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Radio has the reputation of being the oldest and the cheapest medium of entertainment in India. The radio industry has been completely reshaped by the various private players that entered the sector after the government allowed foreign investment into the segment and opened the licenses to the private players. DIFFERENT TECHNOLOGIES IN BROADCAST RADIO The first one which was used in olden days for transmission purpose is AM. Amplitude modulation (AM)1 is a technique used in electronic communication, most commonly for transmitting information via a radio carrier wave. Frequency modulation (FM) is a form of modulation that represents information as variations in the instantaneous frequency of a carrier wave. FM is commonly used at VHF radio frequencies for high-fidelity broadcasts of music and speech. Today radio is used for many forms of communication from long distance satellite communications to the personal cell phones that are widely used. In addition to this wireless communications are becoming more important for data as demonstrated by the rapid growth in Wi-Fi Radio is also used for telecommunications links. Signals with frequencies in the microwave region are normally used. These signals have frequencies much higher than those in the short wave band and they are not affected by the ionosphere. However they provide reliable direct line of sight links that are able to carry many telephone conversations or other forms of traffic. Satellite radio Satellite radio is one of the fastest-growing entertainment services in the world and it is making its presence felt in a small but a positive way in India. A satellite radio is basically a digital unit that receives signals broadcast by communications satellite. This allows a person with a set to follow his favorite stations anywhere in the country unlike the terrestrial radio (AM and FM) whose signals are limited to a certain area depending on the power of the station. Some of the advantages of a satellite radio are that the sound is of digital quality and there are no commercials. But it is not for free, it is available on subscription for a fee. An example would be “world space radio”. Satellites, radar, communications, internet, message service are the effect of radio technology in our modern day life. With the growth of radio the requirement for mobile connectivity, it is certain that wireless technologies with radio at the core will continue to thrive and become more
widespread. To meet the demand it is likely that new technologies will be developed to maximize the use of the available radio spectrum. HD radio ("hybrid digital" or "high definition") is a brand name of a method of digital transmission of AM and FM radio stations. The HD Radio system is unique which allows stations to broadcast crystal-clear audio and a variety of text-based services, as well as more FM channels, without changing to new frequency bands. Hybrid system is a system in which digital signals are sent along with the analog carrier as the standard for AM and FM broadcasting in the United States. FM stations can offer multiple channels (called "Multicast" channels) on the same frequencies allocated to analog radio stations. Internet radio Internet radio e-Radio is an audio broadcasting service transmitted via the Internet. Broadcasting on the Internet is usually referred to as webcasting since it is not transmitted broadly through wireless means but is delivered over the World Wide Web. The term "e-Radio" suggests a streaming medium that presents listeners with a continuous stream of audio to which they have no control much like traditional broadcast media. It is not synonymous with podcasting which involves downloading and therefore copyright issues. Nor does e-Radio suggest "on-demand" file serving. Many Internet "radio stations" are associated with a corresponding traditional "terrestrial" radio station or radio network. Internet-only radio stations are usually independent of such associations. Old media don’t’ die! They just bounce back in new avatars. Not so long ago radio had been written off as fuddy-duddy, down market and not so cool. Television and later “new media” were touted to being the media of the future. But thanks to technology radio is making a comeback. FM radio is a new entity altogether and has to deal with new market dynamics. Media owners dealing with new markets will virtually have to draw up their strategies as they go along, create programming that is new, innovative and grab away eyeballs from TV sets and make them tune into their radio sets. It’s a whole new challenge and competition is never far away. Ad revenues will also not be easy to come by, as advertisers will expect media players to put their money where their speakers are before they commit large sums of money towards radio advertising. The other challenge for radio in attracting advertisers is the nature of the medium-radio has always
considered being a reminder medium. The involvement of listeners to radio is low, Vis a Vis television or print media. With the coming of more channels, and the emergence of lifestyle advertising, radio will become a push and pull medium. As said earlier, is not just making a comeback but is being reincarnated into a new avatar. Any radio setup has two parts: • • The transmitter The receiver
The transmitter takes some sort of message (it could be the sound of someone's voice, pictures for a TV set, data for a radio modem or whatever), encodes it onto a sine wave and transmits it with radio waves. The receiver receives the radio waves and decodes the message from the sine wave it receives. Both the transmitter and receiver use antennas to radiate and capture the radio signal. When you listen to a radio station and the announcer says, "You are listening to 91.5 FM “what the announcer means is that you are listening to a radio station broadcasting an FM radio signal at a frequency of 91.5 megahertz. Megahertz means "millions of cycles per second," so "91.5 megahertz" means that the transmitter at the radio station is operating at a frequency of 91,500,000 cycles per second. Your FM (frequency modulated) radio can tune in to that specific frequency and give you clear reception of that station. All FM radio stations transmit in a band of frequencies between 88 megahertz and 108 megahertz. This band of the radio spectrum is used for no other purpose but FM radio broadcasts. Common frequency band includes the following: • AM radio - 535 kilohertz t - 1.7 megahertz • FM radio - 88 megahertz - 108 megahertz AM radio has been around a lot longer than FM radio. The first radio broadcasts occurred in 1906 or so, and frequency allocation for AM radio occurred during the 1920s. In the 1920s, radio and electronic capabilities were fairly limited, hence the relatively low frequencies for AM radio. FM radio was invented by a man named Edwin Armstrong in order to make high-fidelity (and static-free) music broadcasting possible. He built the first station in 1939, but FM did not become really popular until the 1960s. .
HISTORY OF RADIO Radio owes its development to two other inventions, the telegraph and the telephone; all three technologies are closely related. Radio technology began as "wireless telegraphy". Radio can refer to either the electronic appliance that we listen with or the content listened to. However, it all started with the discovery of "radio waves" - electromagnetic waves that have the capacity to transmit music, speech, pictures and other data invisibly through the air. Many devices work by using electromagnetic waves including: radio, microwaves, cordless phones, remote controlled toys, television broadcasts, and more. The Roots of Radio During the 1860s, Scottish physicist, James Clerk Maxwell2 predicted the existence of radio waves; and in 1886, German physicist, Heinrich Rudolph Hertz demonstrated that rapid variations of electric current could be projected into space in the form of radio waves similar to those of light and heat. In 1866, Mahlon Loomis, an American dentist, successfully demonstrated "wireless telegraphy." Loomis was able to make a meter connected to one kite cause another one to move, marking the first known instance of wireless aerial communication. Twenty years after the telephone was invented and music was first sent down a telephone line, Guglielmo Marconi sent radio signals. Marconi (1874-1937) was born in Italy and studied at the University of Bologna. He was fascinated by Heinrich Hertz’s earlier discovery of radio waves and realized that it can be used for sending and receiving telegraph messages, referring to it as “wireless telegraphs.” Marconi’s first radio transmissions, in 1896, were coded signals that were transmitted only about 1.6 km (a mile) far. Marconi realized that it held huge potential. He offered the invention to the Italian government but they turned it down. Marconi was not the first to invent the radio, however. Four years before Marconi started experimenting with wireless telegraph, Nikola Tesla, a Serb who moved to the USA in 1884, invented the theoretical model for radio. Tesla tried unsuccessful to obtain a court injunction
Bose had solved the problem of the Hertz not being able to penetrate walls. It was developed mainly for ship-to-shore and ship-to-ship communication. The instruments (‘Mercury Coherer with a telephone detector’) are still there in the science museum of the Calcutta University. Transmitters at that time were called spark-gap machines. When he was found dead in 1929. a farmer from Murray. however. Stubblefield. He was awarded the US patent for the invention of the radio in 1904. Bose did not apply for a patent on his design because he believed in the free flow of inventions in science. referencing the Proceedings of the IEEE.Radiotelegraph and Spark-Gap Transmitters Radio-telegraphy is the sending by radio waves the same dot-dash message (Morse code) used in a telegraph. Marconi was present in the meeting of the Royal Society and it is thought that he stole the notebook of Bose that included the drawing of the ‘Mercury Coherer with a telephone detector’. The transmission was over a distance of three miles from the Presidency College and Science College in Calcutta.C. Nikoli Tesla remains to be acknowledged as the inventor of the radio. his radio equipment was gone. Tesla became acknowledged as the inventor of the radio – even though he did not build a working radio. By that time Marconi had received his patent and international recognition. January. it was not public radio broadcasting as we know it today. was the exact copy of that of Bose. Indian scientist J. never marketed his wireless radio. In 1943 the US Supreme Court reviewed the decision. mountains or water. . But under pressure from American friends. It is reputed that Nathan B. Marconi’s Coherer. being afraid that his invention will be stolen.against Marconi in 1915. he applied for the patent in September 1901. Growth of Radio . This was a way of communicating between two points. made a voice transmission four years before Marconi transmitted radio signals. Stubblefield demonstrated his invention to the press in 1902 but. Kentucky. 1998. Thus writes contributor Dipak Basu. which he used in 1901. Bose demonstrated the radio transmission in 1896 in Calcutta in front of the British Governor General.
Improvements to Radio Transmitters Overseas radiotelegraph service developed slowly.AM Radio Lee Deforest invented space telegraphy. . "Hello Rainey" spoken by Natan B. In 1919. Kentucky. Stubblefield 2 to a test partner near Murray. to an experimental program of talk and music by Reginald A. Lee Deforest . much weaker signals could be utilized than had previously been possible. in 1906. the triode amplifier and the Audio. after the government released its control of all patents. primarily because the initial radiotelegraph transmitter discharged electricity within the circuit and between the electrodes was unstable causing a high amount of interference. Military Use and Patent Control When the United States entered the First World War in 1917. all radio development was controlled by the U. thus.S. the great requirement for further development of radio was an efficient and delicate detector of electromagnetic radiation. Claims to that distinction range from the phase. Fessenden. which was heard by radio-equipped ships within several hundred miles. in 1892. The Alexanderson high-frequency alternator and the De Forest tube resolved many of these early technical problems. The U. Radio Speaks The first time the human voice was transmitted by radio is debatable. government took over control of all patents related to radio technology. De Forest was also the person who first used the word "radio". Navy to prevent its possible use by enemy spies. Lee De Forest provided that detector.S. In the early 1900s. the Radio Corporation of America (RCA) was established with the purpose of distributing control of the radio patents that had been restricted during the war. It made it possible to amplify the radio frequency signal picked up by the antenna before application to the receiver detector.
and died in 1954. to the Eiffel Tower in Paris. Westinghouse's KDKA-Pittsburgh broadcast the Harding-Cox election returns and began a daily schedule of radio program. Virginia. Edwin Armstrong was only eleven when Marconi made the first trans-Atlantic radio transmission. speech was first transmitted across the continent from New York City to San Francisco and across the Atlantic Ocean from Naval radio station NAA at Arlington.885 for a "Method of Receiving High-Frequency Oscillations Radio" for his FM technology. Edwin Armstrong received U. The Dawn of FM Radio The story of FM radio is one of success and tragedy.342. Frequency modulation or FM improved the audio signal of radio by controlling the noise static caused by electrical equipment and the earth's atmosphere. Enthralled. and frequency modulation. including a 125 foot antenna in his parent's backyard. Edwin Howard Armstrong was one of great engineers of the 20th century. also in New York City.000 times . super heterodyning. However. Regeneration amplification worked by feeding the received radio signal through a radio tube 20. On November 2.S. Regeneration Amplification 1913 In 1913. 1920.True Broadcasting Begins In 1915. Edwin Armstrong invented the regenerative or feedback circuit. he was born in 1890. patent 1. the young Armstrong began studying radio and building homemade wireless equipment. Edwin Armstrong should be known for inventing three key innovations: regeneration. in New York City. FM Radio 1933 Edwin Armstrong is most commonly known for inventing frequency-modulated or FM radio in 1933.
David Sarnof3 and RCA. interest in FM radio further diminished and by 1949. the FCC allowed them to simulcast — simultaneously broadcast the same programming on both their AM and FM stations. RCA bought into the patents and helped Armstrong develop an experimental radio station. Even though he had improved AM radio in significant ways. Once TV started to evolve. still out to hold control of their radio empire. who was head of RCA and had said he would help him develop it. because of ionosphere refraction. pressured the FCC to change all of the FM radio frequencies — a move they knew would instantly obsolete all of the exiting FM radios. Armstrong was well aware of AM radio's major limitations: • • • Static interference from household appliances and lighting Limited audio quality (frequency response and dynamic range) Nighttime interference between many stations (co-channel interference). especially in rural areas Armstrong took his invention to a friend. he's still considered the most prolific inventor in radio's history. and cause Armstrong to lose his personal investment in FM radio. The ensuing war diverted resources and froze development. Superhetrodyne Tuner Edwin Armstrong invented the superhetrodyne tuner that allowed radios to tune into different radio stations. many FM stations . Since most radio station owners didn't want to go to the expense of creating high-fidelity programming just for their FM stations. By 1941.per second. Although his life was cut short. Then the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor. 50 FM stations were on the air. David Sarnof. that increased the power of the received radio signal and allowed radio broadcasts to have a greater range. Armstrong was clearly a technical genius.
Edwin Armstrong.com) As shown in the from the graph . The green line represents the growth of noncommercial and National Public Radio (NPR) stations. We'll cover public broadcasting — both radio and television — in an upcoming module. A few weeks later RCA announced record profits. and jumped to his death. Graph 1: Growth of FM radio (Source: www. On January 31. RADIO BROADCASTING . taxing battle against Sarnof and RCA.cybercollege. FM radio not only climbed out of the cellar of popularity after Armstrong's death. Once FM radio started to make money. removed the air conditioner from his 13th story New York apartment. 1954.had shut down. RCA quickly started pushing its development and subsequently made millions of dollars from the sale of FM transmitters and equipment. gave up his long. but today it leads AM radio in both number of stations and listeners. He wrote a note to his wife apologizing for what he was about to do.
On the other hand. 1940s: This period included World War II. but which was not able to be used unless all the conflicting patent owners would permit. The make-up of RCA consisted of those companies that had the key patents or would shortly buy them for wireless telegraphy. The Radio Corporation of America4 was formed in 1919 as a patent pool to control the use of the new equipment which had been invented during WWI.particularly development of networks and the presentation of network programs by national advertisers. Some of this increase was the result of inflation. of a shift in importance from radio to television. no less than 70% above the level of revenues in 1940-41. The 1930-35 period was also the time of the greatest "idea" development in the history of American radio programming-with respect to network programs in particular. etc. in 1944-45. from a threat-of-war situation into actual involvement. Broadcasting in 1935 to 1941 saw radio revenues soaring to new heights. in December of 1941. but even so. older forms were polished and improved. employees were drafted into military service. The war imposed as many hardships on broadcasters as it did upon those engaged in other occupations. electronic concerns were shifted to war production. 1941 to 1945 was the big money-making time for American radio. was in short supply. especially on the network level. the erection of 108 TV stations-and the beginnings. 1930s: This was the beginning of the great depression in the United States – a depression which had its effect on programming and on the various forms of advertising. after the government removed restrictions late in 1919. It saw an enormous increase in the total number of radio stations. but relatively little effect on broadcast revenues. . it was a period in which some persons at least saw in broadcasting possible source of revenues-from sale of time.This period marked the start of "regular" broadcasting. rather than the sale of receiving sets. Chiefly. it saw development of basic types of programs. The nation had shifted. both network and station revenues were strikingly greater than in the prewar period. 1926 – 1930: Commercial radio became solidly established. it saw the beginnings of broadcasting on a commercial basis. and while not too many new program forms introduced. it marked the development of new types of equipment. costs advanced. with the result that broadcasting equipment. tubes. The transistor was demonstrated in 1947 by Bell Labs. at least. 1923 – 1926: This was a transitional period. 1945-1952: A highly important era in the history of American radio and television.
Radio makes lots of money: The big music stations. "be bright. Pop music was better and it demanded a delivery service that sounded as good as a home audio system. There were lots of jingles and promotions. top-40 on AM and progressive rock" on FM. music and contests are now targeted to a specific age group (12-35) based on demographic research showing this group has money to spend on goods and services by the new affluent middle class. There are plenty of listeners and times are good as far as jobs and money. it seemed. AM stations still refused to play the new music from albums and were suddenly facing new competition from FM stations that would play the music. Advertisers want to buy radio." By the middle of the decade most of these major stations were struggling. The networks reached from coast-to-coast and in 1953 the FCC approved the industry indorsed compatible NTSC color television system (RCA-NBC). Stations played three minute songs. . 1960-1970 . but during this decade television became the dominant mass medium as the freeze on licenses was lifted and a 70channel UHF band was added. 1970-1980 .Broadcasting from 1952 through the 1960's: Earlier trends continued. The saying. The Big FM's would rule by the decade’s end. reversing their 1950 decision which had authorized a non-compatible field-sequential system (CBS). AM stations even tried to meet the challenge by going "stereo" but no one cared.radio bores: AM Top 40 begins the decade with lock on the ratings. Programming. Even though its sound was stale. Radio became less secure. it took a long time for FM to overtake AM. FM makes a comeback: For a system that was invented nearly 40 years earlier. posted in every control room. in some markets more than 50% of the people using radio are still tuned by habit to that "one big legendary AM station.radio reinvents: Probably based on the early work of programmers like McClendon and Bill Drake. hundreds of AM stations embrace a "top-40 time and temperature" format. but grew in the number of smaller stations licensed. There was even disco on FM! Formats fragment: There are no longer just two formats. be brief" was. Each station has only a small segment of the audience. The music was still controlled by cynical old white men. once AM and now FM were making lots of money.
New owners. hundreds of new radio networks emerge and die. you'll work. A smaller pie: The number of stations swelled to 12. To succeed you have to be above average.radio struggles: The Reagan administration de-regulates the industry. edited and broadcast using the hard drive of a computer.radio competes: Less people do more work. new challenges: For young people seeking a career in radio the good news was if you are good at sales. Smaller stations automate with them but it makes the station less local-sounding. less people have to do more. 1980-1990 . 1990-2000 . less news and public affairs types. No union problems because the unions in radio are practically irrelevant. tenacious. News and public affairs suffered. persistent.000 and in major and large markets. Buy-sell: Like the house you bought for a high price in the late 1980's. New radio station owners want to cut costs. the radio station you also bought is worth less than you paid. promotion or production of promotions. In this market most of each day is automated. mostly offering music formats delivered by big city DJ's. AM tries a comeback: Helped with new technical regulations. New group owners & duopolies: One company can now own 25-25-25 plus and in San Jose and San Francisco some companies own many stations. Stations now have to satisfy the demands of the marketplace instead of the demands of Federal regulation. the FCC station owners tried to save AM one more time. there were perhaps 100 to 200 stations vying for listeners. use automation to run three stations at once. This means cutbacks. more automation. reporter and reader as every station had to employ in the 1970's. lessappealing to listeners and sponsors. now your station was no longer required to have news. If you were a news writer.Radio networks return: With inexpensive satellite technology available to every station. In the 1980s almost half of the radio stations changed hands. Production that used to involve splicing tape is now done . The era of Niche Programming and formats begins and now there is a format for every narrow interest. promise of fewer stations and an expanded AM band. Again. Digital takes over radio technology: Now an entire day can be stored.
to be replaced with computer memory. It was established in 1936 and since 1957 All India Radio was renamed as Akashvani. all future non-FM delivery services. the East Zone in Kolkata. AIR was made a separate Department under the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. When India became independent in 1947. to inaugurate Radio stations in Bombay and Kolkata. There were only six radio stations in India at the time of independence. current owners want to be first in line when licenses are issued for these new services. Commercial Radio services in India started in 1967 by Vividh Bharati Service with its headquarters at Mumbai.with the click of a mouse. semi -commercial operation of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. Internet. the West Zone in Mumbai. And just like the transition to television. HISTORY OF RADIO IN INDIA: Broadcasting began in India with the formation of a private radio service in Madras (presently Chennai) in 1924. DBS. In 1936. All India Radio`s network had expanded by the mid-1990s to around 146 AM stations along with a National Channel. and suddenly many struggling AMs are revived and saved again by talk radio. the Integrated North-East Service that aimed at reaching out to the tribal groups in northeast India and handles the External Services. New delivery services: Digital stuff. British colonial government approved a license to a private company. the Indian Broadcasting Company5. There are five regional headquarters for All India Radio. Assam. AM is around after almost 100 years. Vividh Bharati earned its revenues from extensive advertisements and . Still. etc. namely in the North Zone in New Delhi. DMX. Analog devices like cart machines will disappear by 2004. The company almost went bankrupt in 1930 but the colonial government took away the two transmitters and the Department of Labor and Industries started operating them as the Indian State Broadcasting Corporation. and the South Zone in Chennai. Talk radio's decade: Rush. Government of India controls the radio broadcasting in India that works under the Directorate General of All India Radio. the North-East Zone in Guwahati. In the very same year. Akashvani is a government-owned. Conservative politics. this very Corporation was renamed All India Radio (AIR) and was controlled by the Department of Communications.
All the national affairs and social changes were informed through the waves of broadcast media and within no time. The role of broadcasting provided an inlet for the flow of modern ideas. Then history changed its course. The broadcasting equipment used in India is mainly indigenous and reaches special audiences. Most radios are also produced within India. the advertising revenue . Then. primarily due to the absence of any motion medium. that television came into existence in 1959. in June 1998 the Government. In 1961 the television medium were expanded to include a school educational television project.had been broadcasting from thirty-one AM and FM stations during the mid-1990s. book commercials from advertisers and broadcast the whole lot. and other agriculture-related information. prepare programming content. The number of radio receivers increased almost five times between 1970 and 1994. Initially it was around 14 million that rose to nearly 65 million. Television broadcasts started from Delhi in September 1959. the FM Radio advertising and sponsorship business grew to Rs. however the importance of radio did not decline. the Government of India did not permit private radio stations to broadcast in India. citizens duties and rights. Within 4 years. such as farmers needing agro climatic. India has a wide-ranging network of medium wave and short-wave stations. Indian radio also took up the task of aiding in the development of economic scenario. Not surprisingly. decided not to renew contracts of private FM operators. In 1994 there had been almost eighty-five FM stations and seventy-three short wave stations that connected the entire country. Indian radio proved to be a prime medium of social integration. In 1993. through its electronic media regulatory body Prasar Bharti. Programs were broadcast twice a week for an hour a day on welfare topics related to community health. It was due to the same reason of static thoughts prevailing in the society. the Government allowed private FM operators to 'buy' blocks (chunks) on All India Radio. (1997-98). and traffic and road sense. In those days radio was considered as an integral medium of communication. again associated with the All India Radio`s services. popularity of radio spread nationwide. For more than 4 decades. plant protection. The early history of Indian radio broadcasting in independent India set the parameters for the succeeding role of television in the nation. 93 crores with Times of India's Times FM & Mid-Day Group's Radio Mid-Day becoming the main players.
Incidentally. Currently. which go up by 15 per cent every year. For instance. Music Broadcasting became the first firm in India to commence private FM broadcast from Bangalore in July. won the largest number of bids. In response to the Government's offer.fell by 50% within a year! This time. So.for 76 channels in 26 cities.2 million and Rs 74 million. Interestingly. unable to shell out the high license fee. A handful of serious bidders chose to remain. garnered close to Rs 3. while the bids for Delhi were Rs 71. the Government gave the green light to privatize radio in India.5 billion. revenue-sharing also exists in the media sector. a Zee Group company. Many gave up. the bids for Hyderabad and Nagpur came next. the competition shrank.2 million each Radio is expected to follow the growth of the Television industry. there are roughly 10 players who will operate approximately in 37 cities across the country.for stations in Mumbai. And the focus on metros was evident in the bidding.6 billion as license fee for the privately run FM radio channels in 40 cities. Private FM radio sector would shift to a revenue-sharing model from the existing license fee regime. many companies bid for the licenses to operate in key markets. Expecting to collect Rs 800 million from auctioning 108 licenses. in effect. The objective is to “make FM radio a . However. New Media Broadcasting. which grew rapidly following the entry of private player. And in 2000.75 crore. Others dropped out saying the business was not viable. But the going was not so easy. the bidding price for the Mumbai license was reportedly to the tune of Rs 9. Today. Licensee Fee and revenue sharing model Currently. The government got the highest bids . The first round of bidding . which focused mainly on the smaller towns. FM players pay annual license fees.5 million from each of 10 broadcast companies . each for Rs 77. The government collected close to Rs 4. the Government auctioned licenses for private FM channels to bolster the revenue. players consolidated and the Government extended its deadline. July 6. the government had to actually face mass withdrawal of bidders because of the huge license fee. compared to 89% of All India Radio (AIR). FM coverage in India is restricted to just 17% of the country.Rs 97. 1999 was the historic day when the Government announced that 150 new FM channels would be licensed across 40 cities. respectively.
That should open up a vast new market of consumers-100 million Indian households own an estimated 150 million radios. 50/. The panel also suggested that players wanting to enter the sector in the second round of licensing need to have a technical viability clearance by a financial institution on the financial viability of the project. the panel has fixed it at 4 per cent. There has been debate on whether to recommend a revenue-sharing structure or a fixed amount for a period of 10 years. Revenue-sharing will follow payment of a one-time entry fee through a process of bidding. Revenue-sharing figure is quite low at around 4 %. much like satellite channels did to the quantum of television advertising in the country. After the second round of privatization. it is firm on revenue-sharing now. Currently radio has just 2 percent of the 9000 crore Indian advertising market according to an Arthur Anderson’s survey. However in spite of the various challenges the emergence of private FM stations is certain to increase the quantum of radio advertising in the country .1%. It has also recommended to the government to release additional spectrum for the use of FM radio companies so that the number of companies operating in one centre can go up.success story”.FICCI estimates FM’s . On the higher side are countries like the United States with 13 %. The geographical area covered by radio in India in India is as high as 98 percent and the penetration level is approximately 97 percent.7% and Spain with 9. outnumbering television sets 3:1. But FM presently covers only 17 percent of the area and 21 % of the population of India through transmitters. It’s better to keep the revenue-sharing figure low than to have a failed project. Canada with 12.5 per cent. FM station executives are not forthcoming on multi-platform strategies as yet. the number of FM radio stations targeted is around 300 to 4006. Globally depending on each country. While the private FM players had sought revenue-sharing in the band of 2-2. radio has a 5 % to 12 % of the advertising cake. Given that radio has penetrated into 100 million homes and a FM set costs around Rs.
5 percent to 5 % in five years.traffic advisories. . It is on the basis of these key drivers of growth. 1200 crores by 2005 and Revenue of radio services is expected to rise to Rs 689 crore by 2008 at a CAGR of 30 per cent. community announcements and public service messages provide a real value-added service. Also government allowing foreign players to enter the Indian market it will help the industry grow. This would be the key when evaluating the medium. Virgin group has already started exploring the Indian market for suitable partners. it is being predicted that radio's share in the total advertising pie will see an increase in the medium term. Also one must not forgot that radio continues to be a medium that has tremendous reach among the poor and marginalized sections of society. employment & career options. With more players in the fray the FM radio industry would grow and also enhance the government’s yield from licensing radio naturally. While TV is a family medium. The new India deserves an active private FM radio sector. Various radio stations are coming up with IPO for example Radio Mirchi thus helping them expand. For example. It can provide a level playing field with benefits for listeners. cellular phone service or auto related products would have a good impact when advertised on radio is primarily known as a “drive time” medium most people who turn in are doing so while commuting. Also advertising of certain product seems to work very well while some might not. Rs. Thus the potential if FM is better is bigger town.share up from the present 1. for advertisers. But at current levels of advertising support. With the government ready to reduce the license fees it will help in attracting new players like reliance which had earlier backed out only due to the entry fees. FUTURE OF RADIO INDUSTRY FM Radio can play its part in building a stronger business future for India. each radio station is reeling under the brutal financial impact of high costs. radio is personalized. They have also forecasted that revenues from radio advertising in India will be Rs. as the car population is much bigger. Providing free-to-air local broadcasts of music and entertainment. helpful information . The future looks bright as the reach of radio is expected to raise post the increase in the number and quality of players in the industry. Spearhead the government objective of growing the FM radio business in India.
SWOT Analysis Strengths: • Recently. • Radio is considered as a background medium. . though radio has only a 2 per cent share in the Rs 6.2 billion by 2007. • • 90% of India has access to radio which is unmatched by any other media. and reveals that radio listenership habits have changed considerably. because people can listen to radio anytime and anywhere they want. Also. • The advertisers. who would depend on word-of-mouth. It is also a free medium. • The success of private FM stations. brochures or ads in local supplements of newspapers. The Rs 1. with revenue rising at 23 per cent annually. They can’t afford a TV set. not only are listeners tuning into it more often but also sticking to radio for longer hours every day. Radio also reaches to uneducated village folk who do not read print publications. are welcoming the opportunity. pamphlets. the government has agreed upon revenue-sharing model. advertising spending is expected to amount to Rs 500 crore this year.000 crore Indian advertising markets. Therefore radio is more popular. So that they can develop themselves well because this industry is still in an introduction stage.There are an estimated 150 million radio sets across the country. At the places where the literacy rates are low where people hardly read newspapers and radio is the only medium that they can understand. which is 4 % for the growth of the radio stations.6 billion industry is reported to be growing by 31 per cent every year and should touch the Rs 6.
the percentage of listener tuned to anyone station is likely very small. And like its radio message creates a fleeting impression that is often gone in an instant.• Radio is the least cost medium and it helps to reach mass audience with various backgrounds. Many advertisers think that without strong visual brand identification the medium can play little or no role in their advertising plans. Radio is a complement to another media. An advertiser whose product depends on demonstration or visual impact is at a loss when it comes to radio. Most of the stations plays much of the music that is played consist of Hindi Film songs. Therefore.research is very important for any advertising segment. • No proper research available . . in India there is no proper research is available. Research is the main base to attract client and get more revenue. This is the situation that every radio channel is facing. • Radio-only nature of radio communication is a tremendous creative compromise. Many stations are conducting their own research which can be biased. and therefore it is difficult to differentiate between the programs of the different channels. But. • Increase in listenership numbers but no increase in ad revenue. other media or the advertisers or agency can use this medium for brand recall. Weakness: • One of the major weaknesses of Radio is that there is very less differentiation in the programs that are aired.the large number of the audience in India is fragmented in various remote places. • • Radio is considered as a medium where the “Proximity to purchase” is very high. Radio offers its reach frequency and selectivity at one of the lowest costs per thousand and radio production is relatively inexpensive. • Fragmented Audience . And therefore.
• • • Launching a radio station with 24-hour news channel Tie-ups with BEST or railway authority for playing the FM in train and in bus. • Allowing private FM players to start news and current affairs programs. And then it is easier for the advertisers also to decide on which channel to advertise. • • Leaves huge scope for innovation in local market Threats: . we are very bullish. At the same time. And can play their station which will exclusively provide with the information relating to that university/college campus. and gung-ho about this whole enterprise.• Short commercials Opportunities: • Getting copyright licenses from the government for running mega events which are aired on the AIR radio station and have been restricted to be aired on other private stations. One has to constantly innovate. Brand building is thus much more difficult. like. if some station is targeting the health conscious people then their programming strategy will vary accordingly. • With the coming of the many more new players in the radio industry each channels can position themselves quite different from others. and that is the challenge. The launch of Private Radio FM has managed to create a set of ‘New Listeners’ for the medium • The new radio stations which will come in future they can have venture with the college or university campuses.
particularly those below the age of 25. They have taken very quickly to interacting with their favorite radio stations and RJs via email and SMS for song requests and competitions. which covers 91 percent7 of India's area and reaches 99 percent of the population. which is set to increase at 15 percent per annum. So. Currently. four players cumulatively generate annual revenues around INR 250-300 million. With no particular differentiation in the music. Younger audiences. If one considers the private sector FM market in Mumbai. set at levels significantly above their earning capacity. this growth rate is far from flattering. through a wide network of broadcasting centers and transmitters. Advertising is the sole source of revenue for radio in India. It is dominated by the state owned All India Radio (AIR). low charges. government channel etc… • Because of the new government policies there will be more number of stations and then competition will also increase.2 billion and is growing at around 20 percent annually. there is a fear of losing its brand loyalty. Today's busy teenagers love radio because it complements a faster-paced lifestyle . This implies a marginal rise in radio's share in the advertising pie to around 1. AIR is the biggest player in India because of its reach. the sector generates annual revenues of INR 2. also have access to new technology like mobile phones. INDIAN ENTERTAINMENT INDUSTRY FOCUS 2010 On Radio Radio is a mass medium and therefore ideally suited for India .leveraging its twin advantages of wide coverage and cost effectiveness.they can listen to music and get information on the move. This is one of the biggest threats it faces.• The biggest threat to private radio industry players is ALL INDIA RADIO. as they could not afford to pay the annual license fees. revenues would need to grow at over 40 percent annually to break even in the next three years. there are 21 privately-owned FM stations in 12 major cities. A few FM stations have been forced to shut down. the sector has been reeling under heavy losses. all of whom have been granted licenses over the past 3-4 years. As a result of unsustainably high license fees. Given that commercialization of radio is still in a nascent stage in India. .9 percent. Apart from AIR. Given that a significant portion of the operating costs is the license fee. against total operating costs of around INR 550-600 million.
Graph 2: Graph showing FM listeners across age groups (Source: www. In spite of such attractive statistics. According to market research. 70 percent of radio listeners in these cities listen to FM radio all seven days of the week. Plainly. in Spain 9 percent and closer to home. reaching over 99 percent of its one billion inhabitants . It has less than 2 percent share of the total advertising pie in India. 'the radio on the move' trend is catching on in urban and semi-urban areas. in Mumbai and Delhi. In India too. commercial radio could account for approximately 8 percent of media spends in the short to medium term and up to 10-12 percent in the long term. We estimate that if its real potential is unlocked in India. it is the younger generation that is the key target audience vis-à-vis radio. radio has a 21 percent share of the advertising spend.com) The Indian potential India has an estimated 180 million radio sets. radio remains a laggard. FM penetration is the highest in the SEC A segment and least in SEC D. Bridging the gap . While consumption in India is still largely at home. The easy availability of FM radio sets at affordable price points (ranging from INR 40INR 150) is fuelling its mass penetration. In the US. the radio sector cannot and should not be satisfied with a growth rate in the low 20s. compared to a global average of 8 percent. in terms of its advertising spend.televisionpoint.a clear indication of the vast commercial potential in India for this medium. However. Further. in Sri Lanka. this sector has not been able to monetize its hold on the listener’s eardrums. radio has a 13 percent share.
to help the radio industry curb it losses. it is expected that the private FM channels will drive the future growth of the sector. In other words. FM radio needs to grow from the current 21 stations in 12 cities to at least 300 stations in 100 cities. At an investment of INR 40 million per radio station frequency. Since the private FM channels need to survive in a commercial and competitive environment. the challenge confronting radio is to bridge the gap between the current growth trend and potential growth expectations. Local mantra The sales and marketing efforts of the major FM radio stations have focused on the large advertising clients. In its current form and structure. The retail segment globally constitutes a large part of radio's clients and sales. retail comprises only 8 percent of radio advertising. Hence. . has proposed a transition from the existing license fee regime to a revenue sharing one. the designated regulatory body for radio. thereby turning India's promise into reality. This may be partly attributed to the FMCG-marketing background of some of the managers and partly due to the sales strategy of the multi-media groups that own most radio stations. in India. In contrast. However.the local retailer. For example. 70 percent of all radio revenues come from local retailers. the radio industry will not be able to attract the necessary funding. they have focused on mass entertainment to gather listeners. It is hoped that clarity on revenue-sharing emerges. The industry. and only 30 percent comes from either national or international advertisers or from the network of advertisers. soon. but currently in India accounts for a small portion of the radio revenue pie.Due to the public-broadcaster nature of AIR and its socio-economic rather than a commercial focus. TRAI. on its part. To exploit the true potential of this sector. its ad revenues are expected to grow at a moderate pace. radio is a unique medium and the focus on large advertisers seems to be at the cost of its largest potential benefactor . needs to develop strategies to expand across the country and enhance business performance. the total additional investment required will be INR 11 billion. in USA.
However. International research indicates that radio has 60 percent of television’s effectiveness at increasing campaign awareness amongst an audience of 16-44 year old radio listeners. can be a major beneficiary of radio advertising. with city/ locality specific target groups. advertising on radio costs just 15 percent that of television. Clearly. where the cost of television advertising is more than seven times that of radio advertising. A high frequency combined with a moderate card rate (effective rates average between INR 500 to INR 900 per 10 seconds) provides an opportunity for retail players to promote their products and services cost effectively without fragmentation as in the case of national or even regional media. the cost effectiveness of radio advertising will be even more acute. the achievement of 60 percent of the result at 15 percent of the cost makes radio significantly more cost effective than television. by its very nature. which can be a great proposition for local retailers. Radio stations offer high frequency ‘opportunity to hear’ for the advertiser. there is a need to unlock the advertising potential in the retail segment. The price differential between radio and television will vary depending on the area and the audience. In India. is a localized medium. . due to its ability to transmit a particular message over a small geographical area.com) Radio. While the price relativity for other audiences will vary. The retailer.Graph 3: Pie diagram showing the profile of advertisers (Source: www.televisionpoint.
if the topics discussed are not affected by the 'regency' factor.com Presently. the advertiser base of FM radio is highly skewed. Moreover. Ideally. . While some radio stations are waking up to this reality. cross media promotions could be an added incentive for the potential advertiser. Besides. Such content. Interactivity is a major content driver within the radio programming strategy. the advertiser base should be broad-based with a large number of local advertisers promoting their products. such content can be exported for broadcast in other countries where the demand for Indian content is considerable. programmed formats or around content areas could have the dual advantage of being re-usable in the future and being syndicated across other channels. Creation of value packs Most of the programming currently being aired. with around 11 percent of advertisers contributing 60 percent of their revenues. Creating specific IP whether in the form of RJs. since many FM players are associated with larger.televisionpoint. this potential is largely untapped. whether music or not.Graph 4: Graph showing the revenue composition of radio Source: www. mass-medium like radio. there is enough potential to create a library of recordings that can be used beyond a single show. has little or no library value. This should not be the case in a localized. vertically integrated media corporations. Creation of a good software library can become a source of competitive advantage for a radio player. when re-broadcast. saves the cost of producing new content and generates newer revenues by offering brand association with such a property at reasonably low rates. However. It is important for the radio stations to highlight the effectiveness of using radio for local level promotions and region-specific ad campaigns. Very little programming is developed to create any strategic intellectual property.
It may also require a shift from mass marketing of the radio channels to marketing programs targeted at specific market segments. like a radio station that caters to the African-American population of New York or a Malayalam channel with Indian content for expatriate Indians in the Middle-East. These stations address specific audiences based on geographic. there is an urgent need to evolve programming towards differentiated content. these radio stations need not look beyond their walls to get valuable listener data.000 callers every day for a single channel in a city like Mumbai . This me-too approach towards content has a direct implication on the marketing of the radio channels as any message or campaign carried by it runs the risk of being lost in the clutter. Manpower The most conspicuous item on the expense list is 'salaries'. Radio stations have not been able to generate any significant channel loyalty. content specialization has been a distinct trend in the evolution of radio. the pressure to sell airtime forced them to resort to the lowest common denominator . Radio stations will need to start finding their own niche. with listeners simply switching from song to song. With limited sponsored market research done in this area. In fact. Validation of niche audiences would enable differentiated client targeting with unique value propositions. these channels also meet the demands of local advertisers. However. This has led . Channels that address specialist listener groups need to emerge. Hindi and mixed content.a valuable database that is currently under leveraged. Since there is very little to differentiate between the various channels. Being localized. socio-economic or ethnic or combination of factors. they provided the listener with a choice of English. The salary structure in radio is comparable to that of other larger media units. most radio stations in India started off with a defined niche as well. Between them. FMCG marketing or advertising. However. This is driven by the fact that radio stations hire people from high wage industries like television. The innumerable contests and interactive sessions on air bring in close to 30.Niche programming Internationally. Very few have held on to the English format or even non-film content. a closer look reveals that even programmed loyalty does not exist. especially FM radio. radio stations find it difficult to market their USP. Hence. Radio stations have traditionally grown by attracting specialized audiences.Hindi film music. Channels that started out with English programming as a key differentiator have drastically reduced the total airtime dedicated to it. the resultant effect is constant channel swapping by listeners. Initially.
While it is necessary to incur reasonable manpower costs in order to stay competitive and attract the best talent. but that does not necessarily translate into higher listenership. The key word is 'association'.to the creation of a people-cost structure that is incompatible with the current size and revenue earning capacity of the radio industry. What the listener associates with is the quality of content. With privatization gathering momentum. These programs rode on extremely successful content formats. Some private FM stations have incurred large costs on building merely 'Top of Mind Recall' for all listeners. Brands that have spent more on marketing have a higher recall. branding exercises will become more meaningful. is in a prime position to take advantage of the growth potential of this segment. Programs that are aligned to channel positioning can ride on the channel branding. particularly in a market where lack of niche programming has resulted in constant surfing for songs of choice. while other programs should develop their individual brands. There is no doubt about the effectiveness of radio when it comes to building brands for its clients. India. irrespective of their preference or affinity to the station. What could work better for them would be a combination of two. Branding is expensive and therefore. Channel brands and programs will be associated with niche content and specific listener profiles that can be sold to potential advertisers. the increased number of private radio channels across the country is likely to transform commercial radio from an urban phenomenon to a national one. without diluting the channel positioning. innovative cost management solutions such as the right mix between live and recorded music could reduce production and salary costs. . with its diverse regional influences. radio stations with limited budgets need to make a choice between channel branding and program branding. brands like Binaca / Cibaca and Bournvita were built on radio. But as the market matures and niche channels develop with defined target groups and unique value propositions. as has been the case with satellite television. Branding Branding plays an important role in establishing a strong channel and program association amongst listeners. For example. Conclusion India's radio industry has a strong growth potential if mechanisms and policies are put in place to provide it with appropriate support.
as a percentage of GDP. the gross advertising spend in India is estimated at Rs 111 billion. is 0.9%.e.636 billion. 127 billion by fiscal 2006 Segmentation in advertising The five key industry segments comprise print. with a nominal GDP CAGR8 of 9. television.94% over the last 10 years (1995-2005).gov. cinema. and growth rates of the advertising industry The Indian advertising spends. which lags behind other developed and developing countries Graph 5: Graph showing the ad spend across countries (Source: www. There is a correlation between the economic growth rates of a country i.2% to reach Rs. and outdoor. and is expected to grow at 14.34%. radio. the nominal GDP growth rate. According to CSO estimates nominal GDP growth for fiscal 2006 is estimated at 10.sebi. 30.Advertising in India: India has been among the fastest growing economies in the world. These different segments within the industry are at varying stages of growth and corporatization .in) During fiscal 2005. The nominal GDP for fiscal 2005 was Rs.
resulting in growing ad spends on this medium. which saw the beginning of satellite broadcasting in India.6% 41. Going by the International benchmark. radio manages to garner around 4-5% of the mass media spend.4% 7.sebi.7% 2.9% Cinema Outdoor Internet 0.4% 0.7% Radio 2. Reforms and proliferation of private players were the key reasons for this rapid growth of the share of television in the advertising industry.9% 43. This can be attributed to misdirected policies by government. In most markets.6% 8.3% 40. Thus.9% 2.9% 2.6% 46. even 150 stations across India is a sustainable proposition.4% 0. especially since 1991. This growth was also aided by the economic liberalization program of the Government. now has over 300 channels covering the Indian footprint. the television broadcasting business. In some countries like Sri Lanka. TRENDS RADIO TRENDS IN INDIA & ABROAD: A MADISON INDIA STUDY It is ironical that while India has the second highest 9 penetration of C&S homes in the world.7% 0.3% Table 1: Table showing media spends in the total ad spend (Source: www.2 Billion out of US$60 Billion spent .Media Spends as % of Total Ad Spend Year 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Print 49.7% 0.3% 0.5% 0. It is estimated that in 2001.4% 0. American radio commanded US$3.5% 7.5% 6.2% 46.0% 0. There are more than 6000 radio stations in US and even a developing country like Nigeria has 18 FM stations.5% 2. The growth of the satellite television audience saw proliferation of a number of satellite television channels offering more choices to media buyers and consumers of entertainment. which did not give enough prominence to radio as a rich medium for entertainment and also for community development.0% 6.0% 43. radio accounts for 20% of ad spend.in) The Indian television industry has grown rapidly. radio has suffered from shunted growth.4% 0.3% TV 39.0% 48.gov. which started off as a single government controlled television channel.4% 47.
Internationally. consolidation is inevitable and stations groups are formed that controls most of the revenues. as they will have access to well defined captive audience. in UK four media groups control nearly 60% of ad revenue. As of today.like a special radio station dedicated to south Indians residing in Mumbai or a station that caters exclusively to college going population. emergence of stations that address only specialist audience groups . 500 crore on radio. media planners are quite at loss as there is inadequate information on this medium. there is a surge of activity when the media is liberalized but over a horizon of five to six years. advertisers will spend around Rs. In India. We expect the trend to continue for some more time till significant advertising monies are committed on radio. . We expect similar consolidation exercise in India. radio stations have grown by attracting niche audiences (like a Hispanic channel in US or a Malayalam channel in gulf) and local advertisers. While growth of the radio broadcast industry looks exciting. 600 crore. station owners and advertising agencies on ad hoc basis are conducting research. radio should feature in the media planner's radar as a serious medium. there are numerous issues facing the radio broadcasters. the industry feels that these are mere start-up issues.Typically. Such specialist channels will be ideal medium for advertisers. Publications having strong city edition will do have an advantage as they already have infrastructure to marshal local advertisers and also keep a tab on the pulse of the city citizens. As it is early days in India. Radio stations that are part of established media houses would do well. if one goes by Mumbai experience.on mass media. Madison media estimates that by 2004. Today. Madison Media expects that the evolutionary pressures will prevail in India and radio stations will increasingly find their own niche. Radio Audience Measurement The question haunting most advertisers and media planners is regarding the audience measurement that will be adopted for Radio. the concept of niche programming has not yet caught the imagination of the broadcaster and audiences find it almost impossible to distinguish one from another. For instance. International experiences show two distinct trends in evolution of radio business Consolidation . This will constitute around 4 % of the enlarged ad pie. Specialization . However. For instance. currently radio is able to garner less than 1% of the total ad pie of Rs. we expect that by year 2004.8.
Madison Media routinely undertakes studies on radio usage. radio audience research has not matured to the extent of television audience measurement. Advertising agencies also conduct periodic dipstick surveys. People listen to FM at home (70%). we suggest that advertisers should not ignore the media owing to non-availability of any established audience measurement data. audience measurement technique for radio will improve and a currency will be established for buying commercial time and selection of alternatives. The popular rating system for radio that is used in US is the Arbitron's RADAR (Radio's All Dimension Audience Research) audience report.Even internationally. these are many years away from being put to commercial use. while driving (32%). However. at public places (9%) and at the office (7%). Majority of the people listen to Hindi film songs (63%). Key Findings from Madison Media Research • • • • • • Radio has a reach of 56% and there is a distinct skew towards males. Sunday listenership is dramatically low with only 10% of the people tuning in to FM vs. However. the next round of RADAR plans to shift reliance from telephone survey to diary-based panel for data collection. weekdays where the number of tune-ins is as high as 94%. Indicative surveys are being conducted and published periodically by research agencies. We expect that over a period of time. In the mean time. RADAR report was based on a 12. It measures National radio audiences and the audience size of radio commercials aired on 31 radio networks operated by large radio networks.000-person telephone survey. Almost 51% of the people listen to FM for an average time of one hour and another 39% listen to FM for a longer period of 1-3 hours. Best Practices that have evolved in using the medium: . Radio Mirchi is the most popular station and is tuned by people in SEC A and B. followed by Hindi pop (40%). The prime reason for inadequate advancement in radio audience measurement technique has been the small share of ad pie that radio commands and also the vast geographic spread. remixes (37%) and English pop (33%). There has been some academic discussion on use of "meters" in radio sets to determine listenership. Till recently.
There are mixed reports with regard to station switching behavior among in car listeners. It is not important whether in-car listeners will form the bulk of listenership base. It is more important to understand that radio will be the best medium to target upwardly mobile high spending executives and businessmen. In other markets. Create Unique Properties . we do not expect car owners to be the largest audience for radio. contrary to popular myth. they are invaluable in providing directions and we at Madison Media have distilled these findings. Exploit Drive Time Audiences . that nearly 85% of in-car audiences do not shift stations frequently. Studies have demonstrated that in-car listeners are light consumers of other media like television. It might take some time before the properties start to reward the advertisers and advertisers should be willing to fork out the extra premium now before the medium gets established. UK indicates. However. This exhaustive study was conducted in early 1980s and subsequent research added to the body of available knowledge.studies clearly demonstrate that properties created on radio are cost effective and have advantage of high recall. many successful service brands especially those in office supplies and financial services have benefited tremendously by judicious use of radio. given the low penetration of ownership of personal cars in India. A research by Radio Advertising Bureau (RAB). users of radio as an advertising medium can benefit from extensive work carried out in area of media effectiveness. However. However. Closer home. advertisers should be willing to enter early and commit long term investment. In any case. The most impressive in this genre of research has been the Radio Recall Research (RRR). A study by Voice of British Advertisers shows that radio is the most effective medium to target businessmen. It will be incorrect to directly transplant those learning are in Indian context. To create such high decibel properties. International experience suggests that music oriented properties targeted at youth last long and provide immense benefit to advertisers. making radio a very effective medium. other studies indicate there is extremely low loyalty among in car listeners. .While the audience measurement is still in infancy. adapted to Indian context and arrived at set of best practices for radio advertising. it is undeniable that for brands that target at affluent section of the society need to be actively associated with radio. Most of these studies have been conducted in developed markets like UK and USA. which tested 1200 commercials with 200 respondents per commercial.the traditional bastion of radio has been the "In car" listening. "Binaca Geet Mala" on radio was as one of the best media properties.
The media tested were Commercial Radio and television in the Central Region of UK. As in any other media. Recent studies have shown that Sonic branding. Moreover. and in general.co. spots of 45 seconds or more were effective. It is through imagery transfer that radio creates a synergy with television. The ads that were repeated too often were disliked. Another series of studies called "distraction study" tried to simulate the fact that radio listening is always secondary activity. These tests also indicated that listeners were able to create and keep images fresh and top-of-mind even when engaged in other task.A study by Statistical research Inc. Radio Multiplier Effect . Creation of sonic branding reduces long term cost of advertising. there is evidence. As can be fathomed. The broad findings of the study proved that radio was. Copy variation can offset this fatigue and it is suggested to have three variants of the same theme. as one need not air the complete commercial to register recall. fatigue factor is high with radio commercials. the efficiency of the campaign in building awareness increases on average by 15% as shown in table below: (Source: rab. it proved to be an effective medium. three-fifths as efficient as television at driving advertising awareness amongst radio listeners. radio can be advantageously used in creating sonic elements of a brand. In general. if 10% of a given television budget is re-deployed onto radio. another monumental study is the Millward Brown study on radio multiplier effect. ads that were liked had higher impact. shows that three out of four consumers who watch a television spot will "replay" the visual image mentally when they hear a radio commercial for the same brand.uk) . used in conjunction with a television campaign. Though airing multiple variants is recommended.studies have clearly established that length of the commercial had a positive impact on the advertisement.Exploit Imagery Transfer . This study involved nearly 5500 interviews in continuous research to track awareness and attitudes to 17 brands. RRR studies also indicate that more brand mentions in the commercial were good for ad recall and was more effective when the brand was mentioned early in the advertisement. This is called Imagery Transfer. Effective Radio Copy Management . which state that simultaneous airing of more than 5 executions leads to decay in effectiveness. Millward Brown conducted the study across October 1999 to April to find out how effective radio advertising can be relative to television. on an average. where aural brand elements are used is very effective in sustaining brand's recall (tring tring of Britannia).apart from RRR.
broadcasters need to develop the market by being more responsive to the advertiser's needs. However. This is hurting the growth of the FM radio industry as people who prefer niche music genres are not tuning into FM radio.The study highlighted that radio effectiveness result was achieved at one-seventh of the cost. Little differentiation between different FM radio stations The content played on different FM radio stations is very similar in nature. the major marketers advertising on radio may cut their ad budgets in case of an economic downturn. FM RADIO INDUSTRY: RISK FACTORS Economic downturn10 The FM radio industry derives almost all its revenues from advertisement. This will provide an opportunity for the market to arrive at the final verdict on the effectiveness of the medium. This is happening because one player is allowed to own only one station in every city. Competition from satellite radio .K and other markets. Thus. The radio stations are free to air and do not garner any subscription revenues. people frequently switch between stations leading to listenership fragmentation. this cannot be taken as a thumb rule as there will be wide variance between rates in U. This would adversely affect the radio industry. Conclusion Radio offers tremendous opportunities for advertisers and media planners need to explore various options by which they can effectively use radio in their media mix. Most of them play popular film and pop music and very few cater to the niche audience such as English rock music lovers or Indian classical music lovers. Thus the FM radio operators are not willing to take a risk by not catering to the mass segment. Conversely. thus making them totally dependent on advertisement revenues. Of course. Advertising is a discretionary expenditure and is the first one to be pruned in case of an economic slowdown. the study makes a strong case for advertisers to divert a small portion of their TV budget to radio. Besides this.
FM radio is limited to a small range around the transmission site while the satellite signals cover the entire country. However. however. There is efficient utilization of spectrum in case of digital broadcasting. WorldSpace lost 8. However the broadcasters can enter into a voluntary agreement with Phonographic Performance Limited and The Indian Performance Right Society Limited at high rates or under the rates determined by the courts of law to minimize their expenses. Satellite radio broadcasters do not have to pay any license fee whereas FM radio broadcasters have to pay 4% of their gross revenues as license fees. enabling the broadcast of multiple radio stations. Threat from digital technologies Digital broadcasting technologies like Satellite/Digital Audio Broadcast (DAB) using the FM band and Digital Radio Mondial (DRM) using the AM band are becoming popular worldwide.713 net subscribers during 3QFY07. Besides this. Intense competition . The quality of digital broadcast is better than analog transmission. satellite radio has high subscription charges whereas FM radio is free to air. in India. But with analog TV likely to be switched off in India in the next 5-7 years. Norway is the only country that has formally announced a cutoff date. In fact. This favorable treatment meted out to satellite broadcasters may adversely affect the growth of the FM radio industry. digital receivers are more expensive than analog receivers.902 subscribers. At present. the current satellite broadcaster in India is offering multiple channels.Many of the restrictions that apply to FM radio broadcasters do not apply to satellite radio broadcasters. High music royalties FM radio broadcasters have to pay high royalties to the music companies for the music content procured from them. However. In Western Europe. FM broadcasters cannot broadcast news and current affairs 24 hrs a day whereas satellite broadcasters can do so through a dedicated station. a few countries are looking at a total switch off of analog broadcasting (FM/AM) by 2020 or so. multiple channel ownership by a FM broadcaster in the same city is not permitted. ending the period with 164. radio’s turn could come in the next 10-15 years. the satellite radio broadcaster WorldSpace operating in India has not been able to meet with much success.
5% by 2011 as per the FICCI-PwC report on the Indian entertainment and media industry. little differentiation between the FM radio stations and intense competition.There is intense competition between the FM radio operators operating in the same city.4% to 3. More than 90 channels across various languages and genres are being launched this year. listeners and need to procure similar content. Robust growth of the Indian economy The Indian economy has grown at a robust rate of 9% and 9. The share of radio in the total advertising industry increased from 2. the advertising spend is expected to increase to Rs 367 bn by 2010 from Rs 227 bn in 2007. Organized retail industry is projected to grow at a CAGR of 40% in the next five years. All of them are clamoring for the same advertisers. the media planning and buying arm of advertising group Publicis.2% in FY06 and FY07 respectively. Beneficiary of the buoyant growth of major advertisers The major advertisers on radio are the entertainment channels. Demographics . This is further expected to increase to 5. The number of FM radio stations has increased dramatically leading to a proportionate increase in the demand for trained personnel. All these industries are expected to witness robust growth in the years to come. The advertisement industry is a proxy to India’s high economic growth. real estate firms and retailers. As per a study conducted by ZenithOptimedia. Thus. We feel that the major risks are a potential slowdown in the economy.1% during the same year. The real estate industry is projected to grow at a CAGR of 25% in the next five years. Due to this attrition and poaching have become wide spread. there are many risks that could derail the growth of the FM radio industry. Radio industry: Growth drivers Fastest growing segment of the media and entertainment industry The radio industry recorded a growth of nearly 58% in 2006. The size of the radio industry is projected to increase at a CAGR of 28% from Rs 5 bn in 2006 to Rs 17 bn by 2011. It grows at a faster rate in such buoyant times. Radio industry should be a major beneficiary of the high growth in these sectors.
Availability of listenership reports is bound to support and attract larger spends from marketers. Local advertising Globally.The target listeners for the radio industry are the youth. As per the CII-KPMG report. the share of local advertising is only about 8% of radio revenues. Availability of listenership data Leading TV viewership research company. The reserve OTEF was 25% of the highest valid bid for that city. Reduction in license fees The Phase I policy for the privatization of FM radio had a very high fixed license fee structure with an annual escalation of 15%. while local advertising contributes 70% of radio revenues in the United States of America. Mumbai and Bangalore. in India. The content on radio primarily comprises of film music. a revenue sharing formula was introduced whereby radio companies had to pay a fixed annual license fee of 4% of gross revenues or 10% of the reserve OTEF (One Time Entry Fee) whichever is higher. Ideally. Thus there is huge potential for the radio industry to benefit from an expected increase in the share of local advertisements. The quality of music produced is improving which augurs well for the growth of the radio industry. Phase III policy . TAM. has recently ventured into radio audience measurement through a study called RAM (Radio Audience Measurement). Research may cover larger number of cities in the years to come. 55% of the India population is below 25 years leading to an increase in the audience of the radio industry. The Indian film industry is getting more organized and receiving more institutional funding. In the phase II policy. The study is currently restricted to the cities of Delhi. a localized medium like radio can be effectively used for local-level promotions apart from being bundled as part of cross-media promotion strategies. Marketers generally wait for adequate research data to emerge before committing large spends to any medium. the local retail segment constitutes a large part of radio's advertising income.
Radio is now the third largest mass advertising media trailing newspapers and of course television.It is expected that after the completion of Phase II Policy. started his career in radio and concluded. This phase will witness licenses being awarded in smaller towns. Radio advertising became increasingly difficult with the dawn of the television era which prompted the need for new ideas to reach the audience. we shall outline the risks to the growth of the radio industry. Radio is that medium of the single sense and frees the imagination. . much like television. talk. During this time the younger audience was one of the radio's highest audience percentages. Radio reaches 77 percent of consumers. there are various risk factors also that could derail the growth of the radio industry. a famous broadcast journalist." Nearly 98 percent of people listen to the radio primarily for news. all night. it's still radio that's there virtually every place. Radio audiences have concluded that they listen to the radio. the Government will open up as many as 700 channels in the Phase III as per some media reports. Unlike many other mass mediums radio is much more personal and friendly which attracts large audiences. Although television has shifted much of the audience away from radio it is undisputable that radio is always there. Though the radio industry has many growth drivers. It's radio that's there when disaster strikes. In the next article. This could result in radio getting a larger share of the advertising spends. Instead of working against television which was virtually impossible radio companies began working with them. While TV pulls the big audience. and 80 percent of the younger audiences daily. Radio as an Advertising medium: Radio advertising is one of the earliest and most popular forms of advertising in today's world of mass media. Radio is broadcasted everywhere twenty-four hours a day and always has the breaking news. which is remarkably comparing with the competition. In the early to mid 90s Fox was having trouble obtaining the younger audience that they wanted so they looked to the radio. entertainment. all day. Walter Cronkite11. Although radio did take a severe hit when the television was introduced into average households they still managed to make a comeback. because they are either bored or lonely. and sports. "Radio has its own special strengths and contributions.
particularly if local station announcers read the message. . • • • Permits you to create a personality for your business using only sounds and voices. and while driving. the most appropriate role for most radio advertising in a supportive one. Radio's flexibility is also evident in its willingness to participate in promotional tie-ins such as store openings races. current news events.Advantage of radio: The most important advantage radio offers is its ability to reach specific audiences through specialized programming. Free creative help is usually available. Most people listen to the radio at one time or another during the day. And because airtime costs are low. In addition. Known as drive time. radio has the shortest closing period. Radio offers advertisers flexibility. extensive repetition is possible. Advantages: • A universal medium. at work. Rates can generally be negotiated. Can be enjoyed at home. Copy can be submitted up to airtime. the costs of producing a radio commercial can be low. for instance. reached out to its target audience of women making dinner choices by using radio during 4 to 5 pm time slot. This flexibility allows advertisers to adjust to local market conditions. and so on. radio is the ideal means of reaching people driving to and from work. radio can be adapted for different parts of the country and can reach people at different times of the day. For example. a local hardware store can quickly implement a snow shovel promotion the morning after a snowstorm. • Permits you to target your advertising dollars to the market most likely to respond to your offer. Of all media. Radio may be the least expensive of all media. these radio time slots provides the best audience for many advertisers. and even weather. Pizza hut12. For example. In addition. In fact. Radio's low cost and high reach of selected target groups make it an excellent supporting medium.
There are a lot of people who want visual aids like whiteboards. if an educational program is broadcast then the people who do not have good listening skills cannot understand it. Strategic Roles of Radio . which means your ad has to work hard to be listened to and understood. radio is having a lot of disadvantages for any educational communication. multimedia presentations or hard copies to better understand the discussion. or not clear Basically in any educational communication.• Least inflated medium. • Radio is a background medium. for making it more persuasive and effective visual aids are very important. In the case of radio. During the past ten years. radio rates have gone up less than other media. Disadvantages: • Because radio listeners are spread over many stations. Lack of visual aids is the major disadvantage of radio in educational communication. Ads are an interruption to the entertainment. Because of this. Moreover. • Advertising costs are based on ratings which are approximations based on diaries kept in a relatively small fraction of a region's homes. radio ads must be repeated to break through the listener's "tune out" factor. Another thing which is very important in educational communication is to get feedback and analyze the interest of audience which is also not possible in radio. Most listeners are doing something else while listening. • • Not as fast as using a phone. could take a little bit The line could get fuzzy. Therefore. to totally saturate your market you have to advertise simultaneously on many stations. body language also plays a very significant role in understanding the point of view of the other person and it is not viewable in radio communication. • • Listeners cannot refer back to your ads to go over important points.
while the traditional strengths still apply. because levels of ad avoidance with print are so high.it can also be used to explain products or services in more depth. .for example. because of their inexperience. Because of its inherent characteristics. Dominant share of mind Share of mind can be described as the extent to which a brand makes itself salient within the consumer's mind . This means that the young people do not have to wade their way through extensive reading material before they even know what the proposition is.fast turnaround. like TV. To press. The ability of radio to create dominant share of mind is a product of its intrusiveness and the high frequency with which ads are broadcast. bring things to life . radio above all adds intrusiveness. and campaigns which use only one medium can miss out on the "media multiplier effect". its key strengths were seen as primarily tactical . Support to other media Young people are of course consumers of several media. often need the benefits of products or services explained to them before they can make a decision to purchase . and/or high levels of competitive activity. With TV it is traditionally used to add to the length of a campaign or to fill weeks where there is no TV activity . Radio is particularly useful for this as it uses the human voice in real-time. or to include additional information. radio can work in a complementary way to other media. These days however.As Commercial Radio developed in the early days. most conspicuously in the form of a Sonic Brand Trigger. Radio also works exceptionally well with TV if there is creative synergy. Brands like the Carphone Warehouse13 have used this unique characteristic of radio to develop an unassailable lead within their category. Radio can also. or a promotional offer. low capital cost and local flexibility.for services or corporate advertising this can be very valuable in adding personality and tone of voice. Young people. radio is increasingly being used for strategic roles.this is often the most challenging task in sectors where there are several topparity brands. a bank account. Brands in fast-changing areas like retail or financial services often use radio for its ability to put over several different messages as an overlay to a core TV campaign (multiple executions in radio are very inexpensive compared to TV).
they have to sit through the full length of any ads which are for irrelevant products. outlets selling favored brands.newspapers for example.leaving their parents out of the equation. as a personal "me-medium". but the advertising is not . concerts Vague/ not relevant: Memories of ads for local garages. Inevitably this means that some media are seen as outside that independent world . There was evidence of three sorts of advertising memories: Relevant: Ads which mentioned areas or names of specific interest. care must be taken in the creative work to overcome this expectation . and are strongly influenced by relevance of the brand or product advertised. surprise.they feel. However. young people begin to move away from their parents' world of choices and preferences. since they expect most ads to be irrelevant to them. and to set up their own world independently. e. because radio is a real-time intrusive medium. allows the advertiser to speak from inside the so-called "youth fortress" As the respondents said in the research. Tone of voice is a key issue with advertising strategies in this territory. . they feel as though the people on the radio treat them like adults . Radio Advertising The evidence from the qualitative research is that young people feel their local FM station is aimed at people like them. involvement. that most advertising is aimed at adults. films.little or no specific detail remembered Sonic Brand Triggers: Much evidence of children's ability to pick up on musical SBTs and sing them out loud Consideration It seems clear from this analysis that children are very selective in their attention. It would follow that. cars and insurance companies .g. tone of voice etc.through linking to the relevant topic.Speaking from inside youth culture As the qualitative research illustrates. Tone of voice is a key area with radio: young people can tell when they are being addressed as equals. and when they are not. probably quite correctly. Radio.
Varanasi. Bangalore. Trissur. Tirupathi. "One Two ka Four". Gwalior. Allahabad. Bhubaneswar. Aurangabad. NDTV. "Mera Wala Gana". Jaipur.The color of music. 2009 and re-branded all its stations to Red FM except for the ones in Tamil Nadu.Young people pick up very strongly on musical Sonic Brand Triggers. Mangalore. Shillong and Aizwal. It was acquired from India Today promoter Living Media in January 2006. Kanpur. The most widely broadcast shows include "Morning No. Kannur. The channel is owned by Kalanidhi Maran. the programming is now 100% exclusively Hindi. Rajkot. Kochi. as well as minority holdings of Hyderabad-based IT company Value Labs. Gangtok. "Indore Beats" and "Nomoshkar Kolkata". Gulbarga. Vijayawada. Virag the recipient of the esteemed Stardust Award for standout performance as a lyricist is from advertising background. Vadodara. "Dilse".5 megahertz in the cities of Mumbai. Indore. Nagpur. Delhi. 2009. S FM took over Red FM in August. Soul of Bangalore is the country's first and only international hit station. This is a Jupiter Capital venture. Their punchline is 'Baja ate Raho' (Keep Playing). even for seemingly irrelevant brands. Radio Indigo: Radio Indigo 91. Jabalpur. Kolkata and Pune in addition to Bhopal. Siliguri. "Superhits Music Show". Hyderabad. Mysore. It was launched in 2002. In one of the recent developments at Super Hits Red FM 93. Asansol.9FM15 .5 Virag Mishra joined the team as a National Creative Head. Astro. Warangal. Kozhikode. Nashik. Ahmedabad. However. "RDX". Guwahati. Lucknow. Jamshedpur. playing a mix of Hindi and English songs.9% stake. with a 48.1". "Mumbai Local". Vizag. with stations broadcasting at 93. Trivandrum. S FM or Suryan FM was re-branded into RED FM across 38 cities in INDIA. RADIO STATIONS ACROSS BANGALORE: Red FM: Red FM is an Indian FM14 radio brand. Radio Indigo is the only radio station in the country that plays contemporary international . Starting August 14. Rajahmundry.
It was earlier called FM Metro. it is also known as "Rainbow FM". the name was changed to FM Rainbow in 2002. it operates on 101. In Bhopal.1 megahertz. It’s International with an Indian soul. In Delhi. heard all across India.1 megahertz in Hindi cum.9 has now emerged as the hottest radio station connecting to the most happening International music from around the world. but the new cowboys on the bandwagon are Kenny Jones. The signals of this station are very strong and it catches till the far villages. The station has today become a house-hold name and those who have grown to love the station are sneaking it in their homes. In Hyderabad. Radio Indigo 91-9 has evolved to brilliance through bigger promotions & prizes.6 megahertz and AIR FM Rainbow Delhi is the only FM Channel to be aired in as many as ten cities. In MP. In vizag. classic rock. Radio Indigo 91. Having headquarters in Bengaluru. Christabel. It plays . This government owned enterprise. AIR FM Rainbow: AIR FM Rainbow. Of course the audience hears favorites like Rohit Barker. Michelle and Allen Kepler. The channel plays various genres of music unlike private channels. Ryan Seacrest.2 megahertz. Radio Indigo caters to Bangalore and Goa's long-standing tradition and a vibrant community of music aficionados. regional language and also in Hindi. it operates on 102 megahertz. Playing all the hits all the time. it operates on 107. world music and much more.7 MHz slot. features Hindi and regional language songs and occasional English songs along with hourly news bulletins in English. it operates on 102. it operates on 102. In Mumbai. The station plays a vibrant array of genres like pop. Sriram. cars and office. run by All India Radio16 is a national radio station. it does not stick to music of just one language. It operates in Bangalore as well with a frequency of 101. The station is talking to all those who reflect the Youth and love music. But like all good things in this world. In Lucknow. English language covering more than 12 districts of Madhya Pradesh and 21 Suburbs in Bhopal City.music. jazz. Saggy.3. hip-hop.9 megahertz and in Vijayawada it operates on 102. And they are so exclusive that they are broadcasting only to Bengaluru and Goa. The listeners are exposed to a prescribed dose of music or whatever gets their groove. it uses the 100. Melodee Austin. Suraj and Shweta taking their shows to the extreme and rocking the studios literally.
7 MHz slot.2 FM station in Delhi on the popularity charts. You asked for it. It is available in Delhi (since October’ 06). Sunny. Fever 104 FM.6 megahertz and AIR FM Rainbow Delhi is the only FM Channel to be aired in around ten cities. Rainbow is one of very few Indian radio channels which air Western Music and the western music slots are really popular with listeners. It has gained the No. In Delhi. Just for you. not only this it also has classical music shows. a rare occurrence in Indian radio channels. In vizag. In a short span of three years. it operates on 107. owned by HT Media Limited. In Tamil Nadu. AIR FM Rainbow operates on 102. Matchless music hours. The popular slot for English music called Radio Raptures on AIR FM Rainbow is aired everyday from 7am to10am and from 10pm to 1am and it has earned a very good audience with the passing years. The company entered the private FM radio market in the four main cities of Delhi. Take off. Mumbai (since January ’07). this radio channel is also known as "Rainbow FM". was formed in technical collaboration with the Virgin group. with its signature property of 40 minutes non-stop music. Live wire Plus. National Radio Station in Trichy. all day. It has many western music programs like Time Out. Mumbai. Bangalore and Kolkata. soundtracks as well as English songs. while in Lucknow. India's youngest. hippest and most happening Radio Station that plays more music than any other was launched. Aditi and Sohail. In Mumbai. Fever 104 FM has surged ahead with a total time spent listening of 386 minutes. all the time across the cities of Delhi. In terms of TSL. It is No. AIR FM Rainbow operates on 102. it uses the 100. Radio pet house. Fever 104 FM is a contemporary hits music station that plays a mix of regional. national and international hits. AIR FM Rainbow is heard on 102 megahertz. Bangalore and Kolkata with the brand Fever 104 FM. Raunak. It plays the latest hits. Mumbai. the channel's rise has been meteoric. FEVER 104 FM: In 2006. 1 position in Mumbai and Bangalore leaving behind all the other FM channels in these cities. Footloose.1 megahertz. FEVER 104 FM17. Wicked Hour. . Some of the radios Jockeys of AIR FM Rainbow are Altaf. Fever 104 FM with its tagline ‘It's all about the music!’ entered the FM radio market in key Indian cities.ghazals. Wasim. Bangalore (since March ‘07) and Kolkata (January ‘08). Almost all the radio jockeys on private FM channels once started with FM Rainbow.1 megahertz in Tamil language covering more than 12 districts of Tamil Nadu.
and by the end of May 2009. Times FM. the government decided not to renew contracts given to private operators. The Times Group operated its brand. Times FM was probably the most famous radio in India which began its operation in 1993.3 MHz in all cities except in Ahmadabad where it broadcasts on 95. Before we begin. and Rahul Dravid encouraging the public to carpool. It sold airtime blocks on its FM channels in Indore. a government undertaking. launched a carpooling drive which is has involved celebrities like Robin Uthappa. Until 1993. Radio Mirchi: Radio Mirchi19 is a nationwide network of private FM radio stations in India. . Indore. Kolkata. Kolkata. 2006 in Mumbai before going national in 6 more cities. Bangalore.000 people are said to have carpooled in the city. Jabalpur and Jaipur. Delhi. Radio One and the Bangalore Traffic Police. It sold airtime blocks on its FM channels to private operators. It is owned by the Entertainment Network India Ltd (ENIL). Soon the service of Radio One will also be started in Bhopal. Coleman & Co. All India Radio or AIR. In the city of Bangalore. was the only radio broadcaster in India. a government undertaking. Hyderabad. it is promoted by Bennett. The original avatar of Radio Mirchi was Times FM. The government then took the initiative to privatize the radio broadcasting sector. who developed their own program content. It was launched on June 8. It is a joint venture between Mid-day Multimedia and BBC Worldwide and operates in 7 metros namely Mumbai. The station broadcasts at 94.Radio One: Radio One18 is a radio station in India. who developed their own program content.5 MHz in Mumbai till 2006. Delhi. Vizag and Goa to private operators. The Times Group operated its brand. which is one of the subsidiaries of The Times Group. operating in various media segments such as print media and television broadcasting.0 MHz’s. The government then took the initiative to privatize the radio broadcasting sector. Pune and Ahmadabad. was the only radio broadcaster in India. let’s know a little about Radio Mirchi. Radio Mirchi began operations in 1993 in Indore. It was known as Go 92. Until 1993. till June 1998.5 FM and was broadcast on 92. Mumbai. Limited (BCCL) which is one of the largest media and entertainment companies in India. After that. AIR. Chennai. 10. The initiative got a good response.
During the year. The survey was conducted by Metrix Labs and AC Nielsen. As per Brand Reporter October 2009 issue Mirchi was recognized as one of the game changers of the decade in the radio industry. the design was created and crafted by the music fraternity itself. . It has been recognition of the brand popularity and the creative talent behind the brand. Lalit Pandit. This unique honor was bestowed on Mirchi by the Pitch-IMRB group's survey of the top service brands of the country. the government decided not to renew contracts given to private operators. till June 1998. IRS 2009 reiterates the same as Mirchi has more than 41 million listeners across 32 stations. The SEC ABC segments were earlier dominated by Big FM & now by Friends FM. Mirchi’s website was voted the most popular TV and Radio site in India. However in the SEC D & E segments Radio Mirchi has total domination. Sadhana Sargam. The success of the website reflects the overall popularity of Mirchi. Radio Mirchi is the number 1 radio brand in the private FM space. Sonu Niigaam. After that.5 million participants. Louiz Banks. Shankar Mahadevan. It's the largest private FM Radio operator in the country in terms of number of operational stations and revenue.e. the brand. ahead of iconic brands like The Times of India and Star Plus. In December 2008. Radio Mirchi has been dominating in Delhi & is the leader in Mumbai and Kolkata. While the parentage of the idea was that of Mirchi. Mirchi was voted the No.: The Mirchi Kaan Awards acknowledges and honors the contribution of individuals and organizations that have led the way in developing clutter busting radio advertising. Its lead over its nearest competitor is more than double.the other members comprised the best in the industry: Prasoon Joshi. The survey had 1. Anu Malik. Over the years Mirchi have established two important landmarks i. Its market share in revenue terms remains in excess of 40% of the private FM industry.Times FM. Javed Akhtar. However in Kolkata they are not clear leaders in SEC ABC segments. 1 media brand. The jury led by Chairman. As per the Radio Audience Measurement Reports (RAM). it won a plethora of awards. Kavita Krishnamurthy. The awards have been instituted to encourage continued creative focus on radio advertising. would make any recipient proud . This endorses the vote of trust that the brand has built amongst its listeners. Playing contemporary hits songs Radio Mirchi has always been the No 1 choice of listeners.
2006 it has announced plans to invest Rs. and other music-related features. 700 to 800 million in the current fiscal year to set up 16 FM (Frequency Modulation) stations across India. Bollywood. Radio City recently forayed into New Media in May 2008 with the launch of a new mega music portal . It broadcasts at 92. Currently. The station has been criticized for multiple format changes and presenter lineup. in Chennai on July 7th 2006 and in Vishakapatnam October 2007. Over the years. Rakeysh Omprakash Mehra. 2006. It was launched in Hyderabad in March.7: BIG FM 92. it covers 45 cities.0 in most cities) megahertz from Mumbai (where it was started in 2004). Lucknow and New Delhi. Bangalore (started first in 2001). BIG FM 92. The jury set tough standards. This initiative has already reached hundreds of schools across the country.7 MHz (92.7 is a nationwide private FM radio station in India owned by Indian businessman Anil Ambani21. The Radio station currently plays a mix of Hindi and Kannada music. Indipop and Sufi among others. As a part of its CSR Mirchi initiated a program to improve the quality of life of the visually impaired and the company came up with an initiative i.e. Radio City Bangalore is India's first private FM radio station and was started on July 3. The Chief Executive Officer is Ms Apurva Purohit. Ramesh Sippy and Kunal Kohli. This is the only private FM radio station which is being broadcast from Srinagar and Jammu in Jammu & Kashmir state. “audio books”.7FM). the station had been steadily losing popularity with the launch of newer stations in Bangalore. Darius Sunawala.PlanetRadiocity. It plays Hindi songs.Kailash Kher. Suresh Wadkar. It launched with presenters such as Rohit Barker. Radio City: Radio City20 is a FM radio station in India.1 (earlier 91. videos. . This initiative of ‘Listen to my movie’ has been felicitated with one of the most prestigious Readers Digest Pegasus CSR Awards in the ‘Silver Category’. It broadcasts on 91. Jonzie Kurian and Suresh Venkat.com that offers music related news. songs. English and regional songs. 2001. Radio City has launched Fun Ka Antenna Online Radio Station which plays hits across genres including International. Recently as of July.
JGI has taken the initiative to launch a community radio station serving the cause of progress and development of the community at large. in turn seeking to inform. 2008. 4. Inspired by its dynamic founder and Chairman Mr. the JGI family is principled.3FM’. development.000. scientific awareness. social issues etc. infrastructure and licensing. to use technology and human enterprise in tandem to help create a meaningful and proactive social ambience where interdependence becomes mutually supportive and to focus on a universally responsive India. The community radio station.000 dedicated to transmission equipment. Radio Active will seek to reach out to Bangalore’s masses on issues concerning health. from primary to higher education.3. the first city outside India. Radio Active: Jain Group of Institutions (JGI)22 is a conglomerate of 35 mission driven institutions that spans the gamut of education. while entertaining the public.It has made an announcement to invest Rs. R Chenraj Jain. environment. Its vision is to contribute leaders to a vibrant and responsive India. . Its mission is to provide excellence in academic education and focuses on the holistic development of the individual. It broadcasts its programs daily from 5 to 8pm on XFM 96. Its main tagline is "Suno Sunao. From July 1. under the name of 'BIG Bollywood 96.000. to sensitize society to global. which would make the proposed network the largest ever. JGI draws on the essence of tradition and sophistication of modernization to educate the professionals of tomorrow. BIG FM included Singapore. national and local issues. proactive and visionary. The Vision behind Radio Active is to empower every individual in society to become a winner and an achiever by harnessing and nurturing human potential. and charitable schooling to professional courses. In keeping with its tradition of promoting the welfare and betterment of society. Life Banao". in its broadcasting network. educate. women.
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