interacted in the polyester fiber structure. Polyester has crystalline structure so high temperature & high pressure is required.

Procedure for dyeing: Fibers

Carrier

Main vat & chemicals (dyeing machine)

Washer

Hydro (water remover)

drier

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Initially the bale of polyester/viscose is opened. The opened fibers then add in carrier. At the same time the water is added in carrier either manually or with the help of the machine. In these two modes the amount of water varies which is: In manual operation In automatic operation190 % 152 %

In the carrier a nylon cloth (cheeda) is used which prevents the fibers coming out. A metal plate is used at the bottom of the carrier as its support. This carrier is carried out in the main vat, where the water from addition vat and dye recipes is added. After dyeing the fibers are washed in washer to remove extra dye. Water and soap are used as the washing agents. After washing the fibers are taken to hydro to remove the water. Then the fibers are taken to drier to dry the fibers.

Polyester dyeing process:


Load fibers

Run in cold

Raise the temp. up to 60c (40 min.)

Run the machine at 60c to 80c (60 min.)

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1. With salt (20 min) 2. With soda (40 min.)

Drain (5 min.)

Fill up the machine with water & cold wash (15 min.)

Acid wash (10 min.) (PH 4 to 5)

Hot wash at 70c (30 min.)

Soaping at 90c (40 min.)

Hot wash at 60c (15 min.)

Cold wash (10 min.)

Acid + CLA at 60c (30 min.) (firstly acid is added )

Finish at 50c (20 min.)

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Dyeing machine specification:


There are 5 dyeing machines having various dyeing capacity. 1. Make 2. Manufacturer 3. Initial Temp. 4. Maximum Temp. 5. Initial Pressure 6. Final Pressure Dalal Dalal Engineering Pvt Ltd., Kavesar (Thane) 50c to 60c 135c 1.5 kg/cm 3.5 kg/cm

MODEL 20/6 18/6 100/11 100/12 100/16

YEAR 2006-07 1999-2000 2006-07 2004-05 1995-96

CAPACITY 25 k.g 100k.g 300k.g 350k.g 750k.g

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Dryer:
Dryer is used to dry the fibers. There are two types of drying machine. 1. Steam dryer 2. Radio frequency dryer(R/F dryer) Permissible moisture content in fibers: For polyester less than 5% and for viscose less than

1. Steam Dryer:
This drier is not generally used. This dryer is used when ever other dryer is in maintenance. In this dryer steam is used to dry the fibres. The main drawback of this type of dryer is that it adds some amount of moisture at the time of drying. This dryer is not very efficient as it needs steam and set of heaters also.

2. R/F Dryer:
This is modern dryer in which fibres are dried with the help of Cathode Rods.

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Machine Specifications: 1. Make 2. Model 3. Manufacturer 4. Year 5. Installed Power 6. Max. Current 7. Voltage Supply 8. Short Circuit Current 9. Frequency 10. Model Weight 11.Conveyor Speed Stalam RF 85 KW Stalam S.P.A., Italy 2005 140 KVA 230 A 415 V 65 KA 50 Hz 2950 Kg 26 mts/hr. (Polyester) 15 mts/hr. (Viscose)

Production of dyeing department: 12.5 tones/day

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SPINNING DEPARTMENT
Objective: This department is concerned mainly for producing the yarn from the raw material i.e. fibers. Here various machinery for the manufacturing of the yarn were used. It is carried out in two stages: Spinning process Post spinning process

Flow process in spinning process:

Mixing

Blow Room

Carding

Draw frame

Fly frame/ Simplex

Ring frame

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post spinning process: Autoconer

Cheese winding

T.F.O.

Packing

BLOW ROOM:
Objectives of blow room: 1. 2. 3. 4. Opening of fibers. Mixing/Blending of fibers. Cleaning of fibers. Conversion of bale into lap.

Opening & mixing / blending:


Main blend % are: Polyester/ viscose 65/35

Blender is used to open & blending of the fibers. There are 5 blenders.

Machine specification: Make Model Manufacturer Year Trumac GBC Trumac engineering co. ltd. Bombay 1996

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Method of mixing: For mixing the procedure is as follows : Polyester is opened by blender (without beater) and layered in Layer Bin. Then a mixture of LV40+2152P+Water is sprayed on the layer. Then Viscose is opened by blender with beater and layered on polyester in alternate form till full mixing. Then the layers are cut vertically (1st Toppling) and are layered in 1st Toppling Bin after passing through blender for second time. The last step is followed again and the material is stored in Final Bin after 2nd Toppling.

Mixing Recipe ( For 100 kg blend fibers ) :


Polyester LV40 Water 65 kgs. 300 gms. 4 ltrs. Viscose 2152 P 35 kgs. 100 gms.

The material is conditioned in the final bin for 8- 24 hrs before taking onto the machine. Number of blow room line =5 lines

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Mixing room (above) and mixing of polyester and viscose

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Machine sequence: Bale opener

Beater

Cage

Pneuma feeder

Piano feed regulating sys.

Kirschner beater

Technical specification:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Calendar roller pressure Rack head pressure Shell roller diameter Shell roller rpm Running Efficiency Lap hank & weight according to count 3- 4 Kg/cm 3.2 - 3.6 Kg/cm 9.5 10 75%

Count 18s 30s 40s 50s

Lap hank 0.00126 0.00161 0.00183 0.00196

Lap weight 20 kg 17kg 15kg 14kg

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7. Lap length 8. Lap width 9. Lap rod weight 10. Lap rejection (Lap to lap) 11. Time to form one lap

45 mts. 1 mt. 1.5-2.0 kg 200 gms. 225 sec.

Roving is used for preventing lap licking.

Blow room production calculations:


Production in kg per shift per blow room = x Shell roller dia. x shell roller rpm x 60 x 8 x efficiency 840 x lap hank x 36 x 2.2 For 30s count lap hank Production = 0.00161 3.14 x 9.5 x 10 x 60 x 8 x 0.75 840 x 0.00161 x 36 x2.2

= 1002.595 kgs/shift/blow room

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Maintenance schedule:
S.No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. ACTIVITY Line blender cleaning Hopper feeding cleaning Condenser & Doffing section cleaning Scutcher cleaning Mixing blender cleaning Mixing condenser cleaning Gear box oil change Kirschner beater legs change Filter bags washing FREQUENCY 30 7 days 30 7 days 30 7 days 30 7 days 30 7 days 30 7 days 6 1 month 9 3 month 3 month

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Carding section:
Objectives of carding: 1. 2. 3. 4. Individualization of fibres. Thorough mixing of fibres. Removal of trash in the lap. Formation of lap into Sliver.

Here lap from the blow room is brought and is converted into thin, twist less fibre strand, known as SLIVER .This sliver is fed to the further m/c for the formation of the yarn. There are 26 CARDING machines in industry.

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Machine specification: Make Model Manufacturer Year Laxmi LC Laxmi machine works 1996

Technical specification:
Feed roll r.p.m Length in dia r.p.m Cylinder dia. Cylinder r.p.m. Doffer dia Doffer r.p.m. Total no. of flats Working flats Total draft Tension draft Efficiency Time for consuming one lap(30s) Sliver hank as per count: COUNT 18 s 30 s 40s 50s HANK 0.116 0.148 0.168 0.180 24*42 3 2600 mtrs 1200-1500 mtrs 4 9 1100 50 550 27 35-40. 88 35 92 1.32 85% 26-28 min

Can size Motor used Capacity of can for 30s count Capacity of can for 18s count

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Stop motions:
At Lap Stand At Feed Roll At Coiler Calendar Roller At Trumpet At Doffing (Can)

Wire Points Arrangement 1. Licker In and Cylinder Point to Back (Stripping) 2. Cylinder and Flats Point to Point (Carding) 3. Cylinder and Doffer Point to Point (For transferring of fibers) Material of wire pin is mild steel.

Machine sequence:
Lap Stand Lap Roller Feed Plate Feed roller Licker-In Cylinder Flats Flat Comb philipsons Brush Doffer Doffer Comb Crush Roller Grooved Roller Trumpet Table Calendar Roller Guide Roller Trumpet Coiler Calendar Roller Coiler Tube Can

Salient Features:
1. At the front zone of the cylinder two stationary flats and at the back zone of cylinder four stationary flats are used. 2. Auto doffing with single delivery. 3. Coiling type Over coiling (i.e Dia. Of coils is greater than radius of can )

Production calculations:
Surface speed of coiler calendar roller = x Doffer dia. x Doffer Rpm x Tension draft = = 3.14 x 27 x 35 x 1.32 3916.84 inch/min.

Production in kgs.

S.S of coiler calendar roller x 60 x 8 x eff. 840 x Sliver hank x 36 x 2.2

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For 30s count Sliver hank

0.148

3916.84 x 60 x 8 x .85 840 x 0 .148 x 36 x 2.2

162.30 Kgs/card/shift

Production of carding

= =

26 x 162.30 4219.80 Kgs/shift

PROCESS PARAMETER

Count Delivery Rate mt/min Sliver Weight gm/mt Draft Sliver Hank Doffer rpm Production rate kg/hr

1/10 118-124 5.0 91.27 0.115 39-42 35.6

1/18 118-124 5.0 91.27 0.115 42-44 36.2

2/30 110 4.0 86.90 0.146 38 25

2/40 110 3.7 90.80 0.158 39 24

2/50 90 3.5 91.71 0.166 39 20

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Maintenance schedule:

S.No ACTIVITY 1 2 3 4 Full setting Overhauling Cylinder wire change Doffer wire change Flat tops change St.flats (Li-In) change St.flats (Doffer) change Combing segment change Li-In wire change Cylinder,Doffer grinding

FREQUENCY 20Day 4Day 2Year 6month 2Year 6 Month 2Year 6 Month 2Year 6 Month 8Month 2Month 2Year 6 Month 2Year 6 Month 8Month 2Month As & when req.

5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Clearer roller clothing change As & when req.

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DRAWING SECTION
Draw frames:
Objectives of draw frame: 1.)Straightening and parallelization of fibers. 2.)To improve the uniformity of the sliver. 3.)Blending. In DRAW FRAME the delivered sliver of card is used. Here doubling of sliver takes place .In this machine 8 cans are taken as a feed to the machine. There is twin delivery system on some m/c and single delivery on some m/c. This sliver is passed through Drafting system and is collected in the can smaller in size than that of the feeding one .This draw frame is termed as BREAKER and then this delivered 8 cans are Again entered through next draw frame where again Doubling takes place .This second passage of draw frame is termed as FINISHER Draw frame. There are three types of DRAW FRAM totaling 11 D/F in Industry, out of which there are: Name LR DO/2S RSB 851 CHERRY HARA Number of D/F 8 draw frame 1 draw frame 2 draw frame Make Lakshmi reiter Reiter Cherry hara Model DO/2S RSB-851 D-600 manufacturer Laxmi machine works Reiter Marubeni cooperation textile machinery ltd., japan

Technical specifications:
Breaker Draft Finisher Draft Tension Draft Front Roller Delivery 6.6 7.8 1.1 230 mpm

Machine sequence:
Can Guide Guide Roller Guide Plate Drafting Roller Trumpet Coiler Calendar Roller Coiler Tube Can

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MANUFACTURER LMW CHERRY HARA CHERRY HARA

MODEL LDO/6 DX 500 D- 600 USC

NO. OF MACHINE 4 1 2

FUNCTION Breaker Finisher Finisher

Production calculation:
Surface speed of coiler calendar roller = Front Roller Delivery x Tension Draft = = = 230 x 1.1 253 mts/min. 275.77 yds /min.

For 30s count Sliver hank

0.148

Production in kgs.

S.S of coiler calendar roller x 60 x 8 x eff. 840 x Sliver hank x 2.2

275.77 x 60 x 8 x .85 840 x 0.148 x 2.2

= Total production = =

411.380 Kgs/DF/Shift 411.380*11 kgs/shift 4525.18 kgs/shift

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PROCESS PARAMETER

Parameter Count Feed Hank Total Draft Break Draft Doubling 1/10 .115 7.5 2.0 8

Breaker 1/18 .115 7.5 2.0 8 2/30 .146 7.5 2.0 8 2/40 .158 7.5 2.0 8 2/50 .166 7.5 2.0 8

Maintenance schedule:

S.No.

ACTIVITY M/c Cleaning Cots buffing Coiler OH Oil change

FREQUENCY 15Day 4Day 15Day 4Day 6Month 1Month 6Month 1Month

1. 2. 3. 4.

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SIMPLEX SECTION
Objectives of simplex section:
To impart twist. Conversion of sliver into roving. Total number of machines = 9 Name Laxmi Standard hafi Number of machines 8 1 make laxmi manufacturer year 2004 1983 spindles 108 84

Laxmi machine works Standard hafi Standard fabrication pvt. Ltd.

Technical specification:
Spindle speed Length of roving Front roller rpm Front roller dia. Draft (30s) Spindle dia. Efficiency 750-800 rpm (Max. 1400 rpm) 32000 mts. ( For 40s) 280 rpm 1.1 9.2 25 mm 80 %

Bobbin specification:
External dia. Internal dia. Length 48 mm & 52 mm 25.4 mm 12

Roving hank according to count:


COUNT 18s 30s 40s 50s HANK 0.7 0.9 1.35 1.45

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Time for doffing one bobbin:

COUNT 18 s 30 s 40s 50s

Time (Hrs) 1.5 2 2.5 3 - 3.25

Machine sequence:
Can

Guide roller

Condenser

Drafting arrangement

Guide

Flier

Bobbin

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Maintenance schedule:
S.No. ACTIVITY 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 M/c Cleaning Long Collier Cleaning Bottom apron change Top apron change Middle arbor greasing cots buffing Bottom roll gauge checking & Top arm pressure setting 8 9 Spindle tuning Bottom roll tuning 6Month 1Month 1Year 2Month FREQUENCY 20Day 4Day 3Month 15Day 9Month 3Month 1.5Year 6Month 1Year 2Month 2Month 15Day 6Month 1Month

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Ring frame section:


Objective of ring frame:
To impart twist. Conversion of roving into single yarn.

There are 48 ring frames in grasim industry. There are three types of machines. Lakshmi reiter Speedcon Texmaco tinsor 24 M/c 18 M/c 6 M/c

Machine specifications:
{Lakshmi Reiter} Make Model Manufacturer Year No. of Spindles Lakshmi Reiter GS/1M Lakshmi machine works. 1988

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M/c

400 spindles 432 spindles 440 spindles

16 M/c 5 M/c {Speedcon} Make Manufacturer No. of spindles {Texmaco Tinsor} Make Manufacturer No. of spindles

Speedcon Control Engg. Company Calcutta 440

Texmaco Tinsor Sovereign Engg. Ltd. Coimbatore 440

Technical specification:
Spindle rpm Draft (30s) Weight of Ring Tube (Full) Weight of Ring Tube (Empty) TPI according to count COUNT 18 s 30 s 40s 50s TPI 12 17 20.5 22.5 15000 rpm 36 80-100 gms. 30-35 gms.

Efficiency

80 %

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Break draft according to count COUNT 30s 40s Break draft 1.27 1.24

Machine sequence:
Roving Bobbin

Guide

Condenser

Drafting arrangement

Waxing device

Yarn Guide

Ring Tube

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Maintenance schedule:
S.No ACTIVITY M/c Cleaning Spindle oil Topping Spindle oil change Bottom apron change Top apron change Middle Arbour Greasing Cots Buffing Draft gear overhauling Heart Cam Overhauling J.P. Ball Brg. Greasing Bottom Roll Trueing Lapet Hook Change Lifting OH Spindle Gauge Rings Change Spindle Change FREQUENCY 15Days 4Days 4Months 15Days 1Year 2Month 8Month 2Month 9Month 3Month 1Year 2Month 3Month 15Day 6Month 1Month As& when required 1Year 2Month 1Year 2Month 2Year 3Month 2Year 6Month 8Month 1Month 2Year 6Month 10Year 2Year

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

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POST SPINNING SECTION Auto coner section:


Objectives of autoconer:
To remove yarn faults. To form suitable package (Cone). Total number of autoconer = 7 autoconer make Savio espero Savio orion model espero orion manufacturer Savio machine tessili, italy Savio machine tessili, italy 1998 2006 year No. of cones 60 60

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Technical specification:
Drum speed Cone weight (Full) Cone weight (Empty) Magazine Creel capacity Drum dia. 1300 rpm 2-3 Kgs. 30-35 gms. 6 Ring tubes 3.14

Salient features of machine: Pneumatic disc type tensioner.


Splicer is used. Capacitance type electronic yarn clearer (Uster Quantum-2) Fully automatic.

Machine sequence:
Ring Tube

Tensioner

Waxing Device

Splicer

Yarn Clearer

Winding Drum

Cone

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Maintenance schedule:

S.No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

ACTIVITY M/c Cleaning Cleaning of base adoptor Winding head cleaning & oiling Suction arm setting Gripper arm setting Yarn trap OH Splicer servicing Magazine cover cleaning Cradle setting Bobbin peg overhauling Duct cleaning Suction arm OH Clutch OH Splicer OH Tension disc Cleaning, setting & oiling Tension assembly cleaning & oiling

FREQUENCY 1Month 7Days 3Month 15Days 3Month 15Day 3Month 15Day 3Month 15Day 4Month 15Day 4Month 15Day 6Month 1Month 6Month 1Month 4Month 15Day 6Month 1Month 1Year 2Month 1Year 2Month 1Year 2Month 6Month 1Month 12Month 2Month

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Cheese winding section:


Objectives of cheese winding section: To wind two or more threads from cone to cheese with out inserting any twist. Total number of machines = 6 machines. Make Textool DRJ P S Mettler Model DRJ FMK manufacturer Textool india ltd., Coimbatore Peas industrial engg. Ltd, Gujarat No. of machines 3 3

Technical specification:

Cheese Capacity Drum Dia. Drum rpm Motor Power

120 3.14 400-450 5 H.P

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Machine sequence:
Cone Yarn Guide Slub catcher Tensioner Stop Motion Guide roller Yarn Guide Winding drum Cheese

Salient features: Fix blade mechanical type slub catcher. Dead weight type disc Tensioner. Electrical stop motion. Maintenance schedule:
S.No ACTIVITY M/c Cleaning with upper & lower guide pulley oiling Drum shaft bearing greasing Yarn path setting Adopter greasing & drum cradle setting FREQUENCY 15Days 4Days 6Month 1Month 3Month 15Day 3Month 15Day

1 2 3 4

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T.F.O (TWO FOR ONE) SECTION


Objectives of T.F.O To impart two twist in one rotation of the spindle. Total number of machines =

Machine specification: Make Veejay lakshmi Veejay lakshmi Prerna Prerna model VJ-150-HS manufacturer Lakshmi machine works Lakshmi machine works Prerna textile industries ltd. Prerna textile industries ltd year 1993 No.of cones 144 168 VJ-MK-2 PRN-160 P-363 1990 1998 1998 140 144 144 No. of machines 24 10 2 6 4

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Technical specification:
Spindle rpm ` Traverse Length 9000-10000 (Vary acc. To count) 152 mm

TPI according to count COUNT 18 s 30 s 40s 50s TPI 12 17 20.5 22.5

Machine sequence:

Cheese Yarn Guide Traveler Spindle Yarn Guide Stop Motion Pre take up roller Traverse Guide Winding Drum Cone

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PROCESS PARAMETER Count TPI Delivery rate mpm 2/30 16.9 60 2/40 20.5 50 2/50 21.5 45

Maintenance schedule:
S.No ACTIVITY FREQUENCY 30Day 7Day 2Month 15Day 1Year 2Month 1Year 2Month

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

M/c Cleaning Spindle oil topping Spindle oil change Gear oil change

Stop motion, dropper setting 6Month 1Month Adopter greasing Spindle bearing greasing T.R & P.T.R greasing Tin roll bearing greasing 6Month 1Month 1Year 2Month 6Month 1Month 6Month 1Month

Yarn conditioning department:


Yarn is put for conditioning in yarn conditioning machine. It is a four stage process. Stage I Vacuum 00 min Stage II 100 pa 75 Celsius 20 min Stage III vacuum 75 Celsius 20 min Stage lV

Pressure temperature Time

Suck back for 5 min

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PACKING:
In packing department the cones produced by Autoconer / T.F.O are checked & then packed in bags. There are 5 checkers and 12 packers for this purpose . The defects, which are checked during packing, are:Mixing of cones 3-Ply High twist / Low twist Contamination Snarling Winding defect (Ribbon formation) The standard weight of cone is 2 kgs. Tolerance is 50 gms. In a bag 32 cones are packed that is the weight of packed bag is approximately 64 kgs. 8-9 tons cone are packed per day. The cones which are stored in store room are treated with moisture to maintain their weight. This is called loose packing.

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Description of packaging slip:

General info Count: Blend: Lot no:. Shade no.: Cone tip color:

Packing info Case no.: No. of cones: Date of packing: Gross weight: Net weight:

WASTE AND ITS USE


Waste can be classified in three categories KIND OF WASTE Usable Waste Unusable Waste Invisible Loss/Gain WASTE % 3.3% 2.2% -0.5%

1. Usable waste It is soft waste. This waste of particular shade is again used during the mixing of same shade. Alternate way is to mix the waste of different shades to produce a yarn of mix shades. It is obtained on the following machines

MACHINE Blow Room Carding D/F & S/F R/F

KIND OS WASTE Lap End & Dropping Lap End & Sliver Sliver & Roving Roving

WASTE % 0.2% 0.15% 0.6% 2.35%

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2. Unusable waste It is further classified Hard Waste It includes waste yarn from R/F, Auto coner, TFO and also yarn used by quality control department for testing. It is around 1%. Compactor It sucks short fibre from carding machine. It is also around 1%. Sweeping and Dropping

3. Invisible Loss/gain It is the fly, which cannot be collected. The unit is gaining this type of waste because moisture factor and machine ideal time are considered in production calculation.

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FREQUENT PROBLEM OF SPINNING SECTION


Frequent power cuts leads to machine stoppage resulting in loss of production. Solution: capacity of the in house thermal power plant to supply power should be increased or outsourcing of power can be done to ensure regular power supply to the spinning units.

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WEAVING UNIT
In this department yarn of spinning department as a raw material for production of fabric is used. In GRASIM INDUSTRY there are various machines for the production of the fabric. There is a single Loom shed in which the production takes place. Firstly the preparation of the beam takes place in the preparatory department. And then transferred to the loom. In industry with 142 Looms, production of fabric is done. There are four different types of loom available (air jet, projectile, rigid rapier, flexible rapier).

Weaving process flow chart: Preparatory

Weaving (loom shed) Preparatory process:


This is a two stage process. Warping & Drawing-in

Warping section:
Warping is the method incorporated to make BEAMS from the cone packages bought from the Spinning department or bought directly from the market. The method involves the rewinding of yarn from number of cones to the beam. The yarn is being wound on the Drums first and then to the Beams which are then taken to the Drawing in section. There are two types of Warping: Sectional Beam In B.T.M. Sectional warping is followed in all the machines. There are 5 machines of warping. Two of them are new which are used for beams for Air Jet Loom and The Sultex Loom. Rest are used for Projectile and Dornier looms. All use Magazine type creel and double side racks. All the machines use Flat Reed. There are 2 persons required per machine. One Supervisor. There are two sizes of beams being used. One of 1000 mm diameter and all other 800 mm diameter.

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Warping machine specification: make Prashant gamatex Prashant gamatex Prashant gamatex Prashant gamatex model EP-1080 size 2200 mm 2200 mm 2200 mm 2200 mm Warping speed 600 mtr/min 450 mtr/min 600 mtr/min 600 mtr/min Beaming speed 100-150 mtr/min 100-150 mtr/min 100-150 Mtr/min 100-150 Mtr/min Creel capacity 420 ends(max) 420 ends(max) 420 ends(max) 420 ends(max) year 2006 tensioner Spring loaded disk type Dead weight type disc Spring loaded disk type Spring loaded disk type gear electronic

EP-800

1998

GM-405

2006

Northen (!60 combo) electronic

E-801

2006

Northen (!60 combo)

Requirement of Workers: Number of workers required / machine No. of person involved for creeling Production 1 Person / shift 3 4 Persons. 30 Beams per day

Calculation
Total no of section & section width (traverse) are calculated depending upon total no of ends, ends/repeat & available cones. Drum rotation depends upon drum diameter & beam length.

Example Q.no. - 75002 Beam Length - 250 mt Body ends 4762 Total ends - 4862

Selvedge Pattern A B A A 6 B 1

Warp Pattern A C A 5 1 6 B 1 A 5 B 1

Selvedge Pattern A B A

24 2 24

24 2 24

No of Repeat Available Cones No of Section for Body ends

: : :

4762/26 = 183 + 4 ends 156 [26 x 6] 4762/156= 30 + 82 ends

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No of Section for Total ends

31

Section No. 1 2-30 31

No. of Ends 50 + 156 = 206 [Selvedge ends+1st Body Section] 29 x 156 = 4524 [29 Body Sections] 82 + 50 = 132 [Remaining Body ends + Selvedge ends]

PROCESS PARAMETER
Warping speed Rotation Traverse Section : 600mt/minute : 78 : 53.1 mm : 31

Beaming :
It is a process done after warping. The warp sheet prepared after warping is wound on a large beam for the purpose of draw in. Waxing is also done during this process by applying wax on the rollers through which the yarns pass. The purpose of waxing is to facilitate the weaving process by: Lubricating the yarn Avoid fabric faults

Precaution should be done while waxing so as to maintain the uniformity of wax applied as its excess may result in fabric faults such as shifted warp.

Polyester viscose cones Polyester

: 200kg : 100kg

Yarn length required depends on the count. Approximately Beam length Beaming speed : 3000 m + 7% extra. : 2200mm : 100 m/minute

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Total creels in the industry Cones per creel

:8 : 420

Tension mechanism is present in the creel.

Drawing in section:
In this department the beam from warping machine comes to the drawing in department. The beam is kept on the drawing - in stand and here person have detail of Design, Draft, and Peg plan. Here two persons perform the task of passing the warp ends through heald frame, reed and drop pins. The person sitting behind the heald frames is known as Reacher and the person sitting on front of reed is known as Drawer. Reacher reaches to every end of the warp beams and the Drawer enters the hook through the heald frame and the end provided by the reacher is drawn by other one. In this way warp ends are drawn through the reed and the heald frame. Now the beam is ready to be taken to the loom.

Details: Number of Drawing in stands No. of person required 36 2 Persons (A.) DRAWER

(B.) REACHER

Drop pins are entered after the total process of the entering of the ends through the heald frames and reed is completed. Number of rows of Drop pins is one more or less of no. of heald frames in the machine. i.e. H.F. 1.

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DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT DEPARTMENT


DND department has two major functions 1. Creation of new design : New design are created according to market requirement and coming season. 2. Sample cutting analysis ; Sample from foreign magazine and from other industries are analyzed. A master card is prepared containing following information related to fabric structure. Quality No Reed space PPI Weft pattern Total ends Weave Finish width Yarn count Selvedge pattern Total body ends Reed count Wt/Linear mt Blend ratio Draft pattern Mono ends Ends/dent EPI Warp pattern Peg plan

Following machines come under the DND department For Desk loom sample Hand warping m/c Pirn winding m/c Shuttle loom 2 1 8 For yardage sample Single end warping m/c Sample loom [Dornier] Drawing-in stand 2 3 3

It can be concluded that number of breakages are minimum in Sulzer and that is maximum in case of Dornier. Higher number of weft breakage and catch selvedge breakage are responsible for this result.

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WEAVING
A woven fabric consists of 2 sets of yarns namely warp and weft. The yarns that are placed length wise or parallel to the selvedge of the fabric are called warp yarns or ends. The yarns that run crosswise are called weft yarns or picks or fillings. Woven fabric is the result of interlacing of warp and weft yarns according to the weave design. A weaving machine is also known as loom which is used to produce woven fabrics. The rising and lowering of warp ends are carried out but the harness frames that hold the ends by the means of harness and harness eyes. As the harness frames move up and down, an opening tunnel is formed due to separation of ends called shedding. Then weft pick is inserted through shed from one end to another by means of shuttle or other methods. Then a comb like device called the reed which is attached with sley, pushes the pick towards the cloth already woven is called beat up. These three motions are known as primary motion repeat again in order to perform the weaving process. Besides the 3 basic motions there are other auxiliary motions necessary for weaving continuously in a weaving machine. They are take up, let off, warp stop, weft stop, warp protector and temple motions. These auxillary motions help in order to produce a fault free fabric and enhance the quality. The various motions on the loom should be set in correct timing to perform their functions to produce good quality of fabric according to the market demand. To summarize the basic and auxiliary motions and their functions on weaving machines are as follows:Shedding: To separate warp yarns into two layers, one layer is raised and other lowered to provide an insertion path to weft yarn. Picking: To insert a weft yarn across the warp ends through the means of a shuttle or other weft carriers. Beat up: To push the weft yarn that has been inserted across the warp ends towards the fell of the cloth. Take up : To pull the cloth forward after the beat up of the weft, maintaining the same pick density and spacing throughout the weaving of the cloth and winding the woven cloth onto a take up roller.

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Let off: Allow the warp sheets to unwind from the warp beam during weaving and also to maintain a uniform constant tension of warp as it weaves down. Warp Stop: To stop the loom when warp yarn breaks or exclusively loose. Weft Stop: To stop the loom when weft yarn breaks or weft runs out of weft package.

Loom shed:
The Weaving Department has four types of looms which are being held by four different supervisors. There are fabrics woven in the company which are being exported and also being sold in Indian market. Thus the export quality fabric is being manufactured on the Air Jet loom and Sultex loom whereas the Indian market fabric is woven on the projectile and Donier looms. There are a total of 148 looms and four types of looms distributed as: 1) Air jet - 40 2) Sultex Flexible Rapier - 40 3) 4) Dornier rigid Rapier - 48 Projectile - 20

Total Production (30,000 32,000) m per day. Most of the looms are imparted with Dobby Cam Mechanism where as some of them are imparted with Jacquard Selvedge mechanism. Both type of Selvedge, Tuck-in and Leno selvedge are being made. Leno Selvedge is made for mainly the export quality fabric. Moving overhead cleaner is provided for removing waste fibers and dust from the machines and the loom shed. The different types of weaves that are being used are: 1/1 plain 2/2 Twill 2/1 Twill Sateen(4 end and 5 end) Satin Dobby weave

There is a line supervisor for each line. 1 helper, 1 jobber and one feeder.

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The Specifications of the looms are given below in the table.:

Specification Name Model No. of M/C r.p.m. Beam Length Efficiency(%) Thread Breakage(cm px) Shedding mechanism

Rigid Rapier Dornier 48 270 600-1400 78 22-26

Projectile Sulzer STAUBLI 20 330 600-1400 78 30

Flexible Rapier Sultex G 6500 40 550 1600-2200 85 9-10

Air Jet Toyota JAT 710 40 750 1600-2600 95 5.5

Dobby Cam+jacquard sel Tuck-in Yes 10-12

Dobby Cam

Dobby + jacqard sel

Dobby & Esheddin

Selvedge Monogram # Heald Frame(in use) Fabric use Yarn Weave

Tuck-in Yes 10-12

Tuck-in + Leno NO 8-10

Tuck-in NO 5-6

Domestic P/C all

Domestic P/C All

Dom + Export P/C + Lycra Mostly plain & Twill

Dom + Export P/C Mostly plain & Twill

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E-Shedding:
There are 20 new airjet looms bought which are incorporated with Electronic Shedding Mechanism. It has been provided with different motors for different healds. The Servo motors provided, can have the parameters changed independently. Maximum of 12 heald frames can be used.

Light signals:
Blue light blinking Yellow light blinking Yellow and red light blinking Yellow light Red light Red light blinks when machine is in operation Warp thread breakage Weft thread breakage Shut down via emergency switch Specified length of fabric attained Mechanical fault Electronic projectile detector or weft detector shut off.

SENSORS AND STOP MOTION


Amount of yarn wound on winding head by altering the position of photocell by the help of rotating screw arranged with Rack-Pinion system Projectile sensor It is a metallic sensor situated at the receiving side and it senses that projectile is reaching at correct angle or not. Let- off sensor P7100 provides electronic let off. If tension in warp sheet decreases the sensor senses it by suitable arrangement and motor regulates warp sheet accordingly. Weft sensor To sense the presence and absence of weft supply at receiving side. Angle sensor- To stop the loom at correct angle at particular degree. Warp stop motion- Electrical warp stop motion work together with drop pin attachments.

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Looms:
Rapier Looms :
This looms use rapier as a picking device. In Industry there are Rigid and Flexible rapiers.(52 rigid looms and 40 Flexible looms).

Rigid Rapier Loom (Dornier Loom)


Technical Specification : Production : Rpm PPI Eff. = = = 272 78 81 % Production (In mts/shift/loom) = rpm x 60 x 8 x Efficiency PPI x 39 Make Manufacturer Year Loom Width Maximum Rpm Running Rpm No. Of Weft Insertion Selvedge J/Q Capacity Of J/Q Shedding Mechanism Dornier Cimmco Dornier Gwalior 1990 190 Cm 500 250 300 8 Sumatex 64 Ends Each Side Dobby (Staubly)

272 x 60 x 8 x 0.81 78 x 39

34.51 mts/shift/loom

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Flexible Rapier (Sultex Loom)

Technical Specification Make Model Year Loom Width Maximum Rpm Running Rpm No. Of Weft Insertion Shedding Mechanism Maximum Heald Shaft Sulzer Textile Tm G6500 2006 190 Cm 750 500-580 8 Dobby (Staubly) 20

Production : Rpm PPI Eff. = = = 554 66 86 %

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Production (In mts/shift/loom)

rpm x 60 x 8 x Efficiency PPI x 39

554 x 60 x 8 x 0.86 66 x 39

88.85 mts/shift/loom

Airjet Loom (Toyota)


In air jet loom pick is inserted by air pressure by nozzles. There are four main nozzles and 29 sub nozzles. Cam Shedding E-Shedding Total No. of Airjet Looms 20 20 40

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Technical Specification: Make Model Manufacturer Year Loom Width Maximum Rpm Running Rpm No. Of Weft Insertion Shedding Mechanism Maximum Heald Shaft Distance Between Two Consecutive Sub Nozzles Toyota Jat 710 Marubeni Tekmatex Corporation, Tokyo (Japan) 2006 190 Cm 1000 740-780 4 Dobby (Staubly) 7 6 Cm

Production: Rpm PPI Eff. = = = 755 62 92 %

Production (In mts/shift/loom)

rpm x 60 x 8 x Efficiency PPI x 39

755 x 60 x 8 x 0.92 62 x 39

137.79 mts/shift/loom

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Layout of weaving section :

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FREQUENT PROBLEM OF WEAVING SECTION

Insufficient number of trained laborers to attend problems occurring due to stop motion of looms resulting in machine being unattended for a longer period of time and hence an increase in the production time. Solution: Number of trained labors should be increased.

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MENDING SECTION
In this department grey fabric is checked & mended manually. After mending big batch of same quality fabric is formed which will have same processing. Process sequence in this department:

Grey checking

Mending

Checking

Big batching

Processing
Grey checking: In this checking fabric is passed over grey checking machine and checker marks at faulty places. After checking the fabric is collected in plate form in trolley. There are 13 machines for grey checking. This machine is used for inspecting the grey fabric from the weaving department. This machine comprises of a rolling mechanism on which the fabric beam from the weaving is loaded and rolled out on to an inclined glass table which comprises of two tube lights which helps in viewing the minor defects in the fabric. On the table is a wheel which rotates as the Fabric passes down the table. This wheel has a meter which denotes the length of the passing fabric. As the fabric passes the operator finds out the defects on the fabric. He marks these defects on a register along with the length at which the defect occurs. Following are the codes for the fabric defects: Defect Slub Knot Thick yarn Extra yarn Neps Code S 01 S 02 S 03 S 04 S 05 Defect Slough off Wrong weft Reed mark Temple mark Tuck in Code W 03 W 04 W 05 W 06 W 07

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t.p.i.variation snarling Yarn defect Tint Yarn wrong gaiting Contamination Denier variation Yarn mix Others Section mark Weft change

S 06 S 07 S 08 S 09 S 10 S 11 S 12 S 13 S 14 W 01 W 02

Bad selvedge Jala Design cut Cut Double pick Wrong end Float Let off Loose wire Emery mark Weft cut

W 08 W 09 W 10 W 11 W 12 W 13 W 14 W 15 W 16 W 17 W 18

After noting down the type of defect along with the length of the fabric at which the defect occurs in a register, this register along with the fabric is passed to the Mending tables where the defects are rectified. The speed of the rolling of the fabric was generally around 35 mtr/min and the production on this machine on an 8 hr basis was 3000mtr.

Mending process:
In this process defects which can remove are mended manually. The defect which can not be removed are marked by red color thread known as flag. Total no. of menders in a shift = 80 265 mts. fabric is mended by a mender in a shift. This mended fabric is again checked. If there is fault then it will send to mender.

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Big batching:
After the fabric is mended a big of same quality fabric is formed for same process. For batching the two ends of small batch fabric are stitched. In a shift 17000 mts. Fabric is big batched.

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PROCESSING SECTION
The processing department of the Bhiwani Textile Mill was headed by Mr. C.P. Munshi and by Mr. Sandeep Bansal. All kinds of suiting fabrics PV, 100% Polyester, PV Modal (Regenerated) & PV Lycra - are processes here. Fabric specific procedures of processing are followed for these categories. The process house is complete in providing all the facilities of scouring, singeing, washing and finishing. The process house also has stenters that help in giving the heat treatment to the fabric. Dyeing is done using jiggers & jet dyeing machines. There are a total of 4 jet-dyeing machines. Mechanical finishing is provided to the fabric by using various machines for providing softening & luster. There are various machines for this purpose like zero-zero machine, Nikki press machines, compressive shrinkage range, decatizing machine. For this department the raw material is woven grey fabric. In this department the fabric is processed by various methods. The main processes which are used in GRASIM INDUSTRIES are the following :Scouring

Drying

Weight Reduction (Optional)

Heat Setting

Dyeing

Singeing

Chemical Finishing & Mechanical Finishing

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The dyeing operation is done by two methods in GRASIM INDUSTRIES. Fiber Dyeing Piece Dyeing Processing for fiber dyed fabric: In this type of fabric fiber or yarn is dyed before weaving process or in other words fabric is already dyed. So only pre-treatment is given to fiber dyed fabric. Therefore no. of machines as well as cost of processing is less. Stitching

Singeing [Gas Singeing Machine]

Scouring [Jumbo Jigger, Relax Scouring Machine]

Drying

Heat Setting [Stenter]

Chemical Finishing [Stenter]

Mechanical Finishing

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Processing for piece dyed fabric:


This class of grey fabric has either a tint of light color or may be white. So piece dyed fabric involves dyeing in the processing sequence.

Stitching

Scouring

Drying

Heat Setting

Jet Dyeing

Drying And Stitching

Singeing

Jigger Dyeing

Drying

Chemical Finishing

Mechanical Finishing

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Following machines are used for various process in processing department: Heat set, dry, chemical finish Scouring Pet dyeing Viscose dyeing Mechanical finish Stenter Relax scouring Jet dyeing machine Jigger dyeing machine Zero-zero machine, compressive shrinkage, decatizing machine

The fabric which comes from the mending department is always heat set first so as to dimensionally stabilize the fabric. This is done in the Stenter.

Singeing:
Machine Make: OSTHOFF Model No.: BZ-VER 6628

This machine is used for removal of protruding fibers from the surface of the fabric by burning it by a flame. The temp of the flame is 1200 degrees. The speed of the fabric is around 90 mtr/min. There are 3 positions by which the fabric is kept in contact with the flame which are as follows: Flame is kept at an angle to the fabric Flame is kept perpendicular to the fabric Flame is kept perpendicular to the fabric just close to the roller. The soot which is produced is removed by the Smoke Extraction System which is attached to the machine. The fabric after keeping it in contact with the flame is passed through the cooling rollers.

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PASSAGE:

PROCESS PARAMETER Flame intensity Fabric speed Flame position : 6 to 12 : 90 - 100 m/min : 2

Relax scouring:
Machine Name: Harish Perfotex Model: OWRSC-4

This machine is used for scouring of the fabric. Scouring is defined as the process of removal of waxes, natural impurities present in the fabric. It comprises of the following steps: Wetting Trough: In this the fabric is kept in a cold water bath along with the following chemicals. Water-----2000ltr Caustic---1.5gpl Swello SK (Swelling Agent) ----1 gpl Ultra Wash: Following chemicals are added in this chamber: Water-----2000ltr Wettol Liquid----0.4gpl Rapid Scour-----0.4gpl These are basically stain removing agents. Soda Ash is added to remove Caustic Soda Hot Wash: Temperature---70 degrees Relaxing Zone

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Here the fabric is allowed to mix and react with all the chemicals so that proper scouring takes place. Cold Wash & Acid Neutralization After passing through these chambers the wet fabric is passed through 5 heating chambers so as to ensure proper heating. The temperature is around 150 degrees. Speed is around 35 mtr/min with production being 10,500 mtr/8hr. PASSAGE:

Recipe Sewello SK Soda Rapid scour Wettol liquid Caustic Acid

Chemical tank :1500 gm : 2000 gm : 800 gm : 800 gm : 3000 gm : 2000 gm Perfotex 1 Perfotex 4 Open trough Ultra wash

In relaxing zone fabric is washed with hot water. Chain speed can be adjusted to give required dwell time. In perfotex 2 & 3 fabric is again washed by passing through the nip of perforated rollers. PROCESS PARAMETER Scouring temp Drying temp Speed : 700C : 150 0C : 25 - 35 m/min

For worsted quality caustic is not taken in recipe & scouring temp is kept at 500C.

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Dyeing machines:
Jet dyeing machine:
It is used for Polyester dyeing. There are 4 machines each of capacity 200kg. Speed of the machine is 30 mtr/min. Here disperse dyes are used. MAIN PARTS OF MACHINE 1. Nozzle 2. Heat exchanger 3. Turbo pump 4. Dye addition tank 5. Filter 6. Drain valve 7. Valve for steam, water and air MACHINE PARAMETER Maximum working Temperature Maximum working Pressure Nozzle pressure M:L Capacity : 1400C : 5 kg/cm2 : 3 kg/cm2 : 1:3 [350 -400 lt] : 350 m [1, 2 & 4] : 500 m [3]

Application 1. Polyester dyeing 2. Weight reduction 3. Scouring 4. Enzyme wash

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Polyester is dyed with disperse dye under HTHP condition. The object of enzyme finish is to give softness to the fabric.

PROCESS

PET DYEING 3-40C/min

ENZYME WASH 3-40C/min

WEIGHT REDUCTION 3-40C/min

LYCRA SCOURING 3-40C/min

Rate of rise in Temp Holding Temp Holding Time Rate of cooling 1300C 30 min 40C/min 450C & 800C 45 min & 10 min 40C/min 800C 45 min 40C/min 850C 60 min 40C/min

DYEING RECIPE Dye Disperse dye AID RFT 250s Synergy CID Acetic acid Azalan : x gm

: 500 gm [Dispersing agent] : 1000 gm [Buffer] : 1000 gm : 400 gm [Anticreasing agent]

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Jigger dyeing machine:


It is used for viscose dyeing done by sulphur and vat dyes. Following chemicals are added for the dyeing process: Common Salt-----500 gm Soda Ash-----1250 gm D.T.C. ------ 300 gm Acetic Acid------100 gm Capacity of this machine is 1000kg.

MACHINE Jigger

APPLICATION Viscose Dyeing (VAT & Sulphur Dye) Reduction Clearing Viscose Dyeing Reduction Clearing Scouring of P/D & F/D Reduction Clearing Caustic Boil Final White

BATCH CAPACITY 300-350 m

LIQUOR CAPACITY 250 l

Pacific Jigger Jumbo Jigger

600 700 m 2500 m

500 l 1000 l

PROCESS FOR PIECE DYED SCOURING ON JUMBO JIGGER: RECIPE Process Hydro Chemical Hot wash Cold wash Neutralisation No. of ends 2 8 8 1 1 Temperature Room temp 85 to 900C 85 to 900C Room temp Room temp Hydro : 750 gm

Soda ash : 2000 gm Caustic : 1500 gm Ketasol : 1500 gm DTC : 500 gm

Acetic acid : 1000 gm

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PROCESS FOR FIBRE DYED SCOURING ON JUMBO JIGGER: Process Chemical Hot wash Cold wash Neutralisation No. of ends 3 3 1 1 Temperature 700C 800C Room temp Room temp Soda ash : 1000 gm Caustic Ketasol DTC : 1000 gm : 1500 gm :500 gm

Acetic acid :1000 gm

PROCESS FOR CAUSTIC BOIL ON JUMBO JIGGER: Process Chemical Hot wash Cold wash Neutralisation No. of ends 8 8 1 1 Temperature 85 to 900C 85 to 900C Room temp Room temp Soda ash : 1000 gm Caustic Ketasol DTC : 4000 gm : 2000 gm : 300 gm

Acetic acid :1500 gm

PROCESS FOR FINAL WHITE ON JUMBO JIGGER: Process 2UDI & Ketasol Drain Chemical Hot wash Cold wash Neutralisation 6 6 2 2 800C Boil Room temp Room temp No. of ends 6 Temperature 800C Sirrix 2UDI : 1500 gm Ketasol H2O2 Soda ash : 1000 gm : 6000gm : 1500 gm

Blue tone K2 : 1500 gm DTC Acetic acid : 1500 gm : 1500 gm

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PROCESS FOR REDUCTION CLEARING ON JUMBO JIGGER: Process No. of ends Temperature Caustic : 2000 gm Hydro Chemical Hot wash Cold wash Neutralisation 8 8 1 1 85 to 900C 85 to 900C Room temp Room temp : 2000 gm

Acetic acid : 1500 gm

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Mechanical finishing machine:


Following machines are used for mechanical finishing.

Stenter:
Machine make: Harish Perfotex This is a very big machine of about 35 mtr in length. It comprises of an input rollers from which the fabric is loaded. Then after passing through a lot of guide rollers and tension rollers it is passed through 6 heating chambers. The temperature of the heating chambers are maintained around 190 degrees where as for normal drying temperature is maintained around 170 degrees for each chamber. The chamber is about 3 mtr in length. A continuous conveyor belt runs in the chambers on which the fabric is pinned due to the presence of pins on both the sides of the belt. Initially the fabric is made to pass through the water kept in the wetting trough present in the input chamber. This is done to ensure uniform heating of the fabric. The speed of the rollers is maintained around 30mtr/min with the production amounting to 9500 mtr/8hrs. It is also used for chemical finishing of the fabric. In the wetting trough a silicon softener is added to ensure proper chemical finish for the fabric. For this the temperature is around 150 degrees.

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SPH has three hot air Stenter all of 6 chambers. Following processes are carried out on Stenter 1. Heat setting 2. Drying 3. Chemical finishing 1. Heat setting Heat setting imparts dimensional stability and prevent shrinkage & crease formation. 2. Drying Fabric is dried on stenter after several processes such as viscose dyeing, polyester dyeing, dolley winch scouring, weight reduction etc. 3. Chemical finishing Chemical finish gives desired feel and properties to the fabric. Fabric is first padded with the finishing chemical then passed through hot air chambers. Silicon softner, feeler & Crease resitance [Resin] finishes are major finishes.

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PASSAGE

Each chamber has rail, filter, radiator, blower and nozzle on both side.

PARAMETER FOR DIFFERENT PROCESSES Process Temperature Speed Overfeed

Heat setting

1900C

55 mpm 20 mpm for lycra

2 to 3 %

Drying

1700C

30 - 35 mpm

1%

1300C for 100% pet 20 mpm for lycra 1600C for worsted 1800C for lycra Chemical finishing 1700C 30 - 35 mpm 1%

1500C for 100% pet 20 mpm for lycra 1600C for worsted 1800C for lycra

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Zero-Zero Shrinkage:
Machine Make: RONSON Following are the parameters of this machine: Steam Pressure----2.5kg/cm2 Speed------20-25mr/min Shrinkage----1-1.5% PROCESS PARAMETER Shrinkage Temperature Speed Blanket squeezing : 1 to1.5% : 1300C : 25 -30 m/min : 2.5 kg/cm2

Calendar Rollers:
Machine Make: Prabhat It is used for applying luster on fabric and making it smooth. It works on the principle of pressure application between soft & hard roller.

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PROCESS PARAMETER Temperature Hydraulic pressure : 1350C : 50 kg/cm2 : 70 kg/cm2 [for worsted] Speed : 25 m/min

Decatizing Machine:
Model: Multi Decat-2 Temperature of steam----100 degrees Speed-----24-25mr/min Diameter of Cylinder Roller----1200mmr Steam Pressure----4-5 bars

OPEN DECATISING OD finish imparts pressing and some degree of softness to the fabric. OD consists of two perforated cylinders supplied with steam. Steam blows from inside out & impinges on the fabric through perforation. Each layer of fabric is covered with wrapper which transfers from one roller to another for winding & unwinding of fabric.

PROCESS PARAMETER Wrapper [Satin] length Fabric length Kier temperature Decatising time : 600 m : 500 -550 m : 100 1050C : 10 - 15 min

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KIER DECATISING In KD permanent finishing effects are obtained. The finish produces a full and soft hand to the fabric. In this machines three mechanism are performed simultaneously 1. Beam batching mechanism 2. Kiering in autoclave 3. Beam opening mechanism Fabric is wound under tension & in crease free condition on to a perforated beam. Each layer of fabric is covered by the wrapper. The batched beam enters into a horizontal pressure vessel. In the vessel first vacuum is created and then steam is applied on fabric surface from inside and outside of the perforated beam. Finished batch comes out from autoclave on completing the process. Finished fabric goes to trolley through belt while wrapper is transferred on the roller on which new batching is to be carried out.

PROCESS PARAMETER Wrapper [Satin] length Fabric length : 600 m : 500 -550 m

Winding & unwinding speed : 75 m/min Kier temperature Decatising time : 100 1100C : 15 min

SUPER FINISH This machine consists of three units 1. Currefin 2. Silicon belt & Effect roller 3. Decatising unit In this machine fabric passes between silicon belt and effect roller under tension. This contact produces soft, smooth and shiny appearance to the fabric.

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Quality

Plural 1400C 1300C

Mandate 1400C 1300C

Centum 1400C 1300C

China 1400C 1300C

Wind leaf 1400C 1300C

Hagger 1400C 1300C

Lycra 1200C 1100C

Heating roller temp Effect roller Temp Tension in Silicon belt Water

55%

70%

55%

55%

55%

40%

40%

50 L/H

35 L/H

35 L/H

35 L/H

50 L/H 50%

25 L/H

0 L/H

Tension in Decatising Speed

60%

60%

60%

60%

30%

60%

22mpm

15mpm

22mpm

20mpm

22mp m

18mpm

22mpm

MULTIDECATISING This finish gives smooth and luster to the fabric surface. Fabric passes over the large surface of heated roller. Firm contact between two is made by blanket. The advantage of this m/c over KD is that it is continuous m/c so batch to batch variations are eliminated.

Process parameter Temperature Speed - 1300C - 25 -30 mt/min

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FREQUENT PROBLEM OF DYEING SECTION

Shortage of trained labors with knowledge of machines and chemicals was found. Solution: There should be regular training programs for labors.

Unhygienic working conditions due to dangerous machines and hazardous chemicals used for dyeing. Solution: Proper cleanliness should be scheduled on regular basis and workers should be provided with personal protective equipments.

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FOLDING AND PACKING SECTION


Folding:
After processing the fabric is checked and mended again to remove the defect produced by processing. For this the fabric is passed over perching machine. There are 5 perching machines. Each checker checks & mended 3000 - 4000 mts fabric per shift. After checking the fabric is passed over folding machine. Folding machine double folds the fabric in plait form of 1 mtr length of each plait. 9000-9500 mts fabric is folded per shift.

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Packing:
After folding the fabric goes for packing. In packing department firstly the fabric is cut at the flag and graded according to its cutting length. Fabric packs are made of following length for different brands.

Brand name Grasim Graviera

8.75 7.20

10.00 8.40

10.40 9.60

10.80 10.00

11.25 10.40

11.70 10.80

12.00 11.25

12.50 12.00

13.00 12.50

13.00

After grading fabric is folded on card and then stamped and then Quality no., shade no., width and unit are marked. After it the wrapping band is wrapped on fabric and packed in polythene.

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TESTING AND QUALITY CONTROL SECTION


Testing is done at yarn stage and fabric stage. Both laboratory is at different place. Laboratory for yarn testing is within spinning department where as fabric testing department is another section. Main objective of this department is to give a total quality product to the customers.

Yarn quality control division:


This department studies the various parameters of the final product of spinning i.e. yarn. The parameters are: 1. Count 2. CSP 3. Single yarn strength 4. TPI Premier tester 7000: This instrument is used to know no. of thick places, thin places & naps. Premier Tensomax 7000: This instrument is used to know single yarn strength, sliver strength & lea strength. Wrap reel: This instrument is used for making lea. Cone collapsing strength tester: This instrument is used for knowing the collapsing strength of paper cone. To know the strength of paper cone is necessary so that after winding the yarn the cone may not be collapsed. Twist tester: This instrument is used to determine the TPI of the yarn. In Grasim Industry twist calculation 10 cm length of yarn is set between gripper and twist opener. The twist in these lengths is shown on counters. TPI = No. of twist in 10 cm length 10 x 2.54

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Board appearance tester: This instrument is used to know the yarn appearance. For this the yarn is wound on a white/ black board. Lea strength tester: This instrument is used to know the lea strength lea strength is measured in pound/ kgf. For this on wrap reel the lea is prepared according to ply of yarn. For single ply yarn For two ply yarn 120 yard 60 yard

Count calculation in SQC lab: Count = 64.8 Weight in gm of 1 lea For 40s count single ply Length of lea Weight of lea Count = = 120 yards = 1.62 gms 64.8/1.62 = 40s

Fabric quality control division:


This department concentrates its whole attention on the processed fabric. For this it takes sample of finished fabric. The main activities done by this department are: To determine the fabric parameters like: EPI PPI GSM COUNT Color fastness Wash fastness Crease resistance Resistance to crocking Resistance to staining

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Calculation:
EPI & PPI calculation : For EPI & PPI calculation 1 length of fabric is taken warp wise & weft wise respectively and then end & picks are counted.

Fabric GSM calculation: For this 10 x 10 cm fabric sample is taken. Then this sample is weighted in electronic balance. GSM = Weight of 100 cm fabric x 100 Count calculation: Count = No. of threads x length(cm) x 0.005905 Weight (gms.) For two ply yarn to determine resultant count the result is multiplied by 2. Crocking: Machine: innolab electronic crockmeter. Rubbing and abrasion and pilling tester: Machine: Martindle tester.. 6 samples can be tested at one go. It takes 20 minutes to complete 1000 cycles. ( machine: martindle from England) ICI pilling tester: Machine: foricom (Mumbai) No. of cycles: 18000 or 36000 Time taken: 5 hours Corck sheet is inside the pilling tester chamber.

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Color matching: Color matching cabinet by INNOLAB. (D-65, TL-84, FL, UV) Fastness to Perspiration: It is checked by perispirometer machine Machine by: innolab Only water is used. Weight is applied for 4 hours. Sample size for this is decided by buyer. P/H test: Fabric is cut in small pieces of 5 gms each and is kept in water for 10 minutes, and then P/H is tested using pH tester. Accepted level: 6 to 8. WIRA steam shrinkage tester; Used by lycra only. Wash fastness: Detergent and washing soda is used. Machine: wash fastner by innolab, paramount Temperature: 60 Time: 30 minutes In laundrometer 12 samples can be tested at a time. Tearing strength: Machine: paramount tearing tester. Fabric samples are inserted between weight & then pressure is applied and a cut is made by means of knife & if yarn comes out its tearing strength is good. Crease recovery tester: Machine by SASMIRA ( Worli Mumbai)

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Manufactured by: the silk and art silk research association. Blending test: Sample is taken and weighted. It is dipped in 70% conc. H2SO4 for 30 minutes. Then it is taken out and washed. It is weighted again weight should be 35% less as viscose gets dissolved in H2SO4.

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FREQUENT PROBLEM OF QUALITY CONTROL AND TESTING SECTION


There were no specific guide lines for testing of fibers and fabrics. More dependency on visual observation was seen that vary from person to person; conducting the same test. Solution: proper guidelines should be strictly followed to maintain quality and minimize losses.

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Learning experience
(with reference to a single most interesting incident)
23rd Dec 2010 was the day we entered in the premises of Indias most reputed business organization; Grasim Bhiwani Textiles Limited. We started our internship with meeting different people in different departments. Though everything seemed the same like in any other company on the very first day but then slowly and steadily we realized the different that makes GBTL a strong and powerful organization. Yes, there was something different about it. Its location, friendly working environment but the most attractive thing that made our experience worth it was the BIELLA KIER DECATIZING machine. To us it looked like a cylindrical petrol or milk container of goods train. The machine was very fascinating. What appeared to us like a cylindrical carrier of a goods train was actually a container where fabric was kept inside for dyeing process to take place. Learning experience in GBTL was very much fun, thrilling and comfortable even in such harsh climatic conditions. The next interesting thing was the World Class Manufacturing

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