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Cloud computing

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article's lead section may not adequately summarize its contents. Please consider expanding the lead to provide an accessible overview of the article's key points. (December
2011)

It has been suggested that Cloud computing security be merged into this article or section. (Discuss) Proposed since December 2011.

Cloud computing logical diagram Cloud computing is the delivery of computing as a service rather than a product, whereby shared resources, software, and information are provided to computers and other devices as a metered service over a network (typically the Internet).

Contents
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1 Overview
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1.1 Comparison 1.2 Characteristics

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2 History 3 Layers

5 Open standards 6. A parallel to this concept can be drawn with the electricity grid.3 Platform 3.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ • ○ ○ ○ ○ • ○ ○ • ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ • • • • 3.3 Legal 6. software.1 Client 3.[3] This .1 Public cloud 4.5 Server 4. it is delivery model for IT services based on Internet protocols. data access.[1][2] It is a byproduct and consequence of the ease-of-access to remote computing sites provided by the Internet. wherein end-users consume power without needing to understand the component devices or infrastructure required to provide the service.8 Abuse 4 Deployment models 5 Architecture 6 Issues 7 Research 8 See also 9 References 10 External links [edit] Overview Cloud computing is a marketing term for technologies that provide computation.3 Hybrid cloud 4.4 Open source 6.2 Application 3.2 Cloud engineering 6.2 Compliance 6.2 Community cloud 4. and storage services that do not require end-user knowledge of the physical location and configuration of the system that delivers the services.4 Private cloud 5.7 Sustainability 6.4 Infrastructure 3. Also.1 The Intercloud 5.6 Security 6. and it typically involves provisioning of dynamically scalable and often virtualized resources.1 Privacy 6.

such as electricity. which are accessed from web browsers and desktop and mobile apps. police and secret intelligence services."[14] Peer-to-peer — Distributed architecture without the need for central coordination. in other cases. many government agencies already have at least one or more cloud systems online. but specific terms are less often negotiated by smaller companies. typically bulk data processing such as census. and enables IT to more rapidly adjust IT resources (such as servers. and financial transaction processing. legacy applications (line of business applications that until now have been prevalent in thin client Windows computing) are delivered via a screensharing technology. Commercial offerings may be required to meet service-level agreements (SLAs).[11] Client–server model — Client–server computing refers broadly to any distributed application that distinguishes between service providers (servers) and service requesters (clients). which appear to consumers as a single point of access for their computing needs. industry and consumer statistics. with participants being at the same time both suppliers and consumers of resources (in contrast to the traditional client–server model).[5] This type of data center environment allows enterprises to get their applications up and running faster.[8][9] The tremendous impact of cloud computing on business has prompted the United States federal government to look to the cloud as a means to reorganize its IT infrastructure and to decrease its IT budgets. while the computing resources are consolidated at a remote data center location.[13] Utility computing — The "packaging of computing resources.[6][7] Most cloud computing infrastructures consist of services delivered through shared data centers. storage. loosely coupled computers acting in concert to perform very large tasks.[12] Grid computing — "A form of distributed and parallel computing. whereby a 'super and virtual computer' is composed of a cluster of networked. With the advent of the top government officially mandating cloud adoption.[10] [edit] Comparison Cloud computing shares characteristics with: • • Autonomic computing — Computer systems capable of self-management. At the foundation of cloud computing is the broader concept of infrastructure convergence (or Converged Infrastructure) and shared services. and networking) to meet fluctuating and unpredictable business demand. entire business applications have been coded using web-based technologies such as AJAX. • • • • [edit] Characteristics Cloud computing exhibits the following key characteristics: . enterprise resource planning.[4] Cloud computing providers deliver applications via the internet.may take the form of web-based tools or applications that users can access and use through a web browser as if the programs were installed locally on their own computers. In some cases. as a metered service similar to a traditional public utility." Mainframe computer — Powerful computers used mainly by large organisations for critical applications. such as computation and storage. with easier manageability and less maintenance. while the business software and data are stored on servers at a remote location.

[20][21] Performance is monitored. Private cloud installations are in part motivated by users' desire to retain control over the infrastructure and avoid losing control of information security. In addition. users can connect from anywhere. the complexity of security is greatly increased when data is distributed over a wider area or greater number of devices and in multi-tenant systems that are being shared by unrelated users. Cost is claimed to be reduced and in a public cloud delivery model capital expenditure is converted to operational expenditure. as opposed to the control of a centralized IT service (for example) Agility improves with users' ability to re-provision technological infrastructure resources. and the lack of security for stored kernels. self-service basis near real-time. • • . and consistent and loosely coupled architectures are constructed using web services as the system interface. mobile phone). PC.• Empowerment of end-users of computing resources by putting the provisioning of those resources in their own control.[16] Security could improve due to centralization of data. increased security-focused resources.[23] However. user access to security audit logs may be difficult or impossible.[18] • • Reliability is improved if multiple redundant sites are used. as infrastructure is typically provided by a third-party and does not need to be purchased for one-time or infrequent intensive computing tasks. As infrastructure is off-site (typically provided by a third-party) and accessed via the Internet.[19] Scalability and Elasticity via dynamic ("on-demand") provisioning of resources on a fine-grained..[16] Device and location independence[17] enable users to access systems using a web browser regardless of their location or what device they are using (e.[16] Multi-tenancy enables sharing of resources and costs across a large pool of users thus allowing for: ○ ○ ○ • • • • • Centralization of infrastructure in locations with lower costs (such as real estate. etc. Application programming interface (API) accessibility to software that enables machines to interact with cloud software in the same way the user interface facilitates interaction between humans and computers. etc.g..) Peak-load capacity increases (users need not engineer for highest possible loadlevels) Utilisation and efficiency improvements for systems that are often only 10–20% utilised. electricity. Pricing on a utility computing basis is fine-grained with usage-based options and fewer IT skills are required for implementation (in-house). in part because providers are able to devote resources to solving security issues that many customers cannot afford. Cloud computing systems typically use REST-based APIs. without users having to engineer for peak loads.[15] This is purported to lower barriers to entry. but concerns can persist about loss of control over certain sensitive data.[22] Security is often as good as or better than other traditional systems. which makes well-designed cloud computing suitable for business continuity and disaster recovery.

enhanced in the RESERVOIR European Commission-funded project. The cloud symbol was used to denote the demarcation point between that which was the responsibility of the provider and that which was the responsibility of the user. were using as little as 10% of their capacity at any one time. provided as a utility. online.[24] and later to depict the Internet in computer network diagrams as an abstraction of the underlying infrastructure it represents. because they do not need to be installed on each user's computer. Other scholars have shown that cloud computing's roots go all the way back to the 1950s when scientist Herb Grosch (the author of Grosch's law) postulated that the entire world would operate on dumb terminals powered by about 15 large data centers. the technology infrastructure "in the cloud" that supports them. based on the cloud drawing used in the past to represent the telephone network. became the first open-source software for deploying private and hybrid clouds. were thoroughly explored in Douglas Parkhill's 1966 book. OpenNebula. and for the federation of clouds. who until the 1990s offered primarily dedicated point-to-point data circuits.• Maintenance of cloud computing applications is easier. By switching traffic to balance utilisation as they saw fit. those who use IT services and those who sell them"[32] and observed that "[o]rganisations are switching from companyowned hardware and software assets to per-use service-based models" so that the "projected shift . autonomic. Amazon initiated a new product development effort to provide cloud computing to external customers. which. Having found that the new cloud architecture resulted in significant internal efficiency improvements whereby small. Gartner saw an opportunity for cloud computing "to shape the relationship among consumers of IT services. and utility computing. private. like most computer networks. Eucalyptus became the first open-source. AWS API-compatible platform for deploying private clouds. when John McCarthy opined that "computation may someday be organised as a public utility. fast-moving "two-pizza teams" could add new features faster and more easily. Amazon played a key role in the development of cloud computing by modernising their data centers. In early 2008.[27] The actual term "cloud" borrows from telephony in that telecommunications companies. serviceoriented architecture. just to leave room for occasional spikes. efforts were focused on providing QoS guarantees (as required by real-time interactive applications) to cloud-based infrastructures.[18][29] In early 2008. and community forms. illusion of infinite supply). and launched Amazon Web Service (AWS) on a utility computing basis in 2006. Cloud computing extends this boundary to cover servers as well as the network infrastructure. who no longer have need for expertise in. they were able to utilise their overall network bandwidth more effectively.[26] The underlying concept of cloud computing dates back to the 1960s.[28] After the dot-com bubble. resulting to a real-time cloud environment.[31] By mid-2008.[30] In the same year. in the framework of the IRMOS European Commission-funded project. the comparison to the electricity industry and the use of public. [edit] History The term "cloud" is used as a metaphor for the Internet. began offering Virtual Private Network (VPN) services with comparable quality of service but at a much lower cost.[25] Cloud computing is a natural evolution of the widespread adoption of virtualisation." Almost all the modernday characteristics of cloud computing (elastic provision. Details are abstracted from end-users. government. or control over. The Challenge of the Computer Utility.

[edit] Client See also: Category:Cloud clients A cloud client consists of computer hardware and/or computer software that relies on cloud computing for application delivery and that is in essence useless without it. will result in dramatic growth in IT products in some areas and significant reductions in other areas. and one of the most important parts of this change is . (January 2012) See also: Category:Cloud platforms Cloud platform services."[33] [edit] Layers Once an internet protocol connection is established among several computers.[38][39] Cloud computing is becoming a major change in our industry. [edit] Platform This section uses second-person ("you") inappropriately... and browsers. operating systems (example: Google Chrome OS).[37] It facilitates deployment of applications without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware and software layers. Examples include some computers (example: Chromebooks). eliminating the need to install and run the application on the customer's own computers and simplifying maintenance and support. also known as platform as a service (PaaS).to cloud computing . deliver a computing platform and/or solution stack as a service. Please rewrite it to use a more formal. phones (example: Google Nexus series) and other devices. often consuming cloud infrastructure and sustaining cloud applications. it is possible to share services within any one of the following layers.[34][35][36] [edit] Application See also: Category:Cloud applications Cloud application services or "Software as a Service (SaaS)" deliver software as a service over the Internet. encyclopedic tone.

the shift of cloud platforms. cloudspecific operating systems and combined offerings. The costs are spread over fewer users than a .. but they all have great potential in developing. Platforms let developers write certain applications that can run in the cloud. in which a service provider makes resources. clients instead buy those resources as a fully outsourced service. deliver computer infrastructure – typically a platform virtualization environment – as a service. Public cloud services may be free or offered on a pay-per-usage model. including multi-core processors.[16] [edit] Community cloud Community cloud shares infrastructure between several organizations from a specific community with common concerns (security. There are different names being used for platforms which can include the on-demand platform. available to the general public over the Internet. also known as "infrastructure as a service" (IaaS). It's your choice on what you would like to call the platform. Rather than purchasing servers. along with raw (block) storage and networking. software. or Cloud 9.). jurisdiction. compliance. data-center space or network equipment. whether managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally. Suppliers typically bill such services on a utility computing basis.[40] [edit] Server The servers layer consists of computer hardware and/or computer software products that are specifically designed for the delivery of cloud services. or even use services provided by the cloud. the amount of resources consumed (and therefore the cost) will typically reflect the level of activity. etc.[41][42][43][44] [edit] Deployment models Cloud computing types [edit] Public cloud A public cloud is one based on the standard cloud computing model. each must build its own cloud platform. When development teams create applications for the cloud. such as applications and storage. [edit] Infrastructure See also: Category:Cloud infrastructure Cloud infrastructure services.

or public) that remain unique entities but are bound together.public cloud (but more than a private cloud). developing. and manage them" and thus do not benefit from less hands-on management. risk. It is a multidisciplinary method encompassing contributions from diverse areas such as systems.[46] essentially "[lacking] the economic model that makes cloud computing such an intriguing concept".[45] They have attracted criticism because users "still have to buy. It can also be defined as multiple cloud systems that are connected in a way that allows programs and data to be moved easily from one deployment system to another. typically involves multiple cloud components communicating with each other over a loose coupling mechanism such as a messaging queue.[47][48] [edit] Architecture Cloud computing sample architecture Cloud architecture. operating and maintaining cloud computing systems. [edit] The Intercloud Main article: Intercloud The Intercloud[50] is an interconnected global "cloud of clouds"[51][52] and an extension of the Internet "network of networks" on which it is based.[45] [edit] Hybrid cloud Hybrid cloud is a composition of two or more clouds (private. and quality engineering.[53][54][55] [edit] Cloud engineering Cloud engineering is the application of engineering disciplines to cloud computing. web. and governance in conceiving. performance. security. standardisation. .[45] [edit] Private cloud Private cloud is infrastructure operated solely for a single organization. community. It brings a systematic approach to the high level concerns of commercialisation. platform. software. whether managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally. offering the benefits of multiple deployment models.[49] the systems architecture of the software systems involved in the delivery of cloud computing. information. build. so only some of the benefits of cloud computing are realized.

"[57] Cloud computing poses privacy concerns basically.[58] [edit] Compliance In order to obtain compliance with regulations including FISMA. HIPAA.[56] While there have been efforts (such as US-EU Safe Harbor) to "harmonise" the legal environment. but this has been criticised on the grounds that the hand-picked set of goals and standards determined by the auditor and the auditee are often not disclosed and can vary widely. under non-disclosure agreement. security concerns to the sharing of propriety data resources. [edit] Open source See also: Category:Open source cloud computing Open-source software has provided the foundation for many cloud computing implementations. They could accidentally or deliberately alter or even delete some info. causes uncertainty among privacy advocates. one prominent example being the Hadoop framework.[edit] Issues [edit] Privacy The cloud model has been criticised by privacy advocates for the greater ease in which the companies hosting the cloud services control.[67] [edit] Open standards See also: Category:Cloud standards Most cloud providers expose APIs that are typically well-documented (often under a Creative Commons license[68]) but also unique to their implementation and thus not interoperable. Some . which recorded over 10 million phone calls between American citizens. and Verizon.[63][64] Customers in the EU contracting with cloud providers established outside the EU/EEA have to adhere to the EU regulations on export of personal data. because the service provider at any point in time. the Data Protection Directive in the EU and the credit card industry's PCI DSS.[61] Many providers also obtain SAS 70 Type II certification. lawfully or unlawfully. and the greater powers it gives to telecommunication companies to monitor user activity.[66] In November 2007. the communication and data stored between the user and the host company. and SOX in the United States. certain legal issues arise. may access the data that is on the cloud. Instances such as the secret NSA program.[62] Providers typically make this information available on request. a version of GPLv3 intended to close a perceived legal loophole associated with free software designed to be run over a network. working with AT&T. This is how Google is able to "manage and meet additional government policy requirements beyond FISMA"[59][60] and Rackspace Cloud or QubeSpace are able to claim PCI compliance. thus. can monitor at will. providers such as Amazon still cater to major markets (typically the United States and the European Union) by deploying local infrastructure and allowing customers to select "availability zones. everything from trademark infringement.[65] [edit] Legal As can be expected with any revolutionary change in the landscape of global computing. users may have to adopt community or hybrid deployment modes that are typically more expensive and may offer restricted benefits. the Free Software Foundation released the Affero General Public License.

• • Very few or no other articles link to it. The effectiveness and efficiency of traditional protection mechanisms are being reconsidered as the characteristics of this innovative deployment model differ widely from those of traditional architectures. to use of multiple cloud providers. In areas where climate favors natural cooling and renewable electricity is readily available. bug exploitation.vendors have adopted others' APIs and there are a number of open standards under development. standardisation of APIs. accountability. recovery. malicious insiders. that promote external management of provided services. It is the very nature of cloud computing-based services. and improving virtual machine support and legal support. a banking trojan illegally used the popular Amazon service as a command and control channel that issued software updates and malicious instructions to PCs that were infected by the malware. management console security. Energy efficiency in cloud computing can result from energy-aware scheduling and server consolidation. and multi-tenancy issues. This delivers great incentive to cloud computing service providers to prioritize building and maintaining strong management of secure services.[70][73][74] Sustainability Although cloud computing is often assumed to be a form of "green computing".[77] are trying to attract cloud computing data centers.[80] In 2009. Please help introduce links to this page from other articles related to it. there is as of yet no published study to substantiate this assumption.[69] Security As cloud computing is achieving increased popularity. account control. particularly public key infrastructure (PKI).[75] Siting the servers affects the environmental effects of cloud computing. Tagged since January 2012. It may need to be wikified to meet Wikipedia's quality standards.[72] Security issues have been categorised into sensitive data access. Tagged since .[81] Cloud collaboration From Wikipedia. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page.[79] Abuse As with privately purchased hardware.) Thus countries with favorable conditions. (The same holds true for "traditional" data centers. private or public.[71] Issues barring the adoption of cloud computing are due in large part to the private and public sectors unease surrounding the external management of security-based services. crackers posing as legitimate customers can purchase the services of cloud computing for nefarious purposes. the free encyclopedia This article has multiple issues.[78] However. a small compromise on energy consumption reduction could result in high carbon footprint reduction.[70] The relative security of cloud computing services is a contentious issue that may be delaying its adoption. with a view to delivering interoperability and portability. the environmental effects will be more moderate. in the case of distributed clouds over data centers with different source of energies including renewable source of energies. Solutions to various cloud security issues vary. concerns are being voiced about the security issues introduced through adoption of this new model. privacy.[76] Sweden and Switzerland. such as Finland. from cryptography. This includes password cracking and launching attacks using the purchased services. data segregation.

Cloud computing is a marketing term for technologies that provide software.January 2012. it has been noted that the uptake of cloud collaboration services has reached a point where it is less to do with the ability of current technology. Per the Wikipedia style guidelines. comment and collaborate on documents and even amend the document itself. evolving the document within the cloud[2]. A report by Erica Rugullies mapped out five reasons why workers are reluctant to collaborate more. However. Businesses in the last few years have increasingly been switching to use of cloud collaboration. where end-users consume power without needing to understand the component devices or infrastructure required to provide the service. A parallel to this concept can be drawn with the electricity grid. collaboration has become more complex. Teams that want to or are selected to use the software do not have strong team leaders who push for more collaboration. People do not have incentive to change their behaviour. using different devices. Users are most comfortable using e-mail as their primary electronic collaboration tool. where they can then be accessed by others. and any links that are not relevant to the context. in this case. whereby documents are uploaded to a central ‘cloud’ for storage[1]. with the need to work with people all over the world in real time on a variety of different types of documents.[3] These are: • • • • People resist sharing their knowledge. In the past. please remove duplicate links. and could require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. most document collaboration would have to be completed face to face. Collaboration. . While growth in the collaboration sector is still growing rapidly. Contents [hide] • • • • • 1 Overview 2 Origins 3 Recent developments 4 See also 5 References [edit] Overview Cloud collaboration brings together new advances in cloud computing and collaboration that are becoming more and more necessary in firms operating in an increasingly globalised world. refers to the ability of workers in a company to work together simultaneously on a particular task. and more to do with the reluctance of workers to collaborate in this way. and storage services that do not require end-user knowledge of the physical location and configuration of the system that delivers the services. This article may have too many links. New cloud collaboration technologies have allowed users to upload. (January 2012) Cloud collaboration is a newly emerging way of sharing and co-authoring files through the use of cloud technology. data access.

As a result. [edit] Origins Before cloud file sharing and collaboration software. cloud collaboration solutions were able to evolve. began offering IT infrastructure services to businesses in the form of web services. Cloud computing only began to come to real prominence in 2007 when Google decided to move parts of its email service to a public cloud. many new. whether this is through an internet browser. 22% of workers admitted to having used one or more of these external non-authorised websites. Very early moves into cloud computing were made by Amazon Web Services who.[5] Cloud collaboration packages provide the ability to collaborate on documents together in real time. or through newer technologies such as smartphones and tablet devices. It has also been noted that cloud collaboration has become more and more necessary for IT departments as workforces have become more mobile and now need access to important documents wherever they are. many providers of cloud collaboration tools have created solutions to these problems. The tech industry has seen several large paradigm changes over the past few decades: • • • The mainframe computing era enabled business growth to be untethered from the number of employees needed to process transactions manually.• Senior management is not actively involved in or does not support the team collaboration initiative. the cost of automating office and desktop processes. These did not work particularly well. Each of these revolutions brought with it new economies of scale. With an increase in cloud computing services. IT managers can now properly regulate internet based collaboration with a system tailor made for the office. cloud collaboration is important in a world where business has become more globalised. innovative firms have entered the industry offering new features and a more complete cloud collaboration system. with offices and clients located all over the world. making the use of non-authorised instant messaging redundant. In a survey taken in early 2011. filling gaps in the market left by less adaptable large existing software firms. . most collaboration was limited to more primitive and less effective methods such as email and FTP among others. Many analysts explain the rise of cloud collaboration by pointing to the increasing use by workers of non-authorised websites and online tools to do their jobs. and so the need emerged for a simple to use. All the tools a team could need are put into one piece of software so workers no longer have to rely on email based solutions. in 2006. The cost-per-transaction.[4] It wasn’t long before IBM and Microsoft followed suit with LotusLive and Business Productivity Online Standard Suite (BPOS) respectively. These include the integration of email alerts into collaboration software and the ability to see who is viewing the document at any time. A decade of network computing established an unprecedented level of transparency of information across multiple groups inside a company and an amazing rate of data exchange between enterprises. yet feature rich cloud collaboration solution. The personal computing era empowered business users to run their businesses based on individual data and applications on their PCs. Furthermore. This includes the use of instant messaging and social networks. Since 2007. and finally the cost of network bandwidth fell quickly and enabled business users to apply ICT solutions more broadly to create business value.

and adoption quickly accelerated. In the past. In some cases. the collaboration software can even be integrated into Microsoft Office[7]. Yet underlying economics of 20 to 30 percent savings compelled CIOs to overcome these concerns. rather than having to rely on multiple different techniques. cloud collaboration has seen rapid evolution. with only email as a collaboration platform and a culture which resists information sharing. over time the client/server technology found its way into the enterprise. packages are now much more documentcentric in their approach to collaboration. etc. Similarly. email and FTP[8]. [edit] Recent developments Recently. client/server was initially viewed as a “toy” technology. Cloud collaboration today is promoted as a tool for collaboration internally between different departments within a firm. application compatibility concerns and potential vendor lock-in were cited as barriers to adoption. The best cloud collaboration tools[9]: • • • Use real-time commenting and messaging features to enhance speed of project delivery Leverage presence indicators to identify when others are active on documents owned by another person Allow users to set permissions and manage other users’ activity profiles Allow users to set personal activity feeds and email alert profiles to keep abreast of latest activities per file or user Allow users to collaborate and share files with users outside the company firewall Comply with company security and compliance framework Ensure full auditability of files and documents shared within and outside the organization Reduce workarounds for sharing and collaboration on large files • • • • • A 2011 report by Gartner outlines a five stage model on the maturity of firms when it comes to the uptake of cloud collaboration tools. More sophisticated tools allow users to ‘tag’ specific areas of a document for comments which are delivered real time to those viewing the document[6]. Advantages: . not viable as a mainframe replacement. but also externally as a means for sharing documents with end-clients as receiving feedback. Yet. Newer. A firm in the fifth stage is called ‘pervasive’.) believe that cloud computing will help unleash the next wave of tech-enabled business innovation. the trend now is for firms to employ a single software tool to solve all their collaboration needs. Gartner. Single cloud collaboration providers are now replacing a complicated tangle of instant messengers. The article argues that most firms are in the second stage. cloud collaboration tools have been quite basic with very limited features.Most analysts (Forrester. and has universal access to a rich collaboration toolset and a strong collaborative culture. or allow users to set up video conferences. This makes cloud computing a very versatile tool for firms with many different applications in a business environment. when virtualization technology was first proposed.[10] A firm in the first stage is said to be ‘reactive’. During the mainframe era. Furthermore. but as cloud collaboration becomes more important. most analysts expect to see the majority of firms moving up in the model.

Cloud Computing Benefits Enterprises would need to align their applications. so as to exploit the architecture models that Cloud Computing offers. 2. Initial expense and recurring expenses are much lower than traditional computing. The billing model is pay as per usage. That’s not to say. There are a number of reasons why you might not want to adopt cloud computing for your particular needs. the infrastructure is not purchased thus lowering maintenance. that cloud computing is without its disadvantages.We’ll start with the advantages offered by cloud computing— and there are many. 1) Lower-Cost Computers for Users 2) Improved Performance 3) Lower IT Infrastructure Costs 4) Fewer Maintenance Issues 5) Lower Software Costs 6) Instant Software Updates 7) Increased Computing Power 8) Unlimited Storage Capacity 9) Increased Data Safety 10) Improved Compatibility Between Operating Systems 11) Improved Document Format Compatibility 12) Easier Group Collaboration 13) Universal Access to Documents 14) Latest Version Availability 15) Removes the Tether to Specific Devices Disadvantage as below. 1) Requires a Constant Internet Connection 2) Doesn’t Work Well with Low-Speed Connections 3) Can Be Slow 4) Features Might Be Limited 5) Stored Data Might Not Be Secure 6) If the Cloud Loses Your Data. of course. Some of the typical benefits are listed below: 1. Increased Storage . Let’s examine a few of the risks related to cloud computing. Reduced Cost There are a number of reasons to attribute Cloud technology with lower costs. You’re screwed.

speed to deliver is critical. since the cloud can scale dynamically. 3. Sudden workload spikes are also managed effectively & efficiently. storage & maintenance of large volumes of data is a reality. to changing business conditions. . Cloud computing stresses on getting applications to market very quickly. by using the most appropriate building blocks necessary for deployment. even more rapidly.With the massive Infrastructure that is offered by Cloud providers today. Flexibility This is an extremely important characteristic. With enterprises having to adapt.