Radio has made a comeback in the lifestyles of Indians.

Radio has the reputation of being the oldest and the cheapest medium of entertainment in India. The radio industry has been completely reshaped by the various private players that entered the sector after the government allowed foreign investment into the segment and opened the licenses to the private players. DIFFERENT TECHNOLOGIES IN BROADCAST RADIO The first one which was used in olden days for transmission purpose is AM. Amplitude modulation (AM)1 is a technique used in electronic communication, most commonly for transmitting information via a radio carrier wave. Frequency modulation (FM) is a form of modulation that represents information as variations in the instantaneous frequency of a carrier wave. FM is commonly used at VHF radio frequencies for high-fidelity broadcasts of music and speech. Today radio is used for many forms of communication from long distance satellite communications to the personal cell phones that are widely used. In addition to this wireless communications are becoming more important for data as demonstrated by the rapid growth in Wi-Fi Radio is also used for telecommunications links. Signals with frequencies in the microwave region are normally used. These signals have frequencies much higher than those in the short wave band and they are not affected by the ionosphere. However they provide reliable direct line of sight links that are able to carry many telephone conversations or other forms of traffic. Satellite radio Satellite radio is one of the fastest-growing entertainment services in the world and it is making its presence felt in a small but a positive way in India. A satellite radio is basically a digital unit that receives signals broadcast by communications satellite. This allows a person with a set to follow his favorite stations anywhere in the country unlike the terrestrial radio (AM and FM) whose signals are limited to a certain area depending on the power of the station. Some of the advantages of a satellite radio are that the sound is of digital quality and there are no commercials. But it is not for free, it is available on subscription for a fee. An example would be “world space radio”. Satellites, radar, communications, internet, message service are the effect of radio technology in our modern day life. With the growth of radio the requirement for mobile connectivity, it is certain that wireless technologies with radio at the core will continue to thrive and become more

widespread. To meet the demand it is likely that new technologies will be developed to maximize the use of the available radio spectrum. HD radio ("hybrid digital" or "high definition") is a brand name of a method of digital transmission of AM and FM radio stations. The HD Radio system is unique which allows stations to broadcast crystal-clear audio and a variety of text-based services, as well as more FM channels, without changing to new frequency bands. Hybrid system is a system in which digital signals are sent along with the analog carrier as the standard for AM and FM broadcasting in the United States. FM stations can offer multiple channels (called "Multicast" channels) on the same frequencies allocated to analog radio stations. Internet radio Internet radio e-Radio is an audio broadcasting service transmitted via the Internet. Broadcasting on the Internet is usually referred to as webcasting since it is not transmitted broadly through wireless means but is delivered over the World Wide Web. The term "e-Radio" suggests a streaming medium that presents listeners with a continuous stream of audio to which they have no control much like traditional broadcast media. It is not synonymous with podcasting which involves downloading and therefore copyright issues. Nor does e-Radio suggest "on-demand" file serving. Many Internet "radio stations" are associated with a corresponding traditional "terrestrial" radio station or radio network. Internet-only radio stations are usually independent of such associations. Old media don’t’ die! They just bounce back in new avatars. Not so long ago radio had been written off as fuddy-duddy, down market and not so cool. Television and later “new media” were touted to being the media of the future. But thanks to technology radio is making a comeback. FM radio is a new entity altogether and has to deal with new market dynamics. Media owners dealing with new markets will virtually have to draw up their strategies as they go along, create programming that is new, innovative and grab away eyeballs from TV sets and make them tune into their radio sets. It’s a whole new challenge and competition is never far away. Ad revenues will also not be easy to come by, as advertisers will expect media players to put their money where their speakers are before they commit large sums of money towards radio advertising. The other challenge for radio in attracting advertisers is the nature of the medium-radio has always

considered being a reminder medium. The involvement of listeners to radio is low, Vis a Vis television or print media. With the coming of more channels, and the emergence of lifestyle advertising, radio will become a push and pull medium. As said earlier, is not just making a comeback but is being reincarnated into a new avatar. Any radio setup has two parts: • • The transmitter The receiver

The transmitter takes some sort of message (it could be the sound of someone's voice, pictures for a TV set, data for a radio modem or whatever), encodes it onto a sine wave and transmits it with radio waves. The receiver receives the radio waves and decodes the message from the sine wave it receives. Both the transmitter and receiver use antennas to radiate and capture the radio signal. When you listen to a radio station and the announcer says, "You are listening to 91.5 FM “what the announcer means is that you are listening to a radio station broadcasting an FM radio signal at a frequency of 91.5 megahertz. Megahertz means "millions of cycles per second," so "91.5 megahertz" means that the transmitter at the radio station is operating at a frequency of 91,500,000 cycles per second. Your FM (frequency modulated) radio can tune in to that specific frequency and give you clear reception of that station. All FM radio stations transmit in a band of frequencies between 88 megahertz and 108 megahertz. This band of the radio spectrum is used for no other purpose but FM radio broadcasts. Common frequency band includes the following: • AM radio - 535 kilohertz t - 1.7 megahertz • FM radio - 88 megahertz - 108 megahertz AM radio has been around a lot longer than FM radio. The first radio broadcasts occurred in 1906 or so, and frequency allocation for AM radio occurred during the 1920s. In the 1920s, radio and electronic capabilities were fairly limited, hence the relatively low frequencies for AM radio. FM radio was invented by a man named Edwin Armstrong in order to make high-fidelity (and static-free) music broadcasting possible. He built the first station in 1939, but FM did not become really popular until the 1960s. .

HISTORY OF RADIO Radio owes its development to two other inventions, the telegraph and the telephone; all three technologies are closely related. Radio technology began as "wireless telegraphy". Radio can refer to either the electronic appliance that we listen with or the content listened to. However, it all started with the discovery of "radio waves" - electromagnetic waves that have the capacity to transmit music, speech, pictures and other data invisibly through the air. Many devices work by using electromagnetic waves including: radio, microwaves, cordless phones, remote controlled toys, television broadcasts, and more. The Roots of Radio During the 1860s, Scottish physicist, James Clerk Maxwell2 predicted the existence of radio waves; and in 1886, German physicist, Heinrich Rudolph Hertz demonstrated that rapid variations of electric current could be projected into space in the form of radio waves similar to those of light and heat. In 1866, Mahlon Loomis, an American dentist, successfully demonstrated "wireless telegraphy." Loomis was able to make a meter connected to one kite cause another one to move, marking the first known instance of wireless aerial communication. Twenty years after the telephone was invented and music was first sent down a telephone line, Guglielmo Marconi sent radio signals. Marconi (1874-1937) was born in Italy and studied at the University of Bologna. He was fascinated by Heinrich Hertz’s earlier discovery of radio waves and realized that it can be used for sending and receiving telegraph messages, referring to it as “wireless telegraphs.” Marconi’s first radio transmissions, in 1896, were coded signals that were transmitted only about 1.6 km (a mile) far. Marconi realized that it held huge potential. He offered the invention to the Italian government but they turned it down. Marconi was not the first to invent the radio, however. Four years before Marconi started experimenting with wireless telegraph, Nikola Tesla, a Serb who moved to the USA in 1884, invented the theoretical model for radio. Tesla tried unsuccessful to obtain a court injunction

In 1943 the US Supreme Court reviewed the decision. his radio equipment was gone. Stubblefield. Marconi’s Coherer. . Thus writes contributor Dipak Basu. Bose had solved the problem of the Hertz not being able to penetrate walls. This was a way of communicating between two points. made a voice transmission four years before Marconi transmitted radio signals. The instruments (‘Mercury Coherer with a telephone detector’) are still there in the science museum of the Calcutta University. Marconi was present in the meeting of the Royal Society and it is thought that he stole the notebook of Bose that included the drawing of the ‘Mercury Coherer with a telephone detector’. Indian scientist J. 1998. When he was found dead in 1929. Bose demonstrated the radio transmission in 1896 in Calcutta in front of the British Governor General. it was not public radio broadcasting as we know it today.C. however. Tesla became acknowledged as the inventor of the radio – even though he did not build a working radio. But under pressure from American friends.against Marconi in 1915. Transmitters at that time were called spark-gap machines. It was developed mainly for ship-to-shore and ship-to-ship communication. By that time Marconi had received his patent and international recognition. Stubblefield demonstrated his invention to the press in 1902 but. was the exact copy of that of Bose. a farmer from Murray.Radiotelegraph and Spark-Gap Transmitters Radio-telegraphy is the sending by radio waves the same dot-dash message (Morse code) used in a telegraph. Nikoli Tesla remains to be acknowledged as the inventor of the radio. mountains or water. Kentucky. Bose did not apply for a patent on his design because he believed in the free flow of inventions in science. which he used in 1901. Growth of Radio . The transmission was over a distance of three miles from the Presidency College and Science College in Calcutta. referencing the Proceedings of the IEEE. January. being afraid that his invention will be stolen. It is reputed that Nathan B. never marketed his wireless radio. he applied for the patent in September 1901. He was awarded the US patent for the invention of the radio in 1904.

Lee Deforest . It made it possible to amplify the radio frequency signal picked up by the antenna before application to the receiver detector.Improvements to Radio Transmitters Overseas radiotelegraph service developed slowly. . Fessenden. Military Use and Patent Control When the United States entered the First World War in 1917. thus. the triode amplifier and the Audio. Kentucky.AM Radio Lee Deforest invented space telegraphy. primarily because the initial radiotelegraph transmitter discharged electricity within the circuit and between the electrodes was unstable causing a high amount of interference. Stubblefield 2 to a test partner near Murray. to an experimental program of talk and music by Reginald A. Claims to that distinction range from the phase. the great requirement for further development of radio was an efficient and delicate detector of electromagnetic radiation. the Radio Corporation of America (RCA) was established with the purpose of distributing control of the radio patents that had been restricted during the war. all radio development was controlled by the U. which was heard by radio-equipped ships within several hundred miles. in 1906. Lee De Forest provided that detector. after the government released its control of all patents. The Alexanderson high-frequency alternator and the De Forest tube resolved many of these early technical problems.S.S. De Forest was also the person who first used the word "radio". The U. In 1919. "Hello Rainey" spoken by Natan B. In the early 1900s. in 1892. Radio Speaks The first time the human voice was transmitted by radio is debatable. government took over control of all patents related to radio technology. much weaker signals could be utilized than had previously been possible. Navy to prevent its possible use by enemy spies.

Westinghouse's KDKA-Pittsburgh broadcast the Harding-Cox election returns and began a daily schedule of radio program. and died in 1954. Edwin Armstrong was only eleven when Marconi made the first trans-Atlantic radio transmission. FM Radio 1933 Edwin Armstrong is most commonly known for inventing frequency-modulated or FM radio in 1933. to the Eiffel Tower in Paris. However. he was born in 1890.000 times .342. On November 2. including a 125 foot antenna in his parent's backyard. and frequency modulation.S. The Dawn of FM Radio The story of FM radio is one of success and tragedy. Edwin Armstrong invented the regenerative or feedback circuit. Regeneration amplification worked by feeding the received radio signal through a radio tube 20.True Broadcasting Begins In 1915. Edwin Howard Armstrong was one of great engineers of the 20th century.885 for a "Method of Receiving High-Frequency Oscillations Radio" for his FM technology. Enthralled. Virginia. 1920. Frequency modulation or FM improved the audio signal of radio by controlling the noise static caused by electrical equipment and the earth's atmosphere. Edwin Armstrong received U. in New York City. the young Armstrong began studying radio and building homemade wireless equipment. patent 1. super heterodyning. also in New York City. Edwin Armstrong should be known for inventing three key innovations: regeneration. speech was first transmitted across the continent from New York City to San Francisco and across the Atlantic Ocean from Naval radio station NAA at Arlington. Regeneration Amplification 1913 In 1913.

By 1941. Armstrong was well aware of AM radio's major limitations: • • • Static interference from household appliances and lighting Limited audio quality (frequency response and dynamic range) Nighttime interference between many stations (co-channel interference). who was head of RCA and had said he would help him develop it. many FM stations . Although his life was cut short. he's still considered the most prolific inventor in radio's history. that increased the power of the received radio signal and allowed radio broadcasts to have a greater range. and cause Armstrong to lose his personal investment in FM radio. David Sarnof3 and RCA. Superhetrodyne Tuner Edwin Armstrong invented the superhetrodyne tuner that allowed radios to tune into different radio stations. interest in FM radio further diminished and by 1949. especially in rural areas Armstrong took his invention to a friend. Since most radio station owners didn't want to go to the expense of creating high-fidelity programming just for their FM stations. Then the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor.per second. Even though he had improved AM radio in significant ways. 50 FM stations were on the air. because of ionosphere refraction. the FCC allowed them to simulcast — simultaneously broadcast the same programming on both their AM and FM stations. The ensuing war diverted resources and froze development. still out to hold control of their radio empire. RCA bought into the patents and helped Armstrong develop an experimental radio station. Once TV started to evolve. David Sarnof. pressured the FCC to change all of the FM radio frequencies — a move they knew would instantly obsolete all of the exiting FM radios. Armstrong was clearly a technical genius.

Graph 1: Growth of FM radio (Source: www. FM radio not only climbed out of the cellar of popularity after Armstrong's death. removed the air conditioner from his 13th story New York apartment. A few weeks later RCA announced record profits. We'll cover public broadcasting — both radio and television — in an upcoming module. On January 31. The green line represents the growth of noncommercial and National Public Radio (NPR) stations. 1954.had shut down. RCA quickly started pushing its development and subsequently made millions of dollars from the sale of FM transmitters and equipment. Edwin Armstrong. gave up his long. Once FM radio started to make money. He wrote a note to his wife apologizing for what he was about to do. but today it leads AM radio in both number of stations and listeners. taxing battle against Sarnof and RCA.cybercollege. RADIO BROADCASTING .com) As shown in the from the graph . and jumped to his death.

it saw the beginnings of broadcasting on a commercial basis. Some of this increase was the result of inflation. 1930s: This was the beginning of the great depression in the United States – a depression which had its effect on programming and on the various forms of advertising. but relatively little effect on broadcast revenues. Chiefly. the erection of 108 TV stations-and the beginnings. tubes. 1940s: This period included World War II. both network and station revenues were strikingly greater than in the prewar period. of a shift in importance from radio to television. Broadcasting in 1935 to 1941 saw radio revenues soaring to new heights. It saw an enormous increase in the total number of radio stations. 1941 to 1945 was the big money-making time for American radio. especially on the network level. electronic concerns were shifted to war production. employees were drafted into military service.particularly development of networks and the presentation of network programs by national advertisers. in December of 1941. it saw development of basic types of programs. was in short supply. in 1944-45. from a threat-of-war situation into actual involvement. at least. The transistor was demonstrated in 1947 by Bell Labs. 1926 – 1930: Commercial radio became solidly established. The make-up of RCA consisted of those companies that had the key patents or would shortly buy them for wireless telegraphy. etc.This period marked the start of "regular" broadcasting. and while not too many new program forms introduced. The war imposed as many hardships on broadcasters as it did upon those engaged in other occupations. but even so. rather than the sale of receiving sets. costs advanced. The 1930-35 period was also the time of the greatest "idea" development in the history of American radio programming-with respect to network programs in particular. 1923 – 1926: This was a transitional period. no less than 70% above the level of revenues in 1940-41. with the result that broadcasting equipment. . but which was not able to be used unless all the conflicting patent owners would permit. On the other hand. it was a period in which some persons at least saw in broadcasting possible source of revenues-from sale of time. older forms were polished and improved. 1945-1952: A highly important era in the history of American radio and television. it marked the development of new types of equipment. after the government removed restrictions late in 1919. The nation had shifted. The Radio Corporation of America4 was formed in 1919 as a patent pool to control the use of the new equipment which had been invented during WWI.

Stations played three minute songs. There are plenty of listeners and times are good as far as jobs and money. Pop music was better and it demanded a delivery service that sounded as good as a home audio system. The saying. it took a long time for FM to overtake AM.Broadcasting from 1952 through the 1960's: Earlier trends bores: AM Top 40 begins the decade with lock on the ratings. There were lots of jingles and promotions. in some markets more than 50% of the people using radio are still tuned by habit to that "one big legendary AM station. Even though its sound was stale. once AM and now FM were making lots of money." By the middle of the decade most of these major stations were struggling. The networks reached from coast-to-coast and in 1953 the FCC approved the industry indorsed compatible NTSC color television system (RCA-NBC). 1960-1970 .radio reinvents: Probably based on the early work of programmers like McClendon and Bill Drake. AM stations still refused to play the new music from albums and were suddenly facing new competition from FM stations that would play the music. hundreds of AM stations embrace a "top-40 time and temperature" format. There was even disco on FM! Formats fragment: There are no longer just two formats. AM stations even tried to meet the challenge by going "stereo" but no one cared. The music was still controlled by cynical old white men. posted in every control room. it seemed. reversing their 1950 decision which had authorized a non-compatible field-sequential system (CBS). Radio became less secure. Radio makes lots of money: The big music stations. Advertisers want to buy radio. "be bright. The Big FM's would rule by the decade’s end. FM makes a comeback: For a system that was invented nearly 40 years earlier. but during this decade television became the dominant mass medium as the freeze on licenses was lifted and a 70channel UHF band was added. music and contests are now targeted to a specific age group (12-35) based on demographic research showing this group has money to spend on goods and services by the new affluent middle class. be brief" was. but grew in the number of smaller stations licensed. 1970-1980 . top-40 on AM and progressive rock" on FM. Each station has only a small segment of the audience. Programming. .

Buy-sell: Like the house you bought for a high price in the late 1980's. If you were a news writer. more automation. promotion or production of promotions. Digital takes over radio technology: Now an entire day can be stored. AM tries a comeback: Helped with new technical regulations. edited and broadcast using the hard drive of a computer. Smaller stations automate with them but it makes the station less local-sounding. New radio station owners want to cut costs. 1980-1990 . now your station was no longer required to have news. persistent. Production that used to involve splicing tape is now done .Radio networks return: With inexpensive satellite technology available to every station. New group owners & duopolies: One company can now own 25-25-25 plus and in San Jose and San Francisco some companies own many stations. To succeed you have to be above average. there were perhaps 100 to 200 stations vying for competes: Less people do more work. lessappealing to listeners and sponsors. the radio station you also bought is worth less than you paid. News and public affairs suffered. A smaller pie: The number of stations swelled to 12. In the 1980s almost half of the radio stations changed struggles: The Reagan administration de-regulates the industry. mostly offering music formats delivered by big city DJ's. 1990-2000 . This means cutbacks. promise of fewer stations and an expanded AM band. No union problems because the unions in radio are practically irrelevant. hundreds of new radio networks emerge and die. tenacious. use automation to run three stations at once.000 and in major and large markets. you'll work. reporter and reader as every station had to employ in the 1970's. less news and public affairs types. Again. less people have to do more. The era of Niche Programming and formats begins and now there is a format for every narrow interest. Stations now have to satisfy the demands of the marketplace instead of the demands of Federal regulation. New owners. In this market most of each day is automated. the FCC station owners tried to save AM one more time. new challenges: For young people seeking a career in radio the good news was if you are good at sales.

Government of India controls the radio broadcasting in India that works under the Directorate General of All India Radio. etc. Conservative politics. HISTORY OF RADIO IN INDIA: Broadcasting began in India with the formation of a private radio service in Madras (presently Chennai) in 1924. the Integrated North-East Service that aimed at reaching out to the tribal groups in northeast India and handles the External Services. Still. There are five regional headquarters for All India Radio. Vividh Bharati earned its revenues from extensive advertisements and . There were only six radio stations in India at the time of independence. this very Corporation was renamed All India Radio (AIR) and was controlled by the Department of Communications. New delivery services: Digital stuff. All India Radio`s network had expanded by the mid-1990s to around 146 AM stations along with a National Channel. current owners want to be first in line when licenses are issued for these new services. to be replaced with computer memory. In 1936. the Indian Broadcasting Company5. DMX. to inaugurate Radio stations in Bombay and Kolkata. and suddenly many struggling AMs are revived and saved again by talk radio. namely in the North Zone in New Delhi. In the very same year. It was established in 1936 and since 1957 All India Radio was renamed as Akashvani. Internet. Analog devices like cart machines will disappear by 2004. Akashvani is a government-owned. The company almost went bankrupt in 1930 but the colonial government took away the two transmitters and the Department of Labor and Industries started operating them as the Indian State Broadcasting Corporation. AM is around after almost 100 years. Talk radio's decade: Rush. the West Zone in Mumbai. Commercial Radio services in India started in 1967 by Vividh Bharati Service with its headquarters at Mumbai.with the click of a mouse. And just like the transition to television. the North-East Zone in Guwahati. Assam. British colonial government approved a license to a private company. and the South Zone in Chennai. AIR was made a separate Department under the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. When India became independent in 1947. the East Zone in Kolkata. semi -commercial operation of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. all future non-FM delivery services. DBS.

Within 4 years. The broadcasting equipment used in India is mainly indigenous and reaches special audiences. Indian radio also took up the task of aiding in the development of economic scenario. the FM Radio advertising and sponsorship business grew to Rs. Initially it was around 14 million that rose to nearly 65 million. book commercials from advertisers and broadcast the whole lot. Indian radio proved to be a prime medium of social integration. The role of broadcasting provided an inlet for the flow of modern ideas. In 1993. 93 crores with Times of India's Times FM & Mid-Day Group's Radio Mid-Day becoming the main players. prepare programming content. In 1994 there had been almost eighty-five FM stations and seventy-three short wave stations that connected the entire country. primarily due to the absence of any motion medium. Most radios are also produced within India. It was due to the same reason of static thoughts prevailing in the society. the advertising revenue . In 1961 the television medium were expanded to include a school educational television project. The early history of Indian radio broadcasting in independent India set the parameters for the succeeding role of television in the nation. the Government of India did not permit private radio stations to broadcast in India. India has a wide-ranging network of medium wave and short-wave stations. and traffic and road sense. (1997-98). popularity of radio spread nationwide. in June 1998 the Government. In those days radio was considered as an integral medium of communication. such as farmers needing agro climatic. For more than 4 decades. again associated with the All India Radio`s services. and other agriculture-related information. Programs were broadcast twice a week for an hour a day on welfare topics related to community health. plant protection. however the importance of radio did not decline. through its electronic media regulatory body Prasar Bharti. All the national affairs and social changes were informed through the waves of broadcast media and within no time. Then. The number of radio receivers increased almost five times between 1970 and 1994. the Government allowed private FM operators to 'buy' blocks (chunks) on All India Radio. that television came into existence in 1959. citizens duties and rights. Television broadcasts started from Delhi in September 1959. Not surprisingly. decided not to renew contracts of private FM operators.had been broadcasting from thirty-one AM and FM stations during the mid-1990s. Then history changed its course.

the competition shrank. FM players pay annual license fees. FM coverage in India is restricted to just 17% of the country. respectively. the bids for Hyderabad and Nagpur came next. So. Others dropped out saying the business was not viable.Rs 97. For instance. which focused mainly on the smaller towns. the government had to actually face mass withdrawal of bidders because of the huge license fee. a Zee Group company. And the focus on metros was evident in the bidding.75 crore. New Media Broadcasting.2 million each Radio is expected to follow the growth of the Television industry. in effect. A handful of serious bidders chose to remain. Today. Private FM radio sector would shift to a revenue-sharing model from the existing license fee regime.fell by 50% within a year! This time.2 million and Rs 74 million. 1999 was the historic day when the Government announced that 150 new FM channels would be licensed across 40 cities.for 76 channels in 26 cities.5 billion. garnered close to Rs 3. which go up by 15 per cent every year. while the bids for Delhi were Rs 71. Many gave up. players consolidated and the Government extended its deadline.6 billion as license fee for the privately run FM radio channels in 40 cities. And in 2000. Music Broadcasting became the first firm in India to commence private FM broadcast from Bangalore in July. each for Rs 77. Interestingly. The government collected close to Rs 4. The government got the highest bids .for stations in Mumbai. But the going was not so easy. Currently. July 6. the bidding price for the Mumbai license was reportedly to the tune of Rs 9. the Government auctioned licenses for private FM channels to bolster the revenue. there are roughly 10 players who will operate approximately in 37 cities across the country. Expecting to collect Rs 800 million from auctioning 108 licenses. The objective is to “make FM radio a . Incidentally. In response to the Government's offer.5 million from each of 10 broadcast companies . revenue-sharing also exists in the media sector. won the largest number of bids. which grew rapidly following the entry of private player. compared to 89% of All India Radio (AIR). many companies bid for the licenses to operate in key markets. The first round of bidding . However. unable to shell out the high license fee. the Government gave the green light to privatize radio in India. Licensee Fee and revenue sharing model Currently.

5 per cent. The geographical area covered by radio in India in India is as high as 98 percent and the penetration level is approximately 97 percent. Canada with 12.1%. That should open up a vast new market of consumers-100 million Indian households own an estimated 150 million radios. While the private FM players had sought revenue-sharing in the band of 2-2. On the higher side are countries like the United States with 13 %. However in spite of the various challenges the emergence of private FM stations is certain to increase the quantum of radio advertising in the country . It has also recommended to the government to release additional spectrum for the use of FM radio companies so that the number of companies operating in one centre can go up. outnumbering television sets 3:1. Currently radio has just 2 percent of the 9000 crore Indian advertising market according to an Arthur Anderson’s survey. There has been debate on whether to recommend a revenue-sharing structure or a fixed amount for a period of 10 years. 50/. much like satellite channels did to the quantum of television advertising in the country.FICCI estimates FM’s . it is firm on revenue-sharing now. radio has a 5 % to 12 % of the advertising cake. Given that radio has penetrated into 100 million homes and a FM set costs around Rs. It’s better to keep the revenue-sharing figure low than to have a failed project. Revenue-sharing figure is quite low at around 4 %. the panel has fixed it at 4 per cent. But FM presently covers only 17 percent of the area and 21 % of the population of India through transmitters. The panel also suggested that players wanting to enter the sector in the second round of licensing need to have a technical viability clearance by a financial institution on the financial viability of the project. Revenue-sharing will follow payment of a one-time entry fee through a process of bidding.success story”. FM station executives are not forthcoming on multi-platform strategies as yet. Globally depending on each country.7% and Spain with 9. the number of FM radio stations targeted is around 300 to 4006. After the second round of privatization.

Virgin group has already started exploring the Indian market for suitable partners. for advertisers. With the government ready to reduce the license fees it will help in attracting new players like reliance which had earlier backed out only due to the entry fees. employment & career options. radio is personalized. 1200 crores by 2005 and Revenue of radio services is expected to rise to Rs 689 crore by 2008 at a CAGR of 30 per cent. each radio station is reeling under the brutal financial impact of high costs. For example. It can provide a level playing field with benefits for listeners. cellular phone service or auto related products would have a good impact when advertised on radio is primarily known as a “drive time” medium most people who turn in are doing so while commuting. helpful information . Spearhead the government objective of growing the FM radio business in India. With more players in the fray the FM radio industry would grow and also enhance the government’s yield from licensing radio naturally. The new India deserves an active private FM radio sector. But at current levels of advertising support. as the car population is much bigger. They have also forecasted that revenues from radio advertising in India will be Rs. Various radio stations are coming up with IPO for example Radio Mirchi thus helping them expand. . community announcements and public service messages provide a real value-added service.traffic advisories. Also advertising of certain product seems to work very well while some might not.5 percent to 5 % in five years. it is being predicted that radio's share in the total advertising pie will see an increase in the medium term. Providing free-to-air local broadcasts of music and entertainment. The future looks bright as the reach of radio is expected to raise post the increase in the number and quality of players in the industry. It is on the basis of these key drivers of growth. Also one must not forgot that radio continues to be a medium that has tremendous reach among the poor and marginalized sections of society.share up from the present 1. This would be the key when evaluating the medium. FUTURE OF RADIO INDUSTRY FM Radio can play its part in building a stronger business future for India. While TV is a family medium. Rs. Also government allowing foreign players to enter the Indian market it will help the industry grow. Thus the potential if FM is better is bigger town.

because people can listen to radio anytime and anywhere they want. • • 90% of India has access to radio which is unmatched by any other media. who would depend on word-of-mouth. Therefore radio is more popular. The Rs 1. . brochures or ads in local supplements of newspapers. • Radio is considered as a background medium. are welcoming the opportunity. pamphlets. SWOT Analysis Strengths: • Recently. though radio has only a 2 per cent share in the Rs 6. • The advertisers. not only are listeners tuning into it more often but also sticking to radio for longer hours every day. Also. It is also a free medium.6 billion industry is reported to be growing by 31 per cent every year and should touch the Rs 6. They can’t afford a TV set. the government has agreed upon revenue-sharing model. which is 4 % for the growth of the radio stations. with revenue rising at 23 per cent annually. So that they can develop themselves well because this industry is still in an introduction stage.2 billion by 2007.There are an estimated 150 million radio sets across the country. Radio also reaches to uneducated village folk who do not read print publications.000 crore Indian advertising markets. and reveals that radio listenership habits have changed considerably. At the places where the literacy rates are low where people hardly read newspapers and radio is the only medium that they can understand. advertising spending is expected to amount to Rs 500 crore this year. • The success of private FM stations.

• Radio-only nature of radio communication is a tremendous creative compromise. in India there is no proper research is available.research is very important for any advertising segment. Therefore. other media or the advertisers or agency can use this medium for brand recall. Most of the stations plays much of the music that is played consist of Hindi Film songs. Research is the main base to attract client and get more revenue. Weakness: • One of the major weaknesses of Radio is that there is very less differentiation in the programs that are aired. This is the situation that every radio channel is facing. Radio offers its reach frequency and selectivity at one of the lowest costs per thousand and radio production is relatively inexpensive. . the percentage of listener tuned to anyone station is likely very small. • Increase in listenership numbers but no increase in ad revenue.• Radio is the least cost medium and it helps to reach mass audience with various backgrounds.the large number of the audience in India is fragmented in various remote places. But. And therefore. Radio is a complement to another media. • No proper research available . Many advertisers think that without strong visual brand identification the medium can play little or no role in their advertising plans. And like its radio message creates a fleeting impression that is often gone in an instant. and therefore it is difficult to differentiate between the programs of the different channels. Many stations are conducting their own research which can be biased. • Fragmented Audience . An advertiser whose product depends on demonstration or visual impact is at a loss when it comes to radio. • • Radio is considered as a medium where the “Proximity to purchase” is very high.

One has to constantly innovate. and gung-ho about this whole enterprise. At the same time. • Allowing private FM players to start news and current affairs programs. And then it is easier for the advertisers also to decide on which channel to advertise. like. we are very bullish. and that is the challenge. The launch of Private Radio FM has managed to create a set of ‘New Listeners’ for the medium • The new radio stations which will come in future they can have venture with the college or university campuses. And can play their station which will exclusively provide with the information relating to that university/college campus. Brand building is thus much more difficult. • With the coming of the many more new players in the radio industry each channels can position themselves quite different from others.• Short commercials Opportunities: • Getting copyright licenses from the government for running mega events which are aired on the AIR radio station and have been restricted to be aired on other private stations. if some station is targeting the health conscious people then their programming strategy will vary accordingly. • • • Launching a radio station with 24-hour news channel Tie-ups with BEST or railway authority for playing the FM in train and in bus. • • Leaves huge scope for innovation in local market Threats: .

particularly those below the age of 25. set at levels significantly above their earning capacity. government channel etc… • Because of the new government policies there will be more number of stations and then competition will also increase. the sector generates annual revenues of INR 2. this growth rate is far from flattering. against total operating costs of around INR 550-600 million. the sector has been reeling under heavy losses. A few FM stations have been forced to shut down.they can listen to music and get information on the move. Advertising is the sole source of revenue for radio in India. Given that a significant portion of the operating costs is the license fee. there is a fear of losing its brand loyalty. As a result of unsustainably high license fees. Today's busy teenagers love radio because it complements a faster-paced lifestyle . Younger audiences. . there are 21 privately-owned FM stations in 12 major cities. With no particular differentiation in the music. through a wide network of broadcasting centers and transmitters. INDIAN ENTERTAINMENT INDUSTRY FOCUS 2010 On Radio Radio is a mass medium and therefore ideally suited for India . This is one of the biggest threats it faces.• The biggest threat to private radio industry players is ALL INDIA RADIO. Given that commercialization of radio is still in a nascent stage in India. So. as they could not afford to pay the annual license fees. revenues would need to grow at over 40 percent annually to break even in the next three years. If one considers the private sector FM market in Mumbai. all of whom have been granted licenses over the past 3-4 years. Apart from AIR. This implies a marginal rise in radio's share in the advertising pie to around 1. Currently.leveraging its twin advantages of wide coverage and cost effectiveness.9 percent. which is set to increase at 15 percent per annum. also have access to new technology like mobile phones.2 billion and is growing at around 20 percent annually. low charges. which covers 91 percent7 of India's area and reaches 99 percent of the population. four players cumulatively generate annual revenues around INR 250-300 million. AIR is the biggest player in India because of its reach. It is dominated by the state owned All India Radio (AIR). They have taken very quickly to interacting with their favorite radio stations and RJs via email and SMS for song requests and competitions.

radio has a 13 percent share.televisionpoint. it is the younger generation that is the key target audience vis-à-vis radio. reaching over 99 percent of its one billion inhabitants . The easy availability of FM radio sets at affordable price points (ranging from INR 40INR 150) is fuelling its mass penetration. in Mumbai and Delhi. It has less than 2 percent share of the total advertising pie in India. the radio sector cannot and should not be satisfied with a growth rate in the low The Indian potential India has an estimated 180 million radio sets. FM penetration is the highest in the SEC A segment and least in SEC D. this sector has not been able to monetize its hold on the listener’s eardrums. radio has a 21 percent share of the advertising spend.a clear indication of the vast commercial potential in India for this medium. Plainly. We estimate that if its real potential is unlocked in India. commercial radio could account for approximately 8 percent of media spends in the short to medium term and up to 10-12 percent in the long term. in Sri Lanka. 70 percent of radio listeners in these cities listen to FM radio all seven days of the week. In spite of such attractive statistics. In the US. However.Graph 2: Graph showing FM listeners across age groups (Source: www. According to market research. compared to a global average of 8 percent. radio remains a laggard. While consumption in India is still largely at home. in terms of its advertising spend. in Spain 9 percent and closer to home. In India too. Bridging the gap . 'the radio on the move' trend is catching on in urban and semi-urban areas. Further.

needs to develop strategies to expand across the country and enhance business performance. the radio industry will not be able to attract the necessary funding. the total additional investment required will be INR 11 billion. has proposed a transition from the existing license fee regime to a revenue sharing one. in USA. However. thereby turning India's promise into reality. The industry. TRAI. to help the radio industry curb it losses. retail comprises only 8 percent of radio advertising. 70 percent of all radio revenues come from local retailers. At an investment of INR 40 million per radio station frequency. In its current form and structure.the local retailer. In contrast. in India. To exploit the true potential of this sector. This may be partly attributed to the FMCG-marketing background of some of the managers and partly due to the sales strategy of the multi-media groups that own most radio stations. Since the private FM channels need to survive in a commercial and competitive environment. and only 30 percent comes from either national or international advertisers or from the network of advertisers. For example. the designated regulatory body for radio. . its ad revenues are expected to grow at a moderate pace. FM radio needs to grow from the current 21 stations in 12 cities to at least 300 stations in 100 cities.Due to the public-broadcaster nature of AIR and its socio-economic rather than a commercial focus. radio is a unique medium and the focus on large advertisers seems to be at the cost of its largest potential benefactor . Local mantra The sales and marketing efforts of the major FM radio stations have focused on the large advertising clients. it is expected that the private FM channels will drive the future growth of the sector. but currently in India accounts for a small portion of the radio revenue pie. they have focused on mass entertainment to gather listeners. The retail segment globally constitutes a large part of radio's clients and sales. soon. In other words. on its part. the challenge confronting radio is to bridge the gap between the current growth trend and potential growth expectations. It is hoped that clarity on revenue-sharing emerges. Hence.

the cost effectiveness of radio advertising will be even more acute. where the cost of television advertising is more than seven times that of radio advertising. While the price relativity for other audiences will vary.televisionpoint. due to its ability to transmit a particular message over a small geographical area. However. the achievement of 60 percent of the result at 15 percent of the cost makes radio significantly more cost effective than television. International research indicates that radio has 60 percent of television’s effectiveness at increasing campaign awareness amongst an audience of 16-44 year old radio listeners. can be a major beneficiary of radio advertising. advertising on radio costs just 15 percent that of television. Clearly. which can be a great proposition for local retailers. there is a need to unlock the advertising potential in the retail segment. The price differential between radio and television will vary depending on the area and the audience. by its very nature. A high frequency combined with a moderate card rate (effective rates average between INR 500 to INR 900 per 10 seconds) provides an opportunity for retail players to promote their products and services cost effectively without fragmentation as in the case of national or even regional Radio. In India. The retailer.Graph 3: Pie diagram showing the profile of advertisers (Source: www. is a localized medium. with city/ locality specific target groups. . Radio stations offer high frequency ‘opportunity to hear’ for the advertiser.

Moreover. Interactivity is a major content driver within the radio programming strategy. It is important for the radio stations to highlight the effectiveness of using radio for local level promotions and region-specific ad campaigns. with around 11 percent of advertisers contributing 60 percent of their revenues. the advertiser base should be broad-based with a large number of local advertisers promoting their products. Such content. saves the cost of producing new content and generates newer revenues by offering brand association with such a property at reasonably low rates. . there is enough potential to create a library of recordings that can be used beyond a single show. this potential is largely untapped. However. Creating specific IP whether in the form of RJs. whether music or not. when re-broadcast. cross media promotions could be an added incentive for the potential advertiser. Creation of a good software library can become a source of competitive advantage for a radio player. if the topics discussed are not affected by the 'regency' factor.Graph 4: Graph showing the revenue composition of radio Source: www. mass-medium like radio. vertically integrated media corporations. Besides. such content can be exported for broadcast in other countries where the demand for Indian content is Presently. programmed formats or around content areas could have the dual advantage of being re-usable in the future and being syndicated across other channels. This should not be the case in a localized. has little or no library value. Very little programming is developed to create any strategic intellectual property. the advertiser base of FM radio is highly skewed. Creation of value packs Most of the programming currently being aired. Ideally.televisionpoint. since many FM players are associated with larger. While some radio stations are waking up to this reality.

content specialization has been a distinct trend in the evolution of radio. most radio stations in India started off with a defined niche as well. These stations address specific audiences based on geographic. socio-economic or ethnic or combination of factors. Validation of niche audiences would enable differentiated client targeting with unique value propositions.000 callers every day for a single channel in a city like Mumbai . these channels also meet the demands of local advertisers. It may also require a shift from mass marketing of the radio channels to marketing programs targeted at specific market segments. Radio stations have traditionally grown by attracting specialized audiences. Being localized. Manpower The most conspicuous item on the expense list is 'salaries'. a closer look reveals that even programmed loyalty does not exist. especially FM radio. This has led . However. there is an urgent need to evolve programming towards differentiated content. like a radio station that caters to the African-American population of New York or a Malayalam channel with Indian content for expatriate Indians in the Middle-East.Niche programming Internationally. Hindi and mixed content. FMCG marketing or advertising. Radio stations will need to start finding their own niche. the pressure to sell airtime forced them to resort to the lowest common denominator . they provided the listener with a choice of English. these radio stations need not look beyond their walls to get valuable listener data. Hence. Since there is very little to differentiate between the various channels. However.a valuable database that is currently under leveraged. Between them. This me-too approach towards content has a direct implication on the marketing of the radio channels as any message or campaign carried by it runs the risk of being lost in the clutter.Hindi film music. Channels that address specialist listener groups need to emerge. with listeners simply switching from song to song. Radio stations have not been able to generate any significant channel loyalty. The salary structure in radio is comparable to that of other larger media units. Channels that started out with English programming as a key differentiator have drastically reduced the total airtime dedicated to it. With limited sponsored market research done in this area. Very few have held on to the English format or even non-film content. radio stations find it difficult to market their USP. Initially. The innumerable contests and interactive sessions on air bring in close to 30. In fact. This is driven by the fact that radio stations hire people from high wage industries like television. the resultant effect is constant channel swapping by listeners.

radio stations with limited budgets need to make a choice between channel branding and program branding. There is no doubt about the effectiveness of radio when it comes to building brands for its clients. innovative cost management solutions such as the right mix between live and recorded music could reduce production and salary costs. Conclusion India's radio industry has a strong growth potential if mechanisms and policies are put in place to provide it with appropriate support. brands like Binaca / Cibaca and Bournvita were built on radio. particularly in a market where lack of niche programming has resulted in constant surfing for songs of choice. branding exercises will become more meaningful. Programs that are aligned to channel positioning can ride on the channel branding. These programs rode on extremely successful content formats. but that does not necessarily translate into higher listenership. with its diverse regional influences. What could work better for them would be a combination of two. Branding is expensive and therefore. India. irrespective of their preference or affinity to the station. while other programs should develop their individual brands. without diluting the channel positioning. What the listener associates with is the quality of content. While it is necessary to incur reasonable manpower costs in order to stay competitive and attract the best talent. For example. With privatization gathering momentum. But as the market matures and niche channels develop with defined target groups and unique value propositions. is in a prime position to take advantage of the growth potential of this segment. Channel brands and programs will be associated with niche content and specific listener profiles that can be sold to potential advertisers. The key word is 'association'. as has been the case with satellite television. Brands that have spent more on marketing have a higher the creation of a people-cost structure that is incompatible with the current size and revenue earning capacity of the radio industry. the increased number of private radio channels across the country is likely to transform commercial radio from an urban phenomenon to a national one. . Some private FM stations have incurred large costs on building merely 'Top of Mind Recall' for all listeners. Branding Branding plays an important role in establishing a strong channel and program association amongst listeners.

Advertising in India: India has been among the fastest growing economies in the world. 127 billion by fiscal 2006 Segmentation in advertising The five key industry segments comprise print. the nominal GDP growth rate. 30.sebi. and growth rates of the advertising industry The Indian advertising spends. television.94% over the last 10 years (1995-2005). and outdoor. radio. According to CSO estimates nominal GDP growth for fiscal 2006 is estimated at 10.9%. with a nominal GDP CAGR8 of 9. cinema.e.2% to reach Rs. There is a correlation between the economic growth rates of a country i. as a percentage of GDP. the gross advertising spend in India is estimated at Rs 111 is 0. and is expected to grow at During fiscal 2005.636 billion. which lags behind other developed and developing countries Graph 5: Graph showing the ad spend across countries (Source: www. These different segments within the industry are at varying stages of growth and corporatization . The nominal GDP for fiscal 2005 was Rs.

4% 47.9% Cinema Outdoor Internet 0. This can be attributed to misdirected policies by government.5% 6.7% 2.3% Table 1: Table showing media spends in the total ad spend (Source: www.4% 0.5% 2.6% 46.6% 8. now has over 300 channels covering the Indian footprint.0% 43.2% 46.3% TV 39.9% 2.4% 0. which saw the beginning of satellite broadcasting in India.5% 0.7% 0. This growth was also aided by the economic liberalization program of the Government. which started off as a single government controlled television channel.Media Spends as % of Total Ad Spend Year 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Print 49. Reforms and proliferation of private players were the key reasons for this rapid growth of the share of television in the advertising industry. TRENDS RADIO TRENDS IN INDIA & ABROAD: A MADISON INDIA STUDY It is ironical that while India has the second highest 9 penetration of C&S homes in the world.5% 7.3% 40.sebi. which did not give enough prominence to radio as a rich medium for entertainment and also for community development.0% 6. radio has suffered from shunted growth.2 Billion out of US$60 Billion spent .9% 43. even 150 stations across India is a sustainable proposition. especially since 1991.7% 0.7% Radio 2.4% 7. In some countries like Sri Lanka.6% 41. Thus. In most markets.4% 0. the television broadcasting business.3% 0. There are more than 6000 radio stations in US and even a developing country like Nigeria has 18 FM stations.0% 0.4% 0. Going by the International benchmark.0% It is estimated that in 2001. resulting in growing ad spends on this medium. The growth of the satellite television audience saw proliferation of a number of satellite television channels offering more choices to media buyers and consumers of entertainment. American radio commanded US$3. radio manages to garner around 4-5% of the mass media spend.9% 2. radio accounts for 20% of ad The Indian television industry has grown rapidly.

media planners are quite at loss as there is inadequate information on this medium. As of today. We expect the trend to continue for some more time till significant advertising monies are committed on radio. if one goes by Mumbai experience. radio stations have grown by attracting niche audiences (like a Hispanic channel in US or a Malayalam channel in gulf) and local advertisers. currently radio is able to garner less than 1% of the total ad pie of Rs.on mass media. As it is early days in India. the concept of niche programming has not yet caught the imagination of the broadcaster and audiences find it almost impossible to distinguish one from a special radio station dedicated to south Indians residing in Mumbai or a station that caters exclusively to college going population. While growth of the radio broadcast industry looks exciting. in UK four media groups control nearly 60% of ad revenue. However.Typically. consolidation is inevitable and stations groups are formed that controls most of the revenues. Radio Audience Measurement The question haunting most advertisers and media planners is regarding the audience measurement that will be adopted for Radio. radio should feature in the media planner's radar as a serious medium. Publications having strong city edition will do have an advantage as they already have infrastructure to marshal local advertisers and also keep a tab on the pulse of the city citizens. Today. Such specialist channels will be ideal medium for advertisers. 600 crore.Internationally. 500 crore on radio. Madison media estimates that by 2004. as they will have access to well defined captive audience. International experiences show two distinct trends in evolution of radio business Consolidation . advertisers will spend around Rs. there is a surge of activity when the media is liberalized but over a horizon of five to six years. Madison Media expects that the evolutionary pressures will prevail in India and radio stations will increasingly find their own niche. we expect that by year 2004. Specialization . In India. . For instance.8. emergence of stations that address only specialist audience groups . the industry feels that these are mere start-up issues. For instance. there are numerous issues facing the radio broadcasters. We expect similar consolidation exercise in India. This will constitute around 4 % of the enlarged ad pie. Radio stations that are part of established media houses would do well. station owners and advertising agencies on ad hoc basis are conducting research.

However. at public places (9%) and at the office (7%). Till recently. In the mean time.Even internationally. It measures National radio audiences and the audience size of radio commercials aired on 31 radio networks operated by large radio networks. There has been some academic discussion on use of "meters" in radio sets to determine listenership. weekdays where the number of tune-ins is as high as 94%. Radio Mirchi is the most popular station and is tuned by people in SEC A and B. Key Findings from Madison Media Research • • • • • • Radio has a reach of 56% and there is a distinct skew towards males. The popular rating system for radio that is used in US is the Arbitron's RADAR (Radio's All Dimension Audience Research) audience report. The prime reason for inadequate advancement in radio audience measurement technique has been the small share of ad pie that radio commands and also the vast geographic spread. remixes (37%) and English pop (33%). audience measurement technique for radio will improve and a currency will be established for buying commercial time and selection of alternatives. the next round of RADAR plans to shift reliance from telephone survey to diary-based panel for data collection. Sunday listenership is dramatically low with only 10% of the people tuning in to FM vs. followed by Hindi pop (40%). However. radio audience research has not matured to the extent of television audience measurement. Indicative surveys are being conducted and published periodically by research agencies. Advertising agencies also conduct periodic dipstick surveys. We expect that over a period of time. Best Practices that have evolved in using the medium: . Majority of the people listen to Hindi film songs (63%). Madison Media routinely undertakes studies on radio usage.000-person telephone survey. RADAR report was based on a 12. People listen to FM at home (70%). we suggest that advertisers should not ignore the media owing to non-availability of any established audience measurement data. these are many years away from being put to commercial use. while driving (32%). Almost 51% of the people listen to FM for an average time of one hour and another 39% listen to FM for a longer period of 1-3 hours.

the traditional bastion of radio has been the "In car" listening. To create such high decibel properties. This exhaustive study was conducted in early 1980s and subsequent research added to the body of available knowledge. However. It might take some time before the properties start to reward the advertisers and advertisers should be willing to fork out the extra premium now before the medium gets established. users of radio as an advertising medium can benefit from extensive work carried out in area of media effectiveness. International experience suggests that music oriented properties targeted at youth last long and provide immense benefit to advertisers. other studies indicate there is extremely low loyalty among in car listeners. It is more important to understand that radio will be the best medium to target upwardly mobile high spending executives and businessmen. we do not expect car owners to be the largest audience for radio. UK indicates. A research by Radio Advertising Bureau (RAB). Studies have demonstrated that in-car listeners are light consumers of other media like television. given the low penetration of ownership of personal cars in India.While the audience measurement is still in infancy. A study by Voice of British Advertisers shows that radio is the most effective medium to target businessmen. Closer home. The most impressive in this genre of research has been the Radio Recall Research (RRR). In other markets. In any case. it is undeniable that for brands that target at affluent section of the society need to be actively associated with radio. "Binaca Geet Mala" on radio was as one of the best media properties. Create Unique Properties . Most of these studies have been conducted in developed markets like UK and USA. that nearly 85% of in-car audiences do not shift stations frequently. many successful service brands especially those in office supplies and financial services have benefited tremendously by judicious use of radio. advertisers should be willing to enter early and commit long term investment. Exploit Drive Time Audiences . which tested 1200 commercials with 200 respondents per commercial. It will be incorrect to directly transplant those learning are in Indian context. making radio a very effective medium. It is not important whether in-car listeners will form the bulk of listenership base.studies clearly demonstrate that properties created on radio are cost effective and have advantage of high recall. However. . However. they are invaluable in providing directions and we at Madison Media have distilled these findings. There are mixed reports with regard to station switching behavior among in car listeners. contrary to popular myth. adapted to Indian context and arrived at set of best practices for radio advertising.

This is called Imagery Transfer. another monumental study is the Millward Brown study on radio multiplier effect.studies have clearly established that length of the commercial had a positive impact on the advertisement. Recent studies have shown that Sonic branding. as one need not air the complete commercial to register recall. Copy variation can offset this fatigue and it is suggested to have three variants of the same . It is through imagery transfer that radio creates a synergy with television. In general.Exploit Imagery Transfer . This study involved nearly 5500 interviews in continuous research to track awareness and attitudes to 17 brands. The ads that were repeated too often were disliked. Radio Multiplier Effect . Creation of sonic branding reduces long term cost of advertising. it proved to be an effective medium. Moreover. if 10% of a given television budget is re-deployed onto radio.apart from RRR. three-fifths as efficient as television at driving advertising awareness amongst radio listeners. fatigue factor is high with radio where aural brand elements are used is very effective in sustaining brand's recall (tring tring of Britannia). RRR studies also indicate that more brand mentions in the commercial were good for ad recall and was more effective when the brand was mentioned early in the advertisement. These tests also indicated that listeners were able to create and keep images fresh and top-of-mind even when engaged in other task. on an average. which state that simultaneous airing of more than 5 executions leads to decay in effectiveness. there is evidence. As in any other media. The media tested were Commercial Radio and television in the Central Region of UK. radio can be advantageously used in creating sonic elements of a brand. Another series of studies called "distraction study" tried to simulate the fact that radio listening is always secondary activity. and in general. As can be fathomed. Though airing multiple variants is recommended. Millward Brown conducted the study across October 1999 to April to find out how effective radio advertising can be relative to television. ads that were liked had higher impact.A study by Statistical research Inc. The broad findings of the study proved that radio was. shows that three out of four consumers who watch a television spot will "replay" the visual image mentally when they hear a radio commercial for the same brand. the efficiency of the campaign in building awareness increases on average by 15% as shown in table below: (Source: rab. Effective Radio Copy Management . spots of 45 seconds or more were effective. used in conjunction with a television campaign.

Of course. Conversely. Competition from satellite radio . people frequently switch between stations leading to listenership fragmentation. the study makes a strong case for advertisers to divert a small portion of their TV budget to radio. However.K and other markets. This would adversely affect the radio industry. FM RADIO INDUSTRY: RISK FACTORS Economic downturn10 The FM radio industry derives almost all its revenues from advertisement. Advertising is a discretionary expenditure and is the first one to be pruned in case of an economic slowdown. broadcasters need to develop the market by being more responsive to the advertiser's needs. Little differentiation between different FM radio stations The content played on different FM radio stations is very similar in nature. Thus the FM radio operators are not willing to take a risk by not catering to the mass segment. the major marketers advertising on radio may cut their ad budgets in case of an economic downturn.The study highlighted that radio effectiveness result was achieved at one-seventh of the cost. this cannot be taken as a thumb rule as there will be wide variance between rates in U. Besides this. thus making them totally dependent on advertisement revenues. This will provide an opportunity for the market to arrive at the final verdict on the effectiveness of the medium. This is hurting the growth of the FM radio industry as people who prefer niche music genres are not tuning into FM radio. Thus. The radio stations are free to air and do not garner any subscription revenues. This is happening because one player is allowed to own only one station in every city. Most of them play popular film and pop music and very few cater to the niche audience such as English rock music lovers or Indian classical music lovers. Conclusion Radio offers tremendous opportunities for advertisers and media planners need to explore various options by which they can effectively use radio in their media mix.

however. However. satellite radio has high subscription charges whereas FM radio is free to air. in India. High music royalties FM radio broadcasters have to pay high royalties to the music companies for the music content procured from them. the current satellite broadcaster in India is offering multiple channels. FM broadcasters cannot broadcast news and current affairs 24 hrs a day whereas satellite broadcasters can do so through a dedicated station. the satellite radio broadcaster WorldSpace operating in India has not been able to meet with much success. However.Many of the restrictions that apply to FM radio broadcasters do not apply to satellite radio broadcasters.713 net subscribers during 3QFY07. There is efficient utilization of spectrum in case of digital broadcasting. Intense competition . Besides this. enabling the broadcast of multiple radio stations. multiple channel ownership by a FM broadcaster in the same city is not permitted. This favorable treatment meted out to satellite broadcasters may adversely affect the growth of the FM radio industry. Norway is the only country that has formally announced a cutoff date. Threat from digital technologies Digital broadcasting technologies like Satellite/Digital Audio Broadcast (DAB) using the FM band and Digital Radio Mondial (DRM) using the AM band are becoming popular worldwide. However the broadcasters can enter into a voluntary agreement with Phonographic Performance Limited and The Indian Performance Right Society Limited at high rates or under the rates determined by the courts of law to minimize their expenses. radio’s turn could come in the next 10-15 years. Satellite radio broadcasters do not have to pay any license fee whereas FM radio broadcasters have to pay 4% of their gross revenues as license fees. ending the period with 164.902 subscribers. At present. FM radio is limited to a small range around the transmission site while the satellite signals cover the entire country. digital receivers are more expensive than analog receivers. The quality of digital broadcast is better than analog transmission. WorldSpace lost 8. In fact. In Western Europe. But with analog TV likely to be switched off in India in the next 5-7 years. a few countries are looking at a total switch off of analog broadcasting (FM/AM) by 2020 or so.

Radio industry should be a major beneficiary of the high growth in these sectors. the advertising spend is expected to increase to Rs 367 bn by 2010 from Rs 227 bn in 2007. As per a study conducted by ZenithOptimedia. there are many risks that could derail the growth of the FM radio industry. the media planning and buying arm of advertising group Publicis. Demographics . More than 90 channels across various languages and genres are being launched this year. This is further expected to increase to 5.1% during the same year. Thus.5% by 2011 as per the FICCI-PwC report on the Indian entertainment and media industry. Radio industry: Growth drivers Fastest growing segment of the media and entertainment industry The radio industry recorded a growth of nearly 58% in 2006. The size of the radio industry is projected to increase at a CAGR of 28% from Rs 5 bn in 2006 to Rs 17 bn by 2011. We feel that the major risks are a potential slowdown in the economy. real estate firms and retailers. Due to this attrition and poaching have become wide spread.4% to 3. Organized retail industry is projected to grow at a CAGR of 40% in the next five years. The share of radio in the total advertising industry increased from 2. It grows at a faster rate in such buoyant times. All these industries are expected to witness robust growth in the years to come. Beneficiary of the buoyant growth of major advertisers The major advertisers on radio are the entertainment channels. little differentiation between the FM radio stations and intense competition. listeners and need to procure similar content. All of them are clamoring for the same advertisers. The real estate industry is projected to grow at a CAGR of 25% in the next five years. The number of FM radio stations has increased dramatically leading to a proportionate increase in the demand for trained personnel. Robust growth of the Indian economy The Indian economy has grown at a robust rate of 9% and 9. The advertisement industry is a proxy to India’s high economic growth.There is intense competition between the FM radio operators operating in the same city.2% in FY06 and FY07 respectively.

Ideally. Local advertising Globally.The target listeners for the radio industry are the youth. TAM. Marketers generally wait for adequate research data to emerge before committing large spends to any medium. The content on radio primarily comprises of film music. Availability of listenership reports is bound to support and attract larger spends from marketers. 55% of the India population is below 25 years leading to an increase in the audience of the radio industry. while local advertising contributes 70% of radio revenues in the United States of America. The quality of music produced is improving which augurs well for the growth of the radio industry. the local retail segment constitutes a large part of radio's advertising income. a revenue sharing formula was introduced whereby radio companies had to pay a fixed annual license fee of 4% of gross revenues or 10% of the reserve OTEF (One Time Entry Fee) whichever is higher. Reduction in license fees The Phase I policy for the privatization of FM radio had a very high fixed license fee structure with an annual escalation of 15%. The reserve OTEF was 25% of the highest valid bid for that city. The study is currently restricted to the cities of Delhi. Phase III policy . As per the CII-KPMG report. Mumbai and Bangalore. Thus there is huge potential for the radio industry to benefit from an expected increase in the share of local advertisements. The Indian film industry is getting more organized and receiving more institutional funding. the share of local advertising is only about 8% of radio revenues. Research may cover larger number of cities in the years to come. Availability of listenership data Leading TV viewership research company. has recently ventured into radio audience measurement through a study called RAM (Radio Audience Measurement). in India. In the phase II policy. a localized medium like radio can be effectively used for local-level promotions apart from being bundled as part of cross-media promotion strategies.

Radio is now the third largest mass advertising media trailing newspapers and of course television. talk.It is expected that after the completion of Phase II Policy. "Radio has its own special strengths and contributions. During this time the younger audience was one of the radio's highest audience percentages. because they are either bored or lonely. Although television has shifted much of the audience away from radio it is undisputable that radio is always there. Unlike many other mass mediums radio is much more personal and friendly which attracts large audiences. entertainment. all day. Radio audiences have concluded that they listen to the radio. and 80 percent of the younger audiences daily. Radio reaches 77 percent of consumers." Nearly 98 percent of people listen to the radio primarily for news. it's still radio that's there virtually every place. This could result in radio getting a larger share of the advertising spends. Radio as an Advertising medium: Radio advertising is one of the earliest and most popular forms of advertising in today's world of mass media. the Government will open up as many as 700 channels in the Phase III as per some media reports. and sports. It's radio that's there when disaster strikes. a famous broadcast journalist. This phase will witness licenses being awarded in smaller towns. Though the radio industry has many growth drivers. there are various risk factors also that could derail the growth of the radio industry. Radio is broadcasted everywhere twenty-four hours a day and always has the breaking news. While TV pulls the big audience. Although radio did take a severe hit when the television was introduced into average households they still managed to make a comeback. In the next article. Walter Cronkite11. In the early to mid 90s Fox was having trouble obtaining the younger audience that they wanted so they looked to the radio. Radio is that medium of the single sense and frees the imagination. we shall outline the risks to the growth of the radio industry. all night. much like television. . Instead of working against television which was virtually impossible radio companies began working with them. Radio advertising became increasingly difficult with the dawn of the television era which prompted the need for new ideas to reach the audience. started his career in radio and concluded. which is remarkably comparing with the competition.

Radio's low cost and high reach of selected target groups make it an excellent supporting medium. For example. Most people listen to the radio at one time or another during the day. particularly if local station announcers read the message. Radio may be the least expensive of all media. Advantages: • A universal medium. Can be enjoyed at home. Copy can be submitted up to airtime. at work. In fact. reached out to its target audience of women making dinner choices by using radio during 4 to 5 pm time slot. In addition. and so on. Radio offers advertisers flexibility. radio can be adapted for different parts of the country and can reach people at different times of the day. This flexibility allows advertisers to adjust to local market conditions. a local hardware store can quickly implement a snow shovel promotion the morning after a snowstorm. current news events. for instance. Known as drive time. . Rates can generally be negotiated. Pizza hut12. In addition. radio is the ideal means of reaching people driving to and from work. the costs of producing a radio commercial can be low. Free creative help is usually available. radio has the shortest closing period. And because airtime costs are low. • Permits you to target your advertising dollars to the market most likely to respond to your offer. • • • Permits you to create a personality for your business using only sounds and voices. these radio time slots provides the best audience for many advertisers.Advantage of radio: The most important advantage radio offers is its ability to reach specific audiences through specialized programming. and even weather. Radio's flexibility is also evident in its willingness to participate in promotional tie-ins such as store openings races. For example. and while driving. the most appropriate role for most radio advertising in a supportive one. extensive repetition is possible. Of all media.

body language also plays a very significant role in understanding the point of view of the other person and it is not viewable in radio communication. • • Not as fast as using a phone. radio is having a lot of disadvantages for any educational communication. During the past ten years. • • Listeners cannot refer back to your ads to go over important points. Because of this. Moreover. to totally saturate your market you have to advertise simultaneously on many stations. Lack of visual aids is the major disadvantage of radio in educational communication. radio rates have gone up less than other media. could take a little bit The line could get fuzzy. or not clear Basically in any educational communication. if an educational program is broadcast then the people who do not have good listening skills cannot understand it. Most listeners are doing something else while listening. Disadvantages: • Because radio listeners are spread over many stations. Strategic Roles of Radio . radio ads must be repeated to break through the listener's "tune out" factor. • Radio is a background medium. In the case of radio. Ads are an interruption to the entertainment. multimedia presentations or hard copies to better understand the discussion. for making it more persuasive and effective visual aids are very important. • Advertising costs are based on ratings which are approximations based on diaries kept in a relatively small fraction of a region's homes. which means your ad has to work hard to be listened to and understood. Another thing which is very important in educational communication is to get feedback and analyze the interest of audience which is also not possible in radio. There are a lot of people who want visual aids like whiteboards.• Least inflated medium. Therefore.

With TV it is traditionally used to add to the length of a campaign or to fill weeks where there is no TV activity . because of their inexperience.this is often the most challenging task in sectors where there are several topparity brands. a bank account. or a promotional offer.As Commercial Radio developed in the early days. radio can work in a complementary way to other media.for services or corporate advertising this can be very valuable in adding personality and tone of voice. These days however. low capital cost and local flexibility. Radio can also. and/or high levels of competitive activity. Young people. Dominant share of mind Share of mind can be described as the extent to which a brand makes itself salient within the consumer's mind . radio is increasingly being used for strategic roles. Radio also works exceptionally well with TV if there is creative synergy. and campaigns which use only one medium can miss out on the "media multiplier effect". Support to other media Young people are of course consumers of several media. often need the benefits of products or services explained to them before they can make a decision to purchase . its key strengths were seen as primarily tactical . Because of its inherent characteristics. while the traditional strengths still turnaround. This means that the young people do not have to wade their way through extensive reading material before they even know what the proposition is. . Brands like the Carphone Warehouse13 have used this unique characteristic of radio to develop an unassailable lead within their category. bring things to life .for example. because levels of ad avoidance with print are so high. most conspicuously in the form of a Sonic Brand Trigger. The ability of radio to create dominant share of mind is a product of its intrusiveness and the high frequency with which ads are broadcast. like TV. Brands in fast-changing areas like retail or financial services often use radio for its ability to put over several different messages as an overlay to a core TV campaign (multiple executions in radio are very inexpensive compared to TV). radio above all adds intrusiveness. To press. Radio is particularly useful for this as it uses the human voice in real-time. or to include additional can also be used to explain products or services in more depth.

Tone of voice is a key area with radio: young people can tell when they are being addressed as equals. Radio Advertising The evidence from the qualitative research is that young people feel their local FM station is aimed at people like them.newspapers for example. because radio is a real-time intrusive medium.little or no specific detail remembered Sonic Brand Triggers: Much evidence of children's ability to pick up on musical SBTs and sing them out loud Consideration It seems clear from this analysis that children are very selective in their attention. young people begin to move away from their parents' world of choices and preferences. allows the advertiser to speak from inside the so-called "youth fortress" As the respondents said in the research. probably quite correctly. . cars and insurance companies . outlets selling favored brands. tone of voice etc. and to set up their own world independently. It would follow that. but the advertising is not . and are strongly influenced by relevance of the brand or product advertised. that most advertising is aimed at adults. since they expect most ads to be irrelevant to them. as a personal "me-medium". Radio.g. they feel as though the people on the radio treat them like adults . concerts Vague/ not relevant: Memories of ads for local garages. However. Inevitably this means that some media are seen as outside that independent world .through linking to the relevant topic. Tone of voice is a key issue with advertising strategies in this territory.they feel. films. they have to sit through the full length of any ads which are for irrelevant products. care must be taken in the creative work to overcome this expectation . e.Speaking from inside youth culture As the qualitative research illustrates.leaving their parents out of the equation. surprise. There was evidence of three sorts of advertising memories: Relevant: Ads which mentioned areas or names of specific interest. and when they are not. involvement.

Vadodara.9FM15 . Nagpur. Rajahmundry. Jabalpur. Trivandrum. The most widely broadcast shows include "Morning No. Their punchline is 'Baja ate Raho' (Keep Playing). Indore. This is a Jupiter Capital venture. Kochi.1". "Superhits Music Show". Jaipur. Kozhikode. S FM or Suryan FM was re-branded into RED FM across 38 cities in INDIA. Trissur. It was acquired from India Today promoter Living Media in January 2006.5 Virag Mishra joined the team as a National Creative Head. Tirupathi. "RDX". even for seemingly irrelevant brands. "Dilse". NDTV. Guwahati. "Mera Wala Gana". Kolkata and Pune in addition to Bhopal. "Indore Beats" and "Nomoshkar Kolkata".5 megahertz in the cities of Mumbai. However. Gangtok. Nashik. Vijayawada. Soul of Bangalore is the country's first and only international hit station. Gwalior. Ahmedabad. Bangalore. Bhubaneswar. Gulbarga.The color of music. with stations broadcasting at 93. Rajkot. Astro. In one of the recent developments at Super Hits Red FM 93. Allahabad. S FM took over Red FM in August.9% stake. Mysore. Radio Indigo is the only radio station in the country that plays contemporary international . Hyderabad. Virag the recipient of the esteemed Stardust Award for standout performance as a lyricist is from advertising background. playing a mix of Hindi and English songs. The channel is owned by Kalanidhi Maran. Radio Indigo: Radio Indigo 91. "Mumbai Local". Aurangabad. the programming is now 100% exclusively Hindi. Varanasi. Lucknow. Siliguri. 2009. Warangal. Asansol. Mangalore. Vizag. Starting August 14. Kanpur.Young people pick up very strongly on musical Sonic Brand Triggers. Jamshedpur. 2009 and re-branded all its stations to Red FM except for the ones in Tamil Nadu. as well as minority holdings of Hyderabad-based IT company Value Labs. Shillong and Aizwal. RADIO STATIONS ACROSS BANGALORE: Red FM: Red FM is an Indian FM14 radio brand. Delhi. with a 48. It was launched in 2002. "One Two ka Four". Kannur.

it is also known as "Rainbow FM". it operates on 101. It plays . In MP. The channel plays various genres of music unlike private channels. But like all good things in this world. it does not stick to music of just one language. The signals of this station are very strong and it catches till the far villages.1 megahertz. it operates on 107. regional language and also in Hindi. It’s International with an Indian soul. world music and much more. jazz. Christabel. Having headquarters in Bengaluru. run by All India Radio16 is a national radio station. The station plays a vibrant array of genres like pop. This government owned enterprise.9 has now emerged as the hottest radio station connecting to the most happening International music from around the world.2 megahertz. English language covering more than 12 districts of Madhya Pradesh and 21 Suburbs in Bhopal City. Radio Indigo 91. it operates on 102 megahertz. classic rock. it operates on 102.7 MHz slot.1 megahertz in Hindi cum. In Hyderabad. And they are so exclusive that they are broadcasting only to Bengaluru and Goa. hip-hop. It operates in Bangalore as well with a frequency of 101. Playing all the hits all the time. it uses the 100. Of course the audience hears favorites like Rohit Barker. The station is talking to all those who reflect the Youth and love music. Melodee Austin. Ryan Seacrest. The listeners are exposed to a prescribed dose of music or whatever gets their groove. Saggy.6 megahertz and AIR FM Rainbow Delhi is the only FM Channel to be aired in as many as ten cities. It was earlier called FM Metro. Suraj and Shweta taking their shows to the extreme and rocking the studios literally. In Lucknow. AIR FM Rainbow: AIR FM Rainbow.9 megahertz and in Vijayawada it operates on 102.3. Sriram. In Mumbai. The station has today become a house-hold name and those who have grown to love the station are sneaking it in their homes. the name was changed to FM Rainbow in 2002. In it operates on 102. In Delhi. but the new cowboys on the bandwagon are Kenny Jones. In Bhopal. cars and office. features Hindi and regional language songs and occasional English songs along with hourly news bulletins in English. Radio Indigo 91-9 has evolved to brilliance through bigger promotions & prizes. Michelle and Allen Kepler. Radio Indigo caters to Bangalore and Goa's long-standing tradition and a vibrant community of music aficionados. heard all across India.

national and international hits. Sunny. . Aditi and Sohail. Rainbow is one of very few Indian radio channels which air Western Music and the western music slots are really popular with listeners. AIR FM Rainbow operates on 102. In a short span of three years. Just for you. Fever 104 FM with its tagline ‘It's all about the music!’ entered the FM radio market in key Indian cities. Mumbai (since January ’07). Footloose. You asked for it. Fever 104 FM. AIR FM Rainbow operates on 102. Some of the radios Jockeys of AIR FM Rainbow are Altaf. it uses the 100. not only this it also has classical music shows. was formed in technical collaboration with the Virgin group. with its signature property of 40 minutes non-stop music. FEVER 104 FM: In 2006. FEVER 104 FM17. all the time across the cities of Delhi. Bangalore and Kolkata. Bangalore and Kolkata with the brand Fever 104 FM. owned by HT Media Limited. a rare occurrence in Indian radio channels.1 megahertz in Tamil language covering more than 12 districts of Tamil Nadu. In terms of TSL. It is No. In Mumbai. Fever 104 FM has surged ahead with a total time spent listening of 386 minutes. Take off. while in Lucknow. It has gained the No.7 MHz slot. National Radio Station in Trichy. Live wire Plus. India's youngest. soundtracks as well as English songs. it operates on 107. Matchless music hours. AIR FM Rainbow is heard on 102 megahertz. In vizag.2 FM station in Delhi on the popularity charts. It plays the latest hits.1 megahertz. Fever 104 FM is a contemporary hits music station that plays a mix of regional. Mumbai. It is available in Delhi (since October’ 06). hippest and most happening Radio Station that plays more music than any other was launched. In Tamil Nadu. It has many western music programs like Time Out. Raunak. Almost all the radio jockeys on private FM channels once started with FM Rainbow. In Delhi.ghazals. The company entered the private FM radio market in the four main cities of Delhi. Wasim.6 megahertz and AIR FM Rainbow Delhi is the only FM Channel to be aired in around ten cities. 1 position in Mumbai and Bangalore leaving behind all the other FM channels in these cities. all day. The popular slot for English music called Radio Raptures on AIR FM Rainbow is aired everyday from 7am to10am and from 10pm to 1am and it has earned a very good audience with the passing years. Wicked Hour. Bangalore (since March ‘07) and Kolkata (January ‘08). the channel's rise has been meteoric. Radio pet house. this radio channel is also known as "Rainbow FM". Mumbai.

a government undertaking. Chennai. Mumbai. The station broadcasts at 94. It sold airtime blocks on its FM channels in Indore. After that. The government then took the initiative to privatize the radio broadcasting sector. Soon the service of Radio One will also be started in Bhopal. Times FM. Radio Mirchi began operations in 1993 in Indore. AIR.3 MHz in all cities except in Ahmadabad where it broadcasts on 95.000 people are said to have carpooled in the city. The government then took the initiative to privatize the radio broadcasting sector. The Times Group operated its brand.0 MHz’s. Until 1993. Bangalore. Coleman & Co.5 FM and was broadcast on 92.Radio One: Radio One18 is a radio station in India. Vizag and Goa to private operators. Limited (BCCL) which is one of the largest media and entertainment companies in India. It was launched on June 8. Indore. a government undertaking. Radio One and the Bangalore Traffic Police. Delhi. and Rahul Dravid encouraging the public to carpool. It is a joint venture between Mid-day Multimedia and BBC Worldwide and operates in 7 metros namely Mumbai. and by the end of May 2009. was the only radio broadcaster in India. It was known as Go 92.5 MHz in Mumbai till 2006. till June 1998. The Times Group operated its brand. It sold airtime blocks on its FM channels to private operators. Before we begin. which is one of the subsidiaries of The Times Group. operating in various media segments such as print media and television broadcasting. 2006 in Mumbai before going national in 6 more cities. Until 1993. It is owned by the Entertainment Network India Ltd (ENIL). who developed their own program content. the government decided not to renew contracts given to private operators. who developed their own program content. . 10. Jabalpur and Jaipur. In the city of Bangalore. Times FM was probably the most famous radio in India which began its operation in 1993. Kolkata. The original avatar of Radio Mirchi was Times FM. All India Radio or AIR. The initiative got a good response. it is promoted by Bennett. Delhi. Hyderabad. Radio Mirchi: Radio Mirchi19 is a nationwide network of private FM radio stations in India. was the only radio broadcaster in India. Pune and Ahmadabad. launched a carpooling drive which is has involved celebrities like Robin Uthappa. let’s know a little about Radio Mirchi. Kolkata.

As per Brand Reporter October 2009 issue Mirchi was recognized as one of the game changers of the decade in the radio industry. This endorses the vote of trust that the brand has built amongst its listeners. the brand. Mirchi was voted the No. Sadhana Sargam. would make any recipient proud . However in the SEC D & E segments Radio Mirchi has total domination. Its market share in revenue terms remains in excess of 40% of the private FM industry.e. The survey had 1. . After that. Over the years Mirchi have established two important landmarks i. The survey was conducted by Metrix Labs and AC Nielsen. Playing contemporary hits songs Radio Mirchi has always been the No 1 choice of listeners. In December 2008.5 million participants. It has been recognition of the brand popularity and the creative talent behind the brand. Shankar Mahadevan.the other members comprised the best in the industry: Prasoon Joshi.Times FM. This unique honor was bestowed on Mirchi by the Pitch-IMRB group's survey of the top service brands of the country. However in Kolkata they are not clear leaders in SEC ABC segments. It's the largest private FM Radio operator in the country in terms of number of operational stations and revenue. it won a plethora of awards. till June 1998. ahead of iconic brands like The Times of India and Star Plus. The jury led by Chairman. The awards have been instituted to encourage continued creative focus on radio advertising. Louiz Banks. 1 media brand. Lalit Pandit. Kavita Krishnamurthy. The SEC ABC segments were earlier dominated by Big FM & now by Friends FM. the design was created and crafted by the music fraternity itself. While the parentage of the idea was that of Mirchi. IRS 2009 reiterates the same as Mirchi has more than 41 million listeners across 32 stations. Javed Akhtar. The success of the website reflects the overall popularity of Mirchi. Anu Malik.: The Mirchi Kaan Awards acknowledges and honors the contribution of individuals and organizations that have led the way in developing clutter busting radio advertising. the government decided not to renew contracts given to private operators. During the year. Sonu Niigaam. Radio Mirchi is the number 1 radio brand in the private FM space. Its lead over its nearest competitor is more than double. As per the Radio Audience Measurement Reports (RAM). Radio Mirchi has been dominating in Delhi & is the leader in Mumbai and Kolkata. Mirchi’s website was voted the most popular TV and Radio site in India.

it covers 45 cities.Kailash Kher. Radio City: Radio City20 is a FM radio station in India. Over the years. 700 to 800 million in the current fiscal year to set up 16 FM (Frequency Modulation) stations across India. songs.e. Lucknow and New Delhi. Suresh Wadkar. . 2006 it has announced plans to invest Rs. This is the only private FM radio station which is being broadcast from Srinagar and Jammu in Jammu & Kashmir state. and other music-related features. Radio City recently forayed into New Media in May 2008 with the launch of a new mega music portal .7 is a nationwide private FM radio station in India owned by Indian businessman Anil Ambani21. Radio City has launched Fun Ka Antenna Online Radio Station which plays hits across genres including that offers music related news. 2006. Rakeysh Omprakash Mehra. Currently.0 in most cities) megahertz from Mumbai (where it was started in 2004). As a part of its CSR Mirchi initiated a program to improve the quality of life of the visually impaired and the company came up with an initiative i. the station had been steadily losing popularity with the launch of newer stations in Bangalore. BIG FM 92. The jury set tough standards. Bollywood. The Chief Executive Officer is Ms Apurva Purohit. Ramesh Sippy and Kunal Kohli. This initiative of ‘Listen to my movie’ has been felicitated with one of the most prestigious Readers Digest Pegasus CSR Awards in the ‘Silver Category’. videos. The station has been criticized for multiple format changes and presenter lineup. English and regional songs. Indipop and Sufi among others.7FM). Jonzie Kurian and Suresh Venkat. “audio books”. 2001. This initiative has already reached hundreds of schools across the country. It broadcasts on 91. It launched with presenters such as Rohit Barker. It was launched in Hyderabad in March. Darius Sunawala. It broadcasts at 92.PlanetRadiocity. Recently as of July. Bangalore (started first in 2001). Radio City Bangalore is India's first private FM radio station and was started on July 3. The Radio station currently plays a mix of Hindi and Kannada music.7 MHz (92.1 (earlier 91. It plays Hindi songs. in Chennai on July 7th 2006 and in Vishakapatnam October 2007.7: BIG FM 92.

and charitable schooling to professional courses. environment. women. social issues etc. JGI has taken the initiative to launch a community radio station serving the cause of progress and development of the community at large. In keeping with its tradition of promoting the welfare and betterment of society. from primary to higher education. 2008. The Vision behind Radio Active is to empower every individual in society to become a winner and an achiever by harnessing and nurturing human potential. development. It broadcasts its programs daily from 5 to 8pm on XFM 96. in turn seeking to inform. Its vision is to contribute leaders to a vibrant and responsive India. . while entertaining the public. Life Banao". scientific awareness. JGI draws on the essence of tradition and sophistication of modernization to educate the professionals of tomorrow.000.It has made an announcement to invest Rs. infrastructure and licensing. R Chenraj Jain. Radio Active: Jain Group of Institutions (JGI)22 is a conglomerate of 35 mission driven institutions that spans the gamut of education. 4.000 dedicated to transmission equipment. proactive and visionary.3. BIG FM included Singapore. Radio Active will seek to reach out to Bangalore’s masses on issues concerning health. under the name of 'BIG Bollywood 96. The community radio station. to use technology and human enterprise in tandem to help create a meaningful and proactive social ambience where interdependence becomes mutually supportive and to focus on a universally responsive India. in its broadcasting network. Its main tagline is "Suno Sunao. Its mission is to provide excellence in academic education and focuses on the holistic development of the individual. From July 1.000. the JGI family is principled. to sensitize society to global. national and local issues. Inspired by its dynamic founder and Chairman Mr. the first city outside India. educate.3FM’. which would make the proposed network the largest ever.