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Stress management is the alteration of stress and especially chronic stress often for the purpose of improving everyday functioning. Stress produces numerous symptoms which vary according to persons, situations, and severity. These can include physical health decline as well as depression. According to the St. Louis Psychologists and Counseling Information and Referral, the process of stress management is one of the keys to a happy and successful life in modern society. Although life provides numerous demands that can prove difficult to handle, stress management is the best way to manage anxiety and maintain overall wellbeing. More information is provided below on how to measure stress levels, learn about stress management models and practice techniques that will help to reduce stress and promote a positive lifestyle.
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1 Historical foundations 2 Models 2.1 Transactional model 2.2 Health realization/innate health model 3 Techniques
and to identify the intervention methods which effectively target these factors. if the person possesses or can use adequate coping skills. Thus. however. Models Transactional model Richard Lazarus and Susan Folkman suggested in 1984 that stress can be thought of as resulting from an “imbalance between demands and resources” or as occurring when “pressure exceeds one's perceived ability to cope”. The model contends that stress may not be a stressor if the person does not perceive the stressor as a threat but rather as positive or even challenging. They may . stress was traditionally conceptualized to be a result of external insults beyond the control of those experiencing the stress. They measured the physiological responses of animals to external pressures. More recently. and surgical procedures. and further. prolonged restraint. The model proposes that people can be taught to manage their stress and cope with their stressors. Stress management was developed and premised on the idea that stress is not a direct response to a stressor but rather one's resources and ability to cope mediate the stress response and are amenable to change. Subsequent studies of stress in humans by Richard Rahe and others established the view that stress is caused by distinct. thus allowing stress to be controllable. capacities. it has been argued that external circumstances do not have any intrinsic capacity to produce stress. but instead their effect is mediated by the individual's perceptions. that these life stressors can be ranked by the median degree of stress they produce (leading to the Holmes and Rahe Stress Scale). and understanding. In order to develop an effective stress management programme it is first necessary to identify the factors that are central to a person controlling his/her stress. then extrapolated from these studies to human beings. measureable life stressors. Lazarus and Folkman's interpretation of stress focuses on the transaction between people and their external environment (known as the Transactional Model). Also.2 Effectiveness 4 See also 5 References 6 External links Historical foundations Walter Cannon and Hans Selye used animal studies to establish the earliest scientific basis for the study of stress. then stress may not actually be a result or develop because of the stressor. such as heat and cold.1 Measuring stress 3.o o • • • 3.
learn to change their perspective of the stressor and provide them with the ability and confidence to improve their lives and handle all of types of stressors. Some of the following ways induce a lower than usual stress level. whereas a feeling of well-being results from approaching the world with a "quiet mind". and access natural positive feelings—will reduce their stress. A new time schedule is worked up. the health realization model focuses on the nature of thought. Instead of focusing on the individual's appraisal of so-called stressors in relation to his or her own coping skills (as the transactional model does). disengage from it. Many techniques cope with the stresses life brings. This model proposes that helping stressed individuals understand the nature of thought—especially providing them with the ability to recognize when they are in the grip of insecure thinking. Health realization/innate health model The health realization/innate health model of stress is also founded on the idea that stress does not necessarily follow the presence of a potential stressor. the normal frequency and duration of former schedules is limited. temporarily. personal demand has passed. Techniques High demand levels load the person with extra effort and work. stress results from appraising oneself and one's circumstances through a mental filter of insecurity and negativity. others face the stressor at a higher level of abstraction: Autogenic training Social activity Cognitive therapy Conflict resolution Exercise Getting a hobby Meditation Deep breathing Yoga Nidra Nootropics Reading novels Prayer . In this model. stating that it is ultimately a person's thought processes that determine the response to potentially stressful external circumstances. and until the period of abnormally high. to compensate the biological tissues involved.
A digital thermometer can be used to evaluate changes in skin temperature. One way is through the use of psychological testing: the Holmes and Rahe Stress Scale is used to rate stressful life events. Changes in blood pressure and galvanic skin response can also be measured to test stress levels. Effectiveness Positive outcomes are observed using a combination of non-drug interventions: treatment of anger or hostility. while the DASS contains a scale for stress based on self-report items. which can indicate activation of the fight-or-flight response drawing blood away from the extremities. and changes in stress levels. particularly: New Age music Classical music Psychedelic music Christian music Sleep Music  Spending quality time with pets Techniques of stress management will vary according to the philosophical paradigm. . Relaxation techniques Artistic Expression Fractional relaxation Progressive relaxation Spas Somatics training Spending time in nature Stress balls Natural medicine Clinically validated alternative treatments Time management Planning and decision making Listening to certain types of relaxing music. Stress management has physiological and immune benefit effects.   Measuring stress Levels of stress can be measured.
H (1950). Br. (2005).. Med.co.uk ^ www. R. Health Realization/Innate Health: Can a quiet mind and a positive feeling state be accessible over the lifespan without stress-relief techniques? Med. (1939). 8. ^ Cannon. ISBN 159385000X. ^ Selye.  6. ^ http://integrationtraining. "Stress and the general adaptation syndrome".org ^ Lehrer. 2. 4. S. 1 (4667): 1383–92. & Folkman. Sci. NY: Norton Pubs. (1995). The Wisdom of the Body.A. 3. Sime (2007). ISBN 0945819781 ^ Sedgeman. autogenic training talking therapy (around relationship or existential issues) biofeedback cognitive therapy for anxiety or clinical depression See also Biofeedback Burnout (psychology) Distress Eustress Occupational health psychology People skills Psychological resilience Stress (biological) Reachback Relaxation technique Work-life balance References 1. 46– 47. W.S.C. PMC 2038162. . Principles and Practice of Stress Management. 2nd ed. pp. Appraisal and Coping. 5. ^ Mills. Paul M. Realizing Mental Health: Toward a new Psychology of Resiliency.. 7. (1984). David H. Third Edition. New York: Springer.. Stress. Woolfolk. J. R. ^ Lazarus. (FRW) Barlow. Sulberger & Graham Publishing.naturalproductsassoc. PMID 15426759. Ltd. Monitor 11(12) HY47-52. J. Robert L. Wesley E.
Lenz. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge.1001/archinte.1071. Ramsden. 7(3) (2008) 405-409. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 56 (1): 9–11.9. . PMID 10333853. Barnett. doi:10.pzizz. Linden. doi:10. ^ http://www. Laboratory Centre for Disease Control at Health Canada. Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada". Canadian Medical Association Journal 160 (9 Suppl): S46– 50. Health Psychology (3rd Edition). A study on the impact on stress and anxiety through Yoga nidra. Kamakhya. Ogden. Joseph W. edit 12. & Segerstrom. PA. ^ Wolfgang Linden. Canadian Coalition for High Blood Pressure Prevention and Control. and immune function: positive mechanisms for intervention effects on physiology". Kumar.1016/S0022-3999(03)00120-X. W. J. JD. "Individualized Stress Management for Primary Hypertension: A Randomized Trial". P (1999). 7. Canadian Hypertension Society. "Stress management.8. (2004). PMID 11322841. Taenzer. Open University Press: Buckingham. (2000).com ^ Dubbed “Destressitizers” by The Journal of the Canadian Medical Association ^ Spence. finding benefit.161. Andrea H.C. 13. PMC 1230339. E. J. Con (2001). V. Arch Intern Med 161 (8): 1071– 1080. PMID 14987958. S. "Lifestyle modifications to prevent and control hypertension. 11. Recommendations on stress management. 10. ^ Bower.
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