# Open loop vs closed loop

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Open loop vs closed loop
The terms open-loop control and closed-loop control are often not clearly distinguished. Therefore, the difference between open-loop control and closed-loop control is demonstrated in the following example of a room heating system. In the case of open-loop control of the room temperature according to Figure 1.1 the outdoor

temperature

Figure 1.1: Open-loop control of a room heating system will be measured by a temperature sensor and fed into a control device. In the case of ( disturbance ) the control device adjusts the heating flow

changes in the outdoor temperature according to the characteristic

of Figure 1.2 using the motor M and the valve V. The slope of this is changed by opening a

characteristic can be tuned at the control device. If the room temperature window ( disturbance

) this will not influence the position of the valve, because only the outdoor

temperature will influence the heating flow. This control principle will not compensate the effects of all disturbances.

Figure 1.2: Characteristic of a heating control device for three different tuning sets (1, 2, 3) In the case of closed-loop control of the room temperature as shown in Figure 1.3 the room temperature is measured and compared with the set-point value , (e.g. ). If the room temperature deviates

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ruhr-uni-bochum.g. a controller (C) alters the heat flow .and closed-loop control is readily apparent.com For evaluation only. Calculation of the control error (comparison of the controlled variable with the set-point the control error is value ). Figure 1.5: Block diagram of the closed-loop control of the heating system The order of events to organise a closed-loop control is characterised by the following steps: Measurement of the controlled variable . are detected by the controller and removed. Processing of the control error such that by changing the manipulated variable 2 of 3 1/4/2012 5:27 AM .html Generated by Foxit PDF Creator © Foxit Software http://www. from the given set-point value.4 and 1. caused by opening the window or by solar radiation.atp. e.4: Block diagram of the open-loop control of the heating system Figure 1.Open loop vs closed loop http://www. All changes of the room temperature .5.3: Closed-loop control of a room heating system The block diagrams of the open-loop and the closed-loop temperature control systems are shown in Figures 1.foxitsoftware.de/rt1/syscontrol/node4. and from these the difference between open. Figure 1.

cannot become unstable .as long as the controlled object is stable. for which it has been designed. can become unstable.e. reduced or removed. can counteract against disturbances (negative feedback). can only counteract against disturbances.Open loop vs closed loop http://www. the controlled variable does not fade away. i. Comparing open-loop control with closed-loop control the following differences are seen: Closed-loop control shows a closed-loop action (closed control loop).html Generated by Foxit PDF Creator © Foxit Software http://www. Summarising these properties we can define: Systems in which the output quantity has no effect upon the process input quantity are called open-loop control systems. Next: The basic structure of Up: Introduction into System Control Previous: Control objectives Contents Christian Schmid 2005-05-09 3 of 3 1/4/2012 5:27 AM .foxitsoftware. Systems in which the output has an effect upon the process input quantity in such a manner as to maintain the desired output value are called closed-loop control systems.ruhr-uni-bochum. other disturbances cannot be removed. but grows (theoretically) to an infinite value.de/rt1/syscontrol/node4.com For evaluation only. Open-loop control shows an open-loop action (controlled chain).atp.