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Radio has the reputation of being the oldest and the cheapest medium of entertainment in India. The radio industry has been completely reshaped by the various private players that entered the sector after the government allowed foreign investment into the segment and opened the licenses to the private players. DIFFERENT TECHNOLOGIES IN BROADCAST RADIO The first one which was used in olden days for transmission purpose is AM. Amplitude modulation (AM)1 is a technique used in electronic communication, most commonly for transmitting information via a radio carrier wave. Frequency modulation (FM) is a form of modulation that represents information as variations in the instantaneous frequency of a carrier wave. FM is commonly used at VHF radio frequencies for high-fidelity broadcasts of music and speech. Today radio is used for many forms of communication from long distance satellite communications to the personal cell phones that are widely used. In addition to this wireless communications are becoming more important for data as demonstrated by the rapid growth in Wi-Fi Radio is also used for telecommunications links. Signals with frequencies in the microwave region are normally used. These signals have frequencies much higher than those in the short wave band and they are not affected by the ionosphere. However they provide reliable direct line of sight links that are able to carry many telephone conversations or other forms of traffic. Satellite radio Satellite radio is one of the fastest-growing entertainment services in the world and it is making its presence felt in a small but a positive way in India. A satellite radio is basically a digital unit that receives signals broadcast by communications satellite. This allows a person with a set to follow his favorite stations anywhere in the country unlike the terrestrial radio (AM and FM) whose signals are limited to a certain area depending on the power of the station. Some of the advantages of a satellite radio are that the sound is of digital quality and there are no commercials. But it is not for free, it is available on subscription for a fee. An example would be “world space radio”. Satellites, radar, communications, internet, message service are the effect of radio technology in our modern day life. With the growth of radio the requirement for mobile connectivity, it is certain that wireless technologies with radio at the core will continue to thrive and become more
widespread. To meet the demand it is likely that new technologies will be developed to maximize the use of the available radio spectrum. HD radio ("hybrid digital" or "high definition") is a brand name of a method of digital transmission of AM and FM radio stations. The HD Radio system is unique which allows stations to broadcast crystal-clear audio and a variety of text-based services, as well as more FM channels, without changing to new frequency bands. Hybrid system is a system in which digital signals are sent along with the analog carrier as the standard for AM and FM broadcasting in the United States. FM stations can offer multiple channels (called "Multicast" channels) on the same frequencies allocated to analog radio stations. Internet radio Internet radio e-Radio is an audio broadcasting service transmitted via the Internet. Broadcasting on the Internet is usually referred to as webcasting since it is not transmitted broadly through wireless means but is delivered over the World Wide Web. The term "e-Radio" suggests a streaming medium that presents listeners with a continuous stream of audio to which they have no control much like traditional broadcast media. It is not synonymous with podcasting which involves downloading and therefore copyright issues. Nor does e-Radio suggest "on-demand" file serving. Many Internet "radio stations" are associated with a corresponding traditional "terrestrial" radio station or radio network. Internet-only radio stations are usually independent of such associations. Old media don’t’ die! They just bounce back in new avatars. Not so long ago radio had been written off as fuddy-duddy, down market and not so cool. Television and later “new media” were touted to being the media of the future. But thanks to technology radio is making a comeback. FM radio is a new entity altogether and has to deal with new market dynamics. Media owners dealing with new markets will virtually have to draw up their strategies as they go along, create programming that is new, innovative and grab away eyeballs from TV sets and make them tune into their radio sets. It’s a whole new challenge and competition is never far away. Ad revenues will also not be easy to come by, as advertisers will expect media players to put their money where their speakers are before they commit large sums of money towards radio advertising. The other challenge for radio in attracting advertisers is the nature of the medium-radio has always
considered being a reminder medium. The involvement of listeners to radio is low, Vis a Vis television or print media. With the coming of more channels, and the emergence of lifestyle advertising, radio will become a push and pull medium. As said earlier, is not just making a comeback but is being reincarnated into a new avatar. Any radio setup has two parts: • • The transmitter The receiver
The transmitter takes some sort of message (it could be the sound of someone's voice, pictures for a TV set, data for a radio modem or whatever), encodes it onto a sine wave and transmits it with radio waves. The receiver receives the radio waves and decodes the message from the sine wave it receives. Both the transmitter and receiver use antennas to radiate and capture the radio signal. When you listen to a radio station and the announcer says, "You are listening to 91.5 FM “what the announcer means is that you are listening to a radio station broadcasting an FM radio signal at a frequency of 91.5 megahertz. Megahertz means "millions of cycles per second," so "91.5 megahertz" means that the transmitter at the radio station is operating at a frequency of 91,500,000 cycles per second. Your FM (frequency modulated) radio can tune in to that specific frequency and give you clear reception of that station. All FM radio stations transmit in a band of frequencies between 88 megahertz and 108 megahertz. This band of the radio spectrum is used for no other purpose but FM radio broadcasts. Common frequency band includes the following: • AM radio - 535 kilohertz t - 1.7 megahertz • FM radio - 88 megahertz - 108 megahertz AM radio has been around a lot longer than FM radio. The first radio broadcasts occurred in 1906 or so, and frequency allocation for AM radio occurred during the 1920s. In the 1920s, radio and electronic capabilities were fairly limited, hence the relatively low frequencies for AM radio. FM radio was invented by a man named Edwin Armstrong in order to make high-fidelity (and static-free) music broadcasting possible. He built the first station in 1939, but FM did not become really popular until the 1960s. .
HISTORY OF RADIO Radio owes its development to two other inventions, the telegraph and the telephone; all three technologies are closely related. Radio technology began as "wireless telegraphy". Radio can refer to either the electronic appliance that we listen with or the content listened to. However, it all started with the discovery of "radio waves" - electromagnetic waves that have the capacity to transmit music, speech, pictures and other data invisibly through the air. Many devices work by using electromagnetic waves including: radio, microwaves, cordless phones, remote controlled toys, television broadcasts, and more. The Roots of Radio During the 1860s, Scottish physicist, James Clerk Maxwell2 predicted the existence of radio waves; and in 1886, German physicist, Heinrich Rudolph Hertz demonstrated that rapid variations of electric current could be projected into space in the form of radio waves similar to those of light and heat. In 1866, Mahlon Loomis, an American dentist, successfully demonstrated "wireless telegraphy." Loomis was able to make a meter connected to one kite cause another one to move, marking the first known instance of wireless aerial communication. Twenty years after the telephone was invented and music was first sent down a telephone line, Guglielmo Marconi sent radio signals. Marconi (1874-1937) was born in Italy and studied at the University of Bologna. He was fascinated by Heinrich Hertz’s earlier discovery of radio waves and realized that it can be used for sending and receiving telegraph messages, referring to it as “wireless telegraphs.” Marconi’s first radio transmissions, in 1896, were coded signals that were transmitted only about 1.6 km (a mile) far. Marconi realized that it held huge potential. He offered the invention to the Italian government but they turned it down. Marconi was not the first to invent the radio, however. Four years before Marconi started experimenting with wireless telegraph, Nikola Tesla, a Serb who moved to the USA in 1884, invented the theoretical model for radio. Tesla tried unsuccessful to obtain a court injunction
Radiotelegraph and Spark-Gap Transmitters Radio-telegraphy is the sending by radio waves the same dot-dash message (Morse code) used in a telegraph. This was a way of communicating between two points. Thus writes contributor Dipak Basu. It was developed mainly for ship-to-shore and ship-to-ship communication. a farmer from Murray. never marketed his wireless radio. But under pressure from American friends. however. When he was found dead in 1929. it was not public radio broadcasting as we know it today. Kentucky. which he used in 1901. made a voice transmission four years before Marconi transmitted radio signals. Stubblefield. he applied for the patent in September 1901. mountains or water.C. Stubblefield demonstrated his invention to the press in 1902 but. 1998. Indian scientist J. By that time Marconi had received his patent and international recognition. He was awarded the US patent for the invention of the radio in 1904. Growth of Radio . Bose demonstrated the radio transmission in 1896 in Calcutta in front of the British Governor General. Bose had solved the problem of the Hertz not being able to penetrate walls. The transmission was over a distance of three miles from the Presidency College and Science College in Calcutta. being afraid that his invention will be stolen. Nikoli Tesla remains to be acknowledged as the inventor of the radio. Marconi was present in the meeting of the Royal Society and it is thought that he stole the notebook of Bose that included the drawing of the ‘Mercury Coherer with a telephone detector’. The instruments (‘Mercury Coherer with a telephone detector’) are still there in the science museum of the Calcutta University. January. referencing the Proceedings of the IEEE. . It is reputed that Nathan B. Transmitters at that time were called spark-gap machines. Bose did not apply for a patent on his design because he believed in the free flow of inventions in science. In 1943 the US Supreme Court reviewed the decision. his radio equipment was gone. was the exact copy of that of Bose.against Marconi in 1915. Marconi’s Coherer. Tesla became acknowledged as the inventor of the radio – even though he did not build a working radio.
thus. "Hello Rainey" spoken by Natan B. all radio development was controlled by the U. Navy to prevent its possible use by enemy spies. in 1892. Kentucky. in 1906. The U. . Lee Deforest . much weaker signals could be utilized than had previously been possible. government took over control of all patents related to radio technology. In the early 1900s. primarily because the initial radiotelegraph transmitter discharged electricity within the circuit and between the electrodes was unstable causing a high amount of interference.S. Military Use and Patent Control When the United States entered the First World War in 1917. Radio Speaks The first time the human voice was transmitted by radio is debatable. Claims to that distinction range from the phase. De Forest was also the person who first used the word "radio". after the government released its control of all patents. Fessenden. The Alexanderson high-frequency alternator and the De Forest tube resolved many of these early technical problems. Stubblefield 2 to a test partner near Murray. the great requirement for further development of radio was an efficient and delicate detector of electromagnetic radiation. It made it possible to amplify the radio frequency signal picked up by the antenna before application to the receiver detector. which was heard by radio-equipped ships within several hundred miles.AM Radio Lee Deforest invented space telegraphy. the triode amplifier and the Audio. In 1919. Lee De Forest provided that detector.Improvements to Radio Transmitters Overseas radiotelegraph service developed slowly.S. the Radio Corporation of America (RCA) was established with the purpose of distributing control of the radio patents that had been restricted during the war. to an experimental program of talk and music by Reginald A.
he was born in 1890. 1920.885 for a "Method of Receiving High-Frequency Oscillations Radio" for his FM technology. super heterodyning. to the Eiffel Tower in Paris.342.S. Regeneration Amplification 1913 In 1913. patent 1. Regeneration amplification worked by feeding the received radio signal through a radio tube 20. However. Virginia. in New York City. also in New York City. speech was first transmitted across the continent from New York City to San Francisco and across the Atlantic Ocean from Naval radio station NAA at Arlington. Edwin Howard Armstrong was one of great engineers of the 20th century. FM Radio 1933 Edwin Armstrong is most commonly known for inventing frequency-modulated or FM radio in 1933. and died in 1954.True Broadcasting Begins In 1915. Westinghouse's KDKA-Pittsburgh broadcast the Harding-Cox election returns and began a daily schedule of radio program. Edwin Armstrong should be known for inventing three key innovations: regeneration. and frequency modulation. Frequency modulation or FM improved the audio signal of radio by controlling the noise static caused by electrical equipment and the earth's atmosphere. Edwin Armstrong was only eleven when Marconi made the first trans-Atlantic radio transmission. the young Armstrong began studying radio and building homemade wireless equipment.000 times . The Dawn of FM Radio The story of FM radio is one of success and tragedy. including a 125 foot antenna in his parent's backyard. On November 2. Enthralled. Edwin Armstrong received U. Edwin Armstrong invented the regenerative or feedback circuit.
interest in FM radio further diminished and by 1949. pressured the FCC to change all of the FM radio frequencies — a move they knew would instantly obsolete all of the exiting FM radios. Although his life was cut short. Armstrong was well aware of AM radio's major limitations: • • • Static interference from household appliances and lighting Limited audio quality (frequency response and dynamic range) Nighttime interference between many stations (co-channel interference). he's still considered the most prolific inventor in radio's history. that increased the power of the received radio signal and allowed radio broadcasts to have a greater range. the FCC allowed them to simulcast — simultaneously broadcast the same programming on both their AM and FM stations. especially in rural areas Armstrong took his invention to a friend. Armstrong was clearly a technical genius. 50 FM stations were on the air. and cause Armstrong to lose his personal investment in FM radio. many FM stations . who was head of RCA and had said he would help him develop it. Since most radio station owners didn't want to go to the expense of creating high-fidelity programming just for their FM stations. By 1941. Superhetrodyne Tuner Edwin Armstrong invented the superhetrodyne tuner that allowed radios to tune into different radio stations. Once TV started to evolve. because of ionosphere refraction.per second. RCA bought into the patents and helped Armstrong develop an experimental radio station. The ensuing war diverted resources and froze development. David Sarnof3 and RCA. still out to hold control of their radio empire. David Sarnof. Even though he had improved AM radio in significant ways. Then the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor.
Graph 1: Growth of FM radio (Source: www. gave up his long. We'll cover public broadcasting — both radio and television — in an upcoming module. 1954. He wrote a note to his wife apologizing for what he was about to do. The green line represents the growth of noncommercial and National Public Radio (NPR) stations. removed the air conditioner from his 13th story New York apartment. RCA quickly started pushing its development and subsequently made millions of dollars from the sale of FM transmitters and equipment. taxing battle against Sarnof and RCA.cybercollege.had shut down. and jumped to his death. Edwin Armstrong. A few weeks later RCA announced record profits. On January 31. FM radio not only climbed out of the cellar of popularity after Armstrong's death.com) As shown in the from the graph . Once FM radio started to make money. RADIO BROADCASTING . but today it leads AM radio in both number of stations and listeners.
it marked the development of new types of equipment. no less than 70% above the level of revenues in 1940-41. it was a period in which some persons at least saw in broadcasting possible source of revenues-from sale of time. but relatively little effect on broadcast revenues. electronic concerns were shifted to war production. Some of this increase was the result of inflation. The 1930-35 period was also the time of the greatest "idea" development in the history of American radio programming-with respect to network programs in particular. 1923 – 1926: This was a transitional period. 1940s: This period included World War II. The war imposed as many hardships on broadcasters as it did upon those engaged in other occupations. .This period marked the start of "regular" broadcasting. it saw the beginnings of broadcasting on a commercial basis. especially on the network level. with the result that broadcasting equipment. The nation had shifted. both network and station revenues were strikingly greater than in the prewar period. 1930s: This was the beginning of the great depression in the United States – a depression which had its effect on programming and on the various forms of advertising. was in short supply. after the government removed restrictions late in 1919. and while not too many new program forms introduced. but which was not able to be used unless all the conflicting patent owners would permit. etc. from a threat-of-war situation into actual involvement. 1945-1952: A highly important era in the history of American radio and television. in December of 1941. The transistor was demonstrated in 1947 by Bell Labs. Broadcasting in 1935 to 1941 saw radio revenues soaring to new heights. rather than the sale of receiving sets. at least. the erection of 108 TV stations-and the beginnings. but even so. tubes.particularly development of networks and the presentation of network programs by national advertisers. 1926 – 1930: Commercial radio became solidly established. It saw an enormous increase in the total number of radio stations. employees were drafted into military service. costs advanced. The make-up of RCA consisted of those companies that had the key patents or would shortly buy them for wireless telegraphy. The Radio Corporation of America4 was formed in 1919 as a patent pool to control the use of the new equipment which had been invented during WWI. it saw development of basic types of programs. 1941 to 1945 was the big money-making time for American radio. in 1944-45. of a shift in importance from radio to television. On the other hand. older forms were polished and improved. Chiefly.
There were lots of jingles and promotions. 1970-1980 . but grew in the number of smaller stations licensed. reversing their 1950 decision which had authorized a non-compatible field-sequential system (CBS). "be bright. it seemed.radio bores: AM Top 40 begins the decade with lock on the ratings. it took a long time for FM to overtake AM. AM stations even tried to meet the challenge by going "stereo" but no one cared. The saying. once AM and now FM were making lots of money. There are plenty of listeners and times are good as far as jobs and money. Radio became less secure. The Big FM's would rule by the decade’s end. but during this decade television became the dominant mass medium as the freeze on licenses was lifted and a 70channel UHF band was added. hundreds of AM stations embrace a "top-40 time and temperature" format. music and contests are now targeted to a specific age group (12-35) based on demographic research showing this group has money to spend on goods and services by the new affluent middle class. be brief" was. There was even disco on FM! Formats fragment: There are no longer just two formats. top-40 on AM and progressive rock" on FM. The music was still controlled by cynical old white men.radio reinvents: Probably based on the early work of programmers like McClendon and Bill Drake. Programming. Pop music was better and it demanded a delivery service that sounded as good as a home audio system. Advertisers want to buy radio. posted in every control room. in some markets more than 50% of the people using radio are still tuned by habit to that "one big legendary AM station. Even though its sound was stale. 1960-1970 .Broadcasting from 1952 through the 1960's: Earlier trends continued. The networks reached from coast-to-coast and in 1953 the FCC approved the industry indorsed compatible NTSC color television system (RCA-NBC). Stations played three minute songs. . Each station has only a small segment of the audience." By the middle of the decade most of these major stations were struggling. AM stations still refused to play the new music from albums and were suddenly facing new competition from FM stations that would play the music. FM makes a comeback: For a system that was invented nearly 40 years earlier. Radio makes lots of money: The big music stations.
Smaller stations automate with them but it makes the station less local-sounding. Production that used to involve splicing tape is now done . To succeed you have to be above average. New radio station owners want to cut costs. This means cutbacks. AM tries a comeback: Helped with new technical regulations. lessappealing to listeners and sponsors. No union problems because the unions in radio are practically irrelevant. less people have to do more. 1990-2000 . The era of Niche Programming and formats begins and now there is a format for every narrow interest. mostly offering music formats delivered by big city DJ's. 1980-1990 . promise of fewer stations and an expanded AM band.radio competes: Less people do more work. tenacious. use automation to run three stations at once. the FCC station owners tried to save AM one more time. A smaller pie: The number of stations swelled to 12. now your station was no longer required to have news. Stations now have to satisfy the demands of the marketplace instead of the demands of Federal regulation. Again.Radio networks return: With inexpensive satellite technology available to every station. News and public affairs suffered. Buy-sell: Like the house you bought for a high price in the late 1980's. there were perhaps 100 to 200 stations vying for listeners. New owners. In this market most of each day is automated. New group owners & duopolies: One company can now own 25-25-25 plus and in San Jose and San Francisco some companies own many stations. persistent. new challenges: For young people seeking a career in radio the good news was if you are good at sales. reporter and reader as every station had to employ in the 1970's. you'll work. edited and broadcast using the hard drive of a computer.000 and in major and large markets. the radio station you also bought is worth less than you paid. less news and public affairs types. promotion or production of promotions. hundreds of new radio networks emerge and die. Digital takes over radio technology: Now an entire day can be stored. more automation.radio struggles: The Reagan administration de-regulates the industry. In the 1980s almost half of the radio stations changed hands. If you were a news writer.
Conservative politics. namely in the North Zone in New Delhi. the North-East Zone in Guwahati. British colonial government approved a license to a private company. AM is around after almost 100 years. Commercial Radio services in India started in 1967 by Vividh Bharati Service with its headquarters at Mumbai. the West Zone in Mumbai. All India Radio`s network had expanded by the mid-1990s to around 146 AM stations along with a National Channel. And just like the transition to television. Still. the East Zone in Kolkata. New delivery services: Digital stuff. semi -commercial operation of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. DMX. In 1936. In the very same year. HISTORY OF RADIO IN INDIA: Broadcasting began in India with the formation of a private radio service in Madras (presently Chennai) in 1924. current owners want to be first in line when licenses are issued for these new services. to be replaced with computer memory. and suddenly many struggling AMs are revived and saved again by talk radio. When India became independent in 1947. and the South Zone in Chennai. There were only six radio stations in India at the time of independence. AIR was made a separate Department under the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. the Indian Broadcasting Company5. The company almost went bankrupt in 1930 but the colonial government took away the two transmitters and the Department of Labor and Industries started operating them as the Indian State Broadcasting Corporation. Internet. There are five regional headquarters for All India Radio. etc. Assam. Government of India controls the radio broadcasting in India that works under the Directorate General of All India Radio. the Integrated North-East Service that aimed at reaching out to the tribal groups in northeast India and handles the External Services. It was established in 1936 and since 1957 All India Radio was renamed as Akashvani. this very Corporation was renamed All India Radio (AIR) and was controlled by the Department of Communications. Talk radio's decade: Rush. to inaugurate Radio stations in Bombay and Kolkata. Analog devices like cart machines will disappear by 2004. DBS. Akashvani is a government-owned. Vividh Bharati earned its revenues from extensive advertisements and .with the click of a mouse. all future non-FM delivery services.
Television broadcasts started from Delhi in September 1959. the FM Radio advertising and sponsorship business grew to Rs. Indian radio also took up the task of aiding in the development of economic scenario. The number of radio receivers increased almost five times between 1970 and 1994. such as farmers needing agro climatic. citizens duties and rights. For more than 4 decades. Indian radio proved to be a prime medium of social integration. Most radios are also produced within India. the advertising revenue . prepare programming content. India has a wide-ranging network of medium wave and short-wave stations. through its electronic media regulatory body Prasar Bharti. Programs were broadcast twice a week for an hour a day on welfare topics related to community health. The broadcasting equipment used in India is mainly indigenous and reaches special audiences. In those days radio was considered as an integral medium of communication. Within 4 years. book commercials from advertisers and broadcast the whole lot. It was due to the same reason of static thoughts prevailing in the society. popularity of radio spread nationwide. primarily due to the absence of any motion medium. 93 crores with Times of India's Times FM & Mid-Day Group's Radio Mid-Day becoming the main players. Initially it was around 14 million that rose to nearly 65 million. however the importance of radio did not decline. again associated with the All India Radio`s services. The early history of Indian radio broadcasting in independent India set the parameters for the succeeding role of television in the nation.had been broadcasting from thirty-one AM and FM stations during the mid-1990s. and other agriculture-related information. plant protection. All the national affairs and social changes were informed through the waves of broadcast media and within no time. the Government allowed private FM operators to 'buy' blocks (chunks) on All India Radio. In 1961 the television medium were expanded to include a school educational television project. that television came into existence in 1959. (1997-98). the Government of India did not permit private radio stations to broadcast in India. In 1994 there had been almost eighty-five FM stations and seventy-three short wave stations that connected the entire country. and traffic and road sense. The role of broadcasting provided an inlet for the flow of modern ideas. in June 1998 the Government. In 1993. decided not to renew contracts of private FM operators. Then. Then history changed its course. Not surprisingly.
FM players pay annual license fees. while the bids for Delhi were Rs 71.5 million from each of 10 broadcast companies . won the largest number of bids. the Government auctioned licenses for private FM channels to bolster the revenue. unable to shell out the high license fee.2 million and Rs 74 million. July 6. revenue-sharing also exists in the media sector. many companies bid for the licenses to operate in key markets. But the going was not so easy.fell by 50% within a year! This time. For instance. Currently.for stations in Mumbai. garnered close to Rs 3. The first round of bidding .5 billion. there are roughly 10 players who will operate approximately in 37 cities across the country.75 crore. each for Rs 77. So. a Zee Group company. In response to the Government's offer. the competition shrank. A handful of serious bidders chose to remain. Today. And in 2000.2 million each Radio is expected to follow the growth of the Television industry. Others dropped out saying the business was not viable. respectively. Expecting to collect Rs 800 million from auctioning 108 licenses. New Media Broadcasting. Licensee Fee and revenue sharing model Currently. The objective is to “make FM radio a . And the focus on metros was evident in the bidding. 1999 was the historic day when the Government announced that 150 new FM channels would be licensed across 40 cities. the bidding price for the Mumbai license was reportedly to the tune of Rs 9. However. Incidentally. The government collected close to Rs 4. which grew rapidly following the entry of private player.Rs 97. Interestingly. in effect. which go up by 15 per cent every year. FM coverage in India is restricted to just 17% of the country. The government got the highest bids . Many gave up. which focused mainly on the smaller towns.6 billion as license fee for the privately run FM radio channels in 40 cities. Music Broadcasting became the first firm in India to commence private FM broadcast from Bangalore in July.for 76 channels in 26 cities. the bids for Hyderabad and Nagpur came next. the government had to actually face mass withdrawal of bidders because of the huge license fee. Private FM radio sector would shift to a revenue-sharing model from the existing license fee regime. players consolidated and the Government extended its deadline. the Government gave the green light to privatize radio in India. compared to 89% of All India Radio (AIR).
Canada with 12. But FM presently covers only 17 percent of the area and 21 % of the population of India through transmitters.7% and Spain with 9. That should open up a vast new market of consumers-100 million Indian households own an estimated 150 million radios. The panel also suggested that players wanting to enter the sector in the second round of licensing need to have a technical viability clearance by a financial institution on the financial viability of the project. it is firm on revenue-sharing now. It has also recommended to the government to release additional spectrum for the use of FM radio companies so that the number of companies operating in one centre can go up.1%. Currently radio has just 2 percent of the 9000 crore Indian advertising market according to an Arthur Anderson’s survey. It’s better to keep the revenue-sharing figure low than to have a failed project. Globally depending on each country. FM station executives are not forthcoming on multi-platform strategies as yet. Revenue-sharing will follow payment of a one-time entry fee through a process of bidding. much like satellite channels did to the quantum of television advertising in the country.FICCI estimates FM’s . the number of FM radio stations targeted is around 300 to 4006. Given that radio has penetrated into 100 million homes and a FM set costs around Rs. There has been debate on whether to recommend a revenue-sharing structure or a fixed amount for a period of 10 years.5 per cent. outnumbering television sets 3:1. After the second round of privatization. While the private FM players had sought revenue-sharing in the band of 2-2. Revenue-sharing figure is quite low at around 4 %. However in spite of the various challenges the emergence of private FM stations is certain to increase the quantum of radio advertising in the country . 50/. On the higher side are countries like the United States with 13 %. The geographical area covered by radio in India in India is as high as 98 percent and the penetration level is approximately 97 percent.success story”. the panel has fixed it at 4 per cent. radio has a 5 % to 12 % of the advertising cake.
for advertisers. it is being predicted that radio's share in the total advertising pie will see an increase in the medium term. Also government allowing foreign players to enter the Indian market it will help the industry grow. But at current levels of advertising support. It can provide a level playing field with benefits for listeners. . They have also forecasted that revenues from radio advertising in India will be Rs. Virgin group has already started exploring the Indian market for suitable partners.share up from the present 1. Thus the potential if FM is better is bigger town. Various radio stations are coming up with IPO for example Radio Mirchi thus helping them expand. helpful information .traffic advisories. With the government ready to reduce the license fees it will help in attracting new players like reliance which had earlier backed out only due to the entry fees. cellular phone service or auto related products would have a good impact when advertised on radio is primarily known as a “drive time” medium most people who turn in are doing so while commuting.5 percent to 5 % in five years. The future looks bright as the reach of radio is expected to raise post the increase in the number and quality of players in the industry. as the car population is much bigger. Rs. employment & career options. The new India deserves an active private FM radio sector. Spearhead the government objective of growing the FM radio business in India. While TV is a family medium. For example. 1200 crores by 2005 and Revenue of radio services is expected to rise to Rs 689 crore by 2008 at a CAGR of 30 per cent. With more players in the fray the FM radio industry would grow and also enhance the government’s yield from licensing radio naturally. It is on the basis of these key drivers of growth. each radio station is reeling under the brutal financial impact of high costs. Also advertising of certain product seems to work very well while some might not. This would be the key when evaluating the medium. Also one must not forgot that radio continues to be a medium that has tremendous reach among the poor and marginalized sections of society. radio is personalized. Providing free-to-air local broadcasts of music and entertainment. FUTURE OF RADIO INDUSTRY FM Radio can play its part in building a stronger business future for India. community announcements and public service messages provide a real value-added service.
SWOT Analysis Strengths: • Recently. • • 90% of India has access to radio which is unmatched by any other media. with revenue rising at 23 per cent annually.2 billion by 2007. Radio also reaches to uneducated village folk who do not read print publications. The Rs 1. who would depend on word-of-mouth. • The advertisers. brochures or ads in local supplements of newspapers. Therefore radio is more popular. It is also a free medium. • The success of private FM stations. So that they can develop themselves well because this industry is still in an introduction stage. the government has agreed upon revenue-sharing model. advertising spending is expected to amount to Rs 500 crore this year. because people can listen to radio anytime and anywhere they want. They can’t afford a TV set. which is 4 % for the growth of the radio stations. and reveals that radio listenership habits have changed considerably. . • Radio is considered as a background medium. are welcoming the opportunity.000 crore Indian advertising markets. pamphlets. though radio has only a 2 per cent share in the Rs 6.6 billion industry is reported to be growing by 31 per cent every year and should touch the Rs 6. Also. At the places where the literacy rates are low where people hardly read newspapers and radio is the only medium that they can understand. not only are listeners tuning into it more often but also sticking to radio for longer hours every day.There are an estimated 150 million radio sets across the country.
• Increase in listenership numbers but no increase in ad revenue. And therefore. And like its radio message creates a fleeting impression that is often gone in an instant. in India there is no proper research is available. Many stations are conducting their own research which can be biased. • No proper research available . • Radio-only nature of radio communication is a tremendous creative compromise. Weakness: • One of the major weaknesses of Radio is that there is very less differentiation in the programs that are aired. But. • Fragmented Audience . Research is the main base to attract client and get more revenue. . Therefore. Radio is a complement to another media. the percentage of listener tuned to anyone station is likely very small. other media or the advertisers or agency can use this medium for brand recall. Radio offers its reach frequency and selectivity at one of the lowest costs per thousand and radio production is relatively inexpensive. • • Radio is considered as a medium where the “Proximity to purchase” is very high. Most of the stations plays much of the music that is played consist of Hindi Film songs. and therefore it is difficult to differentiate between the programs of the different channels. An advertiser whose product depends on demonstration or visual impact is at a loss when it comes to radio. This is the situation that every radio channel is facing.research is very important for any advertising segment.• Radio is the least cost medium and it helps to reach mass audience with various backgrounds. Many advertisers think that without strong visual brand identification the medium can play little or no role in their advertising plans.the large number of the audience in India is fragmented in various remote places.
And then it is easier for the advertisers also to decide on which channel to advertise. • Allowing private FM players to start news and current affairs programs. Brand building is thus much more difficult. At the same time.• Short commercials Opportunities: • Getting copyright licenses from the government for running mega events which are aired on the AIR radio station and have been restricted to be aired on other private stations. like. And can play their station which will exclusively provide with the information relating to that university/college campus. The launch of Private Radio FM has managed to create a set of ‘New Listeners’ for the medium • The new radio stations which will come in future they can have venture with the college or university campuses. if some station is targeting the health conscious people then their programming strategy will vary accordingly. One has to constantly innovate. and that is the challenge. • With the coming of the many more new players in the radio industry each channels can position themselves quite different from others. • • Leaves huge scope for innovation in local market Threats: . and gung-ho about this whole enterprise. we are very bullish. • • • Launching a radio station with 24-hour news channel Tie-ups with BEST or railway authority for playing the FM in train and in bus.
through a wide network of broadcasting centers and transmitters. the sector generates annual revenues of INR 2. Currently. particularly those below the age of 25. all of whom have been granted licenses over the past 3-4 years. set at levels significantly above their earning capacity. the sector has been reeling under heavy losses. With no particular differentiation in the music. So. this growth rate is far from flattering. also have access to new technology like mobile phones. Advertising is the sole source of revenue for radio in India. This implies a marginal rise in radio's share in the advertising pie to around 1.2 billion and is growing at around 20 percent annually.leveraging its twin advantages of wide coverage and cost effectiveness. AIR is the biggest player in India because of its reach. Today's busy teenagers love radio because it complements a faster-paced lifestyle .• The biggest threat to private radio industry players is ALL INDIA RADIO. . They have taken very quickly to interacting with their favorite radio stations and RJs via email and SMS for song requests and competitions. which covers 91 percent7 of India's area and reaches 99 percent of the population. as they could not afford to pay the annual license fees. Apart from AIR. Given that commercialization of radio is still in a nascent stage in India. government channel etc… • Because of the new government policies there will be more number of stations and then competition will also increase. low charges. which is set to increase at 15 percent per annum. there are 21 privately-owned FM stations in 12 major cities. revenues would need to grow at over 40 percent annually to break even in the next three years. there is a fear of losing its brand loyalty. A few FM stations have been forced to shut down. Younger audiences. against total operating costs of around INR 550-600 million.9 percent. If one considers the private sector FM market in Mumbai.they can listen to music and get information on the move. Given that a significant portion of the operating costs is the license fee. As a result of unsustainably high license fees. This is one of the biggest threats it faces. four players cumulatively generate annual revenues around INR 250-300 million. It is dominated by the state owned All India Radio (AIR). INDIAN ENTERTAINMENT INDUSTRY FOCUS 2010 On Radio Radio is a mass medium and therefore ideally suited for India .
radio has a 21 percent share of the advertising spend. While consumption in India is still largely at home.a clear indication of the vast commercial potential in India for this medium. this sector has not been able to monetize its hold on the listener’s eardrums. However. We estimate that if its real potential is unlocked in India. it is the younger generation that is the key target audience vis-à-vis radio. The easy availability of FM radio sets at affordable price points (ranging from INR 40INR 150) is fuelling its mass penetration. commercial radio could account for approximately 8 percent of media spends in the short to medium term and up to 10-12 percent in the long term. 70 percent of radio listeners in these cities listen to FM radio all seven days of the week. 'the radio on the move' trend is catching on in urban and semi-urban areas. the radio sector cannot and should not be satisfied with a growth rate in the low 20s. in Sri Lanka. compared to a global average of 8 percent. FM penetration is the highest in the SEC A segment and least in SEC D. Plainly. in Mumbai and Delhi. reaching over 99 percent of its one billion inhabitants .televisionpoint. Bridging the gap . It has less than 2 percent share of the total advertising pie in India. radio remains a laggard. In spite of such attractive statistics. In India too. According to market research.com) The Indian potential India has an estimated 180 million radio sets. In the US.Graph 2: Graph showing FM listeners across age groups (Source: www. in Spain 9 percent and closer to home. Further. in terms of its advertising spend. radio has a 13 percent share.
FM radio needs to grow from the current 21 stations in 12 cities to at least 300 stations in 100 cities. radio is a unique medium and the focus on large advertisers seems to be at the cost of its largest potential benefactor . Hence. in USA. on its part. soon. At an investment of INR 40 million per radio station frequency. Local mantra The sales and marketing efforts of the major FM radio stations have focused on the large advertising clients.the local retailer. However. thereby turning India's promise into reality. It is hoped that clarity on revenue-sharing emerges. it is expected that the private FM channels will drive the future growth of the sector. the total additional investment required will be INR 11 billion. needs to develop strategies to expand across the country and enhance business performance. The industry. Since the private FM channels need to survive in a commercial and competitive environment. 70 percent of all radio revenues come from local retailers. To exploit the true potential of this sector. TRAI. they have focused on mass entertainment to gather listeners. and only 30 percent comes from either national or international advertisers or from the network of advertisers. retail comprises only 8 percent of radio advertising. the challenge confronting radio is to bridge the gap between the current growth trend and potential growth expectations. In contrast. has proposed a transition from the existing license fee regime to a revenue sharing one. the designated regulatory body for radio. the radio industry will not be able to attract the necessary funding. but currently in India accounts for a small portion of the radio revenue pie. its ad revenues are expected to grow at a moderate pace. to help the radio industry curb it losses. in India. For example. The retail segment globally constitutes a large part of radio's clients and sales. In its current form and structure. In other words. This may be partly attributed to the FMCG-marketing background of some of the managers and partly due to the sales strategy of the multi-media groups that own most radio stations.Due to the public-broadcaster nature of AIR and its socio-economic rather than a commercial focus. .
com) Radio. is a localized medium. International research indicates that radio has 60 percent of television’s effectiveness at increasing campaign awareness amongst an audience of 16-44 year old radio listeners. can be a major beneficiary of radio advertising. the achievement of 60 percent of the result at 15 percent of the cost makes radio significantly more cost effective than television. due to its ability to transmit a particular message over a small geographical area. Clearly. with city/ locality specific target groups. While the price relativity for other audiences will vary. there is a need to unlock the advertising potential in the retail segment. . where the cost of television advertising is more than seven times that of radio advertising. advertising on radio costs just 15 percent that of television. In India. The price differential between radio and television will vary depending on the area and the audience. A high frequency combined with a moderate card rate (effective rates average between INR 500 to INR 900 per 10 seconds) provides an opportunity for retail players to promote their products and services cost effectively without fragmentation as in the case of national or even regional media. which can be a great proposition for local retailers. the cost effectiveness of radio advertising will be even more acute. However.Graph 3: Pie diagram showing the profile of advertisers (Source: www. by its very nature.televisionpoint. Radio stations offer high frequency ‘opportunity to hear’ for the advertiser. The retailer.
Creation of value packs Most of the programming currently being aired. Besides. Creation of a good software library can become a source of competitive advantage for a radio player. with around 11 percent of advertisers contributing 60 percent of their revenues. such content can be exported for broadcast in other countries where the demand for Indian content is considerable. vertically integrated media corporations. whether music or not.Graph 4: Graph showing the revenue composition of radio Source: www. since many FM players are associated with larger. Moreover. Creating specific IP whether in the form of RJs. when re-broadcast. saves the cost of producing new content and generates newer revenues by offering brand association with such a property at reasonably low rates. Ideally. the advertiser base of FM radio is highly skewed. However. mass-medium like radio. has little or no library value. . Interactivity is a major content driver within the radio programming strategy. It is important for the radio stations to highlight the effectiveness of using radio for local level promotions and region-specific ad campaigns. this potential is largely untapped. Such content. This should not be the case in a localized.televisionpoint. programmed formats or around content areas could have the dual advantage of being re-usable in the future and being syndicated across other channels. the advertiser base should be broad-based with a large number of local advertisers promoting their products. Very little programming is developed to create any strategic intellectual property. cross media promotions could be an added incentive for the potential advertiser. there is enough potential to create a library of recordings that can be used beyond a single show. if the topics discussed are not affected by the 'regency' factor. While some radio stations are waking up to this reality.com Presently.
Being localized. like a radio station that caters to the African-American population of New York or a Malayalam channel with Indian content for expatriate Indians in the Middle-East. Manpower The most conspicuous item on the expense list is 'salaries'. FMCG marketing or advertising. Hindi and mixed content. Radio stations will need to start finding their own niche. This has led . they provided the listener with a choice of English. The salary structure in radio is comparable to that of other larger media units. Channels that address specialist listener groups need to emerge.Niche programming Internationally. Validation of niche audiences would enable differentiated client targeting with unique value propositions. there is an urgent need to evolve programming towards differentiated content. especially FM radio. socio-economic or ethnic or combination of factors. the pressure to sell airtime forced them to resort to the lowest common denominator . radio stations find it difficult to market their USP. Radio stations have not been able to generate any significant channel loyalty. Very few have held on to the English format or even non-film content. However. content specialization has been a distinct trend in the evolution of radio. most radio stations in India started off with a defined niche as well. Since there is very little to differentiate between the various channels. the resultant effect is constant channel swapping by listeners.a valuable database that is currently under leveraged. These stations address specific audiences based on geographic. However. The innumerable contests and interactive sessions on air bring in close to 30.Hindi film music.000 callers every day for a single channel in a city like Mumbai . a closer look reveals that even programmed loyalty does not exist. With limited sponsored market research done in this area. Radio stations have traditionally grown by attracting specialized audiences. In fact. This is driven by the fact that radio stations hire people from high wage industries like television. Initially. Between them. these channels also meet the demands of local advertisers. with listeners simply switching from song to song. This me-too approach towards content has a direct implication on the marketing of the radio channels as any message or campaign carried by it runs the risk of being lost in the clutter. these radio stations need not look beyond their walls to get valuable listener data. It may also require a shift from mass marketing of the radio channels to marketing programs targeted at specific market segments. Hence. Channels that started out with English programming as a key differentiator have drastically reduced the total airtime dedicated to it.
. Branding is expensive and therefore. branding exercises will become more meaningful. brands like Binaca / Cibaca and Bournvita were built on radio. as has been the case with satellite television. India. The key word is 'association'. without diluting the channel positioning. Branding Branding plays an important role in establishing a strong channel and program association amongst listeners. Some private FM stations have incurred large costs on building merely 'Top of Mind Recall' for all listeners. but that does not necessarily translate into higher listenership. While it is necessary to incur reasonable manpower costs in order to stay competitive and attract the best talent. the increased number of private radio channels across the country is likely to transform commercial radio from an urban phenomenon to a national one. Channel brands and programs will be associated with niche content and specific listener profiles that can be sold to potential advertisers.to the creation of a people-cost structure that is incompatible with the current size and revenue earning capacity of the radio industry. particularly in a market where lack of niche programming has resulted in constant surfing for songs of choice. innovative cost management solutions such as the right mix between live and recorded music could reduce production and salary costs. Brands that have spent more on marketing have a higher recall. Conclusion India's radio industry has a strong growth potential if mechanisms and policies are put in place to provide it with appropriate support. These programs rode on extremely successful content formats. With privatization gathering momentum. is in a prime position to take advantage of the growth potential of this segment. irrespective of their preference or affinity to the station. What could work better for them would be a combination of two. while other programs should develop their individual brands. with its diverse regional influences. radio stations with limited budgets need to make a choice between channel branding and program branding. For example. There is no doubt about the effectiveness of radio when it comes to building brands for its clients. What the listener associates with is the quality of content. Programs that are aligned to channel positioning can ride on the channel branding. But as the market matures and niche channels develop with defined target groups and unique value propositions.
sebi. According to CSO estimates nominal GDP growth for fiscal 2006 is estimated at 10. 127 billion by fiscal 2006 Segmentation in advertising The five key industry segments comprise print. which lags behind other developed and developing countries Graph 5: Graph showing the ad spend across countries (Source: www. with a nominal GDP CAGR8 of 9. The nominal GDP for fiscal 2005 was Rs. as a percentage of GDP.e. and is expected to grow at 14. the nominal GDP growth rate. radio.636 billion. 30.34%. These different segments within the industry are at varying stages of growth and corporatization . the gross advertising spend in India is estimated at Rs 111 billion.94% over the last 10 years (1995-2005).Advertising in India: India has been among the fastest growing economies in the world. There is a correlation between the economic growth rates of a country i.in) During fiscal 2005.2% to reach Rs.9%. is 0. and outdoor. and growth rates of the advertising industry The Indian advertising spends. cinema.gov. television.
which did not give enough prominence to radio as a rich medium for entertainment and also for community development.7% 0.5% 2. even 150 stations across India is a sustainable proposition.7% Radio 2. radio manages to garner around 4-5% of the mass media spend.0% 48.4% 0.2% 46.4% 7. Thus. which saw the beginning of satellite broadcasting in India.4% 0. resulting in growing ad spends on this medium.5% 7.0% 43.4% 0.9% 2. the television broadcasting business. radio accounts for 20% of ad spend.3% 0. In most markets.3% 40. Reforms and proliferation of private players were the key reasons for this rapid growth of the share of television in the advertising industry.9% 43.6% 8.7% 0. This can be attributed to misdirected policies by government. now has over 300 channels covering the Indian footprint. In some countries like Sri Lanka.5% 0. It is estimated that in 2001.6% 41. This growth was also aided by the economic liberalization program of the Government. radio has suffered from shunted growth. TRENDS RADIO TRENDS IN INDIA & ABROAD: A MADISON INDIA STUDY It is ironical that while India has the second highest 9 penetration of C&S homes in the world.4% 47.3% Table 1: Table showing media spends in the total ad spend (Source: www.9% Cinema Outdoor Internet 0. American radio commanded US$3. which started off as a single government controlled television channel.6% 46.2 Billion out of US$60 Billion spent .7% 2.4% 0.Media Spends as % of Total Ad Spend Year 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Print 49.sebi.in) The Indian television industry has grown rapidly. especially since 1991.gov. The growth of the satellite television audience saw proliferation of a number of satellite television channels offering more choices to media buyers and consumers of entertainment.3% TV 39. Going by the International benchmark. There are more than 6000 radio stations in US and even a developing country like Nigeria has 18 FM stations.0% 6.5% 6.9% 2.0% 0.
600 crore.Typically. there are numerous issues facing the radio broadcasters. we expect that by year 2004.like a special radio station dedicated to south Indians residing in Mumbai or a station that caters exclusively to college going population. For instance. there is a surge of activity when the media is liberalized but over a horizon of five to six years. advertisers will spend around Rs. Radio Audience Measurement The question haunting most advertisers and media planners is regarding the audience measurement that will be adopted for Radio.on mass media. station owners and advertising agencies on ad hoc basis are conducting research. emergence of stations that address only specialist audience groups . the industry feels that these are mere start-up issues. Such specialist channels will be ideal medium for advertisers. radio should feature in the media planner's radar as a serious medium. .8. However. consolidation is inevitable and stations groups are formed that controls most of the revenues. as they will have access to well defined captive audience. As of today. For instance. International experiences show two distinct trends in evolution of radio business Consolidation . currently radio is able to garner less than 1% of the total ad pie of Rs. We expect similar consolidation exercise in India. Today. the concept of niche programming has not yet caught the imagination of the broadcaster and audiences find it almost impossible to distinguish one from another. radio stations have grown by attracting niche audiences (like a Hispanic channel in US or a Malayalam channel in gulf) and local advertisers. While growth of the radio broadcast industry looks exciting. media planners are quite at loss as there is inadequate information on this medium. Radio stations that are part of established media houses would do well. 500 crore on radio. In India. Madison Media expects that the evolutionary pressures will prevail in India and radio stations will increasingly find their own niche. Specialization . Publications having strong city edition will do have an advantage as they already have infrastructure to marshal local advertisers and also keep a tab on the pulse of the city citizens. Madison media estimates that by 2004. We expect the trend to continue for some more time till significant advertising monies are committed on radio.Internationally. This will constitute around 4 % of the enlarged ad pie. in UK four media groups control nearly 60% of ad revenue. if one goes by Mumbai experience. As it is early days in India.
000-person telephone survey. while driving (32%). The prime reason for inadequate advancement in radio audience measurement technique has been the small share of ad pie that radio commands and also the vast geographic spread. at public places (9%) and at the office (7%). RADAR report was based on a 12. Radio Mirchi is the most popular station and is tuned by people in SEC A and B. We expect that over a period of time. weekdays where the number of tune-ins is as high as 94%. Indicative surveys are being conducted and published periodically by research agencies. Almost 51% of the people listen to FM for an average time of one hour and another 39% listen to FM for a longer period of 1-3 hours. these are many years away from being put to commercial use. radio audience research has not matured to the extent of television audience measurement. Majority of the people listen to Hindi film songs (63%). The popular rating system for radio that is used in US is the Arbitron's RADAR (Radio's All Dimension Audience Research) audience report. the next round of RADAR plans to shift reliance from telephone survey to diary-based panel for data collection. Sunday listenership is dramatically low with only 10% of the people tuning in to FM vs. we suggest that advertisers should not ignore the media owing to non-availability of any established audience measurement data. remixes (37%) and English pop (33%). It measures National radio audiences and the audience size of radio commercials aired on 31 radio networks operated by large radio networks. However. Till recently. Key Findings from Madison Media Research • • • • • • Radio has a reach of 56% and there is a distinct skew towards males. audience measurement technique for radio will improve and a currency will be established for buying commercial time and selection of alternatives. In the mean time. followed by Hindi pop (40%). Madison Media routinely undertakes studies on radio usage. Best Practices that have evolved in using the medium: . Advertising agencies also conduct periodic dipstick surveys.Even internationally. However. People listen to FM at home (70%). There has been some academic discussion on use of "meters" in radio sets to determine listenership.
. which tested 1200 commercials with 200 respondents per commercial. It might take some time before the properties start to reward the advertisers and advertisers should be willing to fork out the extra premium now before the medium gets established. International experience suggests that music oriented properties targeted at youth last long and provide immense benefit to advertisers. There are mixed reports with regard to station switching behavior among in car listeners. adapted to Indian context and arrived at set of best practices for radio advertising. It is not important whether in-car listeners will form the bulk of listenership base. "Binaca Geet Mala" on radio was as one of the best media properties. other studies indicate there is extremely low loyalty among in car listeners.studies clearly demonstrate that properties created on radio are cost effective and have advantage of high recall. it is undeniable that for brands that target at affluent section of the society need to be actively associated with radio. A research by Radio Advertising Bureau (RAB). A study by Voice of British Advertisers shows that radio is the most effective medium to target businessmen. Most of these studies have been conducted in developed markets like UK and USA. we do not expect car owners to be the largest audience for radio. contrary to popular myth. It is more important to understand that radio will be the best medium to target upwardly mobile high spending executives and businessmen. UK indicates. However. To create such high decibel properties.While the audience measurement is still in infancy. Create Unique Properties . Studies have demonstrated that in-car listeners are light consumers of other media like television. users of radio as an advertising medium can benefit from extensive work carried out in area of media effectiveness. The most impressive in this genre of research has been the Radio Recall Research (RRR). Closer home. Exploit Drive Time Audiences . that nearly 85% of in-car audiences do not shift stations frequently.the traditional bastion of radio has been the "In car" listening. making radio a very effective medium. In any case. However. In other markets. many successful service brands especially those in office supplies and financial services have benefited tremendously by judicious use of radio. advertisers should be willing to enter early and commit long term investment. It will be incorrect to directly transplant those learning are in Indian context. However. given the low penetration of ownership of personal cars in India. This exhaustive study was conducted in early 1980s and subsequent research added to the body of available knowledge. they are invaluable in providing directions and we at Madison Media have distilled these findings.
apart from RRR. The ads that were repeated too often were disliked.Exploit Imagery Transfer .A study by Statistical research Inc. as one need not air the complete commercial to register recall. Recent studies have shown that Sonic branding. on an average. This is called Imagery Transfer. ads that were liked had higher impact. Effective Radio Copy Management .co. Creation of sonic branding reduces long term cost of advertising. These tests also indicated that listeners were able to create and keep images fresh and top-of-mind even when engaged in other task. if 10% of a given television budget is re-deployed onto radio. the efficiency of the campaign in building awareness increases on average by 15% as shown in table below: (Source: rab. another monumental study is the Millward Brown study on radio multiplier effect. Though airing multiple variants is recommended. spots of 45 seconds or more were effective. As in any other media. and in general. Copy variation can offset this fatigue and it is suggested to have three variants of the same theme. In general.uk) . It is through imagery transfer that radio creates a synergy with television. which state that simultaneous airing of more than 5 executions leads to decay in effectiveness. where aural brand elements are used is very effective in sustaining brand's recall (tring tring of Britannia). Millward Brown conducted the study across October 1999 to April to find out how effective radio advertising can be relative to television. it proved to be an effective medium. shows that three out of four consumers who watch a television spot will "replay" the visual image mentally when they hear a radio commercial for the same brand. This study involved nearly 5500 interviews in continuous research to track awareness and attitudes to 17 brands. The broad findings of the study proved that radio was. Another series of studies called "distraction study" tried to simulate the fact that radio listening is always secondary activity. The media tested were Commercial Radio and television in the Central Region of UK. fatigue factor is high with radio commercials. As can be fathomed. three-fifths as efficient as television at driving advertising awareness amongst radio listeners.studies have clearly established that length of the commercial had a positive impact on the advertisement. RRR studies also indicate that more brand mentions in the commercial were good for ad recall and was more effective when the brand was mentioned early in the advertisement. used in conjunction with a television campaign. Moreover. radio can be advantageously used in creating sonic elements of a brand. there is evidence. Radio Multiplier Effect .
FM RADIO INDUSTRY: RISK FACTORS Economic downturn10 The FM radio industry derives almost all its revenues from advertisement. This will provide an opportunity for the market to arrive at the final verdict on the effectiveness of the medium. Thus the FM radio operators are not willing to take a risk by not catering to the mass segment.K and other markets. The radio stations are free to air and do not garner any subscription revenues. broadcasters need to develop the market by being more responsive to the advertiser's needs. Besides this. the major marketers advertising on radio may cut their ad budgets in case of an economic downturn. Most of them play popular film and pop music and very few cater to the niche audience such as English rock music lovers or Indian classical music lovers. thus making them totally dependent on advertisement revenues. the study makes a strong case for advertisers to divert a small portion of their TV budget to radio. This is hurting the growth of the FM radio industry as people who prefer niche music genres are not tuning into FM radio.The study highlighted that radio effectiveness result was achieved at one-seventh of the cost. Competition from satellite radio . Thus. Little differentiation between different FM radio stations The content played on different FM radio stations is very similar in nature. Conclusion Radio offers tremendous opportunities for advertisers and media planners need to explore various options by which they can effectively use radio in their media mix. This would adversely affect the radio industry. Of course. Conversely. people frequently switch between stations leading to listenership fragmentation. However. Advertising is a discretionary expenditure and is the first one to be pruned in case of an economic slowdown. This is happening because one player is allowed to own only one station in every city. this cannot be taken as a thumb rule as there will be wide variance between rates in U.
But with analog TV likely to be switched off in India in the next 5-7 years. There is efficient utilization of spectrum in case of digital broadcasting. in India. In Western Europe. Besides this. At present. enabling the broadcast of multiple radio stations. This favorable treatment meted out to satellite broadcasters may adversely affect the growth of the FM radio industry. multiple channel ownership by a FM broadcaster in the same city is not permitted. The quality of digital broadcast is better than analog transmission. FM radio is limited to a small range around the transmission site while the satellite signals cover the entire country. In fact. ending the period with 164.902 subscribers. Norway is the only country that has formally announced a cutoff date. digital receivers are more expensive than analog receivers. WorldSpace lost 8. However the broadcasters can enter into a voluntary agreement with Phonographic Performance Limited and The Indian Performance Right Society Limited at high rates or under the rates determined by the courts of law to minimize their expenses. radio’s turn could come in the next 10-15 years. However. however. the current satellite broadcaster in India is offering multiple channels. However. the satellite radio broadcaster WorldSpace operating in India has not been able to meet with much success. High music royalties FM radio broadcasters have to pay high royalties to the music companies for the music content procured from them. satellite radio has high subscription charges whereas FM radio is free to air. FM broadcasters cannot broadcast news and current affairs 24 hrs a day whereas satellite broadcasters can do so through a dedicated station. Satellite radio broadcasters do not have to pay any license fee whereas FM radio broadcasters have to pay 4% of their gross revenues as license fees.Many of the restrictions that apply to FM radio broadcasters do not apply to satellite radio broadcasters. a few countries are looking at a total switch off of analog broadcasting (FM/AM) by 2020 or so. Threat from digital technologies Digital broadcasting technologies like Satellite/Digital Audio Broadcast (DAB) using the FM band and Digital Radio Mondial (DRM) using the AM band are becoming popular worldwide.713 net subscribers during 3QFY07. Intense competition .
real estate firms and retailers. Radio industry should be a major beneficiary of the high growth in these sectors. The real estate industry is projected to grow at a CAGR of 25% in the next five years. All of them are clamoring for the same advertisers.1% during the same year. This is further expected to increase to 5. the advertising spend is expected to increase to Rs 367 bn by 2010 from Rs 227 bn in 2007.2% in FY06 and FY07 respectively. More than 90 channels across various languages and genres are being launched this year. The advertisement industry is a proxy to India’s high economic growth.5% by 2011 as per the FICCI-PwC report on the Indian entertainment and media industry. As per a study conducted by ZenithOptimedia.4% to 3. there are many risks that could derail the growth of the FM radio industry. All these industries are expected to witness robust growth in the years to come. Due to this attrition and poaching have become wide spread. Demographics . Thus. little differentiation between the FM radio stations and intense competition. The size of the radio industry is projected to increase at a CAGR of 28% from Rs 5 bn in 2006 to Rs 17 bn by 2011. Radio industry: Growth drivers Fastest growing segment of the media and entertainment industry The radio industry recorded a growth of nearly 58% in 2006. We feel that the major risks are a potential slowdown in the economy. It grows at a faster rate in such buoyant times. The number of FM radio stations has increased dramatically leading to a proportionate increase in the demand for trained personnel. Organized retail industry is projected to grow at a CAGR of 40% in the next five years. the media planning and buying arm of advertising group Publicis. listeners and need to procure similar content.There is intense competition between the FM radio operators operating in the same city. Beneficiary of the buoyant growth of major advertisers The major advertisers on radio are the entertainment channels. The share of radio in the total advertising industry increased from 2. Robust growth of the Indian economy The Indian economy has grown at a robust rate of 9% and 9.
The Indian film industry is getting more organized and receiving more institutional funding. the share of local advertising is only about 8% of radio revenues. Availability of listenership reports is bound to support and attract larger spends from marketers. The reserve OTEF was 25% of the highest valid bid for that city. The content on radio primarily comprises of film music. the local retail segment constitutes a large part of radio's advertising income. while local advertising contributes 70% of radio revenues in the United States of America. 55% of the India population is below 25 years leading to an increase in the audience of the radio industry. Mumbai and Bangalore. In the phase II policy. Reduction in license fees The Phase I policy for the privatization of FM radio had a very high fixed license fee structure with an annual escalation of 15%. The quality of music produced is improving which augurs well for the growth of the radio industry. Ideally. a localized medium like radio can be effectively used for local-level promotions apart from being bundled as part of cross-media promotion strategies. Thus there is huge potential for the radio industry to benefit from an expected increase in the share of local advertisements. Marketers generally wait for adequate research data to emerge before committing large spends to any medium. As per the CII-KPMG report. Local advertising Globally. Availability of listenership data Leading TV viewership research company.The target listeners for the radio industry are the youth. Research may cover larger number of cities in the years to come. Phase III policy . in India. a revenue sharing formula was introduced whereby radio companies had to pay a fixed annual license fee of 4% of gross revenues or 10% of the reserve OTEF (One Time Entry Fee) whichever is higher. The study is currently restricted to the cities of Delhi. has recently ventured into radio audience measurement through a study called RAM (Radio Audience Measurement). TAM.
talk. In the early to mid 90s Fox was having trouble obtaining the younger audience that they wanted so they looked to the radio. Radio audiences have concluded that they listen to the radio. This could result in radio getting a larger share of the advertising spends. During this time the younger audience was one of the radio's highest audience percentages. While TV pulls the big audience." Nearly 98 percent of people listen to the radio primarily for news. much like television. Radio is now the third largest mass advertising media trailing newspapers and of course television. we shall outline the risks to the growth of the radio industry. Although radio did take a severe hit when the television was introduced into average households they still managed to make a comeback. Walter Cronkite11. entertainment. Unlike many other mass mediums radio is much more personal and friendly which attracts large audiences. Radio advertising became increasingly difficult with the dawn of the television era which prompted the need for new ideas to reach the audience. there are various risk factors also that could derail the growth of the radio industry. Instead of working against television which was virtually impossible radio companies began working with them. . Though the radio industry has many growth drivers. This phase will witness licenses being awarded in smaller towns. Radio as an Advertising medium: Radio advertising is one of the earliest and most popular forms of advertising in today's world of mass media. all day. Although television has shifted much of the audience away from radio it is undisputable that radio is always there. Radio is that medium of the single sense and frees the imagination. the Government will open up as many as 700 channels in the Phase III as per some media reports. and 80 percent of the younger audiences daily. Radio is broadcasted everywhere twenty-four hours a day and always has the breaking news. because they are either bored or lonely. all night. "Radio has its own special strengths and contributions. In the next article. Radio reaches 77 percent of consumers.It is expected that after the completion of Phase II Policy. it's still radio that's there virtually every place. and sports. a famous broadcast journalist. started his career in radio and concluded. It's radio that's there when disaster strikes. which is remarkably comparing with the competition.
Advantage of radio: The most important advantage radio offers is its ability to reach specific audiences through specialized programming. particularly if local station announcers read the message. Radio may be the least expensive of all media. Pizza hut12. Radio's low cost and high reach of selected target groups make it an excellent supporting medium. radio has the shortest closing period. Radio's flexibility is also evident in its willingness to participate in promotional tie-ins such as store openings races. radio can be adapted for different parts of the country and can reach people at different times of the day. and so on. . Copy can be submitted up to airtime. and while driving. the costs of producing a radio commercial can be low. In addition. Most people listen to the radio at one time or another during the day. a local hardware store can quickly implement a snow shovel promotion the morning after a snowstorm. current news events. And because airtime costs are low. at work. and even weather. extensive repetition is possible. For example. Can be enjoyed at home. Advantages: • A universal medium. for instance. these radio time slots provides the best audience for many advertisers. Rates can generally be negotiated. In fact. • Permits you to target your advertising dollars to the market most likely to respond to your offer. In addition. the most appropriate role for most radio advertising in a supportive one. Free creative help is usually available. • • • Permits you to create a personality for your business using only sounds and voices. Radio offers advertisers flexibility. reached out to its target audience of women making dinner choices by using radio during 4 to 5 pm time slot. Known as drive time. For example. radio is the ideal means of reaching people driving to and from work. Of all media. This flexibility allows advertisers to adjust to local market conditions.
which means your ad has to work hard to be listened to and understood. Because of this. Lack of visual aids is the major disadvantage of radio in educational communication. Most listeners are doing something else while listening. Ads are an interruption to the entertainment. • Advertising costs are based on ratings which are approximations based on diaries kept in a relatively small fraction of a region's homes. Therefore. There are a lot of people who want visual aids like whiteboards. • • Not as fast as using a phone.• Least inflated medium. radio is having a lot of disadvantages for any educational communication. radio rates have gone up less than other media. • Radio is a background medium. Strategic Roles of Radio . radio ads must be repeated to break through the listener's "tune out" factor. During the past ten years. Disadvantages: • Because radio listeners are spread over many stations. for making it more persuasive and effective visual aids are very important. could take a little bit The line could get fuzzy. multimedia presentations or hard copies to better understand the discussion. In the case of radio. to totally saturate your market you have to advertise simultaneously on many stations. Another thing which is very important in educational communication is to get feedback and analyze the interest of audience which is also not possible in radio. or not clear Basically in any educational communication. if an educational program is broadcast then the people who do not have good listening skills cannot understand it. • • Listeners cannot refer back to your ads to go over important points. body language also plays a very significant role in understanding the point of view of the other person and it is not viewable in radio communication. Moreover.
a bank account. and campaigns which use only one medium can miss out on the "media multiplier effect".for services or corporate advertising this can be very valuable in adding personality and tone of voice. Dominant share of mind Share of mind can be described as the extent to which a brand makes itself salient within the consumer's mind . Radio is particularly useful for this as it uses the human voice in real-time. because levels of ad avoidance with print are so high. With TV it is traditionally used to add to the length of a campaign or to fill weeks where there is no TV activity . Because of its inherent characteristics. radio above all adds intrusiveness. bring things to life . most conspicuously in the form of a Sonic Brand Trigger.fast turnaround. These days however. Brands like the Carphone Warehouse13 have used this unique characteristic of radio to develop an unassailable lead within their category.for example.this is often the most challenging task in sectors where there are several topparity brands. . The ability of radio to create dominant share of mind is a product of its intrusiveness and the high frequency with which ads are broadcast. its key strengths were seen as primarily tactical .As Commercial Radio developed in the early days. or a promotional offer. To press. because of their inexperience. Young people. low capital cost and local flexibility. Radio also works exceptionally well with TV if there is creative synergy. or to include additional information. Radio can also. radio can work in a complementary way to other media.it can also be used to explain products or services in more depth. like TV. often need the benefits of products or services explained to them before they can make a decision to purchase . while the traditional strengths still apply. Brands in fast-changing areas like retail or financial services often use radio for its ability to put over several different messages as an overlay to a core TV campaign (multiple executions in radio are very inexpensive compared to TV). Support to other media Young people are of course consumers of several media. radio is increasingly being used for strategic roles. This means that the young people do not have to wade their way through extensive reading material before they even know what the proposition is. and/or high levels of competitive activity.
concerts Vague/ not relevant: Memories of ads for local garages. Radio Advertising The evidence from the qualitative research is that young people feel their local FM station is aimed at people like them. but the advertising is not . since they expect most ads to be irrelevant to them. and are strongly influenced by relevance of the brand or product advertised.Speaking from inside youth culture As the qualitative research illustrates. There was evidence of three sorts of advertising memories: Relevant: Ads which mentioned areas or names of specific interest. and when they are not. young people begin to move away from their parents' world of choices and preferences. because radio is a real-time intrusive medium.little or no specific detail remembered Sonic Brand Triggers: Much evidence of children's ability to pick up on musical SBTs and sing them out loud Consideration It seems clear from this analysis that children are very selective in their attention. It would follow that.g.they feel.through linking to the relevant topic. probably quite correctly. care must be taken in the creative work to overcome this expectation . e. Tone of voice is a key area with radio: young people can tell when they are being addressed as equals. outlets selling favored brands. Inevitably this means that some media are seen as outside that independent world . as a personal "me-medium". Tone of voice is a key issue with advertising strategies in this territory. they feel as though the people on the radio treat them like adults .newspapers for example. they have to sit through the full length of any ads which are for irrelevant products.leaving their parents out of the equation. cars and insurance companies . Radio. that most advertising is aimed at adults. tone of voice etc. and to set up their own world independently. surprise. allows the advertiser to speak from inside the so-called "youth fortress" As the respondents said in the research. However. . involvement. films.
Starting August 14. Allahabad. Tirupathi. Rajahmundry. 2009. RADIO STATIONS ACROSS BANGALORE: Red FM: Red FM is an Indian FM14 radio brand. 2009 and re-branded all its stations to Red FM except for the ones in Tamil Nadu. Virag the recipient of the esteemed Stardust Award for standout performance as a lyricist is from advertising background. the programming is now 100% exclusively Hindi. playing a mix of Hindi and English songs. Trissur. Shillong and Aizwal. "Indore Beats" and "Nomoshkar Kolkata". It was launched in 2002. Jamshedpur.5 megahertz in the cities of Mumbai. This is a Jupiter Capital venture. Vadodara. It was acquired from India Today promoter Living Media in January 2006. "Superhits Music Show". Vijayawada. Delhi. Hyderabad. "Dilse". "One Two ka Four". Aurangabad.9% stake. Nashik. Asansol. Nagpur. Radio Indigo: Radio Indigo 91. Siliguri.5 Virag Mishra joined the team as a National Creative Head. Jabalpur. Gwalior.9FM15 . Radio Indigo is the only radio station in the country that plays contemporary international . "Mera Wala Gana". S FM or Suryan FM was re-branded into RED FM across 38 cities in INDIA. S FM took over Red FM in August. Kannur. Lucknow. Kochi. even for seemingly irrelevant brands.Young people pick up very strongly on musical Sonic Brand Triggers. The channel is owned by Kalanidhi Maran. Mangalore. Astro. Bhubaneswar. However. "Mumbai Local". In one of the recent developments at Super Hits Red FM 93. Varanasi. Indore. Kolkata and Pune in addition to Bhopal. Ahmedabad. as well as minority holdings of Hyderabad-based IT company Value Labs. "RDX". Trivandrum. Kozhikode. The most widely broadcast shows include "Morning No. Gulbarga. with a 48. Their punchline is 'Baja ate Raho' (Keep Playing). with stations broadcasting at 93. Vizag. NDTV. Guwahati.The color of music. Warangal. Jaipur. Gangtok. Mysore. Bangalore.1". Soul of Bangalore is the country's first and only international hit station. Kanpur. Rajkot.
AIR FM Rainbow: AIR FM Rainbow. it is also known as "Rainbow FM". Sriram. it operates on 102 megahertz. Melodee Austin. heard all across India. It plays . cars and office. In Delhi. The listeners are exposed to a prescribed dose of music or whatever gets their groove. Radio Indigo 91. Suraj and Shweta taking their shows to the extreme and rocking the studios literally. It operates in Bangalore as well with a frequency of 101. it operates on 107.1 megahertz. Christabel.9 megahertz and in Vijayawada it operates on 102. it does not stick to music of just one language.2 megahertz. The channel plays various genres of music unlike private channels. Radio Indigo caters to Bangalore and Goa's long-standing tradition and a vibrant community of music aficionados.7 MHz slot.1 megahertz in Hindi cum. it operates on 101. Having headquarters in Bengaluru. jazz. In vizag. It’s International with an Indian soul. In Lucknow. In MP. it operates on 102. hip-hop.3. Radio Indigo 91-9 has evolved to brilliance through bigger promotions & prizes.6 megahertz and AIR FM Rainbow Delhi is the only FM Channel to be aired in as many as ten cities.music. In Hyderabad. The station plays a vibrant array of genres like pop. features Hindi and regional language songs and occasional English songs along with hourly news bulletins in English. Of course the audience hears favorites like Rohit Barker. regional language and also in Hindi. it operates on 102. Saggy. English language covering more than 12 districts of Madhya Pradesh and 21 Suburbs in Bhopal City. This government owned enterprise. the name was changed to FM Rainbow in 2002.9 has now emerged as the hottest radio station connecting to the most happening International music from around the world. The signals of this station are very strong and it catches till the far villages. Michelle and Allen Kepler. run by All India Radio16 is a national radio station. In Bhopal. Ryan Seacrest. it uses the 100. Playing all the hits all the time. The station has today become a house-hold name and those who have grown to love the station are sneaking it in their homes. It was earlier called FM Metro. But like all good things in this world. In Mumbai. And they are so exclusive that they are broadcasting only to Bengaluru and Goa. classic rock. world music and much more. but the new cowboys on the bandwagon are Kenny Jones. The station is talking to all those who reflect the Youth and love music.
The popular slot for English music called Radio Raptures on AIR FM Rainbow is aired everyday from 7am to10am and from 10pm to 1am and it has earned a very good audience with the passing years. AIR FM Rainbow operates on 102. with its signature property of 40 minutes non-stop music. The company entered the private FM radio market in the four main cities of Delhi. FEVER 104 FM17. Just for you. all day. it uses the 100. Aditi and Sohail.1 megahertz in Tamil language covering more than 12 districts of Tamil Nadu. Fever 104 FM. In a short span of three years.ghazals. Almost all the radio jockeys on private FM channels once started with FM Rainbow. Bangalore and Kolkata. It has many western music programs like Time Out. the channel's rise has been meteoric. In Mumbai. Mumbai (since January ’07).6 megahertz and AIR FM Rainbow Delhi is the only FM Channel to be aired in around ten cities. Bangalore and Kolkata with the brand Fever 104 FM. was formed in technical collaboration with the Virgin group. 1 position in Mumbai and Bangalore leaving behind all the other FM channels in these cities. AIR FM Rainbow operates on 102. hippest and most happening Radio Station that plays more music than any other was launched. Mumbai.2 FM station in Delhi on the popularity charts. AIR FM Rainbow is heard on 102 megahertz. all the time across the cities of Delhi. In vizag. Radio pet house. a rare occurrence in Indian radio channels. Raunak. national and international hits. Wicked Hour. National Radio Station in Trichy. You asked for it. FEVER 104 FM: In 2006. it operates on 107. It has gained the No. In Tamil Nadu.1 megahertz. In Delhi. Take off. Rainbow is one of very few Indian radio channels which air Western Music and the western music slots are really popular with listeners. It is No. . Bangalore (since March ‘07) and Kolkata (January ‘08). Matchless music hours. Footloose. It is available in Delhi (since October’ 06). owned by HT Media Limited. not only this it also has classical music shows. Live wire Plus. It plays the latest hits. this radio channel is also known as "Rainbow FM". soundtracks as well as English songs. In terms of TSL. Fever 104 FM has surged ahead with a total time spent listening of 386 minutes. Fever 104 FM is a contemporary hits music station that plays a mix of regional.7 MHz slot. Sunny. Wasim. while in Lucknow. Mumbai. Some of the radios Jockeys of AIR FM Rainbow are Altaf. Fever 104 FM with its tagline ‘It's all about the music!’ entered the FM radio market in key Indian cities. India's youngest.
It is a joint venture between Mid-day Multimedia and BBC Worldwide and operates in 7 metros namely Mumbai. 10. The Times Group operated its brand. Radio Mirchi: Radio Mirchi19 is a nationwide network of private FM radio stations in India. 2006 in Mumbai before going national in 6 more cities. a government undertaking. Hyderabad. The original avatar of Radio Mirchi was Times FM. Delhi. who developed their own program content. . Kolkata. Indore. The initiative got a good response. Limited (BCCL) which is one of the largest media and entertainment companies in India. It sold airtime blocks on its FM channels in Indore. who developed their own program content. Radio Mirchi began operations in 1993 in Indore. Until 1993. Delhi. It sold airtime blocks on its FM channels to private operators. it is promoted by Bennett. In the city of Bangalore. Coleman & Co. Kolkata.0 MHz’s. was the only radio broadcaster in India.5 MHz in Mumbai till 2006. It was known as Go 92. It is owned by the Entertainment Network India Ltd (ENIL). The station broadcasts at 94. was the only radio broadcaster in India. It was launched on June 8. The Times Group operated its brand. The government then took the initiative to privatize the radio broadcasting sector. Radio One and the Bangalore Traffic Police. Vizag and Goa to private operators. The government then took the initiative to privatize the radio broadcasting sector. Before we begin. Mumbai.000 people are said to have carpooled in the city. Soon the service of Radio One will also be started in Bhopal. the government decided not to renew contracts given to private operators. Bangalore. launched a carpooling drive which is has involved celebrities like Robin Uthappa. which is one of the subsidiaries of The Times Group. Pune and Ahmadabad. Jabalpur and Jaipur. till June 1998.5 FM and was broadcast on 92. Times FM was probably the most famous radio in India which began its operation in 1993. Until 1993. Chennai. operating in various media segments such as print media and television broadcasting. let’s know a little about Radio Mirchi.3 MHz in all cities except in Ahmadabad where it broadcasts on 95. a government undertaking. All India Radio or AIR. and by the end of May 2009. Times FM. AIR. After that.Radio One: Radio One18 is a radio station in India. and Rahul Dravid encouraging the public to carpool.
However in Kolkata they are not clear leaders in SEC ABC segments. The jury led by Chairman.the other members comprised the best in the industry: Prasoon Joshi. IRS 2009 reiterates the same as Mirchi has more than 41 million listeners across 32 stations. It has been recognition of the brand popularity and the creative talent behind the brand. However in the SEC D & E segments Radio Mirchi has total domination. Sonu Niigaam. After that. The SEC ABC segments were earlier dominated by Big FM & now by Friends FM. till June 1998. the design was created and crafted by the music fraternity itself. Radio Mirchi has been dominating in Delhi & is the leader in Mumbai and Kolkata. ahead of iconic brands like The Times of India and Star Plus. Anu Malik.5 million participants. Playing contemporary hits songs Radio Mirchi has always been the No 1 choice of listeners. Sadhana Sargam. Over the years Mirchi have established two important landmarks i. Kavita Krishnamurthy. Mirchi was voted the No. The success of the website reflects the overall popularity of Mirchi. While the parentage of the idea was that of Mirchi.: The Mirchi Kaan Awards acknowledges and honors the contribution of individuals and organizations that have led the way in developing clutter busting radio advertising. Its lead over its nearest competitor is more than double. In December 2008. Louiz Banks. During the year. the government decided not to renew contracts given to private operators. it won a plethora of awards.Times FM. would make any recipient proud . As per Brand Reporter October 2009 issue Mirchi was recognized as one of the game changers of the decade in the radio industry. Radio Mirchi is the number 1 radio brand in the private FM space. This endorses the vote of trust that the brand has built amongst its listeners. This unique honor was bestowed on Mirchi by the Pitch-IMRB group's survey of the top service brands of the country. the brand. As per the Radio Audience Measurement Reports (RAM). Shankar Mahadevan. The awards have been instituted to encourage continued creative focus on radio advertising. . Lalit Pandit. Javed Akhtar. The survey was conducted by Metrix Labs and AC Nielsen. Its market share in revenue terms remains in excess of 40% of the private FM industry. The survey had 1. Mirchi’s website was voted the most popular TV and Radio site in India. It's the largest private FM Radio operator in the country in terms of number of operational stations and revenue. 1 media brand.e.
This initiative has already reached hundreds of schools across the country. Indipop and Sufi among others. The station has been criticized for multiple format changes and presenter lineup.1 (earlier 91. Suresh Wadkar. videos. 2006. This is the only private FM radio station which is being broadcast from Srinagar and Jammu in Jammu & Kashmir state. .Kailash Kher. It broadcasts on 91. Radio City: Radio City20 is a FM radio station in India. BIG FM 92.7 MHz (92. The jury set tough standards. It launched with presenters such as Rohit Barker. Radio City has launched Fun Ka Antenna Online Radio Station which plays hits across genres including International. Radio City Bangalore is India's first private FM radio station and was started on July 3. in Chennai on July 7th 2006 and in Vishakapatnam October 2007. Rakeysh Omprakash Mehra. Bollywood. Jonzie Kurian and Suresh Venkat.com that offers music related news. Lucknow and New Delhi. As a part of its CSR Mirchi initiated a program to improve the quality of life of the visually impaired and the company came up with an initiative i. Over the years. English and regional songs. Ramesh Sippy and Kunal Kohli.7: BIG FM 92. songs. 2006 it has announced plans to invest Rs. Bangalore (started first in 2001). Recently as of July. Darius Sunawala.e. The Radio station currently plays a mix of Hindi and Kannada music. Currently. Radio City recently forayed into New Media in May 2008 with the launch of a new mega music portal . It broadcasts at 92. This initiative of ‘Listen to my movie’ has been felicitated with one of the most prestigious Readers Digest Pegasus CSR Awards in the ‘Silver Category’. “audio books”. It plays Hindi songs.7FM). It was launched in Hyderabad in March. it covers 45 cities.0 in most cities) megahertz from Mumbai (where it was started in 2004). 700 to 800 million in the current fiscal year to set up 16 FM (Frequency Modulation) stations across India. The Chief Executive Officer is Ms Apurva Purohit. 2001. and other music-related features. the station had been steadily losing popularity with the launch of newer stations in Bangalore.PlanetRadiocity.7 is a nationwide private FM radio station in India owned by Indian businessman Anil Ambani21.
in its broadcasting network.3. 4. JGI draws on the essence of tradition and sophistication of modernization to educate the professionals of tomorrow. .000. and charitable schooling to professional courses. the JGI family is principled. BIG FM included Singapore. environment. to sensitize society to global.000 dedicated to transmission equipment. The Vision behind Radio Active is to empower every individual in society to become a winner and an achiever by harnessing and nurturing human potential. national and local issues. in turn seeking to inform. Inspired by its dynamic founder and Chairman Mr. In keeping with its tradition of promoting the welfare and betterment of society. proactive and visionary. from primary to higher education. Radio Active: Jain Group of Institutions (JGI)22 is a conglomerate of 35 mission driven institutions that spans the gamut of education. infrastructure and licensing. social issues etc. R Chenraj Jain. Its vision is to contribute leaders to a vibrant and responsive India. the first city outside India. From July 1. to use technology and human enterprise in tandem to help create a meaningful and proactive social ambience where interdependence becomes mutually supportive and to focus on a universally responsive India. It broadcasts its programs daily from 5 to 8pm on XFM 96. The community radio station. which would make the proposed network the largest ever. women. Radio Active will seek to reach out to Bangalore’s masses on issues concerning health. scientific awareness. development. educate.000. while entertaining the public. Life Banao". Its mission is to provide excellence in academic education and focuses on the holistic development of the individual.It has made an announcement to invest Rs. 2008. under the name of 'BIG Bollywood 96. JGI has taken the initiative to launch a community radio station serving the cause of progress and development of the community at large. Its main tagline is "Suno Sunao.3FM’.