Pest Analysis of Afghanistan

Marketing Management

Assignment by: Arsalan Aziz Section B EMBA

perhaps the greatest factor affecting the humanitarian situation has been the deteriorating security situation. weak or no rule of law. particularly in the South. particularly in relation to media and human rights activists. and the complexity of the state-building process have become increasingly apparent. and social stability has enjoyed some progress. seven years has provided sufficient time to determine that progress has been made.Political Factors Though it is still too soon after the fall of the Taliban in 2001 to assess the extent to which Afghanistan’s transition has produced durable achievements. Afghanistan’s transition towards political. Finally. This pattern is all the more disquieting as elections are scheduled to take place in Afghanistan in 2009. On-going attacks on freedom of expression. economic. Southeast. funded in large part through illicit cross-border trade. Afghanistan’s democratically-elected government. West and East regions. From convening the Emergency Loya Jirga to presidential. is increasingly characterised by the use of asymmetric tactics creating difficulties for the Afghan government to establish a continuous operational presence. Civilian casualties have also exacerbated matters creating local distrust and fear of international security forces. The political space to express dissenting political and other views has also contracted. Apart from these achievements. . is working to become more responsive and accountable. During this period. are linked to informal power structures and a pattern of impunity. corruption. The armed conflict. Within the governance and development sphere. parliamentary and provincial council elections. the country continues to face considerable challenges. over the years.

and is highly dependent on foreign aid. International pledges made by more than 60 countries and international financial institutions at the Berlin Conference for Afghan Reconstruction in March 2004 reached over $8 billion for 2004-2007. the recovery of the agricultural sector. job creation. and jobs. electricity. erasing inequality. allied with continuing donor aid and attention to significantly raise Afghanistan’s living standards from its current level. Other long-term challenges include tackling discrimination. and rebuilding war-torn infrastructure. government capacity. Its ability to manage and disburse external financing is constrained by internal .Economic Factors Afghanistan’s economy is recovering from decades of conflict. the Government will need to overcome a number of challenges. This is largely due to the infusion of international assistance. clean water. insecurity. corruption. and dependence on imports through Pakistan will likely continue. The government remains fully dependent on foreign budget support to finance its public investment programmes. medical care. The latter led the Government to issue an urgent appeal for assistance over the last winter for fear of public unrest at the steep rise in the price of bread. agriculture. The economy remains predominantly informal. A greater emphasis on the human rights dimensions of poverty (including more effort on eradicating social injustice and ending discrimination against women and minorities) is needed. While the international community remains committed to Afghanistan’s development. and trade with neighbouring countries. Criminality. Its vulnerability to external shocks is underlined by the impact of fluctuating oil and grain prices. and service sector growth. Fears of drought. among the lowest in the world. budget sustainability. poor harvests. Despite the progress of the past few years. Afghanistan remains an extremely poor country. and the inability to extend rule of law to all parts of the country pose challenges to future economic growth. Expanding poppy cultivation and a growing opium trade generate roughly $4 billion in illicit economic activity and looms as one of the most serious policy concerns. The economy has improved significantly since the fall of the Taliban regime in 2001. Much of the population continues to suffer from shortages of housing. with a large part (circa 40%) of its estimated $7 billion gross domestic product being generated by narcotics.

. The bulk of programme delivery takes place outside the national budget framework.administrative problems. Insecurity and poor legal protection inhibit private sector development and investment. a new initiative with strong backing from the President’s office and the donor community has emerged on improving provincial governance. and performance indicators for the health and education sectors remain positive. However.

Water. Little the Afghans make is unattractive. their arts have prospered nonetheless. and revenge is regarded as a necessary redress of wrongs. which consists of the members of several generations. The culture of Afghanistan reflects its ancient roots and position as a crossroads for invading ethnic groups and traditions. The family is headed by the oldest man. Poetry and poets are revered. and displace hundreds of thousands of civilians. Characteristically. Kabul has been largely without electricity since 1994. except that tents replace the houses. such as poverty. certain elements of their way of life are much the same. and widespread thievery. The same pattern prevails among the nomads. Although the Afghan population is composed of many distinct ethnic groups. Among both villagers and nomads the family lives together and forms a self-sufficient group. inequality of women. even common grain bags to carry produce to market are often embroidered to make them more beautiful. and sewage systems have been destroyed. whose word is law for the whole family. A camel caravan of nomads often looks like a circus parade. kidnapping. In the villages each family generally occupies either one mud-brick house or a walled compound containing mud-brick or stonewalled houses. phones. The Islamic traditions of fine calligraphy and graphic arts are evoked in the fine filigreed flourishes that decorate many buildings. pride. Now many are left to fend for themselves. wound. Years of war have separated and impoverished extended families that traditionally cared for widows and fatherless children. Family honor. The ongoing civil war had continued to kill. and respect toward other members are highly prized qualities. Extremely close bonds exist within the family. Blood feuds handed down through generations are legendary. the family is the mainstay of Afghan society. interethnic strife. The civil war has strengthened these tendencies. . and banditry. Some provinces began experiencing famine in the 1990s and diseases of malnutrition are being reported for the first time in decades. or patriarch. Although the people of Afghanistan may have been sorely stressed by centuries of warfare and a difficult environment. with the animals decked out in woven finery.Social Factors Civil war has brought a variety of social ills in Afghanistan.

soups.000 people. The women wear a long loose shirt or a high-bodice dress with a swirling skirt over their trousers. Village men work in the fields. Tea is the favorite drink. For food and clothing. In the smaller villages there are no schools. the nomads depend on the milk products. and wide sashes around their waists. especially under Soviet domination where it was regarded as backward. and the mullah (teacher of Islamic laws). joined by the women during the harvest. fruit. a turban. which the flocks fertilize by depositing manure. for transportation they depend on their camels. Twice a year groups of nomads may pass through villages on their routes from summer highland grazing grounds to the lowlands where they camp during the winter.000 and those with 100 to 250 houses number about 1000. wheat. When urban women leave their houses they usually wear a burka or shadier. meat. The men wear long cotton shirts. Commonly a khan (large landowner) will control the whole village by assuming the role of both malik and mirab. The village mosque is the center of religious life and is often used as the village guest house. The nomads buy supplies such as tea. and skins of their flocks. vegetables. Women in villages seldom wear the burka. no stores. Each village has three sources of authority within it: the malik (village headman). They also wear a skullcap. the mirab (master of the water distribution). Many women wear jewelry. the villagers buy wool and milk products from the nomads. Older children tend the flocks and look after the smaller children. a long tentlike veil that covers them from head to foot. and occasionally rice and meat. . nor any representative of the government. The villagers traditionally permit the nomads to graze their animals over the harvested fields. which is collected as a form of family wealth. wool. and kerosene from the villagers. which they take off when working in the fields.Settlements in Afghanistan with less than 100 houses number over 10. Baggy cotton trousers are a standard part of the Afghan villager's costume. which hang over their trousers. a kind of yogurt called mast. they drape a wide shawl about their heads. The diet of most Afghan villagers consists mainly of unleavened flat bread called nan. Nomadic women are freer and less secluded than the village women. There are 53 urban centers that range in size from 2500 to 25. and educated urban women discarded the custom. and over that.

in which teams of horsemen compete to deposit the carcass of a large headless calf in a goal circle. Afghans also play polo and ghosai. . a team sport similar to wrestling. The most important holiday in Afghanistan is Eid and Nowruz.A favorite sport in northern Afghanistan is a game called buzkashi. which is celebrated on the first day of spring. or New Year's Day.

We got long distance radios now instead of the humvee. as well as the mountainous terrain in the north. it can fling 40 grenades a minute more than a mile. The World’s Aaron Schachter is embedded with the US army in Helmand right now. and its eight wheels make it a good match for Afghanistan’s so-called roads. In fact. Thermal imaging lights up the night for a mile in all directions. He tells us about two examples of the updated technology.Technological Factors The American troops in Afghanistan’s Helmand province are employing some new military technology in their counter-insurgency efforts. We get from point A to point B a whole lot faster. because of the incessant . more mobile. The American troops in Helmand are employing new military technologies in their counter-insurgency efforts. top of the RPG once it hits it. CHARLES KENNEDY: It’s better than a humvee. more efficient. in Afghanistan. Sergeant Charles Kennedy is with Alpha Company 423 Infantry Battalion Fifth Striker Brigade. It’s an imposing mishmash of armor and steel grading. AARON: The inside’s pretty impressive as well. In addition to massive machine guns. The technology’s updating a lot. Four screens give constant positions of troops in the field. It holds 11 soldiers and a battery of computer hardware. the cages on my side were made for RPG’s. straight out of a Mad Max movie. The World’s Aaron Schachter reports on two examples of the updated technology — the Stryker and something called “the land warrior. The Stryker and something called the Land Warrior. It can. The offensive is the first stage in President Obama’s strategy to defeat the Taliban and stabilize Afghanistan. thousands of US marines and British troops are staging major operations in town and province. it disintegrates and the cage stops it from hitting the truck. and keep tabs on the vehicle itself. and a whole lot of firepower. AARON SCHACHTER: The Stryker looks like some kind of post-apocalyptic vehicle.” LISA MULLINS: Meanwhile.

ADAM: The biggest thing is you get an idea of where the friendly elements are in the battlefield. but Lieutenant Colonel Wade Blackwell says most soldiers just don’t understand how far the military has come. Some soldiers say the extra ten pounds is more burdensome than helpful. meaning he can see the enemy before he sees him. With the Land Warrior. And that’s the biggest thing about it is. everyone knows what’s going on at once. the Stryker itself isn’t new. Blackwell commands the Third Battalion 82nd Aviation Regiment. there were only line of sight walkie-talkies. AARON: In the past commanders relied on radio traffic over different networks to keep track of their troops. if he can decide and he can start action before the enemy does. It was first deployed in Iraq. When he joined nearly 20 years ago for example. but it’s been outfitted with new gear and made to work with a new type of combat soldier. showing you where they are relative to your position and then you can send them text messages inside there’s a little keyboard on this. He’s got soldiers in the dangerous province of Southern Helmand. it’s easier to drive at night with the lights off. then he’s got a tremendous advantage. if he can talk to his people. We call it a common operations picture. At more than $3 million each. and there’ll be just little icons in there. Now soldiers are as networked as if they were in a modern office. and you do that through. demonstrated by first lieutenant Adam Smith. WADE BLACKWELL: If a ground soldier can see first. that means that the guy on the ground is seeing what the guy at the headquarters is seeing. . you got a little TV screen here over your eye. providing you with some idea of where your guys are on the ground.dust here.

.gov/fs/2005/3038/images/fig.1final. and Northeastern. . Southern. Western.The UN defines eight regions for planning purposes: Central Highlands. Eastern.SOURCES: - Analysis made by UN Department of Safety and Security (UNDSS). Southeastern. plus the capital region around Kabul .http:/pubs.jpg. Northern.usgs.

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