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Stress management is the alteration of stress and especially chronic stress often for the purpose of improving everyday functioning. Stress produces numerous symptoms which vary according to persons, situations, and severity. These can include physical health decline as well as depression. According to the St. Louis Psychologists and Counseling Information and Referral, the process of stress management is one of the keys to a happy and successful life in modern society. Although life provides numerous demands that can prove difficult to handle, stress management is the best way to manage anxiety and maintain overall wellbeing. More information is provided below on how to measure stress levels, learn about stress management models and practice techniques that will help to reduce stress and promote a positive lifestyle.
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1 Historical foundations 2 Models 2.1 Transactional model 2.2 Health realization/innate health model 3 Techniques
capacities. and surgical procedures. prolonged restraint. Subsequent studies of stress in humans by Richard Rahe and others established the view that stress is caused by distinct. thus allowing stress to be controllable. Thus. but instead their effect is mediated by the individual's perceptions. The model contends that stress may not be a stressor if the person does not perceive the stressor as a threat but rather as positive or even challenging.1 Measuring stress 3.2 Effectiveness 4 See also 5 References 6 External links Historical foundations Walter Cannon and Hans Selye used animal studies to establish the earliest scientific basis for the study of stress. In order to develop an effective stress management programme it is first necessary to identify the factors that are central to a person controlling his/her stress. then extrapolated from these studies to human beings. however. Stress management was developed and premised on the idea that stress is not a direct response to a stressor but rather one's resources and ability to cope mediate the stress response and are amenable to change. it has been argued that external circumstances do not have any intrinsic capacity to produce stress. measureable life stressors. and understanding. They measured the physiological responses of animals to external pressures. if the person possesses or can use adequate coping skills. More recently. Lazarus and Folkman's interpretation of stress focuses on the transaction between people and their external environment (known as the Transactional Model). Also. and to identify the intervention methods which effectively target these factors. Models Transactional model Richard Lazarus and Susan Folkman suggested in 1984 that stress can be thought of as resulting from an “imbalance between demands and resources” or as occurring when “pressure exceeds one's perceived ability to cope”. They may . stress was traditionally conceptualized to be a result of external insults beyond the control of those experiencing the stress. such as heat and cold.o o • • • 3. that these life stressors can be ranked by the median degree of stress they produce (leading to the Holmes and Rahe Stress Scale). then stress may not actually be a result or develop because of the stressor. The model proposes that people can be taught to manage their stress and cope with their stressors. and further.
Health realization/innate health model The health realization/innate health model of stress is also founded on the idea that stress does not necessarily follow the presence of a potential stressor. disengage from it. In this model. Many techniques cope with the stresses life brings. This model proposes that helping stressed individuals understand the nature of thought—especially providing them with the ability to recognize when they are in the grip of insecure thinking. whereas a feeling of well-being results from approaching the world with a "quiet mind". Techniques High demand levels load the person with extra effort and work. personal demand has passed. and until the period of abnormally high. the normal frequency and duration of former schedules is limited. temporarily. the health realization model focuses on the nature of thought.learn to change their perspective of the stressor and provide them with the ability and confidence to improve their lives and handle all of types of stressors. stating that it is ultimately a person's thought processes that determine the response to potentially stressful external circumstances. stress results from appraising oneself and one's circumstances through a mental filter of insecurity and negativity. Instead of focusing on the individual's appraisal of so-called stressors in relation to his or her own coping skills (as the transactional model does). others face the stressor at a higher level of abstraction: Autogenic training Social activity Cognitive therapy Conflict resolution Exercise Getting a hobby Meditation Deep breathing Yoga Nidra Nootropics Reading novels Prayer . Some of the following ways induce a lower than usual stress level. to compensate the biological tissues involved. A new time schedule is worked up. and access natural positive feelings—will reduce their stress.
. Effectiveness Positive outcomes are observed using a combination of non-drug interventions: treatment of anger or hostility. Relaxation techniques Artistic Expression Fractional relaxation Progressive relaxation Spas Somatics training Spending time in nature Stress balls Natural medicine Clinically validated alternative treatments Time management Planning and decision making Listening to certain types of relaxing music. which can indicate activation of the fight-or-flight response drawing blood away from the extremities. One way is through the use of psychological testing: the Holmes and Rahe Stress Scale is used to rate stressful life events. particularly: New Age music Classical music Psychedelic music Christian music Sleep Music  Spending quality time with pets Techniques of stress management will vary according to the philosophical paradigm. and changes in stress levels. Changes in blood pressure and galvanic skin response can also be measured to test stress levels. A digital thermometer can be used to evaluate changes in skin temperature.   Measuring stress Levels of stress can be measured. while the DASS contains a scale for stress based on self-report items. Stress management has physiological and immune benefit effects.
The Wisdom of the Body. R.C. ISBN 0945819781 ^ Sedgeman. Principles and Practice of Stress Management. J. 7.  6.. NY: Norton Pubs.. ISBN 159385000X. Stress.org ^ Lehrer. "Stress and the general adaptation syndrome". Realizing Mental Health: Toward a new Psychology of Resiliency. (1995). David H. Appraisal and Coping. W. ^ http://integrationtraining. Robert L. (FRW) Barlow. Woolfolk.naturalproductsassoc. Wesley E. J. 2nd ed.A. Health Realization/Innate Health: Can a quiet mind and a positive feeling state be accessible over the lifespan without stress-relief techniques? Med. & Folkman. 3. R. 8. PMID 15426759. PMC 2038162. S. ^ Lazarus. ^ Mills. 5.uk ^ www. ^ Selye. 46– 47. ^ Cannon.S. Sulberger & Graham Publishing. Third Edition. .. Sci. Paul M. (1984). Sime (2007). Br.co. pp. Med. (1939). Ltd. (2005). autogenic training talking therapy (around relationship or existential issues) biofeedback cognitive therapy for anxiety or clinical depression See also Biofeedback Burnout (psychology) Distress Eustress Occupational health psychology People skills Psychological resilience Stress (biological) Reachback Relaxation technique Work-life balance References 1. 1 (4667): 1383–92. 2. H (1950). Monitor 11(12) HY47-52. New York: Springer. 4.
doi:10. Linden.C.161. E. Ramsden. ^ Bower. A study on the impact on stress and anxiety through Yoga nidra. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 56 (1): 9–11. ^ http://www. Kumar. Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada". V. Laboratory Centre for Disease Control at Health Canada. Andrea H.1016/S0022-3999(03)00120-X. P (1999). 7. Lenz. PMID 10333853. doi:10. 7(3) (2008) 405-409. & Segerstrom. PA. Health Psychology (3rd Edition). Arch Intern Med 161 (8): 1071– 1080. and immune function: positive mechanisms for intervention effects on physiology". 10. J. Kamakhya. JD. Ogden.com ^ Dubbed “Destressitizers” by The Journal of the Canadian Medical Association ^ Spence. Taenzer. PMID 11322841. S.1071. Open University Press: Buckingham.9. PMC 1230339. finding benefit. J. "Individualized Stress Management for Primary Hypertension: A Randomized Trial". edit 12. Recommendations on stress management. 13. Barnett.1001/archinte. . Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge. 11.pzizz. Joseph W. "Lifestyle modifications to prevent and control hypertension. (2000). Canadian Medical Association Journal 160 (9 Suppl): S46– 50. (2004). PMID 14987958. Canadian Coalition for High Blood Pressure Prevention and Control. W. "Stress management. Con (2001).8. Canadian Hypertension Society. ^ Wolfgang Linden.
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