Radio has made a comeback in the lifestyles of Indians.

Radio has the reputation of being the oldest and the cheapest medium of entertainment in India. The radio industry has been completely reshaped by the various private players that entered the sector after the government allowed foreign investment into the segment and opened the licenses to the private players. DIFFERENT TECHNOLOGIES IN BROADCAST RADIO The first one which was used in olden days for transmission purpose is AM. Amplitude modulation (AM)1 is a technique used in electronic communication, most commonly for transmitting information via a radio carrier wave. Frequency modulation (FM) is a form of modulation that represents information as variations in the instantaneous frequency of a carrier wave. FM is commonly used at VHF radio frequencies for high-fidelity broadcasts of music and speech. Today radio is used for many forms of communication from long distance satellite communications to the personal cell phones that are widely used. In addition to this wireless communications are becoming more important for data as demonstrated by the rapid growth in Wi-Fi Radio is also used for telecommunications links. Signals with frequencies in the microwave region are normally used. These signals have frequencies much higher than those in the short wave band and they are not affected by the ionosphere. However they provide reliable direct line of sight links that are able to carry many telephone conversations or other forms of traffic. Satellite radio Satellite radio is one of the fastest-growing entertainment services in the world and it is making its presence felt in a small but a positive way in India. A satellite radio is basically a digital unit that receives signals broadcast by communications satellite. This allows a person with a set to follow his favorite stations anywhere in the country unlike the terrestrial radio (AM and FM) whose signals are limited to a certain area depending on the power of the station. Some of the advantages of a satellite radio are that the sound is of digital quality and there are no commercials. But it is not for free, it is available on subscription for a fee. An example would be “world space radio”. Satellites, radar, communications, internet, message service are the effect of radio technology in our modern day life. With the growth of radio the requirement for mobile connectivity, it is certain that wireless technologies with radio at the core will continue to thrive and become more

widespread. To meet the demand it is likely that new technologies will be developed to maximize the use of the available radio spectrum. HD radio ("hybrid digital" or "high definition") is a brand name of a method of digital transmission of AM and FM radio stations. The HD Radio system is unique which allows stations to broadcast crystal-clear audio and a variety of text-based services, as well as more FM channels, without changing to new frequency bands. Hybrid system is a system in which digital signals are sent along with the analog carrier as the standard for AM and FM broadcasting in the United States. FM stations can offer multiple channels (called "Multicast" channels) on the same frequencies allocated to analog radio stations. Internet radio Internet radio e-Radio is an audio broadcasting service transmitted via the Internet. Broadcasting on the Internet is usually referred to as webcasting since it is not transmitted broadly through wireless means but is delivered over the World Wide Web. The term "e-Radio" suggests a streaming medium that presents listeners with a continuous stream of audio to which they have no control much like traditional broadcast media. It is not synonymous with podcasting which involves downloading and therefore copyright issues. Nor does e-Radio suggest "on-demand" file serving. Many Internet "radio stations" are associated with a corresponding traditional "terrestrial" radio station or radio network. Internet-only radio stations are usually independent of such associations. Old media don’t’ die! They just bounce back in new avatars. Not so long ago radio had been written off as fuddy-duddy, down market and not so cool. Television and later “new media” were touted to being the media of the future. But thanks to technology radio is making a comeback. FM radio is a new entity altogether and has to deal with new market dynamics. Media owners dealing with new markets will virtually have to draw up their strategies as they go along, create programming that is new, innovative and grab away eyeballs from TV sets and make them tune into their radio sets. It’s a whole new challenge and competition is never far away. Ad revenues will also not be easy to come by, as advertisers will expect media players to put their money where their speakers are before they commit large sums of money towards radio advertising. The other challenge for radio in attracting advertisers is the nature of the medium-radio has always

considered being a reminder medium. The involvement of listeners to radio is low, Vis a Vis television or print media. With the coming of more channels, and the emergence of lifestyle advertising, radio will become a push and pull medium. As said earlier, is not just making a comeback but is being reincarnated into a new avatar. Any radio setup has two parts: • • The transmitter The receiver

The transmitter takes some sort of message (it could be the sound of someone's voice, pictures for a TV set, data for a radio modem or whatever), encodes it onto a sine wave and transmits it with radio waves. The receiver receives the radio waves and decodes the message from the sine wave it receives. Both the transmitter and receiver use antennas to radiate and capture the radio signal. When you listen to a radio station and the announcer says, "You are listening to 91.5 FM “what the announcer means is that you are listening to a radio station broadcasting an FM radio signal at a frequency of 91.5 megahertz. Megahertz means "millions of cycles per second," so "91.5 megahertz" means that the transmitter at the radio station is operating at a frequency of 91,500,000 cycles per second. Your FM (frequency modulated) radio can tune in to that specific frequency and give you clear reception of that station. All FM radio stations transmit in a band of frequencies between 88 megahertz and 108 megahertz. This band of the radio spectrum is used for no other purpose but FM radio broadcasts. Common frequency band includes the following: • AM radio - 535 kilohertz t - 1.7 megahertz • FM radio - 88 megahertz - 108 megahertz AM radio has been around a lot longer than FM radio. The first radio broadcasts occurred in 1906 or so, and frequency allocation for AM radio occurred during the 1920s. In the 1920s, radio and electronic capabilities were fairly limited, hence the relatively low frequencies for AM radio. FM radio was invented by a man named Edwin Armstrong in order to make high-fidelity (and static-free) music broadcasting possible. He built the first station in 1939, but FM did not become really popular until the 1960s. .

HISTORY OF RADIO Radio owes its development to two other inventions, the telegraph and the telephone; all three technologies are closely related. Radio technology began as "wireless telegraphy". Radio can refer to either the electronic appliance that we listen with or the content listened to. However, it all started with the discovery of "radio waves" - electromagnetic waves that have the capacity to transmit music, speech, pictures and other data invisibly through the air. Many devices work by using electromagnetic waves including: radio, microwaves, cordless phones, remote controlled toys, television broadcasts, and more. The Roots of Radio During the 1860s, Scottish physicist, James Clerk Maxwell2 predicted the existence of radio waves; and in 1886, German physicist, Heinrich Rudolph Hertz demonstrated that rapid variations of electric current could be projected into space in the form of radio waves similar to those of light and heat. In 1866, Mahlon Loomis, an American dentist, successfully demonstrated "wireless telegraphy." Loomis was able to make a meter connected to one kite cause another one to move, marking the first known instance of wireless aerial communication. Twenty years after the telephone was invented and music was first sent down a telephone line, Guglielmo Marconi sent radio signals. Marconi (1874-1937) was born in Italy and studied at the University of Bologna. He was fascinated by Heinrich Hertz’s earlier discovery of radio waves and realized that it can be used for sending and receiving telegraph messages, referring to it as “wireless telegraphs.” Marconi’s first radio transmissions, in 1896, were coded signals that were transmitted only about 1.6 km (a mile) far. Marconi realized that it held huge potential. He offered the invention to the Italian government but they turned it down. Marconi was not the first to invent the radio, however. Four years before Marconi started experimenting with wireless telegraph, Nikola Tesla, a Serb who moved to the USA in 1884, invented the theoretical model for radio. Tesla tried unsuccessful to obtain a court injunction

When he was found dead in 1929. In 1943 the US Supreme Court reviewed the decision.against Marconi in 1915. The transmission was over a distance of three miles from the Presidency College and Science College in Calcutta. Thus writes contributor Dipak Basu. . Kentucky. Nikoli Tesla remains to be acknowledged as the inventor of the radio. Tesla became acknowledged as the inventor of the radio – even though he did not build a working radio. a farmer from Murray. Marconi’s Coherer. Stubblefield demonstrated his invention to the press in 1902 but. Growth of Radio . Marconi was present in the meeting of the Royal Society and it is thought that he stole the notebook of Bose that included the drawing of the ‘Mercury Coherer with a telephone detector’. The instruments (‘Mercury Coherer with a telephone detector’) are still there in the science museum of the Calcutta University. 1998. He was awarded the US patent for the invention of the radio in 1904. It is reputed that Nathan B. January. This was a way of communicating between two points. was the exact copy of that of Bose. being afraid that his invention will be stolen. Bose had solved the problem of the Hertz not being able to penetrate walls. however. Stubblefield. made a voice transmission four years before Marconi transmitted radio signals. Bose did not apply for a patent on his design because he believed in the free flow of inventions in science. Transmitters at that time were called spark-gap machines. his radio equipment was gone. mountains or water. By that time Marconi had received his patent and international recognition.C. which he used in 1901. Indian scientist J. It was developed mainly for ship-to-shore and ship-to-ship communication. it was not public radio broadcasting as we know it today.Radiotelegraph and Spark-Gap Transmitters Radio-telegraphy is the sending by radio waves the same dot-dash message (Morse code) used in a telegraph. But under pressure from American friends. referencing the Proceedings of the IEEE. never marketed his wireless radio. Bose demonstrated the radio transmission in 1896 in Calcutta in front of the British Governor General. he applied for the patent in September 1901.

Claims to that distinction range from the phase. In the early 1900s. Fessenden. in 1906. Lee De Forest provided that detector. all radio development was controlled by the U. Military Use and Patent Control When the United States entered the First World War in 1917. which was heard by radio-equipped ships within several hundred miles. to an experimental program of talk and music by Reginald A. in 1892.AM Radio Lee Deforest invented space telegraphy. Navy to prevent its possible use by enemy spies. the triode amplifier and the Audio. after the government released its control of all patents. the great requirement for further development of radio was an efficient and delicate detector of electromagnetic radiation. primarily because the initial radiotelegraph transmitter discharged electricity within the circuit and between the electrodes was unstable causing a high amount of interference. The Alexanderson high-frequency alternator and the De Forest tube resolved many of these early technical problems. Radio Speaks The first time the human voice was transmitted by radio is debatable. much weaker signals could be utilized than had previously been possible. Lee Deforest . thus. In 1919. The U. Kentucky. "Hello Rainey" spoken by Natan B. Stubblefield 2 to a test partner near Murray.Improvements to Radio Transmitters Overseas radiotelegraph service developed slowly. government took over control of all patents related to radio technology. . the Radio Corporation of America (RCA) was established with the purpose of distributing control of the radio patents that had been restricted during the war. It made it possible to amplify the radio frequency signal picked up by the antenna before application to the receiver detector.S.S. De Forest was also the person who first used the word "radio".

Virginia. super heterodyning. Edwin Armstrong invented the regenerative or feedback circuit. Frequency modulation or FM improved the audio signal of radio by controlling the noise static caused by electrical equipment and the earth's atmosphere. also in New York City. and frequency modulation. Edwin Howard Armstrong was one of great engineers of the 20th century. to the Eiffel Tower in Paris. Edwin Armstrong should be known for inventing three key innovations: regeneration.885 for a "Method of Receiving High-Frequency Oscillations Radio" for his FM technology. Edwin Armstrong received U. 1920. FM Radio 1933 Edwin Armstrong is most commonly known for inventing frequency-modulated or FM radio in 1933. he was born in 1890. On November 2. Regeneration amplification worked by feeding the received radio signal through a radio tube 20. patent 1. the young Armstrong began studying radio and building homemade wireless equipment.342. speech was first transmitted across the continent from New York City to San Francisco and across the Atlantic Ocean from Naval radio station NAA at Arlington.000 times . including a 125 foot antenna in his parent's backyard. However.True Broadcasting Begins In 1915. The Dawn of FM Radio The story of FM radio is one of success and tragedy. Edwin Armstrong was only eleven when Marconi made the first trans-Atlantic radio transmission.S. and died in 1954. Regeneration Amplification 1913 In 1913. Westinghouse's KDKA-Pittsburgh broadcast the Harding-Cox election returns and began a daily schedule of radio program. Enthralled. in New York City.

Armstrong was well aware of AM radio's major limitations: • • • Static interference from household appliances and lighting Limited audio quality (frequency response and dynamic range) Nighttime interference between many stations (co-channel interference). By 1941. 50 FM stations were on the air. that increased the power of the received radio signal and allowed radio broadcasts to have a greater range. the FCC allowed them to simulcast — simultaneously broadcast the same programming on both their AM and FM stations. RCA bought into the patents and helped Armstrong develop an experimental radio station.per second. Even though he had improved AM radio in significant ways. especially in rural areas Armstrong took his invention to a friend. Superhetrodyne Tuner Edwin Armstrong invented the superhetrodyne tuner that allowed radios to tune into different radio stations. many FM stations . Once TV started to evolve. Then the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor. Armstrong was clearly a technical genius. pressured the FCC to change all of the FM radio frequencies — a move they knew would instantly obsolete all of the exiting FM radios. David Sarnof3 and RCA. interest in FM radio further diminished and by 1949. he's still considered the most prolific inventor in radio's history. David Sarnof. and cause Armstrong to lose his personal investment in FM radio. Although his life was cut short. who was head of RCA and had said he would help him develop it. because of ionosphere refraction. Since most radio station owners didn't want to go to the expense of creating high-fidelity programming just for their FM stations. still out to hold control of their radio empire. The ensuing war diverted resources and froze development.

We'll cover public broadcasting — both radio and television — in an upcoming module. 1954. RADIO BROADCASTING . He wrote a note to his wife apologizing for what he was about to do. and jumped to his death. but today it leads AM radio in both number of stations and listeners. removed the air conditioner from his 13th story New York apartment. On January 31. Graph 1: Growth of FM radio (Source: As shown in the from the graph . gave up his long. Edwin Armstrong. FM radio not only climbed out of the cellar of popularity after Armstrong's death. A few weeks later RCA announced record profits. Once FM radio started to make money. RCA quickly started pushing its development and subsequently made millions of dollars from the sale of FM transmitters and equipment. The green line represents the growth of noncommercial and National Public Radio (NPR) stations. taxing battle against Sarnof and RCA.had shut down.cybercollege.

was in short supply. etc. it marked the development of new types of equipment. but relatively little effect on broadcast revenues. On the other hand. . but even so. it saw development of basic types of programs. employees were drafted into military service. Some of this increase was the result of inflation. The transistor was demonstrated in 1947 by Bell Labs. 1930s: This was the beginning of the great depression in the United States – a depression which had its effect on programming and on the various forms of advertising. in December of 1941. The 1930-35 period was also the time of the greatest "idea" development in the history of American radio programming-with respect to network programs in particular. from a threat-of-war situation into actual involvement. 1940s: This period included World War II. The war imposed as many hardships on broadcasters as it did upon those engaged in other occupations. 1945-1952: A highly important era in the history of American radio and television. no less than 70% above the level of revenues in 1940-41. tubes. 1926 – 1930: Commercial radio became solidly established. the erection of 108 TV stations-and the beginnings. 1941 to 1945 was the big money-making time for American radio. costs advanced. older forms were polished and improved. and while not too many new program forms introduced.This period marked the start of "regular" broadcasting. after the government removed restrictions late in 1919. it was a period in which some persons at least saw in broadcasting possible source of revenues-from sale of time. 1923 – 1926: This was a transitional period. Broadcasting in 1935 to 1941 saw radio revenues soaring to new heights. The make-up of RCA consisted of those companies that had the key patents or would shortly buy them for wireless telegraphy. both network and station revenues were strikingly greater than in the prewar period. in 1944-45. especially on the network level. Chiefly. it saw the beginnings of broadcasting on a commercial basis. The Radio Corporation of America4 was formed in 1919 as a patent pool to control the use of the new equipment which had been invented during WWI. rather than the sale of receiving sets. The nation had shifted. but which was not able to be used unless all the conflicting patent owners would permit. of a shift in importance from radio to television.particularly development of networks and the presentation of network programs by national advertisers. electronic concerns were shifted to war production. with the result that broadcasting equipment. at least. It saw an enormous increase in the total number of radio stations.

once AM and now FM were making lots of money. The Big FM's would rule by the decade’s end. Radio became less secure. AM stations even tried to meet the challenge by going "stereo" but no one cared. Pop music was better and it demanded a delivery service that sounded as good as a home audio reinvents: Probably based on the early work of programmers like McClendon and Bill Drake. The music was still controlled by cynical old white men. Each station has only a small segment of the audience. Programming. There was even disco on FM! Formats fragment: There are no longer just two formats. AM stations still refused to play the new music from albums and were suddenly facing new competition from FM stations that would play the music. The saying. it seemed. but during this decade television became the dominant mass medium as the freeze on licenses was lifted and a 70channel UHF band was added. Radio makes lots of money: The big music stations. Advertisers want to buy radio. 1960-1970 . but grew in the number of smaller stations licensed. "be bright. in some markets more than 50% of the people using radio are still tuned by habit to that "one big legendary AM bores: AM Top 40 begins the decade with lock on the ratings. reversing their 1950 decision which had authorized a non-compatible field-sequential system (CBS). Stations played three minute songs. The networks reached from coast-to-coast and in 1953 the FCC approved the industry indorsed compatible NTSC color television system (RCA-NBC). posted in every control room. FM makes a comeback: For a system that was invented nearly 40 years earlier. it took a long time for FM to overtake AM. There are plenty of listeners and times are good as far as jobs and money. top-40 on AM and progressive rock" on FM. . be brief" was.Broadcasting from 1952 through the 1960's: Earlier trends continued. Even though its sound was stale. There were lots of jingles and promotions. hundreds of AM stations embrace a "top-40 time and temperature" format." By the middle of the decade most of these major stations were struggling. music and contests are now targeted to a specific age group (12-35) based on demographic research showing this group has money to spend on goods and services by the new affluent middle class. 1970-1980 .

tenacious. New group owners & duopolies: One company can now own 25-25-25 plus and in San Jose and San Francisco some companies own many stations. This means cutbacks.000 and in major and large markets. In the 1980s almost half of the radio stations changed hands. News and public affairs suffered. The era of Niche Programming and formats begins and now there is a format for every narrow struggles: The Reagan administration de-regulates the industry. 1990-2000 . In this market most of each day is automated. competes: Less people do more work. less news and public affairs types. New owners. now your station was no longer required to have news. New radio station owners want to cut costs. 1980-1990 . the radio station you also bought is worth less than you paid. use automation to run three stations at once. promise of fewer stations and an expanded AM band. hundreds of new radio networks emerge and die. less people have to do more. Stations now have to satisfy the demands of the marketplace instead of the demands of Federal regulation. A smaller pie: The number of stations swelled to 12. new challenges: For young people seeking a career in radio the good news was if you are good at sales. Digital takes over radio technology: Now an entire day can be stored. promotion or production of promotions. No union problems because the unions in radio are practically irrelevant. Smaller stations automate with them but it makes the station less local-sounding. there were perhaps 100 to 200 stations vying for listeners. Production that used to involve splicing tape is now done .Radio networks return: With inexpensive satellite technology available to every station. To succeed you have to be above average. AM tries a comeback: Helped with new technical regulations. the FCC station owners tried to save AM one more time. edited and broadcast using the hard drive of a computer. If you were a news writer. more automation. mostly offering music formats delivered by big city DJ's. lessappealing to listeners and sponsors. you'll work. persistent. Buy-sell: Like the house you bought for a high price in the late 1980's. reporter and reader as every station had to employ in the 1970's.

All India Radio`s network had expanded by the mid-1990s to around 146 AM stations along with a National Channel. It was established in 1936 and since 1957 All India Radio was renamed as Akashvani. etc. There were only six radio stations in India at the time of independence. the North-East Zone in Guwahati. Assam. current owners want to be first in line when licenses are issued for these new services. New delivery services: Digital stuff. the Indian Broadcasting Company5. AM is around after almost 100 years. AIR was made a separate Department under the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. the East Zone in Kolkata. When India became independent in 1947. HISTORY OF RADIO IN INDIA: Broadcasting began in India with the formation of a private radio service in Madras (presently Chennai) in 1924.with the click of a mouse. Akashvani is a government-owned. The company almost went bankrupt in 1930 but the colonial government took away the two transmitters and the Department of Labor and Industries started operating them as the Indian State Broadcasting Corporation. Vividh Bharati earned its revenues from extensive advertisements and . British colonial government approved a license to a private company. In 1936. In the very same year. And just like the transition to television. Commercial Radio services in India started in 1967 by Vividh Bharati Service with its headquarters at Mumbai. Analog devices like cart machines will disappear by 2004. this very Corporation was renamed All India Radio (AIR) and was controlled by the Department of Communications. to be replaced with computer memory. DBS. DMX. and suddenly many struggling AMs are revived and saved again by talk radio. the Integrated North-East Service that aimed at reaching out to the tribal groups in northeast India and handles the External Services. semi -commercial operation of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. to inaugurate Radio stations in Bombay and Kolkata. the West Zone in Mumbai. There are five regional headquarters for All India Radio. Still. and the South Zone in Chennai. Talk radio's decade: Rush. Government of India controls the radio broadcasting in India that works under the Directorate General of All India Radio. namely in the North Zone in New Delhi. all future non-FM delivery services. Internet. Conservative politics.

book commercials from advertisers and broadcast the whole lot. Initially it was around 14 million that rose to nearly 65 million. India has a wide-ranging network of medium wave and short-wave stations. (1997-98).had been broadcasting from thirty-one AM and FM stations during the mid-1990s. such as farmers needing agro climatic. through its electronic media regulatory body Prasar Bharti. In those days radio was considered as an integral medium of communication. In 1993. Not surprisingly. that television came into existence in 1959. Within 4 years. For more than 4 decades. however the importance of radio did not decline. the FM Radio advertising and sponsorship business grew to Rs. popularity of radio spread nationwide. in June 1998 the Government. and traffic and road sense. again associated with the All India Radio`s services. citizens duties and rights. primarily due to the absence of any motion medium. Then. the Government allowed private FM operators to 'buy' blocks (chunks) on All India Radio. In 1994 there had been almost eighty-five FM stations and seventy-three short wave stations that connected the entire country. plant protection. Most radios are also produced within India. 93 crores with Times of India's Times FM & Mid-Day Group's Radio Mid-Day becoming the main players. Television broadcasts started from Delhi in September 1959. Then history changed its course. Programs were broadcast twice a week for an hour a day on welfare topics related to community health. Indian radio proved to be a prime medium of social integration. prepare programming content. All the national affairs and social changes were informed through the waves of broadcast media and within no time. decided not to renew contracts of private FM operators. The role of broadcasting provided an inlet for the flow of modern ideas. Indian radio also took up the task of aiding in the development of economic scenario. the Government of India did not permit private radio stations to broadcast in India. In 1961 the television medium were expanded to include a school educational television project. The broadcasting equipment used in India is mainly indigenous and reaches special audiences. The early history of Indian radio broadcasting in independent India set the parameters for the succeeding role of television in the nation. the advertising revenue . It was due to the same reason of static thoughts prevailing in the society. and other agriculture-related information. The number of radio receivers increased almost five times between 1970 and 1994.

for 76 channels in 26 cities. the bids for Hyderabad and Nagpur came next. FM players pay annual license fees. Private FM radio sector would shift to a revenue-sharing model from the existing license fee regime. A handful of serious bidders chose to remain. won the largest number of bids.Rs 97.2 million and Rs 74 million. Currently. For instance. 1999 was the historic day when the Government announced that 150 new FM channels would be licensed across 40 cities. while the bids for Delhi were Rs 71. players consolidated and the Government extended its deadline. respectively. many companies bid for the licenses to operate in key markets. there are roughly 10 players who will operate approximately in 37 cities across the country. the competition shrank.75 crore. a Zee Group company. However. garnered close to Rs 3. the government had to actually face mass withdrawal of bidders because of the huge license fee. which grew rapidly following the entry of private player. The first round of bidding .5 billion.for stations in Mumbai. Expecting to collect Rs 800 million from auctioning 108 licenses. Music Broadcasting became the first firm in India to commence private FM broadcast from Bangalore in July. But the going was not so easy. unable to shell out the high license fee.6 billion as license fee for the privately run FM radio channels in 40 cities.5 million from each of 10 broadcast companies . in effect. the Government gave the green light to privatize radio in India. And in 2000. the bidding price for the Mumbai license was reportedly to the tune of Rs 9. Licensee Fee and revenue sharing model Currently. In response to the Government's offer. The government got the highest bids . July 6. Interestingly. which focused mainly on the smaller towns. New Media Broadcasting. each for Rs 77. So. FM coverage in India is restricted to just 17% of the country. And the focus on metros was evident in the bidding. Many gave up. Incidentally. the Government auctioned licenses for private FM channels to bolster the revenue. Today.fell by 50% within a year! This time. revenue-sharing also exists in the media sector. The government collected close to Rs 4.2 million each Radio is expected to follow the growth of the Television industry. The objective is to “make FM radio a . Others dropped out saying the business was not viable. which go up by 15 per cent every year. compared to 89% of All India Radio (AIR).

That should open up a vast new market of consumers-100 million Indian households own an estimated 150 million radios. After the second round of privatization.7% and Spain with 9.5 per cent. the panel has fixed it at 4 per cent. The geographical area covered by radio in India in India is as high as 98 percent and the penetration level is approximately 97 percent. The panel also suggested that players wanting to enter the sector in the second round of licensing need to have a technical viability clearance by a financial institution on the financial viability of the project. Globally depending on each country. Canada with 12. Revenue-sharing will follow payment of a one-time entry fee through a process of bidding. FM station executives are not forthcoming on multi-platform strategies as yet. Revenue-sharing figure is quite low at around 4 %. On the higher side are countries like the United States with 13 %. outnumbering television sets 3:1. the number of FM radio stations targeted is around 300 to 4006. But FM presently covers only 17 percent of the area and 21 % of the population of India through transmitters.1%. While the private FM players had sought revenue-sharing in the band of 2-2. radio has a 5 % to 12 % of the advertising cake. However in spite of the various challenges the emergence of private FM stations is certain to increase the quantum of radio advertising in the country . It has also recommended to the government to release additional spectrum for the use of FM radio companies so that the number of companies operating in one centre can go up. it is firm on revenue-sharing now. It’s better to keep the revenue-sharing figure low than to have a failed project. much like satellite channels did to the quantum of television advertising in the country.success story”. There has been debate on whether to recommend a revenue-sharing structure or a fixed amount for a period of 10 years.FICCI estimates FM’s . Currently radio has just 2 percent of the 9000 crore Indian advertising market according to an Arthur Anderson’s survey. 50/. Given that radio has penetrated into 100 million homes and a FM set costs around Rs.

helpful information . While TV is a family medium. It can provide a level playing field with benefits for listeners. as the car population is much bigger. cellular phone service or auto related products would have a good impact when advertised on radio is primarily known as a “drive time” medium most people who turn in are doing so while commuting. FUTURE OF RADIO INDUSTRY FM Radio can play its part in building a stronger business future for India. community announcements and public service messages provide a real value-added service. . Also government allowing foreign players to enter the Indian market it will help the industry grow. For example. The future looks bright as the reach of radio is expected to raise post the increase in the number and quality of players in the industry. Providing free-to-air local broadcasts of music and entertainment. each radio station is reeling under the brutal financial impact of high costs. Various radio stations are coming up with IPO for example Radio Mirchi thus helping them expand. Virgin group has already started exploring the Indian market for suitable partners. Rs. With the government ready to reduce the license fees it will help in attracting new players like reliance which had earlier backed out only due to the entry fees. Also one must not forgot that radio continues to be a medium that has tremendous reach among the poor and marginalized sections of society. for advertisers. But at current levels of advertising support. This would be the key when evaluating the medium. With more players in the fray the FM radio industry would grow and also enhance the government’s yield from licensing radio naturally. It is on the basis of these key drivers of growth. it is being predicted that radio's share in the total advertising pie will see an increase in the medium term.share up from the present 1.5 percent to 5 % in five years. Also advertising of certain product seems to work very well while some might not. radio is personalized. They have also forecasted that revenues from radio advertising in India will be Rs. The new India deserves an active private FM radio sector. Thus the potential if FM is better is bigger town. 1200 crores by 2005 and Revenue of radio services is expected to rise to Rs 689 crore by 2008 at a CAGR of 30 per cent. employment & career options.traffic advisories. Spearhead the government objective of growing the FM radio business in India.

So that they can develop themselves well because this industry is still in an introduction stage. and reveals that radio listenership habits have changed considerably. They can’t afford a TV set. not only are listeners tuning into it more often but also sticking to radio for longer hours every day. Radio also reaches to uneducated village folk who do not read print publications.6 billion industry is reported to be growing by 31 per cent every year and should touch the Rs 6. • • 90% of India has access to radio which is unmatched by any other media. advertising spending is expected to amount to Rs 500 crore this year. pamphlets. are welcoming the opportunity. It is also a free medium.2 billion by 2007. though radio has only a 2 per cent share in the Rs 6. . brochures or ads in local supplements of newspapers. Therefore radio is more popular. • The advertisers. who would depend on word-of-mouth. Also. which is 4 % for the growth of the radio stations. the government has agreed upon revenue-sharing model. SWOT Analysis Strengths: • Recently. • Radio is considered as a background medium. • The success of private FM stations.000 crore Indian advertising markets. The Rs 1. because people can listen to radio anytime and anywhere they want. with revenue rising at 23 per cent annually.There are an estimated 150 million radio sets across the country. At the places where the literacy rates are low where people hardly read newspapers and radio is the only medium that they can understand.

• Radio is the least cost medium and it helps to reach mass audience with various backgrounds. And like its radio message creates a fleeting impression that is often gone in an instant.research is very important for any advertising segment. • Fragmented Audience . Research is the main base to attract client and get more revenue. An advertiser whose product depends on demonstration or visual impact is at a loss when it comes to radio. Therefore. Radio offers its reach frequency and selectivity at one of the lowest costs per thousand and radio production is relatively inexpensive. Many stations are conducting their own research which can be biased. Most of the stations plays much of the music that is played consist of Hindi Film songs. • • Radio is considered as a medium where the “Proximity to purchase” is very high. And therefore. • No proper research available . and therefore it is difficult to differentiate between the programs of the different channels. • Increase in listenership numbers but no increase in ad revenue. . Weakness: • One of the major weaknesses of Radio is that there is very less differentiation in the programs that are aired. Radio is a complement to another media. in India there is no proper research is available.the large number of the audience in India is fragmented in various remote places. This is the situation that every radio channel is facing. other media or the advertisers or agency can use this medium for brand recall. But. Many advertisers think that without strong visual brand identification the medium can play little or no role in their advertising plans. • Radio-only nature of radio communication is a tremendous creative compromise. the percentage of listener tuned to anyone station is likely very small.

• • Leaves huge scope for innovation in local market Threats: . like. And can play their station which will exclusively provide with the information relating to that university/college campus. Brand building is thus much more difficult.• Short commercials Opportunities: • Getting copyright licenses from the government for running mega events which are aired on the AIR radio station and have been restricted to be aired on other private stations. At the same time. • Allowing private FM players to start news and current affairs programs. One has to constantly innovate. • With the coming of the many more new players in the radio industry each channels can position themselves quite different from others. The launch of Private Radio FM has managed to create a set of ‘New Listeners’ for the medium • The new radio stations which will come in future they can have venture with the college or university campuses. • • • Launching a radio station with 24-hour news channel Tie-ups with BEST or railway authority for playing the FM in train and in bus. if some station is targeting the health conscious people then their programming strategy will vary accordingly. And then it is easier for the advertisers also to decide on which channel to advertise. and that is the challenge. and gung-ho about this whole enterprise. we are very bullish.

the sector generates annual revenues of INR 2.they can listen to music and get information on the move. As a result of unsustainably high license fees. as they could not afford to pay the annual license fees. With no particular differentiation in the music. which covers 91 percent7 of India's area and reaches 99 percent of the population.2 billion and is growing at around 20 percent annually. through a wide network of broadcasting centers and transmitters. If one considers the private sector FM market in Mumbai. Currently. This is one of the biggest threats it faces. low charges. set at levels significantly above their earning capacity. So.leveraging its twin advantages of wide coverage and cost effectiveness. Younger audiences. all of whom have been granted licenses over the past 3-4 years. They have taken very quickly to interacting with their favorite radio stations and RJs via email and SMS for song requests and competitions. It is dominated by the state owned All India Radio (AIR). Today's busy teenagers love radio because it complements a faster-paced lifestyle . particularly those below the age of 25. Given that commercialization of radio is still in a nascent stage in India. A few FM stations have been forced to shut down. INDIAN ENTERTAINMENT INDUSTRY FOCUS 2010 On Radio Radio is a mass medium and therefore ideally suited for India . AIR is the biggest player in India because of its reach. . against total operating costs of around INR 550-600 million. there is a fear of losing its brand loyalty. also have access to new technology like mobile phones. government channel etc… • Because of the new government policies there will be more number of stations and then competition will also increase. there are 21 privately-owned FM stations in 12 major cities. Given that a significant portion of the operating costs is the license fee. This implies a marginal rise in radio's share in the advertising pie to around 1.9 percent. Advertising is the sole source of revenue for radio in India. four players cumulatively generate annual revenues around INR 250-300 million. this growth rate is far from flattering. Apart from AIR. which is set to increase at 15 percent per annum. the sector has been reeling under heavy losses. revenues would need to grow at over 40 percent annually to break even in the next three years.• The biggest threat to private radio industry players is ALL INDIA RADIO.

in Mumbai and Delhi.Graph 2: Graph showing FM listeners across age groups (Source: www. Further. We estimate that if its real potential is unlocked in India. it is the younger generation that is the key target audience vis-à-vis radio. in terms of its advertising spend. radio remains a laggard.a clear indication of the vast commercial potential in India for this medium. While consumption in India is still largely at home. this sector has not been able to monetize its hold on the listener’s eardrums. It has less than 2 percent share of the total advertising pie in India. reaching over 99 percent of its one billion inhabitants . In India too. In spite of such attractive statistics. 70 percent of radio listeners in these cities listen to FM radio all seven days of the week. commercial radio could account for approximately 8 percent of media spends in the short to medium term and up to 10-12 percent in the long term. The easy availability of FM radio sets at affordable price points (ranging from INR 40INR 150) is fuelling its mass penetration. radio has a 21 percent share of the advertising The Indian potential India has an estimated 180 million radio sets. in Spain 9 percent and closer to home. in Sri Lanka. the radio sector cannot and should not be satisfied with a growth rate in the low 20s. Plainly. However. Bridging the gap . According to market research. radio has a 13 percent share. FM penetration is the highest in the SEC A segment and least in SEC D. In the US.televisionpoint. 'the radio on the move' trend is catching on in urban and semi-urban areas. compared to a global average of 8 percent.

Since the private FM channels need to survive in a commercial and competitive environment. has proposed a transition from the existing license fee regime to a revenue sharing one. Local mantra The sales and marketing efforts of the major FM radio stations have focused on the large advertising clients. they have focused on mass entertainment to gather listeners. needs to develop strategies to expand across the country and enhance business performance. but currently in India accounts for a small portion of the radio revenue pie. Hence. This may be partly attributed to the FMCG-marketing background of some of the managers and partly due to the sales strategy of the multi-media groups that own most radio stations. the designated regulatory body for radio. To exploit the true potential of this sector. to help the radio industry curb it losses. FM radio needs to grow from the current 21 stations in 12 cities to at least 300 stations in 100 cities. TRAI. The industry. retail comprises only 8 percent of radio advertising. in India. its ad revenues are expected to grow at a moderate pace. the challenge confronting radio is to bridge the gap between the current growth trend and potential growth expectations. The retail segment globally constitutes a large part of radio's clients and sales.Due to the public-broadcaster nature of AIR and its socio-economic rather than a commercial focus. thereby turning India's promise into reality. it is expected that the private FM channels will drive the future growth of the sector. In contrast. In its current form and structure. soon. . 70 percent of all radio revenues come from local retailers. and only 30 percent comes from either national or international advertisers or from the network of advertisers. In other words. For example. in USA.the local retailer. radio is a unique medium and the focus on large advertisers seems to be at the cost of its largest potential benefactor . It is hoped that clarity on revenue-sharing emerges. At an investment of INR 40 million per radio station frequency. on its part. the radio industry will not be able to attract the necessary funding. However. the total additional investment required will be INR 11 billion.

Radio stations offer high frequency ‘opportunity to hear’ for the advertiser. In India. can be a major beneficiary of radio advertising.televisionpoint. there is a need to unlock the advertising potential in the retail segment. A high frequency combined with a moderate card rate (effective rates average between INR 500 to INR 900 per 10 seconds) provides an opportunity for retail players to promote their products and services cost effectively without fragmentation as in the case of national or even regional media. with city/ locality specific target groups. by its very nature. The Radio. advertising on radio costs just 15 percent that of television. the cost effectiveness of radio advertising will be even more acute. due to its ability to transmit a particular message over a small geographical area. . the achievement of 60 percent of the result at 15 percent of the cost makes radio significantly more cost effective than television. which can be a great proposition for local retailers. Clearly. is a localized medium. International research indicates that radio has 60 percent of television’s effectiveness at increasing campaign awareness amongst an audience of 16-44 year old radio listeners. While the price relativity for other audiences will vary.Graph 3: Pie diagram showing the profile of advertisers (Source: www. where the cost of television advertising is more than seven times that of radio advertising. The price differential between radio and television will vary depending on the area and the audience. However.

Creation of value packs Most of the programming currently being Presently. Such content. However. there is enough potential to create a library of recordings that can be used beyond a single show. the advertiser base should be broad-based with a large number of local advertisers promoting their products. whether music or not. . It is important for the radio stations to highlight the effectiveness of using radio for local level promotions and region-specific ad campaigns. saves the cost of producing new content and generates newer revenues by offering brand association with such a property at reasonably low rates. such content can be exported for broadcast in other countries where the demand for Indian content is considerable. this potential is largely untapped. Moreover. While some radio stations are waking up to this reality. with around 11 percent of advertisers contributing 60 percent of their revenues. cross media promotions could be an added incentive for the potential advertiser. This should not be the case in a localized. Very little programming is developed to create any strategic intellectual property. since many FM players are associated with larger. Creating specific IP whether in the form of RJs. the advertiser base of FM radio is highly skewed. Creation of a good software library can become a source of competitive advantage for a radio player. Ideally. vertically integrated media corporations. Besides. programmed formats or around content areas could have the dual advantage of being re-usable in the future and being syndicated across other channels. when re-broadcast. if the topics discussed are not affected by the 'regency' factor. mass-medium like radio.televisionpoint. has little or no library value.Graph 4: Graph showing the revenue composition of radio Source: www. Interactivity is a major content driver within the radio programming strategy.

they provided the listener with a choice of English. However. with listeners simply switching from song to song. socio-economic or ethnic or combination of factors. most radio stations in India started off with a defined niche as well.Niche programming Internationally. The innumerable contests and interactive sessions on air bring in close to 30. However. especially FM radio. This me-too approach towards content has a direct implication on the marketing of the radio channels as any message or campaign carried by it runs the risk of being lost in the clutter. FMCG marketing or advertising.Hindi film music. Channels that started out with English programming as a key differentiator have drastically reduced the total airtime dedicated to it. radio stations find it difficult to market their USP. It may also require a shift from mass marketing of the radio channels to marketing programs targeted at specific market segments. These stations address specific audiences based on geographic. Channels that address specialist listener groups need to emerge. these channels also meet the demands of local advertisers. Very few have held on to the English format or even non-film content. Radio stations have traditionally grown by attracting specialized audiences. like a radio station that caters to the African-American population of New York or a Malayalam channel with Indian content for expatriate Indians in the Middle-East. This has led .a valuable database that is currently under leveraged. With limited sponsored market research done in this area. a closer look reveals that even programmed loyalty does not exist. Radio stations have not been able to generate any significant channel loyalty. Since there is very little to differentiate between the various channels. In fact. Between them. This is driven by the fact that radio stations hire people from high wage industries like television.000 callers every day for a single channel in a city like Mumbai . Initially. The salary structure in radio is comparable to that of other larger media units. Manpower The most conspicuous item on the expense list is 'salaries'. content specialization has been a distinct trend in the evolution of radio. Validation of niche audiences would enable differentiated client targeting with unique value propositions. these radio stations need not look beyond their walls to get valuable listener data. there is an urgent need to evolve programming towards differentiated content. Hindi and mixed content. Being localized. the pressure to sell airtime forced them to resort to the lowest common denominator . Radio stations will need to start finding their own niche. the resultant effect is constant channel swapping by listeners. Hence.

particularly in a market where lack of niche programming has resulted in constant surfing for songs of choice. brands like Binaca / Cibaca and Bournvita were built on radio. But as the market matures and niche channels develop with defined target groups and unique value propositions. These programs rode on extremely successful content formats. For example. with its diverse regional influences. the increased number of private radio channels across the country is likely to transform commercial radio from an urban phenomenon to a national one. branding exercises will become more meaningful. What could work better for them would be a combination of two. While it is necessary to incur reasonable manpower costs in order to stay competitive and attract the best talent. radio stations with limited budgets need to make a choice between channel branding and program branding. innovative cost management solutions such as the right mix between live and recorded music could reduce production and salary costs. Programs that are aligned to channel positioning can ride on the channel branding. Conclusion India's radio industry has a strong growth potential if mechanisms and policies are put in place to provide it with appropriate support. Channel brands and programs will be associated with niche content and specific listener profiles that can be sold to potential advertisers. . as has been the case with satellite television. irrespective of their preference or affinity to the the creation of a people-cost structure that is incompatible with the current size and revenue earning capacity of the radio industry. without diluting the channel positioning. What the listener associates with is the quality of content. There is no doubt about the effectiveness of radio when it comes to building brands for its clients. Some private FM stations have incurred large costs on building merely 'Top of Mind Recall' for all listeners. With privatization gathering momentum. The key word is 'association'. Branding Branding plays an important role in establishing a strong channel and program association amongst listeners. Brands that have spent more on marketing have a higher recall. India. is in a prime position to take advantage of the growth potential of this segment. but that does not necessarily translate into higher listenership. Branding is expensive and therefore. while other programs should develop their individual brands.

the nominal GDP growth rate. television.9%. 127 billion by fiscal 2006 Segmentation in advertising The five key industry segments comprise print. which lags behind other developed and developing countries Graph 5: Graph showing the ad spend across countries (Source: www. There is a correlation between the economic growth rates of a country i.Advertising in India: India has been among the fastest growing economies in the world. radio. According to CSO estimates nominal GDP growth for fiscal 2006 is estimated at 10.636 billion. and growth rates of the advertising industry The Indian advertising spends. and to reach Rs. the gross advertising spend in India is estimated at Rs 111 billion.94% over the last 10 years (1995-2005). These different segments within the industry are at varying stages of growth and corporatization .in) During fiscal 2005. with a nominal GDP CAGR8 of 9. and is expected to grow at 14. as a percentage of GDP.34%. The nominal GDP for fiscal 2005 was Rs.sebi. 30. is 0. cinema.

now has over 300 channels covering the Indian footprint. Thus.5% 6. radio accounts for 20% of ad spend.4% 7. resulting in growing ad spends on this medium. even 150 stations across India is a sustainable The Indian television industry has grown rapidly.2% 46. radio has suffered from shunted growth. TRENDS RADIO TRENDS IN INDIA & ABROAD: A MADISON INDIA STUDY It is ironical that while India has the second highest 9 penetration of C&S homes in the world.4% 0.6% 8. The growth of the satellite television audience saw proliferation of a number of satellite television channels offering more choices to media buyers and consumers of entertainment. Going by the International benchmark.3% 0.0% 0. which did not give enough prominence to radio as a rich medium for entertainment and also for community development.6% 41. which saw the beginning of satellite broadcasting in India.3% 40. This growth was also aided by the economic liberalization program of the Government.3% TV 39. American radio commanded US$3.0% 48.5% 2.4% 0. which started off as a single government controlled television channel.0% 6.7% 0. There are more than 6000 radio stations in US and even a developing country like Nigeria has 18 FM stations. In most markets. This can be attributed to misdirected policies by government. Reforms and proliferation of private players were the key reasons for this rapid growth of the share of television in the advertising industry.4% 0. the television broadcasting business.sebi.5% 7.4% 0. It is estimated that in 2001.3% Table 1: Table showing media spends in the total ad spend (Source: www.9% Cinema Outdoor Internet 0.7% 2.7% Radio 2.0% 43.5% 0.2 Billion out of US$60 Billion spent .9% 2.7% 0.Media Spends as % of Total Ad Spend Year 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Print 49.9% 43. especially since radio manages to garner around 4-5% of the mass media spend.9% 2.6% 46.4% 47. In some countries like Sri Lanka.

the concept of niche programming has not yet caught the imagination of the broadcaster and audiences find it almost impossible to distinguish one from another. Madison media estimates that by 2004.on mass media. in UK four media groups control nearly 60% of ad revenue. For instance. While growth of the radio broadcast industry looks a special radio station dedicated to south Indians residing in Mumbai or a station that caters exclusively to college going population. As it is early days in India. International experiences show two distinct trends in evolution of radio business Consolidation .8. Specialization . we expect that by year 2004. Publications having strong city edition will do have an advantage as they already have infrastructure to marshal local advertisers and also keep a tab on the pulse of the city citizens. as they will have access to well defined captive audience. As of today. emergence of stations that address only specialist audience groups . We expect the trend to continue for some more time till significant advertising monies are committed on radio. Today. the industry feels that these are mere start-up issues. In India. currently radio is able to garner less than 1% of the total ad pie of Rs. there are numerous issues facing the radio broadcasters. Radio Audience Measurement The question haunting most advertisers and media planners is regarding the audience measurement that will be adopted for Radio.Typically.Internationally. 600 crore. Such specialist channels will be ideal medium for advertisers. Madison Media expects that the evolutionary pressures will prevail in India and radio stations will increasingly find their own niche. radio should feature in the media planner's radar as a serious medium. if one goes by Mumbai experience. We expect similar consolidation exercise in India. . However. consolidation is inevitable and stations groups are formed that controls most of the revenues. radio stations have grown by attracting niche audiences (like a Hispanic channel in US or a Malayalam channel in gulf) and local advertisers. Radio stations that are part of established media houses would do well. advertisers will spend around Rs. media planners are quite at loss as there is inadequate information on this medium. station owners and advertising agencies on ad hoc basis are conducting research. This will constitute around 4 % of the enlarged ad pie. For instance. 500 crore on radio. there is a surge of activity when the media is liberalized but over a horizon of five to six years.

weekdays where the number of tune-ins is as high as 94%. It measures National radio audiences and the audience size of radio commercials aired on 31 radio networks operated by large radio networks. radio audience research has not matured to the extent of television audience measurement. There has been some academic discussion on use of "meters" in radio sets to determine listenership. Best Practices that have evolved in using the medium: . Radio Mirchi is the most popular station and is tuned by people in SEC A and B. followed by Hindi pop (40%). In the mean time. these are many years away from being put to commercial use. The popular rating system for radio that is used in US is the Arbitron's RADAR (Radio's All Dimension Audience Research) audience report.Even internationally. Key Findings from Madison Media Research • • • • • • Radio has a reach of 56% and there is a distinct skew towards males. remixes (37%) and English pop (33%). the next round of RADAR plans to shift reliance from telephone survey to diary-based panel for data collection. However. Madison Media routinely undertakes studies on radio usage. Sunday listenership is dramatically low with only 10% of the people tuning in to FM vs. audience measurement technique for radio will improve and a currency will be established for buying commercial time and selection of alternatives.000-person telephone survey. at public places (9%) and at the office (7%). Indicative surveys are being conducted and published periodically by research agencies. Advertising agencies also conduct periodic dipstick surveys. People listen to FM at home (70%). However. RADAR report was based on a 12. We expect that over a period of time. Till recently. we suggest that advertisers should not ignore the media owing to non-availability of any established audience measurement data. The prime reason for inadequate advancement in radio audience measurement technique has been the small share of ad pie that radio commands and also the vast geographic spread. Majority of the people listen to Hindi film songs (63%). Almost 51% of the people listen to FM for an average time of one hour and another 39% listen to FM for a longer period of 1-3 hours. while driving (32%).

which tested 1200 commercials with 200 respondents per commercial. It will be incorrect to directly transplant those learning are in Indian context. Exploit Drive Time Audiences .the traditional bastion of radio has been the "In car" listening. However. International experience suggests that music oriented properties targeted at youth last long and provide immense benefit to advertisers. many successful service brands especially those in office supplies and financial services have benefited tremendously by judicious use of radio. "Binaca Geet Mala" on radio was as one of the best media properties. It is not important whether in-car listeners will form the bulk of listenership base. A study by Voice of British Advertisers shows that radio is the most effective medium to target businessmen. The most impressive in this genre of research has been the Radio Recall Research (RRR). it is undeniable that for brands that target at affluent section of the society need to be actively associated with radio. It is more important to understand that radio will be the best medium to target upwardly mobile high spending executives and businessmen. There are mixed reports with regard to station switching behavior among in car listeners. However. This exhaustive study was conducted in early 1980s and subsequent research added to the body of available knowledge.While the audience measurement is still in infancy. Most of these studies have been conducted in developed markets like UK and USA. advertisers should be willing to enter early and commit long term investment. However. In any case. we do not expect car owners to be the largest audience for radio. A research by Radio Advertising Bureau (RAB). UK indicates. other studies indicate there is extremely low loyalty among in car listeners. that nearly 85% of in-car audiences do not shift stations frequently. users of radio as an advertising medium can benefit from extensive work carried out in area of media effectiveness. they are invaluable in providing directions and we at Madison Media have distilled these findings.studies clearly demonstrate that properties created on radio are cost effective and have advantage of high recall. Create Unique Properties . To create such high decibel properties. Closer home. making radio a very effective medium. Studies have demonstrated that in-car listeners are light consumers of other media like television. contrary to popular myth. given the low penetration of ownership of personal cars in India. adapted to Indian context and arrived at set of best practices for radio advertising. It might take some time before the properties start to reward the advertisers and advertisers should be willing to fork out the extra premium now before the medium gets established. . In other markets.

A study by Statistical research Inc. This study involved nearly 5500 interviews in continuous research to track awareness and attitudes to 17 brands. RRR studies also indicate that more brand mentions in the commercial were good for ad recall and was more effective when the brand was mentioned early in the advertisement. spots of 45 seconds or more were effective. where aural brand elements are used is very effective in sustaining brand's recall (tring tring of Britannia). radio can be advantageously used in creating sonic elements of a brand. This is called Imagery Transfer. Millward Brown conducted the study across October 1999 to April to find out how effective radio advertising can be relative to television. Radio Multiplier Effect . The broad findings of the study proved that radio was.studies have clearly established that length of the commercial had a positive impact on the advertisement. Recent studies have shown that Sonic branding. Effective Radio Copy Management . The ads that were repeated too often were disliked. there is evidence. it proved to be an effective medium. used in conjunction with a television campaign. ads that were liked had higher impact. Moreover. as one need not air the complete commercial to register recall. These tests also indicated that listeners were able to create and keep images fresh and top-of-mind even when engaged in other task.Exploit Imagery Transfer . fatigue factor is high with radio commercials. if 10% of a given television budget is re-deployed onto . three-fifths as efficient as television at driving advertising awareness amongst radio listeners. Creation of sonic branding reduces long term cost of advertising. the efficiency of the campaign in building awareness increases on average by 15% as shown in table below: (Source: rab. another monumental study is the Millward Brown study on radio multiplier effect. and in general. shows that three out of four consumers who watch a television spot will "replay" the visual image mentally when they hear a radio commercial for the same brand. As can be fathomed. The media tested were Commercial Radio and television in the Central Region of UK. Copy variation can offset this fatigue and it is suggested to have three variants of the same theme. As in any other media. Though airing multiple variants is recommended. Another series of studies called "distraction study" tried to simulate the fact that radio listening is always secondary activity. which state that simultaneous airing of more than 5 executions leads to decay in It is through imagery transfer that radio creates a synergy with television.apart from RRR. In general. on an average.

This would adversely affect the radio industry. Thus. Of course. This will provide an opportunity for the market to arrive at the final verdict on the effectiveness of the medium. This is hurting the growth of the FM radio industry as people who prefer niche music genres are not tuning into FM radio.The study highlighted that radio effectiveness result was achieved at one-seventh of the cost. Conclusion Radio offers tremendous opportunities for advertisers and media planners need to explore various options by which they can effectively use radio in their media mix. Most of them play popular film and pop music and very few cater to the niche audience such as English rock music lovers or Indian classical music lovers.K and other markets. This is happening because one player is allowed to own only one station in every city. the study makes a strong case for advertisers to divert a small portion of their TV budget to radio. Advertising is a discretionary expenditure and is the first one to be pruned in case of an economic slowdown. thus making them totally dependent on advertisement revenues. Little differentiation between different FM radio stations The content played on different FM radio stations is very similar in nature. FM RADIO INDUSTRY: RISK FACTORS Economic downturn10 The FM radio industry derives almost all its revenues from advertisement. Thus the FM radio operators are not willing to take a risk by not catering to the mass segment. Besides this. Competition from satellite radio . broadcasters need to develop the market by being more responsive to the advertiser's needs. The radio stations are free to air and do not garner any subscription revenues. However. this cannot be taken as a thumb rule as there will be wide variance between rates in U. Conversely. the major marketers advertising on radio may cut their ad budgets in case of an economic downturn. people frequently switch between stations leading to listenership fragmentation.

This favorable treatment meted out to satellite broadcasters may adversely affect the growth of the FM radio industry. satellite radio has high subscription charges whereas FM radio is free to air. Threat from digital technologies Digital broadcasting technologies like Satellite/Digital Audio Broadcast (DAB) using the FM band and Digital Radio Mondial (DRM) using the AM band are becoming popular worldwide. There is efficient utilization of spectrum in case of digital broadcasting.902 subscribers. High music royalties FM radio broadcasters have to pay high royalties to the music companies for the music content procured from them. However the broadcasters can enter into a voluntary agreement with Phonographic Performance Limited and The Indian Performance Right Society Limited at high rates or under the rates determined by the courts of law to minimize their expenses. Besides this. a few countries are looking at a total switch off of analog broadcasting (FM/AM) by 2020 or so. FM broadcasters cannot broadcast news and current affairs 24 hrs a day whereas satellite broadcasters can do so through a dedicated station. the current satellite broadcaster in India is offering multiple channels. At present.Many of the restrictions that apply to FM radio broadcasters do not apply to satellite radio broadcasters. however. However. Satellite radio broadcasters do not have to pay any license fee whereas FM radio broadcasters have to pay 4% of their gross revenues as license fees. multiple channel ownership by a FM broadcaster in the same city is not permitted. But with analog TV likely to be switched off in India in the next 5-7 years. in India. Intense competition . enabling the broadcast of multiple radio stations. FM radio is limited to a small range around the transmission site while the satellite signals cover the entire country. digital receivers are more expensive than analog receivers.713 net subscribers during 3QFY07. radio’s turn could come in the next 10-15 years. the satellite radio broadcaster WorldSpace operating in India has not been able to meet with much success. ending the period with 164. In fact. The quality of digital broadcast is better than analog transmission. In Western Europe. However. WorldSpace lost 8. Norway is the only country that has formally announced a cutoff date.

Beneficiary of the buoyant growth of major advertisers The major advertisers on radio are the entertainment channels.2% in FY06 and FY07 respectively. All of them are clamoring for the same advertisers. real estate firms and retailers. there are many risks that could derail the growth of the FM radio industry. Robust growth of the Indian economy The Indian economy has grown at a robust rate of 9% and 9.5% by 2011 as per the FICCI-PwC report on the Indian entertainment and media industry. the media planning and buying arm of advertising group Publicis. the advertising spend is expected to increase to Rs 367 bn by 2010 from Rs 227 bn in 2007. The number of FM radio stations has increased dramatically leading to a proportionate increase in the demand for trained personnel. We feel that the major risks are a potential slowdown in the economy.4% to 3. The size of the radio industry is projected to increase at a CAGR of 28% from Rs 5 bn in 2006 to Rs 17 bn by 2011. Radio industry should be a major beneficiary of the high growth in these sectors. The real estate industry is projected to grow at a CAGR of 25% in the next five years. It grows at a faster rate in such buoyant times.There is intense competition between the FM radio operators operating in the same city. The advertisement industry is a proxy to India’s high economic growth. As per a study conducted by ZenithOptimedia. This is further expected to increase to 5.1% during the same year. listeners and need to procure similar content. little differentiation between the FM radio stations and intense competition. Organized retail industry is projected to grow at a CAGR of 40% in the next five years. All these industries are expected to witness robust growth in the years to come. Radio industry: Growth drivers Fastest growing segment of the media and entertainment industry The radio industry recorded a growth of nearly 58% in 2006. Thus. Due to this attrition and poaching have become wide spread. The share of radio in the total advertising industry increased from 2. Demographics . More than 90 channels across various languages and genres are being launched this year.

the local retail segment constitutes a large part of radio's advertising income. Availability of listenership data Leading TV viewership research company. Phase III policy . The content on radio primarily comprises of film music.The target listeners for the radio industry are the youth. As per the CII-KPMG report. a localized medium like radio can be effectively used for local-level promotions apart from being bundled as part of cross-media promotion strategies. The quality of music produced is improving which augurs well for the growth of the radio industry. Reduction in license fees The Phase I policy for the privatization of FM radio had a very high fixed license fee structure with an annual escalation of 15%. while local advertising contributes 70% of radio revenues in the United States of America. Mumbai and Bangalore. TAM. in India. has recently ventured into radio audience measurement through a study called RAM (Radio Audience Measurement). The Indian film industry is getting more organized and receiving more institutional funding. Research may cover larger number of cities in the years to come. Marketers generally wait for adequate research data to emerge before committing large spends to any medium. Availability of listenership reports is bound to support and attract larger spends from marketers. the share of local advertising is only about 8% of radio revenues. 55% of the India population is below 25 years leading to an increase in the audience of the radio industry. In the phase II policy. The study is currently restricted to the cities of Delhi. Ideally. Local advertising Globally. The reserve OTEF was 25% of the highest valid bid for that city. Thus there is huge potential for the radio industry to benefit from an expected increase in the share of local advertisements. a revenue sharing formula was introduced whereby radio companies had to pay a fixed annual license fee of 4% of gross revenues or 10% of the reserve OTEF (One Time Entry Fee) whichever is higher.

. It's radio that's there when disaster strikes. Although television has shifted much of the audience away from radio it is undisputable that radio is always there. Radio is that medium of the single sense and frees the imagination. Instead of working against television which was virtually impossible radio companies began working with them. While TV pulls the big audience.It is expected that after the completion of Phase II Policy. Though the radio industry has many growth drivers. which is remarkably comparing with the competition. Although radio did take a severe hit when the television was introduced into average households they still managed to make a comeback. the Government will open up as many as 700 channels in the Phase III as per some media reports. "Radio has its own special strengths and contributions. much like television. Unlike many other mass mediums radio is much more personal and friendly which attracts large audiences. In the early to mid 90s Fox was having trouble obtaining the younger audience that they wanted so they looked to the radio. Radio audiences have concluded that they listen to the radio. all night. started his career in radio and concluded." Nearly 98 percent of people listen to the radio primarily for news. Radio as an Advertising medium: Radio advertising is one of the earliest and most popular forms of advertising in today's world of mass media. and 80 percent of the younger audiences daily. all day. Walter Cronkite11. a famous broadcast journalist. Radio is now the third largest mass advertising media trailing newspapers and of course television. talk. Radio reaches 77 percent of consumers. there are various risk factors also that could derail the growth of the radio industry. Radio is broadcasted everywhere twenty-four hours a day and always has the breaking news. During this time the younger audience was one of the radio's highest audience percentages. This could result in radio getting a larger share of the advertising spends. This phase will witness licenses being awarded in smaller towns. and sports. entertainment. it's still radio that's there virtually every place. In the next article. Radio advertising became increasingly difficult with the dawn of the television era which prompted the need for new ideas to reach the audience. we shall outline the risks to the growth of the radio industry. because they are either bored or lonely.

a local hardware store can quickly implement a snow shovel promotion the morning after a snowstorm. and so on. For example. the most appropriate role for most radio advertising in a supportive one. Most people listen to the radio at one time or another during the day. Pizza hut12. these radio time slots provides the best audience for many advertisers. And because airtime costs are low. extensive repetition is possible. Advantages: • A universal medium. In addition. Free creative help is usually available. at work. Known as drive time. particularly if local station announcers read the message. . radio is the ideal means of reaching people driving to and from work. radio has the shortest closing period. Copy can be submitted up to airtime. In fact. Radio offers advertisers flexibility. for instance. Of all media. radio can be adapted for different parts of the country and can reach people at different times of the day. and even weather. Can be enjoyed at home. the costs of producing a radio commercial can be low. • Permits you to target your advertising dollars to the market most likely to respond to your offer. In addition. Radio may be the least expensive of all media. Rates can generally be negotiated. This flexibility allows advertisers to adjust to local market conditions. reached out to its target audience of women making dinner choices by using radio during 4 to 5 pm time slot. Radio's low cost and high reach of selected target groups make it an excellent supporting medium. • • • Permits you to create a personality for your business using only sounds and voices. and while driving. current news events.Advantage of radio: The most important advantage radio offers is its ability to reach specific audiences through specialized programming. Radio's flexibility is also evident in its willingness to participate in promotional tie-ins such as store openings races. For example.

radio is having a lot of disadvantages for any educational communication. could take a little bit The line could get fuzzy. Most listeners are doing something else while listening. which means your ad has to work hard to be listened to and understood. body language also plays a very significant role in understanding the point of view of the other person and it is not viewable in radio communication. multimedia presentations or hard copies to better understand the discussion. Lack of visual aids is the major disadvantage of radio in educational communication. if an educational program is broadcast then the people who do not have good listening skills cannot understand it. • • Not as fast as using a phone. Another thing which is very important in educational communication is to get feedback and analyze the interest of audience which is also not possible in radio. There are a lot of people who want visual aids like whiteboards. Therefore. Ads are an interruption to the entertainment. Moreover. • Advertising costs are based on ratings which are approximations based on diaries kept in a relatively small fraction of a region's homes. • Radio is a background medium. or not clear Basically in any educational communication. radio ads must be repeated to break through the listener's "tune out" factor.• Least inflated medium. During the past ten years. • • Listeners cannot refer back to your ads to go over important points. In the case of radio. to totally saturate your market you have to advertise simultaneously on many stations. radio rates have gone up less than other media. Strategic Roles of Radio . for making it more persuasive and effective visual aids are very important. Because of this. Disadvantages: • Because radio listeners are spread over many stations.

or a promotional offer. often need the benefits of products or services explained to them before they can make a decision to purchase . or to include additional information. most conspicuously in the form of a Sonic Brand Trigger. Radio is particularly useful for this as it uses the human voice in turnaround.As Commercial Radio developed in the early days. The ability of radio to create dominant share of mind is a product of its intrusiveness and the high frequency with which ads are broadcast. These days however. like TV. its key strengths were seen as primarily tactical . Young people. because of their inexperience. low capital cost and local flexibility. Dominant share of mind Share of mind can be described as the extent to which a brand makes itself salient within the consumer's mind . This means that the young people do not have to wade their way through extensive reading material before they even know what the proposition is.this is often the most challenging task in sectors where there are several topparity brands. because levels of ad avoidance with print are so high. Brands in fast-changing areas like retail or financial services often use radio for its ability to put over several different messages as an overlay to a core TV campaign (multiple executions in radio are very inexpensive compared to TV). radio can work in a complementary way to other media. Radio can also. Radio also works exceptionally well with TV if there is creative synergy. Support to other media Young people are of course consumers of several media. radio above all adds intrusiveness. and/or high levels of competitive activity. Brands like the Carphone Warehouse13 have used this unique characteristic of radio to develop an unassailable lead within their category. radio is increasingly being used for strategic roles. while the traditional strengths still apply. and campaigns which use only one medium can miss out on the "media multiplier effect". With TV it is traditionally used to add to the length of a campaign or to fill weeks where there is no TV activity . Because of its inherent characteristics. To press.for services or corporate advertising this can be very valuable in adding personality and tone of voice. . a bank can also be used to explain products or services in more depth. bring things to life .for example.

Inevitably this means that some media are seen as outside that independent world . because radio is a real-time intrusive medium.they feel.newspapers for example. tone of voice etc. concerts Vague/ not relevant: Memories of ads for local garages. . they have to sit through the full length of any ads which are for irrelevant products.through linking to the relevant topic. Radio. probably quite correctly. It would follow that.g. involvement. However.Speaking from inside youth culture As the qualitative research illustrates. e. Tone of voice is a key area with radio: young people can tell when they are being addressed as equals. There was evidence of three sorts of advertising memories: Relevant: Ads which mentioned areas or names of specific interest.leaving their parents out of the equation. but the advertising is not . since they expect most ads to be irrelevant to them. and when they are not. outlets selling favored brands. surprise. Tone of voice is a key issue with advertising strategies in this territory. care must be taken in the creative work to overcome this expectation . and are strongly influenced by relevance of the brand or product advertised. they feel as though the people on the radio treat them like adults . allows the advertiser to speak from inside the so-called "youth fortress" As the respondents said in the research. as a personal "me-medium". and to set up their own world independently. films.little or no specific detail remembered Sonic Brand Triggers: Much evidence of children's ability to pick up on musical SBTs and sing them out loud Consideration It seems clear from this analysis that children are very selective in their attention. Radio Advertising The evidence from the qualitative research is that young people feel their local FM station is aimed at people like them. that most advertising is aimed at adults. young people begin to move away from their parents' world of choices and preferences. cars and insurance companies .

Shillong and Aizwal. "Superhits Music Show". Varanasi. S FM or Suryan FM was re-branded into RED FM across 38 cities in INDIA. Vijayawada. Mysore. Vadodara. 2009.9FM15 . NDTV. Tirupathi. Aurangabad. It was acquired from India Today promoter Living Media in January 2006. Rajkot. Siliguri. Hyderabad. The most widely broadcast shows include "Morning No. Gulbarga. "Mera Wala Gana". Warangal. Lucknow. Virag the recipient of the esteemed Stardust Award for standout performance as a lyricist is from advertising background. It was launched in 2002. Vizag. Nagpur.1". Soul of Bangalore is the country's first and only international hit station. "Mumbai Local". Astro. "Dilse". "One Two ka Four". Rajahmundry. "Indore Beats" and "Nomoshkar Kolkata".Young people pick up very strongly on musical Sonic Brand Triggers. RADIO STATIONS ACROSS BANGALORE: Red FM: Red FM is an Indian FM14 radio brand. Jabalpur. Kozhikode. with stations broadcasting at 93. Kolkata and Pune in addition to Bhopal. Radio Indigo is the only radio station in the country that plays contemporary international . Gwalior. Trivandrum. Bhubaneswar. Delhi. "RDX". Mangalore. Kanpur. Indore. Starting August 14. with a 48. 2009 and re-branded all its stations to Red FM except for the ones in Tamil Nadu. Jaipur. Ahmedabad. Asansol. even for seemingly irrelevant brands.5 megahertz in the cities of Mumbai. Trissur.The color of music. Jamshedpur. This is a Jupiter Capital venture. Allahabad. Kannur. the programming is now 100% exclusively Hindi.5 Virag Mishra joined the team as a National Creative Head.9% stake. Kochi. However. Bangalore. Guwahati. In one of the recent developments at Super Hits Red FM 93. S FM took over Red FM in August. playing a mix of Hindi and English songs. Their punchline is 'Baja ate Raho' (Keep Playing). as well as minority holdings of Hyderabad-based IT company Value Labs. Radio Indigo: Radio Indigo 91. Gangtok. The channel is owned by Kalanidhi Maran. Nashik.

world music and much more. The station plays a vibrant array of genres like pop. In Delhi. jazz. Ryan Seacrest. it operates on 101. Radio Indigo 91-9 has evolved to brilliance through bigger promotions & prizes. The listeners are exposed to a prescribed dose of music or whatever gets their groove. Playing all the hits all the time. In vizag. it does not stick to music of just one language. the name was changed to FM Rainbow in 2002.6 megahertz and AIR FM Rainbow Delhi is the only FM Channel to be aired in as many as ten cities.7 MHz slot. The station is talking to all those who reflect the Youth and love English language covering more than 12 districts of Madhya Pradesh and 21 Suburbs in Bhopal City. run by All India Radio16 is a national radio station. it operates on 102. Having headquarters in Bengaluru. Saggy. In Hyderabad. It’s International with an Indian soul. it operates on 102.2 megahertz. In Lucknow. but the new cowboys on the bandwagon are Kenny Jones. hip-hop.9 has now emerged as the hottest radio station connecting to the most happening International music from around the world. In Mumbai. cars and office. It operates in Bangalore as well with a frequency of 101. In MP. The signals of this station are very strong and it catches till the far villages. It was earlier called FM Metro. Suraj and Shweta taking their shows to the extreme and rocking the studios literally. features Hindi and regional language songs and occasional English songs along with hourly news bulletins in English. Christabel.9 megahertz and in Vijayawada it operates on 102. But like all good things in this world. heard all across India. it uses the 100. regional language and also in Hindi. Sriram. classic rock. Melodee Austin. it operates on 102 megahertz. In Bhopal.3. This government owned enterprise. it is also known as "Rainbow FM". Radio Indigo 91. AIR FM Rainbow: AIR FM Rainbow. Radio Indigo caters to Bangalore and Goa's long-standing tradition and a vibrant community of music aficionados.1 megahertz in Hindi cum. Of course the audience hears favorites like Rohit Barker. It plays . it operates on 107. The channel plays various genres of music unlike private channels. And they are so exclusive that they are broadcasting only to Bengaluru and Goa. Michelle and Allen Kepler. The station has today become a house-hold name and those who have grown to love the station are sneaking it in their homes.1 megahertz.

It is No. Live wire Plus. It has gained the No. AIR FM Rainbow is heard on 102 megahertz. Rainbow is one of very few Indian radio channels which air Western Music and the western music slots are really popular with listeners. Radio pet house. all the time across the cities of Delhi. National Radio Station in Trichy. Wicked Hour. Matchless music hours.6 megahertz and AIR FM Rainbow Delhi is the only FM Channel to be aired in around ten cities. Bangalore and Kolkata with the brand Fever 104 FM.7 MHz slot. In terms of TSL.ghazals. 1 position in Mumbai and Bangalore leaving behind all the other FM channels in these cities. national and international hits. Fever 104 FM. Almost all the radio jockeys on private FM channels once started with FM Rainbow. hippest and most happening Radio Station that plays more music than any other was launched. owned by HT Media Limited. Mumbai (since January ’07). a rare occurrence in Indian radio channels.2 FM station in Delhi on the popularity charts.1 megahertz. In Tamil Nadu. Fever 104 FM has surged ahead with a total time spent listening of 386 minutes. Raunak. while in Lucknow. not only this it also has classical music shows. You asked for it. It is available in Delhi (since October’ 06). Take off. . Fever 104 FM is a contemporary hits music station that plays a mix of regional. AIR FM Rainbow operates on 102. Some of the radios Jockeys of AIR FM Rainbow are Altaf. Wasim. soundtracks as well as English songs. this radio channel is also known as "Rainbow FM".1 megahertz in Tamil language covering more than 12 districts of Tamil Nadu. In Delhi. Footloose. Fever 104 FM with its tagline ‘It's all about the music!’ entered the FM radio market in key Indian cities. It plays the latest hits. with its signature property of 40 minutes non-stop music. was formed in technical collaboration with the Virgin group. Sunny. Mumbai. In vizag. In a short span of three years. Bangalore (since March ‘07) and Kolkata (January ‘08). In Mumbai. Aditi and Sohail. all day. India's youngest. AIR FM Rainbow operates on 102. Mumbai. The popular slot for English music called Radio Raptures on AIR FM Rainbow is aired everyday from 7am to10am and from 10pm to 1am and it has earned a very good audience with the passing years. The company entered the private FM radio market in the four main cities of Delhi. it operates on 107. FEVER 104 FM: In 2006. it uses the 100. FEVER 104 FM17. Just for you. Bangalore and Kolkata. the channel's rise has been meteoric. It has many western music programs like Time Out.

the government decided not to renew contracts given to private operators. and by the end of May 2009. Delhi. The Times Group operated its brand. Radio One and the Bangalore Traffic Police. The original avatar of Radio Mirchi was Times FM. Vizag and Goa to private operators. Radio Mirchi: Radio Mirchi19 is a nationwide network of private FM radio stations in India.5 MHz in Mumbai till 2006. and Rahul Dravid encouraging the public to carpool. till June 1998. AIR. Kolkata. Radio Mirchi began operations in 1993 in Indore. Before we begin. It was launched on June 8. Kolkata. operating in various media segments such as print media and television broadcasting. Until 1993. The Times Group operated its brand. which is one of the subsidiaries of The Times Group.000 people are said to have carpooled in the city. It sold airtime blocks on its FM channels to private operators.Radio One: Radio One18 is a radio station in India. Times FM. who developed their own program content. It was known as Go 92. Pune and Ahmadabad. Soon the service of Radio One will also be started in Bhopal. Jabalpur and Jaipur. who developed their own program content. was the only radio broadcaster in India. The government then took the initiative to privatize the radio broadcasting sector. 2006 in Mumbai before going national in 6 more cities.3 MHz in all cities except in Ahmadabad where it broadcasts on 95. Until 1993. In the city of Bangalore. It sold airtime blocks on its FM channels in Indore. . Hyderabad. Limited (BCCL) which is one of the largest media and entertainment companies in India. it is promoted by Bennett. Chennai. Delhi.0 MHz’s. Times FM was probably the most famous radio in India which began its operation in 1993. It is owned by the Entertainment Network India Ltd (ENIL). launched a carpooling drive which is has involved celebrities like Robin Uthappa. Bangalore.5 FM and was broadcast on 92. The initiative got a good response. a government undertaking. Indore. It is a joint venture between Mid-day Multimedia and BBC Worldwide and operates in 7 metros namely Mumbai. was the only radio broadcaster in India. let’s know a little about Radio Mirchi. Coleman & Co. a government undertaking. 10. Mumbai. All India Radio or AIR. The station broadcasts at 94. After that. The government then took the initiative to privatize the radio broadcasting sector.

Over the years Mirchi have established two important landmarks i. Radio Mirchi has been dominating in Delhi & is the leader in Mumbai and Kolkata. Javed Akhtar.the other members comprised the best in the industry: Prasoon Joshi. This unique honor was bestowed on Mirchi by the Pitch-IMRB group's survey of the top service brands of the country. Sonu Niigaam. till June 1998. it won a plethora of awards. Its market share in revenue terms remains in excess of 40% of the private FM industry. the brand. Its lead over its nearest competitor is more than double. Kavita Krishnamurthy.5 million participants. ahead of iconic brands like The Times of India and Star Plus. The success of the website reflects the overall popularity of Mirchi. IRS 2009 reiterates the same as Mirchi has more than 41 million listeners across 32 stations. the design was created and crafted by the music fraternity itself. In December 2008. Louiz Banks. After that.: The Mirchi Kaan Awards acknowledges and honors the contribution of individuals and organizations that have led the way in developing clutter busting radio advertising. The jury led by Chairman. As per Brand Reporter October 2009 issue Mirchi was recognized as one of the game changers of the decade in the radio industry. It's the largest private FM Radio operator in the country in terms of number of operational stations and revenue. As per the Radio Audience Measurement Reports (RAM). Lalit Pandit. This endorses the vote of trust that the brand has built amongst its listeners. 1 media brand. Anu Malik.e. would make any recipient proud . . During the year. Sadhana Sargam. Radio Mirchi is the number 1 radio brand in the private FM space. the government decided not to renew contracts given to private operators. While the parentage of the idea was that of Mirchi. The SEC ABC segments were earlier dominated by Big FM & now by Friends FM. However in the SEC D & E segments Radio Mirchi has total domination.Times FM. The awards have been instituted to encourage continued creative focus on radio advertising. The survey had 1. Mirchi’s website was voted the most popular TV and Radio site in India. Mirchi was voted the No. However in Kolkata they are not clear leaders in SEC ABC segments. Shankar Mahadevan. The survey was conducted by Metrix Labs and AC Nielsen. It has been recognition of the brand popularity and the creative talent behind the brand. Playing contemporary hits songs Radio Mirchi has always been the No 1 choice of listeners.

It plays Hindi songs. Ramesh Sippy and Kunal Kohli. Currently. 700 to 800 million in the current fiscal year to set up 16 FM (Frequency Modulation) stations across that offers music related news. Radio City: Radio City20 is a FM radio station in India. the station had been steadily losing popularity with the launch of newer stations in Bangalore. Bangalore (started first in 2001).1 (earlier 91. 2001. Rakeysh Omprakash Mehra. Radio City recently forayed into New Media in May 2008 with the launch of a new mega music portal . Radio City has launched Fun Ka Antenna Online Radio Station which plays hits across genres including International. and other music-related features. The Chief Executive Officer is Ms Apurva Purohit. The station has been criticized for multiple format changes and presenter lineup. This initiative of ‘Listen to my movie’ has been felicitated with one of the most prestigious Readers Digest Pegasus CSR Awards in the ‘Silver Category’. The jury set tough standards.0 in most cities) megahertz from Mumbai (where it was started in 2004).7FM). Suresh Wadkar. in Chennai on July 7th 2006 and in Vishakapatnam October 2007. Recently as of July. It launched with presenters such as Rohit Barker. Lucknow and New Delhi. It broadcasts on 91. It was launched in Hyderabad in March. songs. It broadcasts at 92. Bollywood. As a part of its CSR Mirchi initiated a program to improve the quality of life of the visually impaired and the company came up with an initiative i.7 MHz (92. English and regional songs. Indipop and Sufi among others. 2006 it has announced plans to invest Rs. This initiative has already reached hundreds of schools across the country. videos.e.7 is a nationwide private FM radio station in India owned by Indian businessman Anil Ambani21. . This is the only private FM radio station which is being broadcast from Srinagar and Jammu in Jammu & Kashmir state. Jonzie Kurian and Suresh Venkat. 2006. Radio City Bangalore is India's first private FM radio station and was started on July 3. Darius Sunawala. it covers 45 cities.7: BIG FM 92. BIG FM 92.PlanetRadiocity. “audio books”. The Radio station currently plays a mix of Hindi and Kannada music. Over the years.Kailash Kher.

Radio Active: Jain Group of Institutions (JGI)22 is a conglomerate of 35 mission driven institutions that spans the gamut of education. From July 1. women. The Vision behind Radio Active is to empower every individual in society to become a winner and an achiever by harnessing and nurturing human potential. Its main tagline is "Suno Sunao. Life Banao".000. The community radio station. Radio Active will seek to reach out to Bangalore’s masses on issues concerning health. BIG FM included Singapore. . in turn seeking to inform. which would make the proposed network the largest ever. the first city outside India. 4. Inspired by its dynamic founder and Chairman Mr. scientific awareness. to use technology and human enterprise in tandem to help create a meaningful and proactive social ambience where interdependence becomes mutually supportive and to focus on a universally responsive India.000 dedicated to transmission equipment. educate. It broadcasts its programs daily from 5 to 8pm on XFM 96. R Chenraj Jain. development. the JGI family is principled. and charitable schooling to professional courses. 2008. under the name of 'BIG Bollywood 96. social issues etc. national and local issues.3. from primary to higher education.3FM’. JGI has taken the initiative to launch a community radio station serving the cause of progress and development of the community at large. in its broadcasting network.000. Its mission is to provide excellence in academic education and focuses on the holistic development of the individual. while entertaining the public. environment. infrastructure and licensing. to sensitize society to global. In keeping with its tradition of promoting the welfare and betterment of society.It has made an announcement to invest Rs. proactive and visionary. JGI draws on the essence of tradition and sophistication of modernization to educate the professionals of tomorrow. Its vision is to contribute leaders to a vibrant and responsive India.

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