Radio has made a comeback in the lifestyles of Indians.
Radio has the reputation of being the oldest and the cheapest medium of entertainment in India. The radio industry has been completely reshaped by the various private players that entered the sector after the government allowed foreign investment into the segment and opened the licenses to the private players. DIFFERENT TECHNOLOGIES IN BROADCAST RADIO The first one which was used in olden days for transmission purpose is AM. Amplitude modulation (AM)1 is a technique used in electronic communication, most commonly for transmitting information via a radio carrier wave. Frequency modulation (FM) is a form of modulation that represents information as variations in the instantaneous frequency of a carrier wave. FM is commonly used at VHF radio frequencies for high-fidelity broadcasts of music and speech. Today radio is used for many forms of communication from long distance satellite communications to the personal cell phones that are widely used. In addition to this wireless communications are becoming more important for data as demonstrated by the rapid growth in Wi-Fi Radio is also used for telecommunications links. Signals with frequencies in the microwave region are normally used. These signals have frequencies much higher than those in the short wave band and they are not affected by the ionosphere. However they provide reliable direct line of sight links that are able to carry many telephone conversations or other forms of traffic. Satellite radio Satellite radio is one of the fastest-growing entertainment services in the world and it is making its presence felt in a small but a positive way in India. A satellite radio is basically a digital unit that receives signals broadcast by communications satellite. This allows a person with a set to follow his favorite stations anywhere in the country unlike the terrestrial radio (AM and FM) whose signals are limited to a certain area depending on the power of the station. Some of the advantages of a satellite radio are that the sound is of digital quality and there are no commercials. But it is not for free, it is available on subscription for a fee. An example would be “world space radio”. Satellites, radar, communications, internet, message service are the effect of radio technology in our modern day life. With the growth of radio the requirement for mobile connectivity, it is certain that wireless technologies with radio at the core will continue to thrive and become more
widespread. To meet the demand it is likely that new technologies will be developed to maximize the use of the available radio spectrum. HD radio ("hybrid digital" or "high definition") is a brand name of a method of digital transmission of AM and FM radio stations. The HD Radio system is unique which allows stations to broadcast crystal-clear audio and a variety of text-based services, as well as more FM channels, without changing to new frequency bands. Hybrid system is a system in which digital signals are sent along with the analog carrier as the standard for AM and FM broadcasting in the United States. FM stations can offer multiple channels (called "Multicast" channels) on the same frequencies allocated to analog radio stations. Internet radio Internet radio e-Radio is an audio broadcasting service transmitted via the Internet. Broadcasting on the Internet is usually referred to as webcasting since it is not transmitted broadly through wireless means but is delivered over the World Wide Web. The term "e-Radio" suggests a streaming medium that presents listeners with a continuous stream of audio to which they have no control much like traditional broadcast media. It is not synonymous with podcasting which involves downloading and therefore copyright issues. Nor does e-Radio suggest "on-demand" file serving. Many Internet "radio stations" are associated with a corresponding traditional "terrestrial" radio station or radio network. Internet-only radio stations are usually independent of such associations. Old media don’t’ die! They just bounce back in new avatars. Not so long ago radio had been written off as fuddy-duddy, down market and not so cool. Television and later “new media” were touted to being the media of the future. But thanks to technology radio is making a comeback. FM radio is a new entity altogether and has to deal with new market dynamics. Media owners dealing with new markets will virtually have to draw up their strategies as they go along, create programming that is new, innovative and grab away eyeballs from TV sets and make them tune into their radio sets. It’s a whole new challenge and competition is never far away. Ad revenues will also not be easy to come by, as advertisers will expect media players to put their money where their speakers are before they commit large sums of money towards radio advertising. The other challenge for radio in attracting advertisers is the nature of the medium-radio has always
considered being a reminder medium. The involvement of listeners to radio is low, Vis a Vis television or print media. With the coming of more channels, and the emergence of lifestyle advertising, radio will become a push and pull medium. As said earlier, is not just making a comeback but is being reincarnated into a new avatar. Any radio setup has two parts: • • The transmitter The receiver
The transmitter takes some sort of message (it could be the sound of someone's voice, pictures for a TV set, data for a radio modem or whatever), encodes it onto a sine wave and transmits it with radio waves. The receiver receives the radio waves and decodes the message from the sine wave it receives. Both the transmitter and receiver use antennas to radiate and capture the radio signal. When you listen to a radio station and the announcer says, "You are listening to 91.5 FM “what the announcer means is that you are listening to a radio station broadcasting an FM radio signal at a frequency of 91.5 megahertz. Megahertz means "millions of cycles per second," so "91.5 megahertz" means that the transmitter at the radio station is operating at a frequency of 91,500,000 cycles per second. Your FM (frequency modulated) radio can tune in to that specific frequency and give you clear reception of that station. All FM radio stations transmit in a band of frequencies between 88 megahertz and 108 megahertz. This band of the radio spectrum is used for no other purpose but FM radio broadcasts. Common frequency band includes the following: • AM radio - 535 kilohertz t - 1.7 megahertz • FM radio - 88 megahertz - 108 megahertz AM radio has been around a lot longer than FM radio. The first radio broadcasts occurred in 1906 or so, and frequency allocation for AM radio occurred during the 1920s. In the 1920s, radio and electronic capabilities were fairly limited, hence the relatively low frequencies for AM radio. FM radio was invented by a man named Edwin Armstrong in order to make high-fidelity (and static-free) music broadcasting possible. He built the first station in 1939, but FM did not become really popular until the 1960s. .
HISTORY OF RADIO Radio owes its development to two other inventions, the telegraph and the telephone; all three technologies are closely related. Radio technology began as "wireless telegraphy". Radio can refer to either the electronic appliance that we listen with or the content listened to. However, it all started with the discovery of "radio waves" - electromagnetic waves that have the capacity to transmit music, speech, pictures and other data invisibly through the air. Many devices work by using electromagnetic waves including: radio, microwaves, cordless phones, remote controlled toys, television broadcasts, and more. The Roots of Radio During the 1860s, Scottish physicist, James Clerk Maxwell2 predicted the existence of radio waves; and in 1886, German physicist, Heinrich Rudolph Hertz demonstrated that rapid variations of electric current could be projected into space in the form of radio waves similar to those of light and heat. In 1866, Mahlon Loomis, an American dentist, successfully demonstrated "wireless telegraphy." Loomis was able to make a meter connected to one kite cause another one to move, marking the first known instance of wireless aerial communication. Twenty years after the telephone was invented and music was first sent down a telephone line, Guglielmo Marconi sent radio signals. Marconi (1874-1937) was born in Italy and studied at the University of Bologna. He was fascinated by Heinrich Hertz’s earlier discovery of radio waves and realized that it can be used for sending and receiving telegraph messages, referring to it as “wireless telegraphs.” Marconi’s first radio transmissions, in 1896, were coded signals that were transmitted only about 1.6 km (a mile) far. Marconi realized that it held huge potential. He offered the invention to the Italian government but they turned it down. Marconi was not the first to invent the radio, however. Four years before Marconi started experimenting with wireless telegraph, Nikola Tesla, a Serb who moved to the USA in 1884, invented the theoretical model for radio. Tesla tried unsuccessful to obtain a court injunction
was the exact copy of that of Bose. however. his radio equipment was gone. which he used in 1901. a farmer from Murray. This was a way of communicating between two points.against Marconi in 1915. Marconi’s Coherer. Marconi was present in the meeting of the Royal Society and it is thought that he stole the notebook of Bose that included the drawing of the ‘Mercury Coherer with a telephone detector’. Tesla became acknowledged as the inventor of the radio – even though he did not build a working radio. Indian scientist J. never marketed his wireless radio. Stubblefield demonstrated his invention to the press in 1902 but. Transmitters at that time were called spark-gap machines. Kentucky. Growth of Radio . it was not public radio broadcasting as we know it today. Bose demonstrated the radio transmission in 1896 in Calcutta in front of the British Governor General. January. The transmission was over a distance of three miles from the Presidency College and Science College in Calcutta. In 1943 the US Supreme Court reviewed the decision. But under pressure from American friends. being afraid that his invention will be stolen. he applied for the patent in September 1901. Bose had solved the problem of the Hertz not being able to penetrate walls. mountains or water. When he was found dead in 1929.C. Bose did not apply for a patent on his design because he believed in the free flow of inventions in science. made a voice transmission four years before Marconi transmitted radio signals.
. By that time Marconi had received his patent and international recognition.Radiotelegraph and Spark-Gap Transmitters Radio-telegraphy is the sending by radio waves the same dot-dash message (Morse code) used in a telegraph. referencing the Proceedings of the IEEE. Thus writes contributor Dipak Basu. The instruments (‘Mercury Coherer with a telephone detector’) are still there in the science museum of the Calcutta University. 1998. Nikoli Tesla remains to be acknowledged as the inventor of the radio. It is reputed that Nathan B. It was developed mainly for ship-to-shore and ship-to-ship communication. Stubblefield. He was awarded the US patent for the invention of the radio in 1904.
which was heard by radio-equipped ships within several hundred miles. the triode amplifier and the Audio.Improvements to Radio Transmitters Overseas radiotelegraph service developed slowly. The U. Navy to prevent its possible use by enemy spies. after the government released its control of all patents. "Hello Rainey" spoken by Natan B. in 1892.
. Kentucky. the Radio Corporation of America (RCA) was established with the purpose of distributing control of the radio patents that had been restricted during the war. De Forest was also the person who first used the word "radio". Lee De Forest provided that detector. Lee Deforest . In the early 1900s.AM Radio Lee Deforest invented space telegraphy. Military Use and Patent Control When the United States entered the First World War in 1917. to an experimental program of talk and music by Reginald A.S. In 1919. in 1906. Stubblefield 2 to a test partner near Murray. thus. It made it possible to amplify the radio frequency signal picked up by the antenna before application to the receiver detector. the great requirement for further development of radio was an efficient and delicate detector of electromagnetic radiation. The Alexanderson high-frequency alternator and the De Forest tube resolved many of these early technical problems. much weaker signals could be utilized than had previously been possible. Claims to that distinction range from the phase. Radio Speaks The first time the human voice was transmitted by radio is debatable. primarily because the initial radiotelegraph transmitter discharged electricity within the circuit and between the electrodes was unstable causing a high amount of interference. government took over control of all patents related to radio technology. all radio development was controlled by the U.S. Fessenden.
Regeneration Amplification 1913 In 1913. also in New York City. FM Radio 1933 Edwin Armstrong is most commonly known for inventing frequency-modulated or FM radio in 1933. However.
The Dawn of FM Radio
The story of FM radio is one of success and tragedy.True Broadcasting Begins In 1915. and frequency modulation. Enthralled. to the Eiffel Tower in Paris. Virginia.885 for a "Method of Receiving High-Frequency Oscillations Radio" for his FM technology. 1920.342. super heterodyning.000 times
. speech was first transmitted across the continent from New York City to San Francisco and across the Atlantic Ocean from Naval radio station NAA at Arlington. Edwin Armstrong was only eleven when Marconi made the first trans-Atlantic radio transmission. in New York City. including a 125 foot antenna in his parent's backyard. Westinghouse's KDKA-Pittsburgh broadcast the Harding-Cox election returns and began a daily schedule of radio program. Frequency modulation or FM improved the audio signal of radio by controlling the noise static caused by electrical equipment and the earth's atmosphere. Edwin Howard Armstrong was one of great engineers of the 20th century. Edwin Armstrong received U. On November 2. he was born in 1890. Edwin Armstrong should be known for inventing three key innovations: regeneration. the young Armstrong began studying radio and building homemade wireless equipment.S. Edwin Armstrong invented the regenerative or feedback circuit. patent 1. Regeneration amplification worked by feeding the received radio signal through a radio tube 20. and died in 1954.
the FCC allowed them to simulcast — simultaneously broadcast the same programming on both their AM and FM stations. he's still considered the most prolific inventor in radio's history. Even though he had improved AM radio in significant ways. Since most radio station owners didn't want to go to the expense of creating high-fidelity programming just for their FM stations. who was head of RCA and had said he would help him develop it. that increased the power of the received radio signal and allowed radio broadcasts to have a greater range. Then the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor. By 1941. Once TV started to evolve. Superhetrodyne Tuner Edwin Armstrong invented the superhetrodyne tuner that allowed radios to tune into different radio stations. and cause Armstrong to lose his personal investment in FM radio. Although his life was cut short. still out to hold control of their radio empire. pressured the FCC to change all of the FM radio frequencies — a move they knew would instantly obsolete all of the exiting FM radios. David Sarnof3 and RCA. David Sarnof.per second. The ensuing war diverted resources and froze development. because of ionosphere refraction. RCA bought into the patents and helped Armstrong develop an experimental radio station. Armstrong was clearly a technical genius. especially in rural areas
Armstrong took his invention to a friend. Armstrong was well aware of AM radio's major limitations:
• • •
Static interference from household appliances and lighting Limited audio quality (frequency response and dynamic range) Nighttime interference between many stations (co-channel interference). interest in FM radio further diminished and by 1949. 50 FM stations were on the air. many FM stations
gave up his long. He wrote a note to his wife apologizing for what he was about to do. RCA quickly started pushing its development and subsequently made millions of dollars from the sale of FM transmitters and equipment. Once FM radio started to make money.cybercollege. FM radio not only climbed out of the cellar of popularity after Armstrong's death. taxing battle against Sarnof and RCA. removed the air conditioner from his 13th story New York apartment. A few weeks later RCA announced record profits. On January 31. Edwin Armstrong. We'll cover public broadcasting — both radio and television — in an upcoming module.
Graph 1: Growth of FM radio (Source: www. 1954.com) As shown in the from the graph . The green line represents the growth of noncommercial and National Public Radio (NPR) stations. RADIO BROADCASTING
. but today it leads AM radio in both number of stations and listeners. and jumped to his death.had shut down.
Chiefly. electronic concerns were shifted to war production. 1926 – 1930: Commercial radio became solidly established. but even so. 1923 – 1926: This was a transitional period. of a shift in importance from radio to television. 1941 to 1945 was the big money-making time for American radio. Broadcasting in 1935 to 1941 saw radio revenues soaring to new heights. after the government removed restrictions late in 1919. It saw an enormous increase in the total number of radio stations. On the other hand. it marked the development of new types of equipment. the erection of 108 TV stations-and the beginnings. The nation had shifted. 1930s: This was the beginning of the great depression in the United States – a depression which had its effect on programming and on the various forms of advertising. in 1944-45.particularly development of networks and the presentation of network programs by national advertisers. both network and station revenues were strikingly greater than in the prewar period. Some of this increase was the result of inflation. older forms were polished and improved. but which was not able to be used unless all the conflicting patent owners would permit. etc. it saw the beginnings of broadcasting on a commercial basis. in December of 1941.This period marked the start of "regular" broadcasting. The war imposed as many hardships on broadcasters as it did upon those engaged in other occupations.
. but relatively little effect on broadcast revenues. The make-up of RCA consisted of those companies that had the key patents or would shortly buy them for wireless telegraphy. it saw development of basic types of programs. and while not too many new program forms introduced. especially on the network level. The Radio Corporation of America4 was formed in 1919 as a patent pool to control the use of the new equipment which had been invented during WWI. The transistor was demonstrated in 1947 by Bell Labs. with the result that broadcasting equipment. 1940s: This period included World War II. tubes. from a threat-of-war situation into actual involvement. was in short supply. it was a period in which some persons at least saw in broadcasting possible source of revenues-from sale of time. 1945-1952: A highly important era in the history of American radio and television. costs advanced. no less than 70% above the level of revenues in 1940-41. The 1930-35 period was also the time of the greatest "idea" development in the history of American radio programming-with respect to network programs in particular. at least. employees were drafted into military service. rather than the sale of receiving sets.
The networks reached from coast-to-coast and in 1953 the FCC approved the industry indorsed compatible NTSC color television system (RCA-NBC). Programming. AM stations even tried to meet the challenge by going "stereo" but no one cared. 1960-1970 .radio bores: AM Top 40 begins the decade with lock on the ratings. Pop music was better and it demanded a delivery service that sounded as good as a home audio system. hundreds of AM stations embrace a "top-40 time and temperature" format. Advertisers want to buy radio. Radio became less secure. FM makes a comeback: For a system that was invented nearly 40 years earlier. reversing their 1950 decision which had authorized a non-compatible field-sequential system (CBS). The saying. it took a long time for FM to overtake AM. There were lots of jingles and promotions.radio reinvents: Probably based on the early work of programmers like McClendon and Bill Drake. Stations played three minute songs. music and contests are now targeted to a specific age group (12-35) based on demographic research showing this group has money to spend on goods and services by the new affluent middle class.Broadcasting from 1952 through the 1960's: Earlier trends continued. be brief" was. Each station has only a small segment of the audience. posted in every control room. Radio makes lots of money: The big music stations. The Big FM's would rule by the decade’s end. 1970-1980 . top-40 on AM and progressive rock" on FM. it seemed. once AM and now FM were making lots of money. Even though its sound was stale. "be bright. in some markets more than 50% of the people using radio are still tuned by habit to that "one big legendary AM station. but grew in the number of smaller stations licensed. but during this decade television became the dominant mass medium as the freeze on licenses was lifted and a 70channel UHF band was added. The music was still controlled by cynical old white men." By the middle of the decade most of these major stations were struggling. There was even disco on FM! Formats fragment: There are no longer just two formats. There are plenty of listeners and times are good as far as jobs and money.
. AM stations still refused to play the new music from albums and were suddenly facing new competition from FM stations that would play the music.
Production that used to involve splicing tape is now done
. use automation to run three stations at once. 1980-1990 . less news and public affairs types. reporter and reader as every station had to employ in the 1970's. Stations now have to satisfy the demands of the marketplace instead of the demands of Federal regulation. If you were a news writer.000 and in major and large markets. AM tries a comeback: Helped with new technical regulations. promotion or production of promotions. In the 1980s almost half of the radio stations changed hands. lessappealing to listeners and sponsors. edited and broadcast using the hard drive of a computer. less people have to do more. more automation.radio struggles: The Reagan administration de-regulates the industry. In this market most of each day is automated. tenacious. mostly offering music formats delivered by big city DJ's. now your station was no longer required to have news. hundreds of new radio networks emerge and die. the FCC station owners tried to save AM one more time. This means cutbacks. A smaller pie: The number of stations swelled to 12. persistent. No union problems because the unions in radio are practically irrelevant.radio competes: Less people do more work. New radio station owners want to cut costs.Radio networks return: With inexpensive satellite technology available to every station. Buy-sell: Like the house you bought for a high price in the late 1980's. New owners. 1990-2000 . the radio station you also bought is worth less than you paid. there were perhaps 100 to 200 stations vying for listeners. Smaller stations automate with them but it makes the station less local-sounding. News and public affairs suffered. Again. you'll work. Digital takes over radio technology: Now an entire day can be stored. To succeed you have to be above average. New group owners & duopolies: One company can now own 25-25-25 plus and in San Jose and San Francisco some companies own many stations. promise of fewer stations and an expanded AM band. new challenges: For young people seeking a career in radio the good news was if you are good at sales. The era of Niche Programming and formats begins and now there is a format for every narrow interest.
There were only six radio stations in India at the time of independence. AM is around after almost 100 years. Assam. In the very same year. and suddenly many struggling AMs are revived and saved again by talk radio. AIR was made a separate Department under the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. Akashvani is a government-owned. namely in the North Zone in New Delhi. DBS. current owners want to be first in line when licenses are issued for these new services. Still. the North-East Zone in Guwahati. all future non-FM delivery services. Conservative politics. The company almost went bankrupt in 1930 but the colonial government took away the two transmitters and the Department of Labor and Industries started operating them as the Indian State Broadcasting Corporation. British colonial government approved a license to a private company. to inaugurate Radio stations in Bombay and Kolkata. In 1936. Talk radio's decade: Rush.with the click of a mouse. the West Zone in Mumbai. Analog devices like cart machines will disappear by 2004. HISTORY OF RADIO IN INDIA: Broadcasting began in India with the formation of a private radio service in Madras (presently Chennai) in 1924. this very Corporation was renamed All India Radio (AIR) and was controlled by the Department of Communications. to be replaced with computer memory. Commercial Radio services in India started in 1967 by Vividh Bharati Service with its headquarters at Mumbai. All India Radio`s network had expanded by the mid-1990s to around 146 AM stations along with a National Channel. semi -commercial operation of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. etc. the Integrated North-East Service that aimed at reaching out to the tribal groups in northeast India and handles the External Services. the Indian Broadcasting Company5. It was established in 1936 and since 1957 All India Radio was renamed as Akashvani. When India became independent in 1947. and the South Zone in Chennai. There are five regional headquarters for All India Radio. Vividh Bharati earned its revenues from extensive advertisements and
. New delivery services: Digital stuff. Internet. the East Zone in Kolkata. DMX. And just like the transition to television. Government of India controls the radio broadcasting in India that works under the Directorate General of All India Radio.
Most radios are also produced within India. Programs were broadcast twice a week for an hour a day on welfare topics related to community health. Television broadcasts started from Delhi in September 1959. prepare programming content. Then. the Government of India did not permit private radio stations to broadcast in India. book commercials from advertisers and broadcast the whole lot. such as farmers needing agro climatic. Indian radio proved to be a prime medium of social integration. In those days radio was considered as an integral medium of communication. India has a wide-ranging network of medium wave and short-wave stations.had been broadcasting from thirty-one AM and FM stations during the mid-1990s. primarily due to the absence of any motion medium. Not surprisingly. 93 crores with Times of India's Times FM & Mid-Day Group's Radio Mid-Day becoming the main players. Indian radio also took up the task of aiding in the development of economic scenario. decided not to renew contracts of private FM operators. (1997-98). The broadcasting equipment used in India is mainly indigenous and reaches special audiences. again associated with the All India Radio`s services. and traffic and road sense. however the importance of radio did not decline. the advertising revenue
. through its electronic media regulatory body Prasar Bharti. plant protection. popularity of radio spread nationwide. The number of radio receivers increased almost five times between 1970 and 1994. that television came into existence in 1959. the Government allowed private FM operators to 'buy' blocks (chunks) on All India Radio. Initially it was around 14 million that rose to nearly 65 million. All the national affairs and social changes were informed through the waves of broadcast media and within no time. Within 4 years. the FM Radio advertising and sponsorship business grew to Rs. and other agriculture-related information. citizens duties and rights. In 1961 the television medium were expanded to include a school educational television project. For more than 4 decades. In 1993. Then history changed its course. The early history of Indian radio broadcasting in independent India set the parameters for the succeeding role of television in the nation. The role of broadcasting provided an inlet for the flow of modern ideas. in June 1998 the Government. In 1994 there had been almost eighty-five FM stations and seventy-three short wave stations that connected the entire country. It was due to the same reason of static thoughts prevailing in the society.
The first round of bidding . many companies bid for the licenses to operate in key markets. Many gave up. A handful of serious bidders chose to remain. revenue-sharing also exists in the media sector. the competition shrank. The objective is to “make FM radio a
. unable to shell out the high license fee. The government got the highest bids .6 billion as license fee for the privately run FM radio channels in 40 cities. July 6. the Government gave the green light to privatize radio in India. In response to the Government's offer.5 million from each of 10 broadcast companies . the bidding price for the Mumbai license was reportedly to the tune of Rs 9. Expecting to collect Rs 800 million from auctioning 108 licenses. And the focus on metros was evident in the bidding. compared to 89% of All India Radio (AIR). Interestingly. garnered close to Rs 3. Music Broadcasting became the first firm in India to commence private FM broadcast from Bangalore in July.for 76 channels in 26 cities. a Zee Group company. 1999 was the historic day when the Government announced that 150 new FM channels would be licensed across 40 cities. Others dropped out saying the business was not viable. Incidentally. each for Rs 77. the bids for Hyderabad and Nagpur came next. while the bids for Delhi were Rs 71. the government had to actually face mass withdrawal of bidders because of the huge license fee. which go up by 15 per cent every year. New Media Broadcasting. Licensee Fee and revenue sharing model Currently. For instance. Today. in effect. But the going was not so easy. Currently.2 million and Rs 74 million. FM coverage in India is restricted to just 17% of the country. So. Private FM radio sector would shift to a revenue-sharing model from the existing license fee regime.Rs 97.for stations in Mumbai. the Government auctioned licenses for private FM channels to bolster the revenue. there are roughly 10 players who will operate approximately in 37 cities across the country. which focused mainly on the smaller towns. FM players pay annual license fees. won the largest number of bids. respectively.2 million each Radio is expected to follow the growth of the Television industry.5 billion. which grew rapidly following the entry of private player. However. The government collected close to Rs 4. And in 2000. players consolidated and the Government extended its deadline.75 crore.fell by 50% within a year! This time.
the panel has fixed it at 4 per cent. But FM presently covers only 17 percent of the area and 21 % of the population of India through transmitters. It’s better to keep the revenue-sharing figure low than to have a failed project. Revenue-sharing will follow payment of a one-time entry fee through a process of bidding. 50/. The geographical area covered by radio in India in India is as high as 98 percent and the penetration level is approximately 97 percent. Revenue-sharing figure is quite low at around 4 %. Currently radio has just 2 percent of the 9000 crore Indian advertising market according to an Arthur Anderson’s survey.FICCI estimates FM’s
. Given that radio has penetrated into 100 million homes and a FM set costs around Rs. it is firm on revenue-sharing now. Globally depending on each country. However in spite of the various challenges the emergence of private FM stations is certain to increase the quantum of radio advertising in the country .1%. That should open up a vast new market of consumers-100 million Indian households own an estimated 150 million radios.5 per cent. It has also recommended to the government to release additional spectrum for the use of FM radio companies so that the number of companies operating in one centre can go up. the number of FM radio stations targeted is around 300 to 4006. The panel also suggested that players wanting to enter the sector in the second round of licensing need to have a technical viability clearance by a financial institution on the financial viability of the project. FM station executives are not forthcoming on multi-platform strategies as yet.7% and Spain with 9. outnumbering television sets 3:1. While the private FM players had sought revenue-sharing in the band of 2-2. There has been debate on whether to recommend a revenue-sharing structure or a fixed amount for a period of 10 years. Canada with 12. radio has a 5 % to 12 % of the advertising cake. On the higher side are countries like the United States with 13 %. After the second round of privatization.success story”. much like satellite channels did to the quantum of television advertising in the country.
helpful information . Virgin group has already started exploring the Indian market for suitable partners. While TV is a family medium. Various radio stations are coming up with IPO for example Radio Mirchi thus helping them expand. Providing free-to-air local broadcasts of music and entertainment. Also government allowing foreign players to enter the Indian market it will help the industry grow.5 percent to 5 % in five years. They have also forecasted that revenues from radio advertising in India will be Rs. Also one must not forgot that radio continues to be a medium that has tremendous reach among the poor and marginalized sections of society. it is being predicted that radio's share in the total advertising pie will see an increase in the medium term. FUTURE OF RADIO INDUSTRY FM Radio can play its part in building a stronger business future for India.share up from the present 1. for advertisers. Rs. Also advertising of certain product seems to work very well while some might not. This would be the key when evaluating the medium. as the car population is much bigger.traffic advisories. But at current levels of advertising support. each radio station is reeling under the brutal financial impact of high costs. radio is personalized. The future looks bright as the reach of radio is expected to raise post the increase in the number and quality of players in the industry. The new India deserves an active private FM radio sector. community announcements and public service messages provide a real value-added service. It can provide a level playing field with benefits for listeners. cellular phone service or auto related products would have a good impact when advertised on radio is primarily known as a “drive time” medium most people who turn in are doing so while commuting. It is on the basis of these key drivers of growth. Spearhead the government objective of growing the FM radio business in India.
. With more players in the fray the FM radio industry would grow and also enhance the government’s yield from licensing radio naturally. employment & career options. With the government ready to reduce the license fees it will help in attracting new players like reliance which had earlier backed out only due to the entry fees. 1200 crores by 2005 and Revenue of radio services is expected to rise to Rs 689 crore by 2008 at a CAGR of 30 per cent. For example. Thus the potential if FM is better is bigger town.
At the places where the literacy rates are low where people hardly read newspapers and radio is the only medium that they can understand. brochures or ads in local supplements of newspapers. Therefore radio is more popular. Also.
90% of India has access to radio which is unmatched by any other media.
SWOT Analysis Strengths: • Recently. though radio has only a 2 per cent share in the Rs 6. are welcoming the opportunity.
Radio is considered as a background medium. advertising spending is expected to amount to Rs 500 crore this year. who would depend on word-of-mouth. So that they can develop themselves well because this industry is still in an introduction stage.
. pamphlets. not only are listeners tuning into it more often but also sticking to radio for longer hours every day. which is 4 % for the growth of the radio stations. and reveals that radio listenership habits have changed considerably.
The advertisers.000 crore Indian advertising markets.
The success of private FM stations. Radio also reaches to uneducated village folk who do not read print publications. They can’t afford a TV set. the government has agreed upon revenue-sharing model.2 billion by 2007.6 billion industry is reported to be growing by 31 per cent every year and should touch the Rs 6. It is also a free medium. because people can listen to radio anytime and anywhere they want. The Rs 1.There are an estimated 150 million radio sets across the country. with revenue rising at 23 per cent annually.
Weakness: • One of the major weaknesses of Radio is that there is very less differentiation in the programs that are aired. Most of the stations plays much of the music that is played consist of Hindi Film songs.the large number of the audience in India is fragmented in various remote places. Radio is a complement to another media. the percentage of listener tuned to anyone station is likely very small. • Fragmented Audience .
. • Radio-only nature of radio communication is a tremendous creative compromise.•
Radio is the least cost medium and it helps to reach mass audience with various backgrounds. Many stations are conducting their own research which can be biased. This is the situation that every radio channel is facing. And therefore.research is very important for any advertising segment. But. Many advertisers think that without strong visual brand identification the medium can play little or no role in their advertising plans. and therefore it is difficult to differentiate between the programs of the different channels.
Radio is considered as a medium where the “Proximity to purchase” is very high. • Increase in listenership numbers but no increase in ad revenue. Therefore. Radio offers its reach frequency and selectivity at one of the lowest costs per thousand and radio production is relatively inexpensive. Research is the main base to attract client and get more revenue. And like its radio message creates a fleeting impression that is often gone in an instant. An advertiser whose product depends on demonstration or visual impact is at a loss when it comes to radio. • No proper research available . other media or the advertisers or agency can use this medium for brand recall. in India there is no proper research is available.
and that is the challenge.
With the coming of the many more new players in the radio industry each channels can position themselves quite different from others. And can play their station which will exclusively provide with the information relating to that university/college campus.•
Opportunities: • Getting copyright licenses from the government for running mega events which are aired on the AIR radio station and have been restricted to be aired on other private stations.
Leaves huge scope for innovation in local market
. Brand building is thus much more difficult. if some station is targeting the health conscious people then their programming strategy will vary accordingly. The launch of Private Radio FM has managed to create a set of ‘New Listeners’ for the medium
The new radio stations which will come in future they can have venture with the college or university campuses. One has to constantly innovate. and gung-ho about this whole enterprise. we are very bullish. like.
Allowing private FM players to start news and current affairs programs. •
Launching a radio station with 24-hour news channel Tie-ups with BEST or railway authority for playing the FM in train and in bus. And then it is easier for the advertisers also to decide on which channel to advertise. At the same time.
It is dominated by the state owned All India Radio (AIR). the sector generates annual revenues of INR 2. A few FM stations have been forced to shut down. With no particular differentiation in the music.they can listen to music and get information on the move. against total operating costs of around INR 550-600 million. Given that a significant portion of the operating costs is the license fee. this growth rate is far from flattering.
.9 percent. They have taken very quickly to interacting with their favorite radio stations and RJs via email and SMS for song requests and competitions. If one considers the private sector FM market in Mumbai. set at levels significantly above their earning capacity. which is set to increase at 15 percent per annum. Younger audiences. the sector has been reeling under heavy losses. particularly those below the age of 25.•
The biggest threat to private radio industry players is ALL INDIA RADIO. four players cumulatively generate annual revenues around INR 250-300 million. government channel etc…
Because of the new government policies there will be more number of stations and then competition will also increase. revenues would need to grow at over 40 percent annually to break even in the next three years. all of whom have been granted licenses over the past 3-4 years. Today's busy teenagers love radio because it complements a faster-paced lifestyle . which covers 91 percent7 of India's area and reaches 99 percent of the population. AIR is the biggest player in India because of its reach. So. Currently. as they could not afford to pay the annual license fees. low charges. As a result of unsustainably high license fees.
INDIAN ENTERTAINMENT INDUSTRY FOCUS 2010 On Radio Radio is a mass medium and therefore ideally suited for India . also have access to new technology like mobile phones. through a wide network of broadcasting centers and transmitters.leveraging its twin advantages of wide coverage and cost effectiveness. there is a fear of losing its brand loyalty. Given that commercialization of radio is still in a nascent stage in India. there are 21 privately-owned FM stations in 12 major cities. This is one of the biggest threats it faces. Advertising is the sole source of revenue for radio in India. Apart from AIR.2 billion and is growing at around 20 percent annually. This implies a marginal rise in radio's share in the advertising pie to around 1.
However. radio has a 13 percent share. reaching over 99 percent of its one billion inhabitants . in terms of its advertising spend. 70 percent of radio listeners in these cities listen to FM radio all seven days of the week. the radio sector cannot and should not be satisfied with a growth rate in the low 20s. radio has a 21 percent share of the advertising spend. in Spain 9 percent and closer to home. In spite of such attractive statistics. In India too. According to market research. this sector has not been able to monetize its hold on the listener’s eardrums. The easy availability of FM radio sets at affordable price points (ranging from INR 40INR 150) is fuelling its mass penetration. 'the radio on the move' trend is catching on in urban and semi-urban areas.a clear indication of the vast commercial potential in India for this medium. commercial radio could account for approximately 8 percent of media spends in the short to medium term and up to 10-12 percent in the long term. in Mumbai and Delhi.televisionpoint.com) The Indian potential India has an estimated 180 million radio sets. radio remains a laggard. Further. FM penetration is the highest in the SEC A segment and least in SEC D. it is the younger generation that is the key target audience vis-à-vis radio. We estimate that if its real potential is unlocked in India. In the US. in Sri Lanka. compared to a global average of 8 percent. It has less than 2 percent share of the total advertising pie in India. Plainly. While consumption in India is still largely at home.Graph 2: Graph showing FM listeners across age groups (Source: www.
Bridging the gap
has proposed a transition from the existing license fee regime to a revenue sharing one. needs to develop strategies to expand across the country and enhance business performance. At an investment of INR 40 million per radio station frequency. it is expected that the private FM channels will drive the future growth of the sector. radio is a unique medium and the focus on large advertisers seems to be at the cost of its largest potential benefactor . retail comprises only 8 percent of radio advertising. on its part. For example. soon. the total additional investment required will be INR 11 billion. Since the private FM channels need to survive in a commercial and competitive environment. the challenge confronting radio is to bridge the gap between the current growth trend and potential growth expectations. in USA. In contrast.Due to the public-broadcaster nature of AIR and its socio-economic rather than a commercial focus. the designated regulatory body for radio. To exploit the true potential of this sector. the radio industry will not be able to attract the necessary funding. but currently in India accounts for a small portion of the radio revenue pie. to help the radio industry curb it losses. In other words. FM radio needs to grow from the current 21 stations in 12 cities to at least 300 stations in 100 cities. In its current form and structure. TRAI. in India. However. and only 30 percent comes from either national or international advertisers or from the network of advertisers. The retail segment globally constitutes a large part of radio's clients and sales. 70 percent of all radio revenues come from local retailers. Local mantra The sales and marketing efforts of the major FM radio stations have focused on the large advertising clients. its ad revenues are expected to grow at a moderate pace. It is hoped that clarity on revenue-sharing emerges. thereby turning India's promise into reality.
. they have focused on mass entertainment to gather listeners. Hence. The industry.the local retailer. This may be partly attributed to the FMCG-marketing background of some of the managers and partly due to the sales strategy of the multi-media groups that own most radio stations.
can be a major beneficiary of radio advertising. Radio stations offer high frequency ‘opportunity to hear’ for the advertiser. there is a need to unlock the advertising potential in the retail segment. The retailer. the cost effectiveness of radio advertising will be even more acute. where the cost of television advertising is more than seven times that of radio advertising. International research indicates that radio has 60 percent of television’s effectiveness at increasing campaign awareness amongst an audience of 16-44 year old radio listeners.
. However.televisionpoint. is a localized medium. A high frequency combined with a moderate card rate (effective rates average between INR 500 to INR 900 per 10 seconds) provides an opportunity for retail players to promote their products and services cost effectively without fragmentation as in the case of national or even regional media. Clearly. While the price relativity for other audiences will vary. which can be a great proposition for local retailers. In India. due to its ability to transmit a particular message over a small geographical area. the achievement of 60 percent of the result at 15 percent of the cost makes radio significantly more cost effective than television. The price differential between radio and television will vary depending on the area and the audience.com) Radio. advertising on radio costs just 15 percent that of television.Graph 3: Pie diagram showing the profile of advertisers (Source: www. by its very nature. with city/ locality specific target groups.
Moreover. has little or no library value. when re-broadcast. this potential is largely untapped. if the topics discussed are not affected by the 'regency' factor. However. cross media promotions could be an added incentive for the potential advertiser. vertically integrated media corporations. Ideally. since many FM players are associated with larger. This should not be the case in a localized. there is enough potential to create a library of recordings that can be used beyond a single show.Graph 4: Graph showing the revenue composition of radio Source: www. mass-medium like radio. the advertiser base of FM radio is highly skewed. whether music or not. Creation of value packs Most of the programming currently being aired. Besides. such content can be exported for broadcast in other countries where the demand for Indian content is considerable. It is important for the radio stations to highlight the effectiveness of using radio for local level promotions and region-specific ad campaigns. Interactivity is a major content driver within the radio programming strategy. with around 11 percent of advertisers contributing 60 percent of their revenues.com Presently.
. programmed formats or around content areas could have the dual advantage of being re-usable in the future and being syndicated across other channels.televisionpoint. Such content. Creating specific IP whether in the form of RJs. the advertiser base should be broad-based with a large number of local advertisers promoting their products. saves the cost of producing new content and generates newer revenues by offering brand association with such a property at reasonably low rates. Very little programming is developed to create any strategic intellectual property. Creation of a good software library can become a source of competitive advantage for a radio player. While some radio stations are waking up to this reality.
Hindi film music. FMCG marketing or advertising. Validation of niche audiences would enable differentiated client targeting with unique value propositions. However. the pressure to sell airtime forced them to resort to the lowest common denominator .Niche programming Internationally. It may also require a shift from mass marketing of the radio channels to marketing programs targeted at specific market segments. Since there is very little to differentiate between the various channels. Between them. especially FM radio. This has led
. the resultant effect is constant channel swapping by listeners. Radio stations have traditionally grown by attracting specialized audiences. a closer look reveals that even programmed loyalty does not exist. Radio stations will need to start finding their own niche. This is driven by the fact that radio stations hire people from high wage industries like television. Being localized. these radio stations need not look beyond their walls to get valuable listener data. there is an urgent need to evolve programming towards differentiated content. with listeners simply switching from song to song. The innumerable contests and interactive sessions on air bring in close to 30. Radio stations have not been able to generate any significant channel loyalty. Hindi and mixed content. these channels also meet the demands of local advertisers. content specialization has been a distinct trend in the evolution of radio. Channels that address specialist listener groups need to emerge. However. radio stations find it difficult to market their USP. Very few have held on to the English format or even non-film content.000 callers every day for a single channel in a city like Mumbai . like a radio station that caters to the African-American population of New York or a Malayalam channel with Indian content for expatriate Indians in the Middle-East. most radio stations in India started off with a defined niche as well. Hence. socio-economic or ethnic or combination of factors.a valuable database that is currently under leveraged. These stations address specific audiences based on geographic. The salary structure in radio is comparable to that of other larger media units. Channels that started out with English programming as a key differentiator have drastically reduced the total airtime dedicated to it. This me-too approach towards content has a direct implication on the marketing of the radio channels as any message or campaign carried by it runs the risk of being lost in the clutter. In fact. Initially. they provided the listener with a choice of English. Manpower The most conspicuous item on the expense list is 'salaries'. With limited sponsored market research done in this area.
innovative cost management solutions such as the right mix between live and recorded music could reduce production and salary costs. brands like Binaca / Cibaca and Bournvita were built on radio. But as the market matures and niche channels develop with defined target groups and unique value propositions. particularly in a market where lack of niche programming has resulted in constant surfing for songs of choice. but that does not necessarily translate into higher listenership. Channel brands and programs will be associated with niche content and specific listener profiles that can be sold to potential advertisers. without diluting the channel positioning. Branding Branding plays an important role in establishing a strong channel and program association amongst listeners. the increased number of private radio channels across the country is likely to transform commercial radio from an urban phenomenon to a national one. What could work better for them would be a combination of two. The key word is 'association'. These programs rode on extremely successful content formats. with its diverse regional influences. Branding is expensive and therefore. With privatization gathering momentum. Programs that are aligned to channel positioning can ride on the channel branding. branding exercises will become more meaningful. is in a prime position to take advantage of the growth potential of this segment. Brands that have spent more on marketing have a higher recall. India.to the creation of a people-cost structure that is incompatible with the current size and revenue earning capacity of the radio industry. Conclusion India's radio industry has a strong growth potential if mechanisms and policies are put in place to provide it with appropriate support. Some private FM stations have incurred large costs on building merely 'Top of Mind Recall' for all listeners. while other programs should develop their individual brands. as has been the case with satellite television. radio stations with limited budgets need to make a choice between channel branding and program branding. For example. What the listener associates with is the quality of content. There is no doubt about the effectiveness of radio when it comes to building brands for its clients.
. While it is necessary to incur reasonable manpower costs in order to stay competitive and attract the best talent. irrespective of their preference or affinity to the station.
the gross advertising spend in India is estimated at Rs 111 billion. and outdoor. There is a correlation between the economic growth rates of a country i. 30. television.34%. and is expected to grow at 14.e. These different segments within the industry are at varying stages of growth and corporatization
. radio. According to CSO estimates nominal GDP growth for fiscal 2006 is estimated at 10. which lags behind other developed and developing countries
Graph 5: Graph showing the ad spend across countries (Source: www.9%.gov.in) During fiscal 2005. as a percentage of GDP.636 billion. 127 billion by fiscal 2006
Segmentation in advertising The five key industry segments comprise print.sebi.Advertising in India: India has been among the fastest growing economies in the world. is 0. cinema. the nominal GDP growth rate. The nominal GDP for fiscal 2005 was Rs. and growth rates of the advertising industry The Indian advertising spends. with a nominal GDP CAGR8 of 9.94% over the last 10 years (1995-2005).2% to reach Rs.
radio manages to garner around 4-5% of the mass media spend. the television broadcasting business. which saw the beginning of satellite broadcasting in India. In most markets.in) The Indian television industry has grown rapidly.9% 43.3% 0.gov.4% 47.Media Spends as % of Total Ad Spend Year 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Print 49.5% 2.2% 46. which started off as a single government controlled television channel. Thus.0% 48.0% 0.6% 46. There are more than 6000 radio stations in US and even a developing country like Nigeria has 18 FM stations.2 Billion out of US$60 Billion spent
.sebi. now has over 300 channels covering the Indian footprint.5% 7. which did not give enough prominence to radio as a rich medium for entertainment and also for community development.6% 8. TRENDS RADIO TRENDS IN INDIA & ABROAD: A MADISON INDIA STUDY It is ironical that while India has the second highest 9 penetration of C&S homes in the world.7% 0.5% 0. This can be attributed to misdirected policies by government. even 150 stations across India is a sustainable proposition. Going by the International benchmark.7% 2.3% 40. The growth of the satellite television audience saw proliferation of a number of satellite television channels offering more choices to media buyers and consumers of entertainment.7% Radio 2. This growth was also aided by the economic liberalization program of the Government.4% 0.9% Cinema Outdoor Internet 0. It is estimated that in 2001. especially since 1991. American radio commanded US$3.9% 2.0% 43. resulting in growing ad spends on this medium. Reforms and proliferation of private players were the key reasons for this rapid growth of the share of television in the advertising industry. In some countries like Sri Lanka.5% 6.3%
Table 1: Table showing media spends in the total ad spend (Source: www.6% 41.4% 0. radio accounts for 20% of ad spend.0% 6.4% 7.4% 0.7% 0.4% 0. radio has suffered from shunted growth.9% 2.3% TV 39.
there is a surge of activity when the media is liberalized but over a horizon of five to six years. Publications having strong city edition will do have an advantage as they already have infrastructure to marshal local advertisers and also keep a tab on the pulse of the city citizens. if one goes by Mumbai experience. currently radio is able to garner less than 1% of the total ad pie of Rs. Such specialist channels will be ideal medium for advertisers. This will constitute around 4 % of the enlarged ad pie. as they will have access to well defined captive audience.like a special radio station dedicated to south Indians residing in Mumbai or a station that caters exclusively to college going population. In India. radio should feature in the media planner's radar as a serious medium. As it is early days in India. station owners and advertising agencies on ad hoc basis are conducting research.Internationally. emergence of stations that address only specialist audience groups . Specialization . For instance. While growth of the radio broadcast industry looks exciting. there are numerous issues facing the radio broadcasters. Radio Audience Measurement The question haunting most advertisers and media planners is regarding the audience measurement that will be adopted for Radio. Madison media estimates that by 2004. the concept of niche programming has not yet caught the imagination of the broadcaster and audiences find it almost impossible to distinguish one from another. 600 crore. We expect similar consolidation exercise in India. International experiences show two distinct trends in evolution of radio business Consolidation . We expect the trend to continue for some more time till significant advertising monies are committed on radio. 500 crore on radio. in UK four media groups control nearly 60% of ad revenue. media planners are quite at loss as there is inadequate information on this medium.
. consolidation is inevitable and stations groups are formed that controls most of the revenues. the industry feels that these are mere start-up issues. we expect that by year 2004. advertisers will spend around Rs. Madison Media expects that the evolutionary pressures will prevail in India and radio stations will increasingly find their own niche. As of today.8. Radio stations that are part of established media houses would do well. Today.on mass media. However. radio stations have grown by attracting niche audiences (like a Hispanic channel in US or a Malayalam channel in gulf) and local advertisers.Typically. For instance.
Best Practices that have evolved in using the medium:
. Till recently. radio audience research has not matured to the extent of television audience measurement. audience measurement technique for radio will improve and a currency will be established for buying commercial time and selection of alternatives. these are many years away from being put to commercial use. Madison Media routinely undertakes studies on radio usage. The prime reason for inadequate advancement in radio audience measurement technique has been the small share of ad pie that radio commands and also the vast geographic spread. remixes (37%) and English pop (33%). Key Findings from Madison Media Research • • • • • • Radio has a reach of 56% and there is a distinct skew towards males. However. Sunday listenership is dramatically low with only 10% of the people tuning in to FM vs. Indicative surveys are being conducted and published periodically by research agencies. the next round of RADAR plans to shift reliance from telephone survey to diary-based panel for data collection. while driving (32%).Even internationally. It measures National radio audiences and the audience size of radio commercials aired on 31 radio networks operated by large radio networks. The popular rating system for radio that is used in US is the Arbitron's RADAR (Radio's All Dimension Audience Research) audience report. Majority of the people listen to Hindi film songs (63%). Radio Mirchi is the most popular station and is tuned by people in SEC A and B. People listen to FM at home (70%). Almost 51% of the people listen to FM for an average time of one hour and another 39% listen to FM for a longer period of 1-3 hours. There has been some academic discussion on use of "meters" in radio sets to determine listenership.000-person telephone survey. However. weekdays where the number of tune-ins is as high as 94%. We expect that over a period of time. RADAR report was based on a 12. followed by Hindi pop (40%). Advertising agencies also conduct periodic dipstick surveys. In the mean time. we suggest that advertisers should not ignore the media owing to non-availability of any established audience measurement data. at public places (9%) and at the office (7%).
studies clearly demonstrate that properties created on radio are cost effective and have advantage of high recall. A research by Radio Advertising Bureau (RAB). However. that nearly 85% of in-car audiences do not shift stations frequently.the traditional bastion of radio has been the "In car" listening.While the audience measurement is still in infancy. UK indicates. which tested 1200 commercials with 200 respondents per commercial. A study by Voice of British Advertisers shows that radio is the most effective medium to target businessmen. However. advertisers should be willing to enter early and commit long term investment. In any case. Studies have demonstrated that in-car listeners are light consumers of other media like television. Closer home. There are mixed reports with regard to station switching behavior among in car listeners. making radio a very effective medium. It might take some time before the properties start to reward the advertisers and advertisers should be willing to fork out the extra premium now before the medium gets established. many successful service brands especially those in office supplies and financial services have benefited tremendously by judicious use of radio. It will be incorrect to directly transplant those learning are in Indian context. it is undeniable that for brands that target at affluent section of the society need to be actively associated with radio. In other markets. contrary to popular myth. users of radio as an advertising medium can benefit from extensive work carried out in area of media effectiveness. However. other studies indicate there is extremely low loyalty among in car listeners. Exploit Drive Time Audiences . The most impressive in this genre of research has been the Radio Recall Research (RRR). To create such high decibel properties. International experience suggests that music oriented properties targeted at youth last long and provide immense benefit to advertisers.
. Most of these studies have been conducted in developed markets like UK and USA. "Binaca Geet Mala" on radio was as one of the best media properties. we do not expect car owners to be the largest audience for radio. adapted to Indian context and arrived at set of best practices for radio advertising. This exhaustive study was conducted in early 1980s and subsequent research added to the body of available knowledge. they are invaluable in providing directions and we at Madison Media have distilled these findings. It is more important to understand that radio will be the best medium to target upwardly mobile high spending executives and businessmen. given the low penetration of ownership of personal cars in India. It is not important whether in-car listeners will form the bulk of listenership base. Create Unique Properties .
It is through imagery transfer that radio creates a synergy with television. Millward Brown conducted the study across October 1999 to April to find out how effective radio advertising can be relative to television. which state that simultaneous airing of more than 5 executions leads to decay in effectiveness. Radio Multiplier Effect . there is evidence. This is called Imagery Transfer. on an average. spots of 45 seconds or more were effective. This study involved nearly 5500 interviews in continuous research to track awareness and attitudes to 17 brands. used in conjunction with a television campaign. if 10% of a given television budget is re-deployed onto radio. These tests also indicated that listeners were able to create and keep images fresh and top-of-mind even when engaged in other task.A study by Statistical research Inc. Another series of studies called "distraction study" tried to simulate the fact that radio listening is always secondary activity. as one need not air the complete commercial to register recall. radio can be advantageously used in creating sonic elements of a brand. The broad findings of the study proved that radio was.studies have clearly established that length of the commercial had a positive impact on the advertisement. Copy variation can offset this fatigue and it is suggested to have three variants of the same theme. Recent studies have shown that Sonic branding. shows that three out of four consumers who watch a television spot will "replay" the visual image mentally when they hear a radio commercial for the same brand. fatigue factor is high with radio commercials. three-fifths as efficient as television at driving advertising awareness amongst radio listeners. and in general.co. In general.uk)
. RRR studies also indicate that more brand mentions in the commercial were good for ad recall and was more effective when the brand was mentioned early in the advertisement. As in any other media. the efficiency of the campaign in building awareness increases on average by 15% as shown in table below: (Source: rab. Creation of sonic branding reduces long term cost of advertising. where aural brand elements are used is very effective in sustaining brand's recall (tring tring of Britannia). Moreover. The ads that were repeated too often were disliked. As can be fathomed. Though airing multiple variants is recommended. Effective Radio Copy Management . it proved to be an effective medium.Exploit Imagery Transfer . The media tested were Commercial Radio and television in the Central Region of UK.apart from RRR. ads that were liked had higher impact. another monumental study is the Millward Brown study on radio multiplier effect.
The radio stations are free to air and do not garner any subscription revenues. FM RADIO INDUSTRY: RISK FACTORS Economic downturn10 The FM radio industry derives almost all its revenues from advertisement.K and other markets. Of course.The study highlighted that radio effectiveness result was achieved at one-seventh of the cost. Thus the FM radio operators are not willing to take a risk by not catering to the mass segment. Advertising is a discretionary expenditure and is the first one to be pruned in case of an economic slowdown. This is hurting the growth of the FM radio industry as people who prefer niche music genres are not tuning into FM radio. this cannot be taken as a thumb rule as there will be wide variance between rates in U. Besides this. However. Little differentiation between different FM radio stations The content played on different FM radio stations is very similar in nature.
Competition from satellite radio
. Conclusion Radio offers tremendous opportunities for advertisers and media planners need to explore various options by which they can effectively use radio in their media mix. people frequently switch between stations leading to listenership fragmentation. the study makes a strong case for advertisers to divert a small portion of their TV budget to radio. broadcasters need to develop the market by being more responsive to the advertiser's needs. This is happening because one player is allowed to own only one station in every city. the major marketers advertising on radio may cut their ad budgets in case of an economic downturn. Most of them play popular film and pop music and very few cater to the niche audience such as English rock music lovers or Indian classical music lovers. thus making them totally dependent on advertisement revenues. Thus. This would adversely affect the radio industry. Conversely. This will provide an opportunity for the market to arrive at the final verdict on the effectiveness of the medium.
a few countries are looking at a total switch off of analog broadcasting (FM/AM) by 2020 or so. FM radio is limited to a small range around the transmission site while the satellite signals cover the entire country.
. At present. ending the period with 164. However. digital receivers are more expensive than analog receivers. FM broadcasters cannot broadcast news and current affairs 24 hrs a day whereas satellite broadcasters can do so through a dedicated station. In fact. radio’s turn could come in the next 10-15 years.902 subscribers. the current satellite broadcaster in India is offering multiple channels. enabling the broadcast of multiple radio stations. But with analog TV likely to be switched off in India in the next 5-7 years. This favorable treatment meted out to satellite broadcasters may adversely affect the growth of the FM radio industry. satellite radio has high subscription charges whereas FM radio is free to air. Norway is the only country that has formally announced a cutoff date. however.713 net subscribers during 3QFY07. High music royalties FM radio broadcasters have to pay high royalties to the music companies for the music content procured from them.Many of the restrictions that apply to FM radio broadcasters do not apply to satellite radio broadcasters. Besides this. multiple channel ownership by a FM broadcaster in the same city is not permitted. in India. There is efficient utilization of spectrum in case of digital broadcasting. In Western Europe. Threat from digital technologies Digital broadcasting technologies like Satellite/Digital Audio Broadcast (DAB) using the FM band and Digital Radio Mondial (DRM) using the AM band are becoming popular worldwide. However the broadcasters can enter into a voluntary agreement with Phonographic Performance Limited and The Indian Performance Right Society Limited at high rates or under the rates determined by the courts of law to minimize their expenses. Satellite radio broadcasters do not have to pay any license fee whereas FM radio broadcasters have to pay 4% of their gross revenues as license fees. However. WorldSpace lost 8. The quality of digital broadcast is better than analog transmission. the satellite radio broadcaster WorldSpace operating in India has not been able to meet with much success.
little differentiation between the FM radio stations and intense competition. the advertising spend is expected to increase to Rs 367 bn by 2010 from Rs 227 bn in 2007. The size of the radio industry is projected to increase at a CAGR of 28% from Rs 5 bn in 2006 to Rs 17 bn by 2011. The advertisement industry is a proxy to India’s high economic growth. We feel that the major risks are a potential slowdown in the economy. All these industries are expected to witness robust growth in the years to come.2% in FY06 and FY07 respectively. More than 90 channels across various languages and genres are being launched this year. Radio industry: Growth drivers Fastest growing segment of the media and entertainment industry The radio industry recorded a growth of nearly 58% in 2006. real estate firms and retailers. Beneficiary of the buoyant growth of major advertisers The major advertisers on radio are the entertainment channels. It grows at a faster rate in such buoyant times. there are many risks that could derail the growth of the FM radio industry. The share of radio in the total advertising industry increased from 2. This is further expected to increase to 5. As per a study conducted by ZenithOptimedia. the media planning and buying arm of advertising group Publicis. The number of FM radio stations has increased dramatically leading to a proportionate increase in the demand for trained personnel. Due to this attrition and poaching have become wide spread. All of them are clamoring for the same advertisers. The real estate industry is projected to grow at a CAGR of 25% in the next five years.
. Organized retail industry is projected to grow at a CAGR of 40% in the next five years. Radio industry should be a major beneficiary of the high growth in these sectors. listeners and need to procure similar content.5% by 2011 as per the FICCI-PwC report on the Indian entertainment and media industry.1% during the same year.4% to 3. Robust growth of the Indian economy The Indian economy has grown at a robust rate of 9% and 9. Thus.There is intense competition between the FM radio operators operating in the same city.
The Indian film industry is getting more organized and receiving more institutional funding. the share of local advertising is only about 8% of radio revenues. The study is currently restricted to the cities of Delhi. The quality of music produced is improving which augurs well for the growth of the radio industry. Availability of listenership reports is bound to support and attract larger spends from marketers. Availability of listenership data Leading TV viewership research company. The content on radio primarily comprises of film music.
Phase III policy
. In the phase II policy. has recently ventured into radio audience measurement through a study called RAM (Radio Audience Measurement). Mumbai and Bangalore. The reserve OTEF was 25% of the highest valid bid for that city. TAM. Ideally. Reduction in license fees The Phase I policy for the privatization of FM radio had a very high fixed license fee structure with an annual escalation of 15%. while local advertising contributes 70% of radio revenues in the United States of America. As per the CII-KPMG report. Local advertising Globally. Marketers generally wait for adequate research data to emerge before committing large spends to any medium. in India. Research may cover larger number of cities in the years to come. a revenue sharing formula was introduced whereby radio companies had to pay a fixed annual license fee of 4% of gross revenues or 10% of the reserve OTEF (One Time Entry Fee) whichever is higher. 55% of the India population is below 25 years leading to an increase in the audience of the radio industry. Thus there is huge potential for the radio industry to benefit from an expected increase in the share of local advertisements. the local retail segment constitutes a large part of radio's advertising income.The target listeners for the radio industry are the youth. a localized medium like radio can be effectively used for local-level promotions apart from being bundled as part of cross-media promotion strategies.
Radio advertising became increasingly difficult with the dawn of the television era which prompted the need for new ideas to reach the audience. the Government will open up as many as 700 channels in the Phase III as per some media reports. all day. because they are either bored or lonely. In the early to mid 90s Fox was having trouble obtaining the younger audience that they wanted so they looked to the radio. This phase will witness licenses being awarded in smaller towns. Radio reaches 77 percent of consumers. Radio is that medium of the single sense and frees the imagination. In the next article. Radio is broadcasted everywhere twenty-four hours a day and always has the breaking news. started his career in radio and concluded. It's radio that's there when disaster strikes. a famous broadcast journalist. and sports. and 80 percent of the younger audiences daily. Although radio did take a severe hit when the television was introduced into average households they still managed to make a comeback. Though the radio industry has many growth drivers. Unlike many other mass mediums radio is much more personal and friendly which attracts large audiences. talk. we shall outline the risks to the growth of the radio industry.It is expected that after the completion of Phase II Policy." Nearly 98 percent of people listen to the radio primarily for news. all night. Radio as an Advertising medium: Radio advertising is one of the earliest and most popular forms of advertising in today's world of mass media. it's still radio that's there virtually every place. which is remarkably comparing with the competition. Instead of working against television which was virtually impossible radio companies began working with them. Radio audiences have concluded that they listen to the radio.
. much like television. Although television has shifted much of the audience away from radio it is undisputable that radio is always there. While TV pulls the big audience. During this time the younger audience was one of the radio's highest audience percentages. Walter Cronkite11. there are various risk factors also that could derail the growth of the radio industry. "Radio has its own special strengths and contributions. Radio is now the third largest mass advertising media trailing newspapers and of course television. entertainment. This could result in radio getting a larger share of the advertising spends.
Can be enjoyed at home. In addition. Advantages: • A universal medium. the most appropriate role for most radio advertising in a supportive one. particularly if local station announcers read the message.Advantage of radio: The most important advantage radio offers is its ability to reach specific audiences through specialized programming. radio is the ideal means of reaching people driving to and from work. Radio offers advertisers flexibility. Free creative help is usually available. reached out to its target audience of women making dinner choices by using radio during 4 to 5 pm time slot. radio can be adapted for different parts of the country and can reach people at different times of the day. Radio may be the least expensive of all media. For example. In addition. Most people listen to the radio at one time or another during the day. For example. radio has the shortest closing period. at work. Radio's low cost and high reach of selected target groups make it an excellent supporting medium. Pizza hut12. Of all media. • • • Permits you to create a personality for your business using only sounds and voices. and even weather. extensive repetition is possible. • Permits you to target your advertising dollars to the market most likely to respond to your offer.
. and so on. these radio time slots provides the best audience for many advertisers. Radio's flexibility is also evident in its willingness to participate in promotional tie-ins such as store openings races. This flexibility allows advertisers to adjust to local market conditions. Rates can generally be negotiated. and while driving. current news events. the costs of producing a radio commercial can be low. Known as drive time. In fact. a local hardware store can quickly implement a snow shovel promotion the morning after a snowstorm. Copy can be submitted up to airtime. And because airtime costs are low. for instance.
radio rates have gone up less than other media. or not clear
Basically in any educational communication. • Advertising costs are based on ratings which are approximations based on diaries kept in a relatively small fraction of a region's homes. Most listeners are doing something else while listening. There are a lot of people who want visual aids like whiteboards. Moreover. multimedia presentations or hard copies to better understand the discussion.
Disadvantages: • Because radio listeners are spread over many stations. for making it more persuasive and effective visual aids are very important. Lack of visual aids is the major disadvantage of radio in educational communication. • • Not as fast as using a phone. radio is having a lot of disadvantages for any educational communication. Ads are an interruption to the entertainment. could take a little bit The line could get fuzzy. • Radio is a background medium. Because of this.•
Least inflated medium. In the case of radio. • • Listeners cannot refer back to your ads to go over important points. Strategic Roles of Radio
. to totally saturate your market you have to advertise simultaneously on many stations. if an educational program is broadcast then the people who do not have good listening skills cannot understand it. During the past ten years. which means your ad has to work hard to be listened to and understood. Therefore. radio ads must be repeated to break through the listener's "tune out" factor. body language also plays a very significant role in understanding the point of view of the other person and it is not viewable in radio communication. Another thing which is very important in educational communication is to get feedback and analyze the interest of audience which is also not possible in radio.
or a promotional offer. These days however. Dominant share of mind Share of mind can be described as the extent to which a brand makes itself salient within the consumer's mind . Brands like the Carphone Warehouse13 have used this unique characteristic of radio to develop an unassailable lead within their category. Radio is particularly useful for this as it uses the human voice in real-time.for services or corporate advertising this can be very valuable in adding personality and tone of voice. radio can work in a complementary way to other media. most conspicuously in the form of a Sonic Brand Trigger. Radio also works exceptionally well with TV if there is creative synergy. Young people. bring things to life . often need the benefits of products or services explained to them before they can make a decision to purchase . radio is increasingly being used for strategic roles. Brands in fast-changing areas like retail or financial services often use radio for its ability to put over several different messages as an overlay to a core TV campaign (multiple executions in radio are very inexpensive compared to TV). Radio can also. radio above all adds intrusiveness.As Commercial Radio developed in the early days. because of their inexperience. Because of its inherent characteristics. while the traditional strengths still apply. Support to other media Young people are of course consumers of several media. To press.it can also be used to explain products or services in more depth. a bank account. The ability of radio to create dominant share of mind is a product of its intrusiveness and the high frequency with which ads are broadcast. and campaigns which use only one medium can miss out on the "media multiplier effect". because levels of ad avoidance with print are so high. With TV it is traditionally used to add to the length of a campaign or to fill weeks where there is no TV activity . and/or high levels of competitive activity. low capital cost and local flexibility.fast turnaround. or to include additional information.
.for example.this is often the most challenging task in sectors where there are several topparity brands. its key strengths were seen as primarily tactical . This means that the young people do not have to wade their way through extensive reading material before they even know what the proposition is. like TV.
newspapers for example. cars and insurance companies . outlets selling favored brands. but the advertising is not . concerts Vague/ not relevant: Memories of ads for local garages. films. Tone of voice is a key issue with advertising strategies in this territory.Speaking from inside youth culture As the qualitative research illustrates.they feel. Radio. Tone of voice is a key area with radio: young people can tell when they are being addressed as equals. they have to sit through the full length of any ads which are for irrelevant products.leaving their parents out of the equation. allows the advertiser to speak from inside the so-called "youth fortress" As the respondents said in the research. care must be taken in the creative work to overcome this expectation . young people begin to move away from their parents' world of choices and preferences.through linking to the relevant topic. since they expect most ads to be irrelevant to them. However. surprise. because radio is a real-time intrusive medium. It would follow that. that most advertising is aimed at adults. and when they are not. probably quite correctly.
. as a personal "me-medium". Inevitably this means that some media are seen as outside that independent world . and to set up their own world independently. Radio Advertising The evidence from the qualitative research is that young people feel their local FM station is aimed at people like them. they feel as though the people on the radio treat them like adults . e. There was evidence of three sorts of advertising memories: Relevant: Ads which mentioned areas or names of specific interest. involvement.little or no specific detail remembered Sonic Brand Triggers: Much evidence of children's ability to pick up on musical SBTs and sing them out loud Consideration It seems clear from this analysis that children are very selective in their attention. and are strongly influenced by relevance of the brand or product advertised. tone of voice etc.g.
Aurangabad. Jaipur. Starting August 14. as well as minority holdings of Hyderabad-based IT company Value Labs. Jamshedpur. "Indore Beats" and "Nomoshkar Kolkata". Lucknow. S FM took over Red FM in August. This is a Jupiter Capital venture. Radio Indigo: Radio Indigo 91. "RDX". However. Siliguri. Nashik. Bangalore.9% stake. Ahmedabad. Rajkot. Rajahmundry. The channel is owned by Kalanidhi Maran. 2009 and re-branded all its stations to Red FM except for the ones in Tamil Nadu. Delhi. It was acquired from India Today promoter Living Media in January 2006. Virag the recipient of the esteemed Stardust Award for standout performance as a lyricist is from advertising background. Soul of Bangalore is the country's first and only international hit station. Varanasi. The most widely broadcast shows include "Morning No.The color of music. "Superhits Music Show". Kannur. Kolkata and Pune in addition to Bhopal. with stations broadcasting at 93. Vijayawada.9FM15 . Gangtok. the programming is now 100% exclusively Hindi. Mangalore. In one of the recent developments at Super Hits Red FM 93. Trivandrum. Warangal. NDTV. Tirupathi. "Dilse". Their punchline is 'Baja ate Raho' (Keep Playing). Radio Indigo is the only radio station in the country that plays contemporary international
. Shillong and Aizwal. It was launched in 2002. S FM or Suryan FM was re-branded into RED FM across 38 cities in INDIA. "Mera Wala Gana". Nagpur. Gwalior. Indore. Gulbarga.
RADIO STATIONS ACROSS BANGALORE: Red FM: Red FM is an Indian FM14 radio brand. Kochi.5 megahertz in the cities of Mumbai. with a 48. even for seemingly irrelevant brands. Trissur.5 Virag Mishra joined the team as a National Creative Head. Kanpur. Vizag. 2009. Asansol. Kozhikode. "Mumbai Local". Vadodara. Bhubaneswar. "One Two ka Four".Young people pick up very strongly on musical Sonic Brand Triggers. playing a mix of Hindi and English songs. Astro. Jabalpur. Mysore. Guwahati. Allahabad. Hyderabad.1".
Michelle and Allen Kepler. In vizag. Suraj and Shweta taking their shows to the extreme and rocking the studios literally. hip-hop. Radio Indigo 91-9 has evolved to brilliance through bigger promotions & prizes.3. it does not stick to music of just one language. it operates on 102.7 MHz slot.1 megahertz in Hindi cum. Ryan Seacrest. it operates on 102. The channel plays various genres of music unlike private channels. In Delhi. regional language and also in Hindi. run by All India Radio16 is a national radio station.6 megahertz and AIR FM Rainbow Delhi is the only FM Channel to be aired in as many as ten cities. In Mumbai.9 has now emerged as the hottest radio station connecting to the most happening International music from around the world.9 megahertz and in Vijayawada it operates on 102. In Hyderabad.1 megahertz. AIR FM Rainbow: AIR FM Rainbow. Radio Indigo 91. In Bhopal. Christabel.music. This government owned enterprise. It was earlier called FM Metro. In Lucknow. It plays
. The station plays a vibrant array of genres like pop. the name was changed to FM Rainbow in 2002. But like all good things in this world. Of course the audience hears favorites like Rohit Barker. In MP. Radio Indigo caters to Bangalore and Goa's long-standing tradition and a vibrant community of music aficionados. classic rock. it operates on 102 megahertz. And they are so exclusive that they are broadcasting only to Bengaluru and Goa. English language covering more than 12 districts of Madhya Pradesh and 21 Suburbs in Bhopal City. but the new cowboys on the bandwagon are Kenny Jones. it uses the 100. The station is talking to all those who reflect the Youth and love music. It’s International with an Indian soul. Melodee Austin. world music and much more. cars and office.2 megahertz. Playing all the hits all the time. The listeners are exposed to a prescribed dose of music or whatever gets their groove. it operates on 101. Saggy. Having headquarters in Bengaluru. features Hindi and regional language songs and occasional English songs along with hourly news bulletins in English. It operates in Bangalore as well with a frequency of 101. jazz. heard all across India. The signals of this station are very strong and it catches till the far villages. Sriram. The station has today become a house-hold name and those who have grown to love the station are sneaking it in their homes. it is also known as "Rainbow FM". it operates on 107.
FEVER 104 FM: In 2006. was formed in technical collaboration with the Virgin group. It is No. Bangalore and Kolkata. Fever 104 FM is a contemporary hits music station that plays a mix of regional. National Radio Station in Trichy. In vizag. It has gained the No.2 FM station in Delhi on the popularity charts. FEVER 104 FM17. it operates on 107. all day. Radio pet house. Fever 104 FM has surged ahead with a total time spent listening of 386 minutes. owned by HT Media Limited. In Mumbai. The popular slot for English music called Radio Raptures on AIR FM Rainbow is aired everyday from 7am to10am and from 10pm to 1am and it has earned a very good audience with the passing years. AIR FM Rainbow is heard on 102 megahertz. Fever 104 FM. Sunny. Mumbai.7 MHz slot. while in Lucknow. Wicked Hour. Mumbai (since January ’07). AIR FM Rainbow operates on 102. Take off. In terms of TSL. with its signature property of 40 minutes non-stop music. Almost all the radio jockeys on private FM channels once started with FM Rainbow. 1 position in Mumbai and Bangalore leaving behind all the other FM channels in these cities. You asked for it. In a short span of three years. Bangalore (since March ‘07) and Kolkata (January ‘08). It is available in Delhi (since October’ 06). Some of the radios Jockeys of AIR FM Rainbow are Altaf. soundtracks as well as English songs. Matchless music hours. India's youngest.
. It has many western music programs like Time Out. Wasim. Aditi and Sohail.ghazals. AIR FM Rainbow operates on 102. Live wire Plus. all the time across the cities of Delhi. it uses the 100. Mumbai. Bangalore and Kolkata with the brand Fever 104 FM. Rainbow is one of very few Indian radio channels which air Western Music and the western music slots are really popular with listeners. hippest and most happening Radio Station that plays more music than any other was launched. Raunak. Footloose. this radio channel is also known as "Rainbow FM". Just for you. a rare occurrence in Indian radio channels. Fever 104 FM with its tagline ‘It's all about the music!’ entered the FM radio market in key Indian cities. In Tamil Nadu. In Delhi.6 megahertz and AIR FM Rainbow Delhi is the only FM Channel to be aired in around ten cities.1 megahertz. national and international hits. not only this it also has classical music shows. It plays the latest hits.1 megahertz in Tamil language covering more than 12 districts of Tamil Nadu. The company entered the private FM radio market in the four main cities of Delhi. the channel's rise has been meteoric.
Radio One and the Bangalore Traffic Police. who developed their own program content. It was launched on June 8. Until 1993. 10. a government undertaking. Times FM. Delhi. Kolkata. It is owned by the Entertainment Network India Ltd (ENIL). All India Radio or AIR. It sold airtime blocks on its FM channels to private operators. The station broadcasts at 94. The Times Group operated its brand. Radio Mirchi began operations in 1993 in Indore.5 FM and was broadcast on 92.5 MHz in Mumbai till 2006. let’s know a little about Radio Mirchi. The original avatar of Radio Mirchi was Times FM.
. Before we begin. Until 1993. Delhi. a government undertaking. The government then took the initiative to privatize the radio broadcasting sector. Radio Mirchi: Radio Mirchi19 is a nationwide network of private FM radio stations in India. was the only radio broadcaster in India. AIR. It was known as Go 92. Pune and Ahmadabad. Soon the service of Radio One will also be started in Bhopal. Jabalpur and Jaipur. In the city of Bangalore. It sold airtime blocks on its FM channels in Indore. and by the end of May 2009.3 MHz in all cities except in Ahmadabad where it broadcasts on 95. The government then took the initiative to privatize the radio broadcasting sector. The Times Group operated its brand. Coleman & Co. was the only radio broadcaster in India. Hyderabad. Kolkata. The initiative got a good response. it is promoted by Bennett.0 MHz’s. and Rahul Dravid encouraging the public to carpool. till June 1998. Limited (BCCL) which is one of the largest media and entertainment companies in India. which is one of the subsidiaries of The Times Group. 2006 in Mumbai before going national in 6 more cities. operating in various media segments such as print media and television broadcasting. Mumbai. Chennai. After that. the government decided not to renew contracts given to private operators. It is a joint venture between Mid-day Multimedia and BBC Worldwide and operates in 7 metros namely Mumbai. launched a carpooling drive which is has involved celebrities like Robin Uthappa.Radio One: Radio One18 is a radio station in India. Times FM was probably the most famous radio in India which began its operation in 1993. Bangalore. who developed their own program content.000 people are said to have carpooled in the city. Indore. Vizag and Goa to private operators.
the government decided not to renew contracts given to private operators. Lalit Pandit. Its market share in revenue terms remains in excess of 40% of the private FM industry.the other members comprised the best in the industry: Prasoon Joshi. Anu Malik. Mirchi was voted the No. As per the Radio Audience Measurement Reports (RAM). Kavita Krishnamurthy. Its lead over its nearest competitor is more than double. Playing contemporary hits songs Radio Mirchi has always been the No 1 choice of listeners. would make any recipient proud .5 million participants. The awards have been instituted to encourage continued creative focus on radio advertising. it won a plethora of awards. IRS 2009 reiterates the same as Mirchi has more than 41 million listeners across 32 stations. As per Brand Reporter October 2009 issue Mirchi was recognized as one of the game changers of the decade in the radio industry. the brand. After that. 1 media brand. the design was created and crafted by the music fraternity itself. Shankar Mahadevan. The SEC ABC segments were earlier dominated by Big FM & now by Friends FM. The survey was conducted by Metrix Labs and AC Nielsen. The success of the website reflects the overall popularity of Mirchi. This unique honor was bestowed on Mirchi by the Pitch-IMRB group's survey of the top service brands of the country. During the year. While the parentage of the idea was that of Mirchi. till June 1998. ahead of iconic brands like The Times of India and Star Plus. The survey had 1.
. It's the largest private FM Radio operator in the country in terms of number of operational stations and revenue. It has been recognition of the brand popularity and the creative talent behind the brand.: The Mirchi Kaan Awards acknowledges and honors the contribution of individuals and organizations that have led the way in developing clutter busting radio advertising. Radio Mirchi has been dominating in Delhi & is the leader in Mumbai and Kolkata. Louiz Banks. Mirchi’s website was voted the most popular TV and Radio site in India. The jury led by Chairman. This endorses the vote of trust that the brand has built amongst its listeners. Radio Mirchi is the number 1 radio brand in the private FM space. Sadhana Sargam. Over the years Mirchi have established two important landmarks i. However in Kolkata they are not clear leaders in SEC ABC segments.e. Javed Akhtar.Times FM. However in the SEC D & E segments Radio Mirchi has total domination. Sonu Niigaam. In December 2008.
Lucknow and New Delhi. The Radio station currently plays a mix of Hindi and Kannada music. Bangalore (started first in 2001). The jury set tough standards. Radio City Bangalore is India's first private FM radio station and was started on July 3. Darius Sunawala.
.com that offers music related news. It broadcasts on 91. Currently.7 is a nationwide private FM radio station in India owned by Indian businessman Anil Ambani21. The station has been criticized for multiple format changes and presenter lineup. It broadcasts at 92.1 (earlier 91. “audio books”. Suresh Wadkar. Rakeysh Omprakash Mehra.e. 2001. the station had been steadily losing popularity with the launch of newer stations in Bangalore. Bollywood. This initiative of ‘Listen to my movie’ has been felicitated with one of the most prestigious Readers Digest Pegasus CSR Awards in the ‘Silver Category’. The Chief Executive Officer is Ms Apurva Purohit. 700 to 800 million in the current fiscal year to set up 16 FM (Frequency Modulation) stations across India.0 in most cities) megahertz from Mumbai (where it was started in 2004). Radio City has launched Fun Ka Antenna Online Radio Station which plays hits across genres including International. and other music-related features. It launched with presenters such as Rohit Barker. Over the years.Kailash Kher. Radio City: Radio City20 is a FM radio station in India.7 MHz (92. It was launched in Hyderabad in March. Recently as of July. Jonzie Kurian and Suresh Venkat. it covers 45 cities.PlanetRadiocity. 2006. It plays Hindi songs. Ramesh Sippy and Kunal Kohli. This initiative has already reached hundreds of schools across the country. As a part of its CSR Mirchi initiated a program to improve the quality of life of the visually impaired and the company came up with an initiative i.7: BIG FM 92. 2006 it has announced plans to invest Rs.7FM). Radio City recently forayed into New Media in May 2008 with the launch of a new mega music portal . Indipop and Sufi among others. in Chennai on July 7th 2006 and in Vishakapatnam October 2007. This is the only private FM radio station which is being broadcast from Srinagar and Jammu in Jammu & Kashmir state. videos. BIG FM 92. English and regional songs. songs.
Its vision is to contribute leaders to a vibrant and responsive India. In keeping with its tradition of promoting the welfare and betterment of society. and charitable schooling to professional courses. Radio Active will seek to reach out to Bangalore’s masses on issues concerning health. infrastructure and licensing. From July 1.3. JGI has taken the initiative to launch a community radio station serving the cause of progress and development of the community at large. from primary to higher education. Radio Active: Jain Group of Institutions (JGI)22 is a conglomerate of 35 mission driven institutions that spans the gamut of education. development. Inspired by its dynamic founder and Chairman Mr.It has made an announcement to invest Rs. 4. R Chenraj Jain.000 dedicated to transmission equipment.
. national and local issues. in its broadcasting network. proactive and visionary. social issues etc. The Vision behind Radio Active is to empower every individual in society to become a winner and an achiever by harnessing and nurturing human potential. to sensitize society to global. educate.000. environment. in turn seeking to inform. Its mission is to provide excellence in academic education and focuses on the holistic development of the individual. while entertaining the public. which would make the proposed network the largest ever. under the name of 'BIG Bollywood 96. The community radio station. It broadcasts its programs daily from 5 to 8pm on XFM 96. women. JGI draws on the essence of tradition and sophistication of modernization to educate the professionals of tomorrow.3FM’. Its main tagline is "Suno Sunao. BIG FM included Singapore.000. 2008. the JGI family is principled. to use technology and human enterprise in tandem to help create a meaningful and proactive social ambience where interdependence becomes mutually supportive and to focus on a universally responsive India. the first city outside India. Life Banao". scientific awareness.