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Radio has the reputation of being the oldest and the cheapest medium of entertainment in India. The radio industry has been completely reshaped by the various private players that entered the sector after the government allowed foreign investment into the segment and opened the licenses to the private players. DIFFERENT TECHNOLOGIES IN BROADCAST RADIO The first one which was used in olden days for transmission purpose is AM. Amplitude modulation (AM)1 is a technique used in electronic communication, most commonly for transmitting information via a radio carrier wave. Frequency modulation (FM) is a form of modulation that represents information as variations in the instantaneous frequency of a carrier wave. FM is commonly used at VHF radio frequencies for high-fidelity broadcasts of music and speech. Today radio is used for many forms of communication from long distance satellite communications to the personal cell phones that are widely used. In addition to this wireless communications are becoming more important for data as demonstrated by the rapid growth in Wi-Fi Radio is also used for telecommunications links. Signals with frequencies in the microwave region are normally used. These signals have frequencies much higher than those in the short wave band and they are not affected by the ionosphere. However they provide reliable direct line of sight links that are able to carry many telephone conversations or other forms of traffic. Satellite radio Satellite radio is one of the fastest-growing entertainment services in the world and it is making its presence felt in a small but a positive way in India. A satellite radio is basically a digital unit that receives signals broadcast by communications satellite. This allows a person with a set to follow his favorite stations anywhere in the country unlike the terrestrial radio (AM and FM) whose signals are limited to a certain area depending on the power of the station. Some of the advantages of a satellite radio are that the sound is of digital quality and there are no commercials. But it is not for free, it is available on subscription for a fee. An example would be “world space radio”. Satellites, radar, communications, internet, message service are the effect of radio technology in our modern day life. With the growth of radio the requirement for mobile connectivity, it is certain that wireless technologies with radio at the core will continue to thrive and become more
widespread. To meet the demand it is likely that new technologies will be developed to maximize the use of the available radio spectrum. HD radio ("hybrid digital" or "high definition") is a brand name of a method of digital transmission of AM and FM radio stations. The HD Radio system is unique which allows stations to broadcast crystal-clear audio and a variety of text-based services, as well as more FM channels, without changing to new frequency bands. Hybrid system is a system in which digital signals are sent along with the analog carrier as the standard for AM and FM broadcasting in the United States. FM stations can offer multiple channels (called "Multicast" channels) on the same frequencies allocated to analog radio stations. Internet radio Internet radio e-Radio is an audio broadcasting service transmitted via the Internet. Broadcasting on the Internet is usually referred to as webcasting since it is not transmitted broadly through wireless means but is delivered over the World Wide Web. The term "e-Radio" suggests a streaming medium that presents listeners with a continuous stream of audio to which they have no control much like traditional broadcast media. It is not synonymous with podcasting which involves downloading and therefore copyright issues. Nor does e-Radio suggest "on-demand" file serving. Many Internet "radio stations" are associated with a corresponding traditional "terrestrial" radio station or radio network. Internet-only radio stations are usually independent of such associations. Old media don’t’ die! They just bounce back in new avatars. Not so long ago radio had been written off as fuddy-duddy, down market and not so cool. Television and later “new media” were touted to being the media of the future. But thanks to technology radio is making a comeback. FM radio is a new entity altogether and has to deal with new market dynamics. Media owners dealing with new markets will virtually have to draw up their strategies as they go along, create programming that is new, innovative and grab away eyeballs from TV sets and make them tune into their radio sets. It’s a whole new challenge and competition is never far away. Ad revenues will also not be easy to come by, as advertisers will expect media players to put their money where their speakers are before they commit large sums of money towards radio advertising. The other challenge for radio in attracting advertisers is the nature of the medium-radio has always
considered being a reminder medium. The involvement of listeners to radio is low, Vis a Vis television or print media. With the coming of more channels, and the emergence of lifestyle advertising, radio will become a push and pull medium. As said earlier, is not just making a comeback but is being reincarnated into a new avatar. Any radio setup has two parts: • • The transmitter The receiver
The transmitter takes some sort of message (it could be the sound of someone's voice, pictures for a TV set, data for a radio modem or whatever), encodes it onto a sine wave and transmits it with radio waves. The receiver receives the radio waves and decodes the message from the sine wave it receives. Both the transmitter and receiver use antennas to radiate and capture the radio signal. When you listen to a radio station and the announcer says, "You are listening to 91.5 FM “what the announcer means is that you are listening to a radio station broadcasting an FM radio signal at a frequency of 91.5 megahertz. Megahertz means "millions of cycles per second," so "91.5 megahertz" means that the transmitter at the radio station is operating at a frequency of 91,500,000 cycles per second. Your FM (frequency modulated) radio can tune in to that specific frequency and give you clear reception of that station. All FM radio stations transmit in a band of frequencies between 88 megahertz and 108 megahertz. This band of the radio spectrum is used for no other purpose but FM radio broadcasts. Common frequency band includes the following: • AM radio - 535 kilohertz t - 1.7 megahertz • FM radio - 88 megahertz - 108 megahertz AM radio has been around a lot longer than FM radio. The first radio broadcasts occurred in 1906 or so, and frequency allocation for AM radio occurred during the 1920s. In the 1920s, radio and electronic capabilities were fairly limited, hence the relatively low frequencies for AM radio. FM radio was invented by a man named Edwin Armstrong in order to make high-fidelity (and static-free) music broadcasting possible. He built the first station in 1939, but FM did not become really popular until the 1960s. .
HISTORY OF RADIO Radio owes its development to two other inventions, the telegraph and the telephone; all three technologies are closely related. Radio technology began as "wireless telegraphy". Radio can refer to either the electronic appliance that we listen with or the content listened to. However, it all started with the discovery of "radio waves" - electromagnetic waves that have the capacity to transmit music, speech, pictures and other data invisibly through the air. Many devices work by using electromagnetic waves including: radio, microwaves, cordless phones, remote controlled toys, television broadcasts, and more. The Roots of Radio During the 1860s, Scottish physicist, James Clerk Maxwell2 predicted the existence of radio waves; and in 1886, German physicist, Heinrich Rudolph Hertz demonstrated that rapid variations of electric current could be projected into space in the form of radio waves similar to those of light and heat. In 1866, Mahlon Loomis, an American dentist, successfully demonstrated "wireless telegraphy." Loomis was able to make a meter connected to one kite cause another one to move, marking the first known instance of wireless aerial communication. Twenty years after the telephone was invented and music was first sent down a telephone line, Guglielmo Marconi sent radio signals. Marconi (1874-1937) was born in Italy and studied at the University of Bologna. He was fascinated by Heinrich Hertz’s earlier discovery of radio waves and realized that it can be used for sending and receiving telegraph messages, referring to it as “wireless telegraphs.” Marconi’s first radio transmissions, in 1896, were coded signals that were transmitted only about 1.6 km (a mile) far. Marconi realized that it held huge potential. He offered the invention to the Italian government but they turned it down. Marconi was not the first to invent the radio, however. Four years before Marconi started experimenting with wireless telegraph, Nikola Tesla, a Serb who moved to the USA in 1884, invented the theoretical model for radio. Tesla tried unsuccessful to obtain a court injunction
against Marconi in 1915. The transmission was over a distance of three miles from the Presidency College and Science College in Calcutta. Kentucky. which he used in 1901. When he was found dead in 1929. Stubblefield. Thus writes contributor Dipak Basu. Nikoli Tesla remains to be acknowledged as the inventor of the radio. January. Tesla became acknowledged as the inventor of the radio – even though he did not build a working radio. his radio equipment was gone. he applied for the patent in September 1901. The instruments (‘Mercury Coherer with a telephone detector’) are still there in the science museum of the Calcutta University. Bose demonstrated the radio transmission in 1896 in Calcutta in front of the British Governor General. Growth of Radio .Radiotelegraph and Spark-Gap Transmitters Radio-telegraphy is the sending by radio waves the same dot-dash message (Morse code) used in a telegraph. . By that time Marconi had received his patent and international recognition. It was developed mainly for ship-to-shore and ship-to-ship communication. made a voice transmission four years before Marconi transmitted radio signals. In 1943 the US Supreme Court reviewed the decision. a farmer from Murray. Transmitters at that time were called spark-gap machines. Bose did not apply for a patent on his design because he believed in the free flow of inventions in science. He was awarded the US patent for the invention of the radio in 1904. it was not public radio broadcasting as we know it today. Bose had solved the problem of the Hertz not being able to penetrate walls. This was a way of communicating between two points. being afraid that his invention will be stolen. But under pressure from American friends. never marketed his wireless radio. referencing the Proceedings of the IEEE. Marconi was present in the meeting of the Royal Society and it is thought that he stole the notebook of Bose that included the drawing of the ‘Mercury Coherer with a telephone detector’. 1998. was the exact copy of that of Bose.C. Stubblefield demonstrated his invention to the press in 1902 but. Indian scientist J. It is reputed that Nathan B. Marconi’s Coherer. however. mountains or water.
the great requirement for further development of radio was an efficient and delicate detector of electromagnetic radiation. after the government released its control of all patents. In 1919. Kentucky. Fessenden. Claims to that distinction range from the phase. in 1892. to an experimental program of talk and music by Reginald A. Lee Deforest .Improvements to Radio Transmitters Overseas radiotelegraph service developed slowly. The U. It made it possible to amplify the radio frequency signal picked up by the antenna before application to the receiver detector. . The Alexanderson high-frequency alternator and the De Forest tube resolved many of these early technical problems.S. much weaker signals could be utilized than had previously been possible. thus. the triode amplifier and the Audio. Stubblefield 2 to a test partner near Murray. In the early 1900s. the Radio Corporation of America (RCA) was established with the purpose of distributing control of the radio patents that had been restricted during the war. Lee De Forest provided that detector. in 1906.AM Radio Lee Deforest invented space telegraphy. De Forest was also the person who first used the word "radio". which was heard by radio-equipped ships within several hundred miles. Military Use and Patent Control When the United States entered the First World War in 1917. primarily because the initial radiotelegraph transmitter discharged electricity within the circuit and between the electrodes was unstable causing a high amount of interference. all radio development was controlled by the U. Radio Speaks The first time the human voice was transmitted by radio is debatable.S. "Hello Rainey" spoken by Natan B. Navy to prevent its possible use by enemy spies. government took over control of all patents related to radio technology.
the young Armstrong began studying radio and building homemade wireless equipment.True Broadcasting Begins In 1915. Regeneration Amplification 1913 In 1913. Enthralled. to the Eiffel Tower in Paris. super heterodyning. Frequency modulation or FM improved the audio signal of radio by controlling the noise static caused by electrical equipment and the earth's atmosphere.000 times .342. Edwin Armstrong invented the regenerative or feedback circuit. Edwin Armstrong should be known for inventing three key innovations: regeneration. including a 125 foot antenna in his parent's backyard. However. Virginia.885 for a "Method of Receiving High-Frequency Oscillations Radio" for his FM technology. speech was first transmitted across the continent from New York City to San Francisco and across the Atlantic Ocean from Naval radio station NAA at Arlington. Edwin Howard Armstrong was one of great engineers of the 20th century. Edwin Armstrong received U. On November 2. and died in 1954. in New York City. Regeneration amplification worked by feeding the received radio signal through a radio tube 20.S. also in New York City. 1920. he was born in 1890. Westinghouse's KDKA-Pittsburgh broadcast the Harding-Cox election returns and began a daily schedule of radio program. patent 1. and frequency modulation. The Dawn of FM Radio The story of FM radio is one of success and tragedy. Edwin Armstrong was only eleven when Marconi made the first trans-Atlantic radio transmission. FM Radio 1933 Edwin Armstrong is most commonly known for inventing frequency-modulated or FM radio in 1933.
Although his life was cut short. who was head of RCA and had said he would help him develop it. Superhetrodyne Tuner Edwin Armstrong invented the superhetrodyne tuner that allowed radios to tune into different radio stations.per second. Armstrong was clearly a technical genius. 50 FM stations were on the air. Even though he had improved AM radio in significant ways. David Sarnof3 and RCA. Once TV started to evolve. that increased the power of the received radio signal and allowed radio broadcasts to have a greater range. pressured the FCC to change all of the FM radio frequencies — a move they knew would instantly obsolete all of the exiting FM radios. David Sarnof. and cause Armstrong to lose his personal investment in FM radio. interest in FM radio further diminished and by 1949. the FCC allowed them to simulcast — simultaneously broadcast the same programming on both their AM and FM stations. The ensuing war diverted resources and froze development. Since most radio station owners didn't want to go to the expense of creating high-fidelity programming just for their FM stations. By 1941. RCA bought into the patents and helped Armstrong develop an experimental radio station. especially in rural areas Armstrong took his invention to a friend. Then the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor. he's still considered the most prolific inventor in radio's history. still out to hold control of their radio empire. many FM stations . Armstrong was well aware of AM radio's major limitations: • • • Static interference from household appliances and lighting Limited audio quality (frequency response and dynamic range) Nighttime interference between many stations (co-channel interference). because of ionosphere refraction.
and jumped to his death. Edwin Armstrong. gave up his long. Graph 1: Growth of FM radio (Source: www. 1954.com) As shown in the from the graph .cybercollege. RCA quickly started pushing its development and subsequently made millions of dollars from the sale of FM transmitters and equipment.had shut down. On January 31. RADIO BROADCASTING . taxing battle against Sarnof and RCA. The green line represents the growth of noncommercial and National Public Radio (NPR) stations. FM radio not only climbed out of the cellar of popularity after Armstrong's death. removed the air conditioner from his 13th story New York apartment. We'll cover public broadcasting — both radio and television — in an upcoming module. He wrote a note to his wife apologizing for what he was about to do. A few weeks later RCA announced record profits. Once FM radio started to make money. but today it leads AM radio in both number of stations and listeners.
with the result that broadcasting equipment. it was a period in which some persons at least saw in broadcasting possible source of revenues-from sale of time. after the government removed restrictions late in 1919. etc. but even so.particularly development of networks and the presentation of network programs by national advertisers. especially on the network level. The transistor was demonstrated in 1947 by Bell Labs. Some of this increase was the result of inflation. tubes. 1926 – 1930: Commercial radio became solidly established. The make-up of RCA consisted of those companies that had the key patents or would shortly buy them for wireless telegraphy. the erection of 108 TV stations-and the beginnings. The 1930-35 period was also the time of the greatest "idea" development in the history of American radio programming-with respect to network programs in particular. 1945-1952: A highly important era in the history of American radio and television.This period marked the start of "regular" broadcasting. The Radio Corporation of America4 was formed in 1919 as a patent pool to control the use of the new equipment which had been invented during WWI. Chiefly. electronic concerns were shifted to war production. Broadcasting in 1935 to 1941 saw radio revenues soaring to new heights. employees were drafted into military service. 1930s: This was the beginning of the great depression in the United States – a depression which had its effect on programming and on the various forms of advertising. but which was not able to be used unless all the conflicting patent owners would permit. but relatively little effect on broadcast revenues. in 1944-45. rather than the sale of receiving sets. in December of 1941. 1941 to 1945 was the big money-making time for American radio. The war imposed as many hardships on broadcasters as it did upon those engaged in other occupations. it saw development of basic types of programs. from a threat-of-war situation into actual involvement. 1923 – 1926: This was a transitional period. it saw the beginnings of broadcasting on a commercial basis. costs advanced. no less than 70% above the level of revenues in 1940-41. It saw an enormous increase in the total number of radio stations. was in short supply. at least. older forms were polished and improved. and while not too many new program forms introduced. The nation had shifted. On the other hand. . it marked the development of new types of equipment. of a shift in importance from radio to television. 1940s: This period included World War II. both network and station revenues were strikingly greater than in the prewar period.
radio reinvents: Probably based on the early work of programmers like McClendon and Bill Drake. Radio makes lots of money: The big music stations. There are plenty of listeners and times are good as far as jobs and money. AM stations still refused to play the new music from albums and were suddenly facing new competition from FM stations that would play the music. posted in every control room.Broadcasting from 1952 through the 1960's: Earlier trends continued. Each station has only a small segment of the audience. reversing their 1950 decision which had authorized a non-compatible field-sequential system (CBS). but during this decade television became the dominant mass medium as the freeze on licenses was lifted and a 70channel UHF band was added. There were lots of jingles and promotions. once AM and now FM were making lots of money. FM makes a comeback: For a system that was invented nearly 40 years earlier. Programming. music and contests are now targeted to a specific age group (12-35) based on demographic research showing this group has money to spend on goods and services by the new affluent middle class. The Big FM's would rule by the decade’s end. There was even disco on FM! Formats fragment: There are no longer just two formats. it seemed. Stations played three minute songs. it took a long time for FM to overtake AM. AM stations even tried to meet the challenge by going "stereo" but no one cared. hundreds of AM stations embrace a "top-40 time and temperature" format. 1970-1980 . Radio became less secure. "be bright. Advertisers want to buy radio. but grew in the number of smaller stations licensed. . The networks reached from coast-to-coast and in 1953 the FCC approved the industry indorsed compatible NTSC color television system (RCA-NBC).radio bores: AM Top 40 begins the decade with lock on the ratings. top-40 on AM and progressive rock" on FM." By the middle of the decade most of these major stations were struggling. The saying. Pop music was better and it demanded a delivery service that sounded as good as a home audio system. Even though its sound was stale. The music was still controlled by cynical old white men. in some markets more than 50% of the people using radio are still tuned by habit to that "one big legendary AM station. be brief" was. 1960-1970 .
mostly offering music formats delivered by big city DJ's. 1980-1990 . more automation. the radio station you also bought is worth less than you paid. The era of Niche Programming and formats begins and now there is a format for every narrow interest. New radio station owners want to cut costs. tenacious. A smaller pie: The number of stations swelled to 12. hundreds of new radio networks emerge and die. promotion or production of promotions. persistent.radio struggles: The Reagan administration de-regulates the industry. new challenges: For young people seeking a career in radio the good news was if you are good at sales. there were perhaps 100 to 200 stations vying for listeners. Smaller stations automate with them but it makes the station less local-sounding. Production that used to involve splicing tape is now done . Digital takes over radio technology: Now an entire day can be stored. Stations now have to satisfy the demands of the marketplace instead of the demands of Federal regulation. News and public affairs suffered. less news and public affairs types. In this market most of each day is automated.Radio networks return: With inexpensive satellite technology available to every station. now your station was no longer required to have news. reporter and reader as every station had to employ in the 1970's. If you were a news writer. less people have to do more. use automation to run three stations at once. AM tries a comeback: Helped with new technical regulations. In the 1980s almost half of the radio stations changed hands.000 and in major and large markets. This means cutbacks. New owners. you'll work. 1990-2000 . promise of fewer stations and an expanded AM band.radio competes: Less people do more work. edited and broadcast using the hard drive of a computer. lessappealing to listeners and sponsors. the FCC station owners tried to save AM one more time. To succeed you have to be above average. New group owners & duopolies: One company can now own 25-25-25 plus and in San Jose and San Francisco some companies own many stations. No union problems because the unions in radio are practically irrelevant. Again. Buy-sell: Like the house you bought for a high price in the late 1980's.
this very Corporation was renamed All India Radio (AIR) and was controlled by the Department of Communications. Conservative politics. Still. the Indian Broadcasting Company5. There are five regional headquarters for All India Radio. to be replaced with computer memory. DBS. AIR was made a separate Department under the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. DMX. the East Zone in Kolkata. the Integrated North-East Service that aimed at reaching out to the tribal groups in northeast India and handles the External Services. and the South Zone in Chennai. Talk radio's decade: Rush. In the very same year. namely in the North Zone in New Delhi. It was established in 1936 and since 1957 All India Radio was renamed as Akashvani. semi -commercial operation of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. In 1936. Analog devices like cart machines will disappear by 2004. The company almost went bankrupt in 1930 but the colonial government took away the two transmitters and the Department of Labor and Industries started operating them as the Indian State Broadcasting Corporation. New delivery services: Digital stuff. All India Radio`s network had expanded by the mid-1990s to around 146 AM stations along with a National Channel. etc. AM is around after almost 100 years. HISTORY OF RADIO IN INDIA: Broadcasting began in India with the formation of a private radio service in Madras (presently Chennai) in 1924. and suddenly many struggling AMs are revived and saved again by talk radio. all future non-FM delivery services. Assam. British colonial government approved a license to a private company. current owners want to be first in line when licenses are issued for these new services. Commercial Radio services in India started in 1967 by Vividh Bharati Service with its headquarters at Mumbai. Government of India controls the radio broadcasting in India that works under the Directorate General of All India Radio. Internet. Akashvani is a government-owned. There were only six radio stations in India at the time of independence. Vividh Bharati earned its revenues from extensive advertisements and . the North-East Zone in Guwahati.with the click of a mouse. to inaugurate Radio stations in Bombay and Kolkata. And just like the transition to television. When India became independent in 1947. the West Zone in Mumbai.
in June 1998 the Government. In 1994 there had been almost eighty-five FM stations and seventy-three short wave stations that connected the entire country. Programs were broadcast twice a week for an hour a day on welfare topics related to community health. the Government of India did not permit private radio stations to broadcast in India. 93 crores with Times of India's Times FM & Mid-Day Group's Radio Mid-Day becoming the main players. The role of broadcasting provided an inlet for the flow of modern ideas. however the importance of radio did not decline. India has a wide-ranging network of medium wave and short-wave stations. such as farmers needing agro climatic.had been broadcasting from thirty-one AM and FM stations during the mid-1990s. prepare programming content. again associated with the All India Radio`s services. through its electronic media regulatory body Prasar Bharti. The early history of Indian radio broadcasting in independent India set the parameters for the succeeding role of television in the nation. Most radios are also produced within India. (1997-98). It was due to the same reason of static thoughts prevailing in the society. primarily due to the absence of any motion medium. the FM Radio advertising and sponsorship business grew to Rs. Then. All the national affairs and social changes were informed through the waves of broadcast media and within no time. popularity of radio spread nationwide. plant protection. the advertising revenue . book commercials from advertisers and broadcast the whole lot. and traffic and road sense. Initially it was around 14 million that rose to nearly 65 million. For more than 4 decades. In those days radio was considered as an integral medium of communication. Indian radio also took up the task of aiding in the development of economic scenario. that television came into existence in 1959. the Government allowed private FM operators to 'buy' blocks (chunks) on All India Radio. Indian radio proved to be a prime medium of social integration. Then history changed its course. In 1993. Television broadcasts started from Delhi in September 1959. The broadcasting equipment used in India is mainly indigenous and reaches special audiences. decided not to renew contracts of private FM operators. Not surprisingly. In 1961 the television medium were expanded to include a school educational television project. Within 4 years. and other agriculture-related information. citizens duties and rights. The number of radio receivers increased almost five times between 1970 and 1994.
the bids for Hyderabad and Nagpur came next. FM players pay annual license fees. Music Broadcasting became the first firm in India to commence private FM broadcast from Bangalore in July.2 million each Radio is expected to follow the growth of the Television industry.for 76 channels in 26 cities.for stations in Mumbai. unable to shell out the high license fee. FM coverage in India is restricted to just 17% of the country. respectively. The government collected close to Rs 4.2 million and Rs 74 million.Rs 97.75 crore. the Government auctioned licenses for private FM channels to bolster the revenue. there are roughly 10 players who will operate approximately in 37 cities across the country. Currently. In response to the Government's offer. revenue-sharing also exists in the media sector. 1999 was the historic day when the Government announced that 150 new FM channels would be licensed across 40 cities.fell by 50% within a year! This time. Expecting to collect Rs 800 million from auctioning 108 licenses. compared to 89% of All India Radio (AIR). each for Rs 77. Incidentally. won the largest number of bids. July 6. However. New Media Broadcasting. For instance. And the focus on metros was evident in the bidding. a Zee Group company. The objective is to “make FM radio a . while the bids for Delhi were Rs 71. Interestingly. The government got the highest bids . The first round of bidding . the government had to actually face mass withdrawal of bidders because of the huge license fee. Today. many companies bid for the licenses to operate in key markets. which focused mainly on the smaller towns. And in 2000.6 billion as license fee for the privately run FM radio channels in 40 cities. Many gave up. But the going was not so easy. players consolidated and the Government extended its deadline. in effect. A handful of serious bidders chose to remain. garnered close to Rs 3. the Government gave the green light to privatize radio in India. So. Private FM radio sector would shift to a revenue-sharing model from the existing license fee regime. the bidding price for the Mumbai license was reportedly to the tune of Rs 9. which go up by 15 per cent every year. which grew rapidly following the entry of private player.5 billion. Licensee Fee and revenue sharing model Currently. Others dropped out saying the business was not viable. the competition shrank.5 million from each of 10 broadcast companies .
The panel also suggested that players wanting to enter the sector in the second round of licensing need to have a technical viability clearance by a financial institution on the financial viability of the project. the number of FM radio stations targeted is around 300 to 4006. It has also recommended to the government to release additional spectrum for the use of FM radio companies so that the number of companies operating in one centre can go up.FICCI estimates FM’s . the panel has fixed it at 4 per cent. Canada with 12. It’s better to keep the revenue-sharing figure low than to have a failed project. Revenue-sharing will follow payment of a one-time entry fee through a process of bidding.success story”. 50/.7% and Spain with 9. That should open up a vast new market of consumers-100 million Indian households own an estimated 150 million radios. much like satellite channels did to the quantum of television advertising in the country. FM station executives are not forthcoming on multi-platform strategies as yet. outnumbering television sets 3:1.5 per cent. Given that radio has penetrated into 100 million homes and a FM set costs around Rs. But FM presently covers only 17 percent of the area and 21 % of the population of India through transmitters. radio has a 5 % to 12 % of the advertising cake. it is firm on revenue-sharing now. However in spite of the various challenges the emergence of private FM stations is certain to increase the quantum of radio advertising in the country . Currently radio has just 2 percent of the 9000 crore Indian advertising market according to an Arthur Anderson’s survey. After the second round of privatization. While the private FM players had sought revenue-sharing in the band of 2-2. Revenue-sharing figure is quite low at around 4 %. There has been debate on whether to recommend a revenue-sharing structure or a fixed amount for a period of 10 years.1%. The geographical area covered by radio in India in India is as high as 98 percent and the penetration level is approximately 97 percent. Globally depending on each country. On the higher side are countries like the United States with 13 %.
helpful information . Also government allowing foreign players to enter the Indian market it will help the industry grow. FUTURE OF RADIO INDUSTRY FM Radio can play its part in building a stronger business future for India. It can provide a level playing field with benefits for listeners. Also one must not forgot that radio continues to be a medium that has tremendous reach among the poor and marginalized sections of society. Spearhead the government objective of growing the FM radio business in India. it is being predicted that radio's share in the total advertising pie will see an increase in the medium term. Also advertising of certain product seems to work very well while some might not. community announcements and public service messages provide a real value-added service. This would be the key when evaluating the medium. for advertisers. .traffic advisories. The future looks bright as the reach of radio is expected to raise post the increase in the number and quality of players in the industry. The new India deserves an active private FM radio sector. With the government ready to reduce the license fees it will help in attracting new players like reliance which had earlier backed out only due to the entry fees. each radio station is reeling under the brutal financial impact of high costs.5 percent to 5 % in five years. employment & career options. Virgin group has already started exploring the Indian market for suitable partners. They have also forecasted that revenues from radio advertising in India will be Rs. But at current levels of advertising support. While TV is a family medium. cellular phone service or auto related products would have a good impact when advertised on radio is primarily known as a “drive time” medium most people who turn in are doing so while commuting. Thus the potential if FM is better is bigger town. Providing free-to-air local broadcasts of music and entertainment. as the car population is much bigger.share up from the present 1. Rs. It is on the basis of these key drivers of growth. With more players in the fray the FM radio industry would grow and also enhance the government’s yield from licensing radio naturally. For example. 1200 crores by 2005 and Revenue of radio services is expected to rise to Rs 689 crore by 2008 at a CAGR of 30 per cent. radio is personalized. Various radio stations are coming up with IPO for example Radio Mirchi thus helping them expand.
2 billion by 2007. with revenue rising at 23 per cent annually. Therefore radio is more popular. • • 90% of India has access to radio which is unmatched by any other media. because people can listen to radio anytime and anywhere they want. advertising spending is expected to amount to Rs 500 crore this year. They can’t afford a TV set. who would depend on word-of-mouth. At the places where the literacy rates are low where people hardly read newspapers and radio is the only medium that they can understand. brochures or ads in local supplements of newspapers. Radio also reaches to uneducated village folk who do not read print publications. . It is also a free medium. The Rs 1. • The success of private FM stations. though radio has only a 2 per cent share in the Rs 6. So that they can develop themselves well because this industry is still in an introduction stage. the government has agreed upon revenue-sharing model. not only are listeners tuning into it more often but also sticking to radio for longer hours every day. pamphlets.000 crore Indian advertising markets. SWOT Analysis Strengths: • Recently. are welcoming the opportunity. • Radio is considered as a background medium. Also. • The advertisers. which is 4 % for the growth of the radio stations. and reveals that radio listenership habits have changed considerably.6 billion industry is reported to be growing by 31 per cent every year and should touch the Rs 6.There are an estimated 150 million radio sets across the country.
Radio is a complement to another media.research is very important for any advertising segment. and therefore it is difficult to differentiate between the programs of the different channels. other media or the advertisers or agency can use this medium for brand recall. . Many stations are conducting their own research which can be biased. • Increase in listenership numbers but no increase in ad revenue. Radio offers its reach frequency and selectivity at one of the lowest costs per thousand and radio production is relatively inexpensive. An advertiser whose product depends on demonstration or visual impact is at a loss when it comes to radio. Many advertisers think that without strong visual brand identification the medium can play little or no role in their advertising plans. Weakness: • One of the major weaknesses of Radio is that there is very less differentiation in the programs that are aired. • • Radio is considered as a medium where the “Proximity to purchase” is very high.• Radio is the least cost medium and it helps to reach mass audience with various backgrounds. And therefore. • Fragmented Audience . But. • No proper research available . Research is the main base to attract client and get more revenue. Most of the stations plays much of the music that is played consist of Hindi Film songs. in India there is no proper research is available. • Radio-only nature of radio communication is a tremendous creative compromise.the large number of the audience in India is fragmented in various remote places. And like its radio message creates a fleeting impression that is often gone in an instant. Therefore. This is the situation that every radio channel is facing. the percentage of listener tuned to anyone station is likely very small.
and gung-ho about this whole enterprise. • With the coming of the many more new players in the radio industry each channels can position themselves quite different from others.• Short commercials Opportunities: • Getting copyright licenses from the government for running mega events which are aired on the AIR radio station and have been restricted to be aired on other private stations. and that is the challenge. if some station is targeting the health conscious people then their programming strategy will vary accordingly. One has to constantly innovate. • • Leaves huge scope for innovation in local market Threats: . Brand building is thus much more difficult. like. • • • Launching a radio station with 24-hour news channel Tie-ups with BEST or railway authority for playing the FM in train and in bus. we are very bullish. • Allowing private FM players to start news and current affairs programs. The launch of Private Radio FM has managed to create a set of ‘New Listeners’ for the medium • The new radio stations which will come in future they can have venture with the college or university campuses. And then it is easier for the advertisers also to decide on which channel to advertise. And can play their station which will exclusively provide with the information relating to that university/college campus. At the same time.
If one considers the private sector FM market in Mumbai. against total operating costs of around INR 550-600 million. through a wide network of broadcasting centers and transmitters.they can listen to music and get information on the move. Apart from AIR. there is a fear of losing its brand loyalty. revenues would need to grow at over 40 percent annually to break even in the next three years. Younger audiences. which covers 91 percent7 of India's area and reaches 99 percent of the population. also have access to new technology like mobile phones. low charges. With no particular differentiation in the music. which is set to increase at 15 percent per annum. four players cumulatively generate annual revenues around INR 250-300 million. all of whom have been granted licenses over the past 3-4 years. the sector has been reeling under heavy losses. this growth rate is far from flattering. They have taken very quickly to interacting with their favorite radio stations and RJs via email and SMS for song requests and competitions. AIR is the biggest player in India because of its reach. This implies a marginal rise in radio's share in the advertising pie to around 1.leveraging its twin advantages of wide coverage and cost effectiveness. It is dominated by the state owned All India Radio (AIR). Given that a significant portion of the operating costs is the license fee. Currently. As a result of unsustainably high license fees. there are 21 privately-owned FM stations in 12 major cities. Today's busy teenagers love radio because it complements a faster-paced lifestyle . particularly those below the age of 25.9 percent. set at levels significantly above their earning capacity. government channel etc… • Because of the new government policies there will be more number of stations and then competition will also increase. the sector generates annual revenues of INR 2. Given that commercialization of radio is still in a nascent stage in India.• The biggest threat to private radio industry players is ALL INDIA RADIO.2 billion and is growing at around 20 percent annually. as they could not afford to pay the annual license fees. Advertising is the sole source of revenue for radio in India. A few FM stations have been forced to shut down. This is one of the biggest threats it faces. . So. INDIAN ENTERTAINMENT INDUSTRY FOCUS 2010 On Radio Radio is a mass medium and therefore ideally suited for India .
It has less than 2 percent share of the total advertising pie in India. radio has a 13 percent share. reaching over 99 percent of its one billion inhabitants . this sector has not been able to monetize its hold on the listener’s eardrums. in Spain 9 percent and closer to home. radio has a 21 percent share of the advertising spend. While consumption in India is still largely at home. in terms of its advertising spend. Bridging the gap . FM penetration is the highest in the SEC A segment and least in SEC D. In spite of such attractive statistics. it is the younger generation that is the key target audience vis-à-vis radio.a clear indication of the vast commercial potential in India for this medium. However. In the US. compared to a global average of 8 percent. Further. commercial radio could account for approximately 8 percent of media spends in the short to medium term and up to 10-12 percent in the long term. in Mumbai and Delhi. in Sri Lanka. According to market research.televisionpoint. the radio sector cannot and should not be satisfied with a growth rate in the low 20s. Plainly. The easy availability of FM radio sets at affordable price points (ranging from INR 40INR 150) is fuelling its mass penetration. 70 percent of radio listeners in these cities listen to FM radio all seven days of the week. In India too. We estimate that if its real potential is unlocked in India. radio remains a laggard. 'the radio on the move' trend is catching on in urban and semi-urban areas.Graph 2: Graph showing FM listeners across age groups (Source: www.com) The Indian potential India has an estimated 180 million radio sets.
has proposed a transition from the existing license fee regime to a revenue sharing one. the radio industry will not be able to attract the necessary funding.the local retailer. the challenge confronting radio is to bridge the gap between the current growth trend and potential growth expectations. Local mantra The sales and marketing efforts of the major FM radio stations have focused on the large advertising clients. It is hoped that clarity on revenue-sharing emerges. FM radio needs to grow from the current 21 stations in 12 cities to at least 300 stations in 100 cities. 70 percent of all radio revenues come from local retailers. soon. In other words. In its current form and structure. TRAI. The retail segment globally constitutes a large part of radio's clients and sales. its ad revenues are expected to grow at a moderate pace. At an investment of INR 40 million per radio station frequency. retail comprises only 8 percent of radio advertising. Since the private FM channels need to survive in a commercial and competitive environment.Due to the public-broadcaster nature of AIR and its socio-economic rather than a commercial focus. In contrast. they have focused on mass entertainment to gather listeners. Hence. radio is a unique medium and the focus on large advertisers seems to be at the cost of its largest potential benefactor . in India. on its part. the total additional investment required will be INR 11 billion. However. To exploit the true potential of this sector. For example. to help the radio industry curb it losses. needs to develop strategies to expand across the country and enhance business performance. in USA. it is expected that the private FM channels will drive the future growth of the sector. thereby turning India's promise into reality. the designated regulatory body for radio. but currently in India accounts for a small portion of the radio revenue pie. The industry. This may be partly attributed to the FMCG-marketing background of some of the managers and partly due to the sales strategy of the multi-media groups that own most radio stations. and only 30 percent comes from either national or international advertisers or from the network of advertisers. .
the cost effectiveness of radio advertising will be even more acute. In India. is a localized medium. due to its ability to transmit a particular message over a small geographical area. The retailer. However. . by its very nature. A high frequency combined with a moderate card rate (effective rates average between INR 500 to INR 900 per 10 seconds) provides an opportunity for retail players to promote their products and services cost effectively without fragmentation as in the case of national or even regional media. there is a need to unlock the advertising potential in the retail segment. advertising on radio costs just 15 percent that of television. While the price relativity for other audiences will vary.televisionpoint. where the cost of television advertising is more than seven times that of radio advertising. Radio stations offer high frequency ‘opportunity to hear’ for the advertiser. International research indicates that radio has 60 percent of television’s effectiveness at increasing campaign awareness amongst an audience of 16-44 year old radio listeners. which can be a great proposition for local retailers.com) Radio. with city/ locality specific target groups. The price differential between radio and television will vary depending on the area and the audience.Graph 3: Pie diagram showing the profile of advertisers (Source: www. the achievement of 60 percent of the result at 15 percent of the cost makes radio significantly more cost effective than television. can be a major beneficiary of radio advertising. Clearly.
Moreover. if the topics discussed are not affected by the 'regency' factor. saves the cost of producing new content and generates newer revenues by offering brand association with such a property at reasonably low rates. this potential is largely untapped. This should not be the case in a localized. when re-broadcast. with around 11 percent of advertisers contributing 60 percent of their revenues. programmed formats or around content areas could have the dual advantage of being re-usable in the future and being syndicated across other channels. Ideally. However. cross media promotions could be an added incentive for the potential advertiser. Creating specific IP whether in the form of RJs. Creation of a good software library can become a source of competitive advantage for a radio player.com Presently.televisionpoint. Besides. Very little programming is developed to create any strategic intellectual property. . there is enough potential to create a library of recordings that can be used beyond a single show. While some radio stations are waking up to this reality. vertically integrated media corporations. It is important for the radio stations to highlight the effectiveness of using radio for local level promotions and region-specific ad campaigns. Such content. such content can be exported for broadcast in other countries where the demand for Indian content is considerable. whether music or not.Graph 4: Graph showing the revenue composition of radio Source: www. since many FM players are associated with larger. mass-medium like radio. the advertiser base should be broad-based with a large number of local advertisers promoting their products. Creation of value packs Most of the programming currently being aired. the advertiser base of FM radio is highly skewed. Interactivity is a major content driver within the radio programming strategy. has little or no library value.
Hindi and mixed content. It may also require a shift from mass marketing of the radio channels to marketing programs targeted at specific market segments. the pressure to sell airtime forced them to resort to the lowest common denominator . Initially. Between them. these radio stations need not look beyond their walls to get valuable listener data. these channels also meet the demands of local advertisers. socio-economic or ethnic or combination of factors. The innumerable contests and interactive sessions on air bring in close to 30. Radio stations have not been able to generate any significant channel loyalty. This me-too approach towards content has a direct implication on the marketing of the radio channels as any message or campaign carried by it runs the risk of being lost in the clutter. With limited sponsored market research done in this area. Hence. they provided the listener with a choice of English. In fact. Channels that address specialist listener groups need to emerge. with listeners simply switching from song to song. like a radio station that caters to the African-American population of New York or a Malayalam channel with Indian content for expatriate Indians in the Middle-East. the resultant effect is constant channel swapping by listeners. content specialization has been a distinct trend in the evolution of radio. The salary structure in radio is comparable to that of other larger media units. Very few have held on to the English format or even non-film content.Niche programming Internationally. Being localized. Since there is very little to differentiate between the various channels. most radio stations in India started off with a defined niche as well. especially FM radio. Radio stations have traditionally grown by attracting specialized audiences. These stations address specific audiences based on geographic. Validation of niche audiences would enable differentiated client targeting with unique value propositions. Manpower The most conspicuous item on the expense list is 'salaries'.Hindi film music. a closer look reveals that even programmed loyalty does not exist. However. radio stations find it difficult to market their USP. This has led . Radio stations will need to start finding their own niche. This is driven by the fact that radio stations hire people from high wage industries like television. there is an urgent need to evolve programming towards differentiated content. Channels that started out with English programming as a key differentiator have drastically reduced the total airtime dedicated to it.a valuable database that is currently under leveraged. However.000 callers every day for a single channel in a city like Mumbai . FMCG marketing or advertising.
What the listener associates with is the quality of content. Conclusion India's radio industry has a strong growth potential if mechanisms and policies are put in place to provide it with appropriate support. is in a prime position to take advantage of the growth potential of this segment. India. Branding is expensive and therefore. Branding Branding plays an important role in establishing a strong channel and program association amongst listeners. Programs that are aligned to channel positioning can ride on the channel branding. Channel brands and programs will be associated with niche content and specific listener profiles that can be sold to potential advertisers. with its diverse regional influences. particularly in a market where lack of niche programming has resulted in constant surfing for songs of choice. These programs rode on extremely successful content formats.to the creation of a people-cost structure that is incompatible with the current size and revenue earning capacity of the radio industry. the increased number of private radio channels across the country is likely to transform commercial radio from an urban phenomenon to a national one. but that does not necessarily translate into higher listenership. as has been the case with satellite television. Brands that have spent more on marketing have a higher recall. branding exercises will become more meaningful. . Some private FM stations have incurred large costs on building merely 'Top of Mind Recall' for all listeners. But as the market matures and niche channels develop with defined target groups and unique value propositions. While it is necessary to incur reasonable manpower costs in order to stay competitive and attract the best talent. innovative cost management solutions such as the right mix between live and recorded music could reduce production and salary costs. while other programs should develop their individual brands. What could work better for them would be a combination of two. The key word is 'association'. For example. brands like Binaca / Cibaca and Bournvita were built on radio. without diluting the channel positioning. With privatization gathering momentum. There is no doubt about the effectiveness of radio when it comes to building brands for its clients. radio stations with limited budgets need to make a choice between channel branding and program branding. irrespective of their preference or affinity to the station.
the gross advertising spend in India is estimated at Rs 111 billion. and growth rates of the advertising industry The Indian advertising spends.Advertising in India: India has been among the fastest growing economies in the world.gov. and is expected to grow at 14.636 billion.34%.2% to reach Rs. There is a correlation between the economic growth rates of a country i. 30. 127 billion by fiscal 2006 Segmentation in advertising The five key industry segments comprise print. is 0.94% over the last 10 years (1995-2005).in) During fiscal 2005. cinema. radio. These different segments within the industry are at varying stages of growth and corporatization . with a nominal GDP CAGR8 of 9. the nominal GDP growth rate.e.sebi. According to CSO estimates nominal GDP growth for fiscal 2006 is estimated at 10. television. The nominal GDP for fiscal 2005 was Rs.9%. as a percentage of GDP. and outdoor. which lags behind other developed and developing countries Graph 5: Graph showing the ad spend across countries (Source: www.
In some countries like Sri Lanka.6% 46.9% 2. which saw the beginning of satellite broadcasting in India.5% 0.9% 43. which started off as a single government controlled television channel.gov. In most markets.5% 2.4% 0. even 150 stations across India is a sustainable proposition.3% 40. radio has suffered from shunted growth.7% 0.4% 0.0% 43.4% 47.7% 0. now has over 300 channels covering the Indian footprint. There are more than 6000 radio stations in US and even a developing country like Nigeria has 18 FM stations.5% 7. radio manages to garner around 4-5% of the mass media spend. radio accounts for 20% of ad spend. Reforms and proliferation of private players were the key reasons for this rapid growth of the share of television in the advertising industry.Media Spends as % of Total Ad Spend Year 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Print 49.4% 7.4% 0.9% Cinema Outdoor Internet 0. resulting in growing ad spends on this medium.3% 0. Thus. This can be attributed to misdirected policies by government.5% 6.0% 0. American radio commanded US$3. The growth of the satellite television audience saw proliferation of a number of satellite television channels offering more choices to media buyers and consumers of entertainment.in) The Indian television industry has grown rapidly. Going by the International benchmark.sebi.7% 2.3% TV 39.6% 8. This growth was also aided by the economic liberalization program of the Government.3% Table 1: Table showing media spends in the total ad spend (Source: www. It is estimated that in 2001.2% 46.2 Billion out of US$60 Billion spent .9% 2.6% 41.0% 6.7% Radio 2. especially since 1991. the television broadcasting business. which did not give enough prominence to radio as a rich medium for entertainment and also for community development.4% 0.0% 48. TRENDS RADIO TRENDS IN INDIA & ABROAD: A MADISON INDIA STUDY It is ironical that while India has the second highest 9 penetration of C&S homes in the world.
the industry feels that these are mere start-up issues.Internationally. emergence of stations that address only specialist audience groups . We expect the trend to continue for some more time till significant advertising monies are committed on radio. radio should feature in the media planner's radar as a serious medium. radio stations have grown by attracting niche audiences (like a Hispanic channel in US or a Malayalam channel in gulf) and local advertisers. As of today. We expect similar consolidation exercise in India. Madison Media expects that the evolutionary pressures will prevail in India and radio stations will increasingly find their own niche. Specialization . consolidation is inevitable and stations groups are formed that controls most of the revenues. .Typically. media planners are quite at loss as there is inadequate information on this medium.8. Radio stations that are part of established media houses would do well. Today. we expect that by year 2004. there are numerous issues facing the radio broadcasters. International experiences show two distinct trends in evolution of radio business Consolidation . For instance. station owners and advertising agencies on ad hoc basis are conducting research.like a special radio station dedicated to south Indians residing in Mumbai or a station that caters exclusively to college going population.on mass media. In India. Such specialist channels will be ideal medium for advertisers. While growth of the radio broadcast industry looks exciting. This will constitute around 4 % of the enlarged ad pie. if one goes by Mumbai experience. Madison media estimates that by 2004. Radio Audience Measurement The question haunting most advertisers and media planners is regarding the audience measurement that will be adopted for Radio. the concept of niche programming has not yet caught the imagination of the broadcaster and audiences find it almost impossible to distinguish one from another. 500 crore on radio. 600 crore. currently radio is able to garner less than 1% of the total ad pie of Rs. in UK four media groups control nearly 60% of ad revenue. as they will have access to well defined captive audience. For instance. advertisers will spend around Rs. As it is early days in India. However. Publications having strong city edition will do have an advantage as they already have infrastructure to marshal local advertisers and also keep a tab on the pulse of the city citizens. there is a surge of activity when the media is liberalized but over a horizon of five to six years.
Even internationally. the next round of RADAR plans to shift reliance from telephone survey to diary-based panel for data collection. while driving (32%). Madison Media routinely undertakes studies on radio usage. People listen to FM at home (70%). followed by Hindi pop (40%). We expect that over a period of time. Majority of the people listen to Hindi film songs (63%). remixes (37%) and English pop (33%). Radio Mirchi is the most popular station and is tuned by people in SEC A and B. In the mean time. RADAR report was based on a 12. However. audience measurement technique for radio will improve and a currency will be established for buying commercial time and selection of alternatives. There has been some academic discussion on use of "meters" in radio sets to determine listenership. Advertising agencies also conduct periodic dipstick surveys. Indicative surveys are being conducted and published periodically by research agencies. It measures National radio audiences and the audience size of radio commercials aired on 31 radio networks operated by large radio networks. these are many years away from being put to commercial use. The popular rating system for radio that is used in US is the Arbitron's RADAR (Radio's All Dimension Audience Research) audience report. Till recently. radio audience research has not matured to the extent of television audience measurement. Key Findings from Madison Media Research • • • • • • Radio has a reach of 56% and there is a distinct skew towards males. However. Sunday listenership is dramatically low with only 10% of the people tuning in to FM vs. we suggest that advertisers should not ignore the media owing to non-availability of any established audience measurement data. The prime reason for inadequate advancement in radio audience measurement technique has been the small share of ad pie that radio commands and also the vast geographic spread. Best Practices that have evolved in using the medium: . Almost 51% of the people listen to FM for an average time of one hour and another 39% listen to FM for a longer period of 1-3 hours.000-person telephone survey. weekdays where the number of tune-ins is as high as 94%. at public places (9%) and at the office (7%).
It will be incorrect to directly transplant those learning are in Indian context. contrary to popular myth. International experience suggests that music oriented properties targeted at youth last long and provide immense benefit to advertisers. we do not expect car owners to be the largest audience for radio. It is more important to understand that radio will be the best medium to target upwardly mobile high spending executives and businessmen.the traditional bastion of radio has been the "In car" listening. they are invaluable in providing directions and we at Madison Media have distilled these findings. However. Closer home. users of radio as an advertising medium can benefit from extensive work carried out in area of media effectiveness. UK indicates. making radio a very effective medium.While the audience measurement is still in infancy. which tested 1200 commercials with 200 respondents per commercial. This exhaustive study was conducted in early 1980s and subsequent research added to the body of available knowledge. The most impressive in this genre of research has been the Radio Recall Research (RRR). A study by Voice of British Advertisers shows that radio is the most effective medium to target businessmen. that nearly 85% of in-car audiences do not shift stations frequently. advertisers should be willing to enter early and commit long term investment. Create Unique Properties . There are mixed reports with regard to station switching behavior among in car listeners. In other markets. To create such high decibel properties. other studies indicate there is extremely low loyalty among in car listeners. Most of these studies have been conducted in developed markets like UK and USA. However. A research by Radio Advertising Bureau (RAB). many successful service brands especially those in office supplies and financial services have benefited tremendously by judicious use of radio.studies clearly demonstrate that properties created on radio are cost effective and have advantage of high recall. given the low penetration of ownership of personal cars in India. It is not important whether in-car listeners will form the bulk of listenership base. Exploit Drive Time Audiences . "Binaca Geet Mala" on radio was as one of the best media properties. it is undeniable that for brands that target at affluent section of the society need to be actively associated with radio. adapted to Indian context and arrived at set of best practices for radio advertising. It might take some time before the properties start to reward the advertisers and advertisers should be willing to fork out the extra premium now before the medium gets established. . Studies have demonstrated that in-car listeners are light consumers of other media like television. However. In any case.
which state that simultaneous airing of more than 5 executions leads to decay in effectiveness. As can be fathomed. three-fifths as efficient as television at driving advertising awareness amongst radio listeners. The media tested were Commercial Radio and television in the Central Region of UK. Creation of sonic branding reduces long term cost of advertising. Radio Multiplier Effect . It is through imagery transfer that radio creates a synergy with television. Copy variation can offset this fatigue and it is suggested to have three variants of the same theme. Another series of studies called "distraction study" tried to simulate the fact that radio listening is always secondary activity.A study by Statistical research Inc. radio can be advantageously used in creating sonic elements of a brand. as one need not air the complete commercial to register recall. Moreover. RRR studies also indicate that more brand mentions in the commercial were good for ad recall and was more effective when the brand was mentioned early in the advertisement. In general. The broad findings of the study proved that radio was. fatigue factor is high with radio commercials.studies have clearly established that length of the commercial had a positive impact on the advertisement. on an average. there is evidence. if 10% of a given television budget is re-deployed onto radio.apart from RRR. Effective Radio Copy Management . This is called Imagery Transfer. As in any other media. These tests also indicated that listeners were able to create and keep images fresh and top-of-mind even when engaged in other task. another monumental study is the Millward Brown study on radio multiplier effect. shows that three out of four consumers who watch a television spot will "replay" the visual image mentally when they hear a radio commercial for the same brand. the efficiency of the campaign in building awareness increases on average by 15% as shown in table below: (Source: rab. Though airing multiple variants is recommended. where aural brand elements are used is very effective in sustaining brand's recall (tring tring of Britannia). it proved to be an effective medium. Recent studies have shown that Sonic branding. and in general. This study involved nearly 5500 interviews in continuous research to track awareness and attitudes to 17 brands.co. spots of 45 seconds or more were effective. ads that were liked had higher impact.Exploit Imagery Transfer . Millward Brown conducted the study across October 1999 to April to find out how effective radio advertising can be relative to television. used in conjunction with a television campaign. The ads that were repeated too often were disliked.uk) .
Of course. This is hurting the growth of the FM radio industry as people who prefer niche music genres are not tuning into FM radio. thus making them totally dependent on advertisement revenues. the major marketers advertising on radio may cut their ad budgets in case of an economic downturn. people frequently switch between stations leading to listenership fragmentation. FM RADIO INDUSTRY: RISK FACTORS Economic downturn10 The FM radio industry derives almost all its revenues from advertisement.The study highlighted that radio effectiveness result was achieved at one-seventh of the cost. the study makes a strong case for advertisers to divert a small portion of their TV budget to radio. Most of them play popular film and pop music and very few cater to the niche audience such as English rock music lovers or Indian classical music lovers. The radio stations are free to air and do not garner any subscription revenues. Besides this. this cannot be taken as a thumb rule as there will be wide variance between rates in U. However. Competition from satellite radio . Thus the FM radio operators are not willing to take a risk by not catering to the mass segment. Little differentiation between different FM radio stations The content played on different FM radio stations is very similar in nature. Advertising is a discretionary expenditure and is the first one to be pruned in case of an economic slowdown. This would adversely affect the radio industry. broadcasters need to develop the market by being more responsive to the advertiser's needs. Conclusion Radio offers tremendous opportunities for advertisers and media planners need to explore various options by which they can effectively use radio in their media mix. This will provide an opportunity for the market to arrive at the final verdict on the effectiveness of the medium.K and other markets. Conversely. This is happening because one player is allowed to own only one station in every city. Thus.
FM radio is limited to a small range around the transmission site while the satellite signals cover the entire country. multiple channel ownership by a FM broadcaster in the same city is not permitted. This favorable treatment meted out to satellite broadcasters may adversely affect the growth of the FM radio industry. But with analog TV likely to be switched off in India in the next 5-7 years. however. In fact. However the broadcasters can enter into a voluntary agreement with Phonographic Performance Limited and The Indian Performance Right Society Limited at high rates or under the rates determined by the courts of law to minimize their expenses. the satellite radio broadcaster WorldSpace operating in India has not been able to meet with much success. However. There is efficient utilization of spectrum in case of digital broadcasting.902 subscribers. At present. Satellite radio broadcasters do not have to pay any license fee whereas FM radio broadcasters have to pay 4% of their gross revenues as license fees. The quality of digital broadcast is better than analog transmission. a few countries are looking at a total switch off of analog broadcasting (FM/AM) by 2020 or so. ending the period with 164.Many of the restrictions that apply to FM radio broadcasters do not apply to satellite radio broadcasters. In Western Europe. Norway is the only country that has formally announced a cutoff date. FM broadcasters cannot broadcast news and current affairs 24 hrs a day whereas satellite broadcasters can do so through a dedicated station. satellite radio has high subscription charges whereas FM radio is free to air. However. High music royalties FM radio broadcasters have to pay high royalties to the music companies for the music content procured from them. digital receivers are more expensive than analog receivers.713 net subscribers during 3QFY07. the current satellite broadcaster in India is offering multiple channels. radio’s turn could come in the next 10-15 years. Besides this. Threat from digital technologies Digital broadcasting technologies like Satellite/Digital Audio Broadcast (DAB) using the FM band and Digital Radio Mondial (DRM) using the AM band are becoming popular worldwide. enabling the broadcast of multiple radio stations. WorldSpace lost 8. Intense competition . in India.
Radio industry: Growth drivers Fastest growing segment of the media and entertainment industry The radio industry recorded a growth of nearly 58% in 2006. This is further expected to increase to 5. The number of FM radio stations has increased dramatically leading to a proportionate increase in the demand for trained personnel. It grows at a faster rate in such buoyant times. We feel that the major risks are a potential slowdown in the economy. Robust growth of the Indian economy The Indian economy has grown at a robust rate of 9% and 9. The share of radio in the total advertising industry increased from 2.4% to 3.2% in FY06 and FY07 respectively.There is intense competition between the FM radio operators operating in the same city. little differentiation between the FM radio stations and intense competition. there are many risks that could derail the growth of the FM radio industry. The real estate industry is projected to grow at a CAGR of 25% in the next five years. Thus.1% during the same year. the media planning and buying arm of advertising group Publicis. As per a study conducted by ZenithOptimedia. Due to this attrition and poaching have become wide spread. real estate firms and retailers. More than 90 channels across various languages and genres are being launched this year. All these industries are expected to witness robust growth in the years to come. listeners and need to procure similar content. Demographics . Radio industry should be a major beneficiary of the high growth in these sectors.5% by 2011 as per the FICCI-PwC report on the Indian entertainment and media industry. The advertisement industry is a proxy to India’s high economic growth. Beneficiary of the buoyant growth of major advertisers The major advertisers on radio are the entertainment channels. the advertising spend is expected to increase to Rs 367 bn by 2010 from Rs 227 bn in 2007. All of them are clamoring for the same advertisers. The size of the radio industry is projected to increase at a CAGR of 28% from Rs 5 bn in 2006 to Rs 17 bn by 2011. Organized retail industry is projected to grow at a CAGR of 40% in the next five years.
The target listeners for the radio industry are the youth. The Indian film industry is getting more organized and receiving more institutional funding. Ideally. The content on radio primarily comprises of film music. Marketers generally wait for adequate research data to emerge before committing large spends to any medium. The reserve OTEF was 25% of the highest valid bid for that city. a revenue sharing formula was introduced whereby radio companies had to pay a fixed annual license fee of 4% of gross revenues or 10% of the reserve OTEF (One Time Entry Fee) whichever is higher. a localized medium like radio can be effectively used for local-level promotions apart from being bundled as part of cross-media promotion strategies. 55% of the India population is below 25 years leading to an increase in the audience of the radio industry. Research may cover larger number of cities in the years to come. has recently ventured into radio audience measurement through a study called RAM (Radio Audience Measurement). Availability of listenership data Leading TV viewership research company. TAM. Local advertising Globally. Thus there is huge potential for the radio industry to benefit from an expected increase in the share of local advertisements. in India. Mumbai and Bangalore. The quality of music produced is improving which augurs well for the growth of the radio industry. Availability of listenership reports is bound to support and attract larger spends from marketers. Phase III policy . the share of local advertising is only about 8% of radio revenues. As per the CII-KPMG report. The study is currently restricted to the cities of Delhi. while local advertising contributes 70% of radio revenues in the United States of America. In the phase II policy. the local retail segment constitutes a large part of radio's advertising income. Reduction in license fees The Phase I policy for the privatization of FM radio had a very high fixed license fee structure with an annual escalation of 15%.
Radio as an Advertising medium: Radio advertising is one of the earliest and most popular forms of advertising in today's world of mass media. Though the radio industry has many growth drivers. entertainment. In the next article. Unlike many other mass mediums radio is much more personal and friendly which attracts large audiences. Radio advertising became increasingly difficult with the dawn of the television era which prompted the need for new ideas to reach the audience." Nearly 98 percent of people listen to the radio primarily for news. Radio is that medium of the single sense and frees the imagination. "Radio has its own special strengths and contributions. much like television. Although television has shifted much of the audience away from radio it is undisputable that radio is always there. Walter Cronkite11. talk. During this time the younger audience was one of the radio's highest audience percentages. Although radio did take a severe hit when the television was introduced into average households they still managed to make a comeback. Instead of working against television which was virtually impossible radio companies began working with them. we shall outline the risks to the growth of the radio industry. and sports.It is expected that after the completion of Phase II Policy. Radio is now the third largest mass advertising media trailing newspapers and of course television. a famous broadcast journalist. Radio audiences have concluded that they listen to the radio. which is remarkably comparing with the competition. there are various risk factors also that could derail the growth of the radio industry. In the early to mid 90s Fox was having trouble obtaining the younger audience that they wanted so they looked to the radio. Radio is broadcasted everywhere twenty-four hours a day and always has the breaking news. This phase will witness licenses being awarded in smaller towns. It's radio that's there when disaster strikes. all night. This could result in radio getting a larger share of the advertising spends. While TV pulls the big audience. because they are either bored or lonely. the Government will open up as many as 700 channels in the Phase III as per some media reports. . it's still radio that's there virtually every place. all day. Radio reaches 77 percent of consumers. started his career in radio and concluded. and 80 percent of the younger audiences daily.
Of all media. Can be enjoyed at home. Radio's low cost and high reach of selected target groups make it an excellent supporting medium. extensive repetition is possible. Advantages: • A universal medium. radio has the shortest closing period. current news events. In addition. Radio's flexibility is also evident in its willingness to participate in promotional tie-ins such as store openings races. the most appropriate role for most radio advertising in a supportive one. radio is the ideal means of reaching people driving to and from work. and while driving. radio can be adapted for different parts of the country and can reach people at different times of the day. Radio offers advertisers flexibility. • Permits you to target your advertising dollars to the market most likely to respond to your offer. reached out to its target audience of women making dinner choices by using radio during 4 to 5 pm time slot. a local hardware store can quickly implement a snow shovel promotion the morning after a snowstorm. and even weather. This flexibility allows advertisers to adjust to local market conditions. particularly if local station announcers read the message. And because airtime costs are low. the costs of producing a radio commercial can be low.Advantage of radio: The most important advantage radio offers is its ability to reach specific audiences through specialized programming. Copy can be submitted up to airtime. • • • Permits you to create a personality for your business using only sounds and voices. For example. Rates can generally be negotiated. Known as drive time. . at work. In fact. Pizza hut12. and so on. Most people listen to the radio at one time or another during the day. these radio time slots provides the best audience for many advertisers. Free creative help is usually available. for instance. Radio may be the least expensive of all media. For example. In addition.
for making it more persuasive and effective visual aids are very important. Strategic Roles of Radio . or not clear Basically in any educational communication. Therefore. radio ads must be repeated to break through the listener's "tune out" factor. Ads are an interruption to the entertainment. • Advertising costs are based on ratings which are approximations based on diaries kept in a relatively small fraction of a region's homes. Lack of visual aids is the major disadvantage of radio in educational communication. • • Not as fast as using a phone. multimedia presentations or hard copies to better understand the discussion. radio rates have gone up less than other media. if an educational program is broadcast then the people who do not have good listening skills cannot understand it. Disadvantages: • Because radio listeners are spread over many stations. Another thing which is very important in educational communication is to get feedback and analyze the interest of audience which is also not possible in radio. Because of this.• Least inflated medium. body language also plays a very significant role in understanding the point of view of the other person and it is not viewable in radio communication. Moreover. to totally saturate your market you have to advertise simultaneously on many stations. could take a little bit The line could get fuzzy. During the past ten years. • Radio is a background medium. Most listeners are doing something else while listening. • • Listeners cannot refer back to your ads to go over important points. radio is having a lot of disadvantages for any educational communication. In the case of radio. There are a lot of people who want visual aids like whiteboards. which means your ad has to work hard to be listened to and understood.
. and campaigns which use only one medium can miss out on the "media multiplier effect". Dominant share of mind Share of mind can be described as the extent to which a brand makes itself salient within the consumer's mind .As Commercial Radio developed in the early days. Radio can also. low capital cost and local flexibility. or to include additional information. These days however. To press. Radio is particularly useful for this as it uses the human voice in real-time. Support to other media Young people are of course consumers of several media.fast turnaround. its key strengths were seen as primarily tactical . This means that the young people do not have to wade their way through extensive reading material before they even know what the proposition is. Young people. because of their inexperience. Radio also works exceptionally well with TV if there is creative synergy. a bank account. bring things to life . like TV. or a promotional offer. The ability of radio to create dominant share of mind is a product of its intrusiveness and the high frequency with which ads are broadcast. often need the benefits of products or services explained to them before they can make a decision to purchase .for example.this is often the most challenging task in sectors where there are several topparity brands. and/or high levels of competitive activity. radio can work in a complementary way to other media. radio above all adds intrusiveness. because levels of ad avoidance with print are so high. With TV it is traditionally used to add to the length of a campaign or to fill weeks where there is no TV activity . radio is increasingly being used for strategic roles. Because of its inherent characteristics. Brands like the Carphone Warehouse13 have used this unique characteristic of radio to develop an unassailable lead within their category. most conspicuously in the form of a Sonic Brand Trigger. while the traditional strengths still apply. Brands in fast-changing areas like retail or financial services often use radio for its ability to put over several different messages as an overlay to a core TV campaign (multiple executions in radio are very inexpensive compared to TV).it can also be used to explain products or services in more depth.for services or corporate advertising this can be very valuable in adding personality and tone of voice.
Radio.newspapers for example. probably quite correctly. allows the advertiser to speak from inside the so-called "youth fortress" As the respondents said in the research. outlets selling favored brands. e.they feel. It would follow that.Speaking from inside youth culture As the qualitative research illustrates. concerts Vague/ not relevant: Memories of ads for local garages. Inevitably this means that some media are seen as outside that independent world . as a personal "me-medium". There was evidence of three sorts of advertising memories: Relevant: Ads which mentioned areas or names of specific interest. . and when they are not. care must be taken in the creative work to overcome this expectation . because radio is a real-time intrusive medium. Tone of voice is a key issue with advertising strategies in this territory.g. since they expect most ads to be irrelevant to them. but the advertising is not . they feel as though the people on the radio treat them like adults . and are strongly influenced by relevance of the brand or product advertised. they have to sit through the full length of any ads which are for irrelevant products. However. that most advertising is aimed at adults. cars and insurance companies . young people begin to move away from their parents' world of choices and preferences. involvement. surprise. Tone of voice is a key area with radio: young people can tell when they are being addressed as equals.little or no specific detail remembered Sonic Brand Triggers: Much evidence of children's ability to pick up on musical SBTs and sing them out loud Consideration It seems clear from this analysis that children are very selective in their attention.leaving their parents out of the equation. Radio Advertising The evidence from the qualitative research is that young people feel their local FM station is aimed at people like them. and to set up their own world independently.through linking to the relevant topic. films. tone of voice etc.
Trivandrum. This is a Jupiter Capital venture. Ahmedabad. RADIO STATIONS ACROSS BANGALORE: Red FM: Red FM is an Indian FM14 radio brand. S FM or Suryan FM was re-branded into RED FM across 38 cities in INDIA. as well as minority holdings of Hyderabad-based IT company Value Labs. Lucknow. Siliguri. Vadodara. Their punchline is 'Baja ate Raho' (Keep Playing). NDTV. Shillong and Aizwal. However. Asansol.9% stake. Virag the recipient of the esteemed Stardust Award for standout performance as a lyricist is from advertising background. Bhubaneswar. with a 48. Starting August 14. 2009. Kochi. "Superhits Music Show".1". the programming is now 100% exclusively Hindi. It was acquired from India Today promoter Living Media in January 2006. Kanpur. Rajkot. "Mumbai Local". Gwalior. S FM took over Red FM in August.9FM15 . Jabalpur. Jamshedpur. playing a mix of Hindi and English songs. Warangal. The most widely broadcast shows include "Morning No. Rajahmundry. Delhi. Vijayawada. Nashik. Mangalore. It was launched in 2002. "Mera Wala Gana".5 Virag Mishra joined the team as a National Creative Head. Radio Indigo is the only radio station in the country that plays contemporary international . Bangalore. Indore. The channel is owned by Kalanidhi Maran. Kannur. Astro. "Indore Beats" and "Nomoshkar Kolkata". Vizag. In one of the recent developments at Super Hits Red FM 93. Jaipur. Hyderabad. Kolkata and Pune in addition to Bhopal. Aurangabad. "One Two ka Four".Young people pick up very strongly on musical Sonic Brand Triggers. Tirupathi. Varanasi. Guwahati. even for seemingly irrelevant brands. Nagpur. with stations broadcasting at 93. Mysore.5 megahertz in the cities of Mumbai. 2009 and re-branded all its stations to Red FM except for the ones in Tamil Nadu. Trissur. Kozhikode. Soul of Bangalore is the country's first and only international hit station.The color of music. Gulbarga. Gangtok. Radio Indigo: Radio Indigo 91. "RDX". Allahabad. "Dilse".
it operates on 107. In Delhi. Playing all the hits all the time. The channel plays various genres of music unlike private channels. regional language and also in Hindi. run by All India Radio16 is a national radio station. Saggy. The station plays a vibrant array of genres like pop. In Lucknow. In Mumbai. the name was changed to FM Rainbow in 2002.2 megahertz. it operates on 102. it does not stick to music of just one language.1 megahertz in Hindi cum.music. Radio Indigo 91. Of course the audience hears favorites like Rohit Barker. cars and office. it is also known as "Rainbow FM". Radio Indigo caters to Bangalore and Goa's long-standing tradition and a vibrant community of music aficionados. It operates in Bangalore as well with a frequency of 101.7 MHz slot.9 has now emerged as the hottest radio station connecting to the most happening International music from around the world. English language covering more than 12 districts of Madhya Pradesh and 21 Suburbs in Bhopal City. heard all across India. The station is talking to all those who reflect the Youth and love music. This government owned enterprise. classic rock. The listeners are exposed to a prescribed dose of music or whatever gets their groove. it operates on 102. features Hindi and regional language songs and occasional English songs along with hourly news bulletins in English. but the new cowboys on the bandwagon are Kenny Jones. In MP. hip-hop. Sriram. The station has today become a house-hold name and those who have grown to love the station are sneaking it in their homes.6 megahertz and AIR FM Rainbow Delhi is the only FM Channel to be aired in as many as ten cities. It plays . jazz. Melodee Austin. Christabel. it operates on 102 megahertz. But like all good things in this world. it uses the 100. Suraj and Shweta taking their shows to the extreme and rocking the studios literally. And they are so exclusive that they are broadcasting only to Bengaluru and Goa.1 megahertz. Radio Indigo 91-9 has evolved to brilliance through bigger promotions & prizes. In vizag.3. it operates on 101. Having headquarters in Bengaluru. It was earlier called FM Metro. Ryan Seacrest. It’s International with an Indian soul. AIR FM Rainbow: AIR FM Rainbow.9 megahertz and in Vijayawada it operates on 102. The signals of this station are very strong and it catches till the far villages. Michelle and Allen Kepler. In Bhopal. In Hyderabad. world music and much more.
It is No. It plays the latest hits. Bangalore (since March ‘07) and Kolkata (January ‘08). You asked for it. In Tamil Nadu. Mumbai. Footloose. FEVER 104 FM: In 2006. the channel's rise has been meteoric. National Radio Station in Trichy. Aditi and Sohail. In Mumbai. Mumbai. In terms of TSL. Mumbai (since January ’07). while in Lucknow. It has gained the No. Bangalore and Kolkata with the brand Fever 104 FM. Live wire Plus. Fever 104 FM is a contemporary hits music station that plays a mix of regional. Fever 104 FM. Matchless music hours. 1 position in Mumbai and Bangalore leaving behind all the other FM channels in these cities.1 megahertz in Tamil language covering more than 12 districts of Tamil Nadu. a rare occurrence in Indian radio channels. Bangalore and Kolkata. Wasim. In a short span of three years. Sunny. . it uses the 100. In vizag. AIR FM Rainbow operates on 102. Fever 104 FM has surged ahead with a total time spent listening of 386 minutes. hippest and most happening Radio Station that plays more music than any other was launched.ghazals. not only this it also has classical music shows. Some of the radios Jockeys of AIR FM Rainbow are Altaf. with its signature property of 40 minutes non-stop music. FEVER 104 FM17. Take off. Rainbow is one of very few Indian radio channels which air Western Music and the western music slots are really popular with listeners. owned by HT Media Limited. all the time across the cities of Delhi.1 megahertz. The company entered the private FM radio market in the four main cities of Delhi. AIR FM Rainbow is heard on 102 megahertz. this radio channel is also known as "Rainbow FM". Just for you. The popular slot for English music called Radio Raptures on AIR FM Rainbow is aired everyday from 7am to10am and from 10pm to 1am and it has earned a very good audience with the passing years. was formed in technical collaboration with the Virgin group.7 MHz slot. Radio pet house. It is available in Delhi (since October’ 06). Raunak. national and international hits.2 FM station in Delhi on the popularity charts. AIR FM Rainbow operates on 102. it operates on 107. In Delhi. It has many western music programs like Time Out. Almost all the radio jockeys on private FM channels once started with FM Rainbow. soundtracks as well as English songs. Fever 104 FM with its tagline ‘It's all about the music!’ entered the FM radio market in key Indian cities.6 megahertz and AIR FM Rainbow Delhi is the only FM Channel to be aired in around ten cities. Wicked Hour. India's youngest. all day.
It is owned by the Entertainment Network India Ltd (ENIL). Before we begin. and by the end of May 2009.Radio One: Radio One18 is a radio station in India. a government undertaking. launched a carpooling drive which is has involved celebrities like Robin Uthappa. Coleman & Co. operating in various media segments such as print media and television broadcasting. a government undertaking. let’s know a little about Radio Mirchi. . was the only radio broadcaster in India. The government then took the initiative to privatize the radio broadcasting sector.5 FM and was broadcast on 92. It sold airtime blocks on its FM channels to private operators. it is promoted by Bennett. The station broadcasts at 94. Limited (BCCL) which is one of the largest media and entertainment companies in India. Soon the service of Radio One will also be started in Bhopal. till June 1998. It is a joint venture between Mid-day Multimedia and BBC Worldwide and operates in 7 metros namely Mumbai. 2006 in Mumbai before going national in 6 more cities.000 people are said to have carpooled in the city. It was launched on June 8. Vizag and Goa to private operators. The initiative got a good response. Radio One and the Bangalore Traffic Police. Chennai. Kolkata. After that. Delhi. It sold airtime blocks on its FM channels in Indore. Radio Mirchi: Radio Mirchi19 is a nationwide network of private FM radio stations in India. who developed their own program content. Until 1993.3 MHz in all cities except in Ahmadabad where it broadcasts on 95. who developed their own program content. was the only radio broadcaster in India. AIR. Radio Mirchi began operations in 1993 in Indore. 10. the government decided not to renew contracts given to private operators. All India Radio or AIR. Times FM was probably the most famous radio in India which began its operation in 1993. Times FM. It was known as Go 92.0 MHz’s. The Times Group operated its brand. Mumbai. which is one of the subsidiaries of The Times Group. In the city of Bangalore. and Rahul Dravid encouraging the public to carpool. Indore. Bangalore. Hyderabad. The Times Group operated its brand. Until 1993.5 MHz in Mumbai till 2006. Pune and Ahmadabad. The original avatar of Radio Mirchi was Times FM. Jabalpur and Jaipur. Kolkata. The government then took the initiative to privatize the radio broadcasting sector. Delhi.
Radio Mirchi has been dominating in Delhi & is the leader in Mumbai and Kolkata. As per the Radio Audience Measurement Reports (RAM). As per Brand Reporter October 2009 issue Mirchi was recognized as one of the game changers of the decade in the radio industry. Mirchi’s website was voted the most popular TV and Radio site in India. Mirchi was voted the No. IRS 2009 reiterates the same as Mirchi has more than 41 million listeners across 32 stations. Its lead over its nearest competitor is more than double. Sadhana Sargam. It's the largest private FM Radio operator in the country in terms of number of operational stations and revenue. Kavita Krishnamurthy. In December 2008. The jury led by Chairman.Times FM. till June 1998.: The Mirchi Kaan Awards acknowledges and honors the contribution of individuals and organizations that have led the way in developing clutter busting radio advertising. Lalit Pandit. During the year. Shankar Mahadevan. However in Kolkata they are not clear leaders in SEC ABC segments. The success of the website reflects the overall popularity of Mirchi. The survey had 1. 1 media brand. Louiz Banks. Anu Malik. This unique honor was bestowed on Mirchi by the Pitch-IMRB group's survey of the top service brands of the country. the design was created and crafted by the music fraternity itself. it won a plethora of awards. While the parentage of the idea was that of Mirchi. This endorses the vote of trust that the brand has built amongst its listeners. Radio Mirchi is the number 1 radio brand in the private FM space. the brand.5 million participants. The SEC ABC segments were earlier dominated by Big FM & now by Friends FM. Playing contemporary hits songs Radio Mirchi has always been the No 1 choice of listeners. The awards have been instituted to encourage continued creative focus on radio advertising.e. . The survey was conducted by Metrix Labs and AC Nielsen. However in the SEC D & E segments Radio Mirchi has total domination. would make any recipient proud .the other members comprised the best in the industry: Prasoon Joshi. Javed Akhtar. Its market share in revenue terms remains in excess of 40% of the private FM industry. Sonu Niigaam. It has been recognition of the brand popularity and the creative talent behind the brand. After that. ahead of iconic brands like The Times of India and Star Plus. Over the years Mirchi have established two important landmarks i. the government decided not to renew contracts given to private operators.
It broadcasts at 92. Over the years. Radio City has launched Fun Ka Antenna Online Radio Station which plays hits across genres including International. Ramesh Sippy and Kunal Kohli. Currently.0 in most cities) megahertz from Mumbai (where it was started in 2004). 700 to 800 million in the current fiscal year to set up 16 FM (Frequency Modulation) stations across India. “audio books”.7 is a nationwide private FM radio station in India owned by Indian businessman Anil Ambani21.7 MHz (92. This initiative has already reached hundreds of schools across the country. It was launched in Hyderabad in March. Suresh Wadkar. This initiative of ‘Listen to my movie’ has been felicitated with one of the most prestigious Readers Digest Pegasus CSR Awards in the ‘Silver Category’. Rakeysh Omprakash Mehra. Jonzie Kurian and Suresh Venkat. in Chennai on July 7th 2006 and in Vishakapatnam October 2007. As a part of its CSR Mirchi initiated a program to improve the quality of life of the visually impaired and the company came up with an initiative i. The station has been criticized for multiple format changes and presenter lineup. Bollywood. Bangalore (started first in 2001).Kailash Kher. English and regional songs. 2006 it has announced plans to invest Rs. The Radio station currently plays a mix of Hindi and Kannada music. It broadcasts on 91. the station had been steadily losing popularity with the launch of newer stations in Bangalore. This is the only private FM radio station which is being broadcast from Srinagar and Jammu in Jammu & Kashmir state. It launched with presenters such as Rohit Barker. and other music-related features. videos. It plays Hindi songs.1 (earlier 91. Recently as of July. BIG FM 92.PlanetRadiocity. . Radio City: Radio City20 is a FM radio station in India. Lucknow and New Delhi. Indipop and Sufi among others. The Chief Executive Officer is Ms Apurva Purohit.7FM). Darius Sunawala. it covers 45 cities.7: BIG FM 92. 2006. Radio City Bangalore is India's first private FM radio station and was started on July 3.com that offers music related news. Radio City recently forayed into New Media in May 2008 with the launch of a new mega music portal . 2001.e. songs. The jury set tough standards.
educate. national and local issues. From July 1. proactive and visionary.3. 2008. .It has made an announcement to invest Rs. which would make the proposed network the largest ever. It broadcasts its programs daily from 5 to 8pm on XFM 96. JGI has taken the initiative to launch a community radio station serving the cause of progress and development of the community at large.000. infrastructure and licensing. in turn seeking to inform. under the name of 'BIG Bollywood 96. The community radio station. development. In keeping with its tradition of promoting the welfare and betterment of society. Its main tagline is "Suno Sunao. and charitable schooling to professional courses. R Chenraj Jain. BIG FM included Singapore. 4. JGI draws on the essence of tradition and sophistication of modernization to educate the professionals of tomorrow. to sensitize society to global. Radio Active: Jain Group of Institutions (JGI)22 is a conglomerate of 35 mission driven institutions that spans the gamut of education. Its mission is to provide excellence in academic education and focuses on the holistic development of the individual. Its vision is to contribute leaders to a vibrant and responsive India. from primary to higher education.000. Radio Active will seek to reach out to Bangalore’s masses on issues concerning health. the first city outside India. women. social issues etc. in its broadcasting network. Life Banao". to use technology and human enterprise in tandem to help create a meaningful and proactive social ambience where interdependence becomes mutually supportive and to focus on a universally responsive India.000 dedicated to transmission equipment. scientific awareness. environment. Inspired by its dynamic founder and Chairman Mr. The Vision behind Radio Active is to empower every individual in society to become a winner and an achiever by harnessing and nurturing human potential.3FM’. the JGI family is principled. while entertaining the public.
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