Research Methodology

Assignment Set 1

Q1. Why should a manger know about research when the job entails managing people, products, events, environments, and the like? Ans:The manager, while managing people, products, events, and environments will invariably face problems, big and small, and will have to seek ways to find long lasting effective solutions. This can be achieved only through knowledge of research even if consultants are engaged to solve problems. The primary purpose for applied research (as opposed to basic research) is discovering, interpreting, and the development of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge on a wide variety of scientific matters of our world and the universe. Research can use the scientific method, but need not do so. The goal of the research process is to produce new nowledge, which takes three main forms (although, as previously discussed, the boundaries between them may be fuzzy): Exploratory research, which structures and identifies new problems Constructive research, which develops solutions to a problem Empirical research, which tests the feasibility of a solution using empirical evidence. The research room at the New York Public Library, an example of secondary research in progress. Research can also fall into two distinct types: 1) Primary research 2) Secondary research In social sciences and later in other disciplines, the following two research methods can be applied, depending on the properties of the subject matter and on the objective of the research: Qualitative research Quantitative research

Research is often conducted using the hourglass model Structure of Research. The hourglass model starts with a broad spectrum for research, focusing in on the

required information through the methodology of the project (like the neck of the hourglass), then expands the research in the form of discussion and results. Research and development is nowadays of great importance in business as the level of competition, production processes and methods are rapidly increasing. It is of special importance in the field of marketing where companies keep an eagle eye on competitors and customers in order to keep pace with modern trends and analyze the needs, demands and desires of their customers. Unfortunately, research and development are very difficult to manage, since the defining feature of research is that the researchers do not know in advance exactly how to accomplish the desired result. As a result, higher R&D spending does not guarantee "more creativity, higher profit or a greater market share.

Q 2. a. How do you evolve research design for exploratory research? Briefly analyze. Ans:The central purpose is to formulate hypotheses regarding potential problems and opportunities present in the decision situation. The hypotheses can be tested at a later phase with a conclusive research design (Leinhardt and Leinhardt, 1980). Exploratory research design applies when the research objectives include the following: a. identifying problems (threats or opportunities) b. developing a more precise formulation of a vaguely identified problem(threat or opportunity) c. gaining perspective regarding the breath of variables operating in a situation d. establishing priorities regarding the potential significance of various problems (threats or opportunities) e. gaining management and researcher perspective concerning the character of the problem situation f. identifying and formulating alternative courses of action; and g. gathering information on the problems associated with doing conclusive research. h. identification of problems (threats or opportunities) can be assisted through the following: i) Searching secondary sources ii) Interviewing knowledgeable persons iii) Compiling case histories.

Q 2 b. Briefly explain Independent, dependent and extraneous variables in a research design. Ans:Independent Variable: A variable that you believe might influence your outcome measure. This might be a variable that you control, like a treatment, or a variable not under your control, like an exposure. It also might represent a demographic factor like age or gender. Contrast this with the definition of the dependent variable. An independent variable is a hypothesized cause or influence on a dependent variable. One way to distinguish these variables is to ask yourself what you are want to learn from this research. The dependent variable is a variable you are trying to predict. Any variable that you are using to make those predictions is an independent variable. A recently published research study examined the relationship of dietary fat consumption and the development of ischemic stroke in a cohort of 832 men who were free of cardiovascular disease at baseline (1966-1969) and who were followed for a twenty year period. In this study, the independent variables were: • • • percentage of total fat in the diet, percentage of saturated fat, and the percentage of monounsaturated fat.

Dependent variable: In a research study, the variable that you believe might be influenced or modified by some treatment or exposure. It may also represent the variable you are trying to predict. Contrast this with the definition of an independent variable. Sometimes the dependent variable is called the outcome variable. This definition depends on the context of the study. In a study of prenatal care, the birthweight is an outcome or dependent variable, but in neonatology, it is more likely to be an independent variable. A recently published research study examined the relationship of dietary fat consumption and the development of ischemic stroke in a cohort of 832 men who were free of cardiovascular disease at baseline (1966-1969) and who were followed for a twenty year period. In this study, the dependent variable was: • incidence of ischemic stroke.

Extraneous variable: The independent variables which are not directly related to the purpose of the study but affect the dependent variable are known as extraneous variables. For eg, if a researcher wants to test the hypothesis that there is relationship between children’s school performance and their selfconcepts, in which case the latter is an independent variable and the former is the dependent variable. In this context, intelligence may also influence the school performance. However, since it is not directly related to the purpose of the study undertaken by the researcher, it would be known as extraneous variable. The influence caused by the extraneous variable on the dependent variable is technically called as an ‘experimental error’. Therefore, a research study should always be framed in such a manner that the dependent variable completely influences the change in the independent variable and any other extraneous variable or variables.

Q 3. a. Differentiate between ‘Census survey’ and ‘ Sample Survey’. Ans: Difference between Census and Sampling Practically every country in the world conducts censuses and sampling surveys on a regular basis in order to get valuable data from and about their populations. This data is used by the federal and state governments in making numerous decisions with regard to various health care, housing, and educational issues, among others. While both these two data-gathering methods essentially serve the same purpose, they have a number of differences with regard to approach and methodology, as well as scope. These two methods may also differ in terms of the variance in the data gathered, as you will see later. Scope A census involves the gathering of information from every person in a certain group. This may include information on age, sex and language among others. A sample survey on the other hand commonly involves gathering data from only a certain section of a particular group.

due to census tally workers as well as hiring temporary census home visitors Includes an uncomfortable visit from a government worker if the census is not filled out on time . This makes sampling a much less accurate form of data collection than a census. Adding considerably to the timetable is the necessity of gathering data from every single member of the population.Sampling Variance The main advantage of a census is a virtually zero sampling variance. In addition. In addition. again given the smaller scope. In most cases. there is no sampling variance Provides detailed information about smaller groups Can be quite costly. The huge scope of a census also makes it harder to maintain control of the quality of the data. anyone who does not complete a census form will be visited by a government representative who’s only job to is to gather census data. there is a possibility of sampling variance. since data is gathered from a much smaller group of people. which in turn leads to better data monitoring and quality control. As for sampling. since the data used is drawn from only a small section of the population. Summary Census • • • • • Gathers information from every individual in a certain group Since data from the entire population is used. they are also a lot more time-consuming than sample surveys. Cost And Timetable A census can be quite expensive to conduct. more precise detail can generally be gathered about smaller groups of the population. A sample survey for its part costs quite a bit less than a census. For instance. particularly for large populations. This also means reduced requirements for respondents. In addition. particularly for large populations. sample surveys generally take a much shorter time to conduct. the sample may be too small to provide an accurate picture of the population. mainly because the data used is drawn from the whole population.

either in single stage or multi stage. Deciding what elements within the cluster to use is the second stage. in order to reduce travel requirements.[1] Although cluster sampling and stratified sampling bear some superficial similarities. Analyze multi-stage and sequential sampling. an additional stage of clustering is used. a random sample is drawn from all the strata. This method means that it is not necessary to create a list of every dwelling in the region.Sampling • • • • Gathers information from only a section of the population May have a significant degree of sample variance. dwellings are listed within each selected block. In stratified sampling. . the researcher randomly selects elements from each cluster. b. household surveys conducted by the Australian Bureau of Statistics begin by dividing metropolitan regions into 'collection districts'. Under these circumstances. Constructing the clusters is the first stage. they are substantially different. The technique is used frequently when a complete list of all members of the population does not exist and is inappropriate. since the data is derived from only a small section of a population May not provide enough information about smaller groups or smaller geographical sections of a place Costs much less than a census. The selected collection districts are then divided into blocks. Using all the sample elements in all the selected clusters may be prohibitively expensive or not necessary. several levels of cluster selection may be applied before the final sample elements are reached. only for selected blocks. In remote areas. where in cluster sampling only the selected clusters are studied. since data is gathered from only a small section of a group Q 3. and some of these dwellings are selected (third stage). Ans:Multistage sampling Multistage sampling is a complex form of cluster sampling. Instead of using all the elements contained in the selected clusters. and selecting some of these collection districts (first stage). multistage cluster sampling becomes useful. In some cases. and blocks are chosen from within each selected collection district (second stage). Next. For example.

analyzes the results then picks another group of subjects if needed and so on. It simply the sum of the numbers divided by the number of numbers. The symbol M is used for the mean of a sample. This sampling technique gives the researcher limitless chances of fine tuning his research methods and gaining a vital insight into the study that he is currently pursuing. Q 4. shows the number of touchdown (TD) passes thrown by each of the 31 teams in the National Football League in the 2000 season. The formula for m is shown below: where ΣX is the sum of all the numbers in the numbers in the sample and N is the number of numbers in the sample. The symbol m is used for the mean of a population. Number of touchdown passes.Sequential sampling Sequential sampling is a non-probability sampling technique wherein the researcher picks a single or a group of subjects in a given time interval. conducts his study. List down various measures of central tendency and explain the difference between them? Ans:Arithmetic Mean The arithmetic mean is the most common measure of central tendency. . The mean number of touchdown passes thrown is 20. The table. As an example. the mean of the numbers regardless of whether the numbers constitute the entire population or just a sample from the population.4516 as shown below.

there are 31 scores. it is assumed to refer to the arithmetic mean.Although the arithmetic mean is not the only "mean" (there is also a geometic mean). the geometic mean. Number of touchdown passes. The 16th highest score (which equals 20) is the median because there are 15 scores below the 16th score and 15 scores above the 16th score. it is by far the most commonly used. or some other mean. Therefore. The median can also be thought of as the 50th percentile. Let's return to the made up example of the quiz on which you made a three discussed previously in the module Introduction to Central Tendency and shown in Table 2. if the term "mean" is used without specifying whether it is the arithmetic mean. . Median The median is also a frequently used measure of central tendency. The median is the midpoint of a distribution: the same numbers of scores are above the median as below it. For the data in the table.

the median of the numbers Mode The mode is the most frequently occuring value. Number of touchdown passes. your score is below the median. the mode is 18 since more teams (4) had 18 touchdown passes than any other number of touchdown passes. the median is 4. Therefore. This means you are in the lower half of the class. the median is 2. Therefore the mode of continuous data is normally computed from a grouped frequency distribution. Thus. the mode is the middle of that interval (650). Finally for Dataset 3.For Dataset 1. . For this dataset. the median is the mean of the two middle numbers. the same as your score. your score is above the median and therefore in the upper half of the distribution. The Grouped frequency distribution table shows a grouped frequency distribution for the target response time data. the median of 2. 4. the median is simply the middle number.For the data in the table. the median is three. For example. the frequency of each value is one since no two scores will be exactly the same. Since the interval with the highest frequency is 600700. and 7 is 4. For Dataset 2. Computation of the Median: When there is an odd number of numbers. When there is an even number of numbers. With continuous data such as response time measured to many decimals.

trade associations (e. census reports. inventory records. published sources (annual reports of currency and finance published by the Reserve Bank of India. compared to gathering information from available sources 2 Data collection is a time consuming process 3 It requires trained interviewers and investigators 2 Secondary Sources of Data These are sources containing data. unlike published information that is already available The disadvantages are – 1 It is expensive to collect.. for the purposes of the project immediately at hand. Select any topic for research and explain how you will use both secondary and primary sources to gather the required information. such as government agencies (e. trade and financial journals.Q. Primary data is first hand information collected through various methods such as surveys. minutes of meetings and other information that is available within the firm. in the form of a marketing information system. The advantages of primary data are – 1 It is unique to a particular research study 2 It is recent information. They may also be external sources. and brand loyalty and other aspects of consumer behavior. Secondary sources may be internal sources. e. Chambers of Commerce) and commercial services (outside suppliers of information).).g.g. experiments and observation. financial statements. publications of international organizations such as the UN.g.5. Ans: Primary Sources of Data Primary sources are original sources from which the researcher directly collects data that has not been previously collected. Methods of Data Collection: . such as annual reports. sales reports. World Bank and International Monetary Fund. reports of government departments). etc. which has been collected and compiled for another purpose. collection of data directly by the researcher on brand awareness. from a sample of consumers by interviewing them. brand preference.

knowledge-awareness practice (KAP) studies. farm management studies. 3 It can cover a very large population. business management studies etc. sociological studies of social problems and social institutions. the researcher can collect the required data precisely according to his research needs and he can collect them when he wants and in the form that he needs it. observation and experiments. marketing research. viewing surveys. In this case. 1. It is a field study. A survey involves the following steps 1 Selection of a problem and its formulation 2 Preparation of the research design 3 Operation concepts and construction of measuring indexes and scales 4 Sampling 5 Construction of tools for data collection 6 Field work and collection of data 7 Processing of data and tabulation 8 Analysis of data 9 Reporting There are four basic survey methods. leadership studies. A survey has certain characteristics: 1 It is always conducted in a natural setting. radio listening and T. 4 It may include an extensive study or an intensive study 5 It covers a definite geographical area. opinion polls. But the collection of primary data is costly and time consuming. including surveys. required data is not available from secondary sources and it has to be directly gathered from the primary sources. 2 It seeks responses directly from the respondents.V. inadequate or obsolete. It is a method of research involving collection of data directly from a population or a sample at a particular time. which include: 1 Personal interview . audits and panels. Survey Research A survey is a fact-finding study. Yet. Primary data has to be gathered in cases where the available data is inappropriate. There are various methods of primary data collection. social anthropological studies of rural communities and tribal communities.The researcher directly collects primary data from its original sources. attitudinal surveys. for several types of social science research. It includes: socio economic surveys.

2. 3. from factual demographic data to highly personal and intimate information relating to a person’s opinions. Interview is often superior to other data-gathering methods. They are: 1. People are usually more willing to talk than to write. or when a sufficient number of qualified interviewers are available. Interviewing as a method of data collection has certain characteristics. which for some reason or the other the respondents do not want to answer. the investigator has to get himself/herself introduced to the respondent in an appropriate manner.. viz. or probing is necessary to draw out the respondent fully. experiences and future intentions. It is useful for collecting a wide range of data. momentary experience for them. The interview is a mode of obtaining verbal answers to questions put verbally. hence. Interviewing is appropriate when qualitative information is required. Interview can add flesh to statistical information. The interview proper is a fleeting. It involves not only conversation. obtaining information relevant to a study. The interview is not a mere casual conversational exchange. but also learning from the respondent’s gestures. Once rapport is established. facial expressions and pauses. The participants – the interviewer and the respondent – are strangers. The relationship between the participants is a transitory one. initiated for obtaining information relevant to a specific study. It permits probing into the context and reasons for answers to questions. It enables the investigator to grasp the behavioral context of the data furnished by the respondents. Interviewing may be used either as a main method or as a supplementary one in studies of persons. personal interview is feasible. but a conversation with a specific purpose. It has a fixed beginning and termination points. It may be defined as a two-way systematic conversation between an investigator and an informant. values. even confidential information may be obtained. It permits the investigator to seek clarifications and brings to the forefront those questions. Interviewing is the only suitable method for gathering information from illiterate or less educated respondents. and his environment. Where the area covered for the survey is compact. .2 Telephone interview 3 Mail survey and 4 Fax survey Personal Interview Personal interviewing is one of the prominent methods of data collection. attitudes. 4. beliefs.

12. facial expression and intonation. Interviewing is not a standardized process like that of a chemical technician. a radio or television program survey.g. behavior. or a group of customers. doctors and other professionals. such as family members. 15. It can also be conducted with a group of persons. a survey relating to a profession conducted by the concerned professional association. 7. When the subject is interesting or important to respondents. or a group of children. As far as possible. it need not be limited to a single respondent. The investigator records information furnished by the respondent in the interview. Although the interview is usually a conversation between two persons. The interaction between the interviewer and the respondent need not necessarily be on a face-to-face basis. The interview is an interactive process.5. provided the units of study are listed in the telephone . of time. 14. The respondent reacts to the interviewer’s appearance. a survey relating to trade conducted by a trade association or a chamber of commerce. 3 Telephone Interviewing Telephone interviewing is a non-personal method of data collection. e. gestures.g. The interaction between the interviewer and the respondent depends upon how they perceive each other. 10. directory. business houses. his perception of the thrust of the questions and his own personal needs.g. e. the interviewer should try to be closer to the social-economic level of the respondents. It will be useful in the following situations: 11. When the respondents are widely scattered and when there are many call backs to make. It may be used as a major method or as a supplementary method. 9. When the universe is composed of those persons whose names are listed in telephone directories. 13. business executives. 6. When the study requires responses to five or six simple When the survey must be conducted in a very short period questions. because the interview can also be conducted over the telephone. This poses a problem of seeing that recording does not interfere with the tempo of conversation. e. psychological process. it is rather a flexible. 8. depending on the requirements of the study.

The following procedures should be followed –  a covering letter should accompany a copy of the questionnaire. This method involves sending questionnaires to the respondents with a request to complete them and return them by post. the interviewers look for evidence of common elements of attitudes. The distinctive feature of the mail survey is that the questionnaire is self-administered by the respondents themselves and the responses are recorded by them and not by the investigator. The desired information may be obtained through self-administered questionnaire or interview. It should preferably contain mostly closed-ended and multiple choice questions. Communication is carried out only in writing and this requires more cooperation from the respondents than verbal communication. Mail Survey The mail survey is another method of collecting primary data. so that it could be completed within a few minutes. In this case. This can be used in the case of educated respondents only. beliefs. In a personal interview. a disguised organization name may be used. the flow of information is multi dimensional. The mail questionnaires should be simple so that the respondents can easily understand the questions and answer them. he must be aware that a single comment by a member can provide important insight. The group may consist of about six to eight individuals with a common interest. Group Interviews A group interview may be defined as a method of collecting primary data in which a number of individuals with a common interest interact with each other. as in the case of personal interview method. However. it is not desirable to reveal it. . intentions and opinions among individuals in the group. Samples for group interviews can be obtained through schools. when such information may bias the result. At the same time.  The sponsor’s identity may be revealed. The discussion leader stimulates the group members to interact with each other. Free discussion is encouraged on some aspect of the subject under study. by collecting the addresses from the telephone directory of the association or organization to which they belong. It does not involve face-to-face conversation between the investigator and the respondent.  Anonymity must be assured. It must explain to the respondent the purpose of the study and the importance of his cooperation to the success of the project.4. The interviewer acts as the discussion leader. clubs and other organized groups. with the discussion serving as a guide to ensure consideration of the areas of concern. In particular. 5. The researcher should prepare a mailing list of the selected respondents.

1 After a few days from the date of mailing the questionnaires to the respondents. Certain techniques have to be adopted to increase the response rate. a sample of 1500 may be drawn. the researcher can expect the return of completed ones from them. Follow-up-contacts: In the case of respondents belonging to an organization. This may help the researcher to secure an effective sample size closer to the required size. 7 Q 6. they may be approached through someone in that organization known as the researcher. The response rate in mail surveys is generally very low in developing countries like India. such as the successive . Such preliminary contact with potential respondents is more successful than follow-up efforts. It is desirable to address the respondent by name. as a curve. or by a letter. representing various kinds of quantitative information and relationships. Advance information: Advance information can be provided to potential respondents by a telephone call. 33. stamps for collection and other incentives are also used to induce respondents to complete and return the mail questionnaire. Covering letter: The covering letter should be couched in a pleasant style. or series of bars. 66. if the required sample size is 1000. broken line. The progress in return may be watched and at the appropriate stage. Incentives: Money. Explain the role of Graphs and Diagrams? Ans:Roles of Graphs Graph is a diagram. so as to attract and hold the interest of the respondent. Larger sample size: A larger sample may be drawn than the estimated sample size. They are: 11. Quality printing: The questionnaire may be neatly printed on quality light colored paper. 22. a. or advance notice in the newsletter of the concerned organization. follow-up efforts can be made. so as to attract the attention of the respondent. 55. It must anticipate objections and answer them briefly. A self-addressed stamped envelope should be enclosed in the covering letter. For example. 44.

or may be external entities represented by integer indices or references. Graphs really help the audience in absorbing the data as they are simple to interpret and are appealing. A graph data structure consists of a finite (and possibly mutable) set of ordered pairs. an edge (x. etc. By using graphs. called edges or arcs. and as they might be in the future. This guide tells you how to draw Role Activity Diagrams. The main part of the SPRINT BPR Methodology describes the ways in which Role Activity Diagrams can be used within a broader change project. A graph data structure may also associate to each edge some edge value. Graphs also help in determining the relationship between variables. length. variations and trends in data can be showed clearly and they show how the values of particular variables change over time. They are useful in presentations also because they can summarize large amounts of data and can convey the basic idea of the research.y) is said to point or go from x to y. Role Activity Diagrams (RADs) are a useful way of describing processes. Roles of Diagrams Diagram is a graphic representation of an algebraic or geometric relationship. Pie Charts. .). The nodes may be part of the graph structure. such as a symbolic label or a numeric attribute (cost. As in mathematics. It is not difficult to learn how to draw them and it is not difficult for most people to interpret them. A graph is an abstract data structure that is meant to implement the graph and hypergraph concepts from mathematics. The guide will show you that Role Activity Diagrams are a reasonably simple diagramming technique.changes in a variable quantity or quantities. They are valuable in documenting processes as they are now. of certain entities called nodes or vertices. The graphs which are most commonly used in visual aids are Bar graphs. Line graphs and Scatter diagrams. Graphs play a very important role during presentations because they make the data easier to understand and interpretations and comparisons can be made quickly. capacity.

The guide progresses by introducing each of the main constructs of the Role Activity Diagram. distribution and the density. It presents characteristics in a simplified way. sex ratio. the data may also be presented in some graphic or diagrammatic form. such as maps. age–sex composition. occupational structure. and what they are most useful for. This experience will teach how Role Activity Diagrams can best be used. maps and charts is called representation of data.6. These makes it easy to understand the patterns of population growth. It is a time consuming task to draw inferences about whatever is being presented in non–graphical form. General Rules for Drawing Graphs. “The transformation of data through visual methods like graphs. diagrams. are used to represent large volume of data. They are necessary: If the information is presented in tabular form or in a descriptive record. the creation of Role Activity Diagrams relies upon an ability to scope a study. Selection of a Suitable Graphical Method . The graphic method of the representation of data enhances our understanding. such methods create an imprint on mind for a longer time. etc. to decide on the level of interest and to determine the boundaries of each role in a diagram. In reality the reader will rely upon experience gained through using Role Activity Diagrams in projects. Q. This is syntactic guidance. graphs and diagrams. What are the Types and General rules for graphical representation of data? Ans:REPRESENTATION OF DATA Besides the tabular form. it becomes difficult to draw results.” The need of representing data graphically: Graphics. It makes the comparisons easy. giving advice about the drawing conventions. It describes these in turn. This is where the real skill of using Role Activity Diagrams comes in but such issues are addressed only partially in this report. Graphical form makes it possible to easily draw visual impressions of data. b. Diagrams and Maps 1. In addition to these syntactic skills. Besides.

Thus. etc. For example. The most commonly drawn diagrams and maps are: . Types of Diagrams The diagrams and the maps is of following types: (i) One-dimensional diagrams such as line graph. (ii) Two-dimensional diagram such as pie diagram and rectangular diagram. These are written with different font sizes and thickness.  Direction the maps should show the direction North and properly placed on the top. both human and livestock. Similarly. shades. (iii) Three-dimensional diagrams such as cube and spherical diagrams.Each characteristic of the data can only be suitably represented by an appropriate graphical method. The population distribution. it is necessary and important to select suitable graphical method to represent data.. subtitle and the corresponding year is shown in the centre at the top of the map/diagram. Selection of Suitable Scale Each diagram or map is drawn to a scale which is used to measure the data. bar diagram. age. Design The diagram or map should have following design:  Title: The title of the diagram/map must be clear and include o The name of the area. symbols and signs used in the map and diagram. The scale must cover the entire data that is to be represented. histogram. The population density can be shown by choropleth maps. A legend is shown either at the lower left or lower right side of the map sheet. sex. To show the data related to the temperature or growth of population between different periods in time line graph are used. pyramid. o Reference year of the data used and o The caption of the diagram. bar diagrams are used for showing rainfall or the production of commodities.  Legend or Index: The index must clearly explain the colours. poly graph. The scale should neither be too large nor too small. The title. 2. S 3. or the distribution of the crop producing areas are shown by dot maps.

mark the location of the plotted values by a dot and join these dots by a free hand drawn line. birth rates and the death rates. Line Graph The line graphs are usually drawn to represent the time series data related to the temperature. Construction of a Line Graph 1st step: Round the data to be shown upto the 1 digit of even numbers. If the data involves a negative figure then the selected scale should also show it. ☞ Example 1: Construct a line graph to represent the data . population growth. Mark the time series variables (years/months) on the X axis and the data quantity/value to be plotted on Y axis. 2nd step: Draw X and Y-axis. 3rd step: Choose an appropriate scale to show data and label it on Y-axis.• Line graphs • Bar diagrams • Pie diagram • Wind rose and star diagram • Flow Charts 1. 4th step: Plot the data to depict year/month-wise values according to the selected scale on Y-axis. rainfall.

☞ Example 2: Construct a polygraph to compare the variables. The bar diagrams are drawn through columns of equal width. (b) All the bars should are placed on equal intervals/distance. pulses in one diagram.  The birth rates. Three types of bar diagrams are used to represent different data sets: The simple bar diagram  Compound bar diagram  Polybar diagram. 3. Examples which can be shown as polygraph are: The growth rate of different crops like rice. Polygraph Polygraph is a line graph in which two or more than two variables are shown on a same diagram by different lines. Bar Diagram It is also called a columnar diagram. Following rules were observed while constructing a bar diagram: (a) The width of all the bars or columns is similar. wheat. All steps of construction of polygraph are similar to that of line graph. death rates and life expectancy in one diagram. But different lines are drawn to indicate different variables.Construction of a  Polygraph.2. It helps in comparing the data. . (c) Bars are shaded with colours or patterns to make them distinct and attractive.  Sex ratio in different states or countries in one diagram.

Divide X-axis into equal parts to draw bars. ☞ Example 4: Construct a Line and bar Graph. . It is advisable to arrange the given data set in an ascending or descending order and plot the data variables accordingly.Simple Bar Diagram A simple bar diagram is constructed for an immediate comparison. However. Construction Steps: Draw X and Y-axes on a graph paper. Line and Bar Graph The line and bar graphs as drawn separately may also be combined to depict the data related to some of the closely associated characteristics such as the climatic data of mean monthly temperatures and rainfall. 4. The actual values will be plotted according to the selected scale. time series data are represented according to the sequencing of the time period. Take an interval and mark it on Y-axis to plot data. ☞ Example 3: Construct a simple bar diagram.

a multiple bar diagram may be constructed to show proportion of males and females in the total. tube well and well irrigation in the total irrigated area in different states. For example. (c) Similarly. (d) Plot data using line graph and columnar diagram. rural and urban population or the share of canal. . 5. select a suitable scale with equal intervals on the Y-axis and label at its left side.Construction: (a) Draw X and Y-axes of a suitable length and divide X-axis into parts to show months in a year. (b) Select a suitable scale with equal intervals on the Y-axis and label it at its right side. Multiple Bar Diagram Multiple bar diagrams are constructed to represent two or more than two variables for the purpose of comparison.

Compound Bar Diagram When different components are grouped in one set of variable or different variables of one component are put together. (b) A single bar will depict the set of variables by dividing the total length of the bar as per percentage. Construction (a) Arrange the data in ascending or descending order. (b) Plot the data in closed columns. different variables are shown in a single bar with different rectangles. ☞ Example 5: Construct a Multiple bar Diagram. 7. it is also called as Divided .(a) Mark time series data on X-axis and variable data on Y-axis as per the selected scale. ☞ Example 6: Construct a Compound Bar Diagram. Hence. In this method. their representation is made by a compound bar diagram. It is drawn to depict the total value of the given attribute using a circle. Dividing the circle into corresponding degrees of angle then represent the sub– sets of the data. Pie Diagram Pie diagram is another graphical method of the representation of data. 6.

the angles are calculated using the given formulae. 360/100. e. (b) Calculate the degrees of angles for showing the given values (b) It could be done by multiplying percentage with a constant of 3. i. The angle of each variable is calculated using the following formulae. 4 or 5 cm may be chosen for the given data set. (c) Plot the data by dividing the circle into the required number of divisions to show the share different regions/countries Construction (a) Select a suitable radius for the circle to be drawn. If data is given in percentage form. A radius of 3.6 as derived by dividing the total number of degrees in a circle by 100. Calculation of Angles (a) Arrange the data on percentages in an ascending order.Circle Diagram. .

Requirements for the Preparation of a Flow Map: (a) A route map depicting the desired transport routes along with the connecting stations. It is drawn to show the flow of commodities or people between the places of origin and destination. number of vehicles. starting with smaller angle. Flow Maps/Chart Flow chart is a combination of graph and map. Many government agencies prepare flow maps to show density of the means of transportation on different routes. vehicles. (d) Complete the diagram by adding the title. The number and frequency of the vehicles as per the direction of their movement 2. etc.. Delhi and adjoining areas services. which shows number of passengers.(b) Draw a line from the centre of the circle to the arc as a radius. It is also called as Dynamic Map. is the best example of a flow chart. The flow maps/ charts are generally drawn to represent two the types of data as given below: 1. sub – title. etc. The number of the passengers and/or the quantity of goods transported. Transport map. The legend mark be chosen for each variable/category and highlighted by distinct shades/colours. (c) The selection of a scale through which the data related to the quantity of passengers and goods or the number of vehicles is to be represented. (c) Measure the angles from the arc of the circle for each category of vehicles in an ascending order clock-wise. of trains of selected routes of to the flow of goods.. and the legend. (b) The data pertaining No. (b) Starting with bigger angle will lead to accumulation of error leading to the plot of the smaller angle difficult. ☞ Example 7: Construct a Pie Diagram. These charts are drawn using lines of proportional width. . Precautions (a) The circle should neither be too big to fit in the space nor too small to be illegible. along with the point of origin and destination of the movements. 8.

(c) Plot the thickness of each strip of route between the given rail route. Requirements for Making a Thematic Map (a) State/District level data about the selected theme. For example.Construction (a) Take an outline map of Delhi and adjoining areas in which railway line and the nodal stations are depicted. Thematic Maps Varieties of maps are drawn to understand the patterns of the regional distributions or the characteristics of variations over space these maps are known as the distribution maps or thematic maps. physiographic map for population distribution and relief and drainage map for constructing transportation map. If we select a scale of 1cm = 50 trains. Here. ☞ Example 8: Construct a Flow Map of Train movements in and around Delhi. (b) Outline map of the study area along with administrative boundaries. the maximum number is 50 and the minimum is 6. the maximum and minimum numbers will be represented by a strip of 10 mm and 1. (c) Physical map of the region.2 mm thick lines respectively on the map. (d) Draw a terraced scale as legend and choose distinct sign or symbol to show the nodal points (stations) within the strip. (b) Select a scale to represent the number of trains. Rules for Making Thematic Maps .

classified into quantitative and non-quantitative maps. The final map should properly reflect the following components: a.(i) The drawing of the thematic maps must be carefully planned. (c) Selection of a scale to determine the value of a dot. The construction of quantitative maps: There are three types of quantitative maps (a) Dot maps (b) Choropleth maps (c) Isopleth maps 9. These maps are also called as qualitative maps. The quantitative maps are drawn to show the variations within the data. 50 to 100 cm and less than 50 cm of rainfall are referred as quantitative maps. i. shades. For example. Source of the data and year d. Name of the area b. cattle. (b) Statistical data on selected theme for the chosen administrative units. maps depicting areas receiving more than 200 cm. colours. 100 to 200 cm. . Dot Maps The dot maps are drawn to show the distribution of phenomena such as population. on the other hand. Scale (ii) The selection of a suitable method to be used for thematic mapping. total population. signs. Classification of Thematic Maps based on Method of Construction The thematic maps are generally. cattle etc. depict the non–measurable characteristics in the distribution of given information such as a map showing high and low rainfallreceiving areas. etc. types of crops. Indication of symbols. e. The dots of same size as per the chosen scale are marked over the given administrative units to highlight the patterns of distributions. Title of the subject-matter c. etc.. Requirement (a) An administrative map of the given area showing state/district/block boundaries. The non-quantitative maps. These maps are also called as statistical maps.e.

Precaution (a) The lines demarcating the boundaries of various administrative units should not be very thick and bold.(d) Physiographic map of the region especially relief and drainage maps. (b) All dots should be of same size. Construction .

☞ Example 9: Construct a Dot Map. low and very low concentrations. and/or snow covered areas and mark lesser number of dots in such areas. For example. (b) Group the data into 5 categories to represent very high. desert. (d) Consult the physiographic/relief map of India to identify mountainous. Range/5 and Range = maximum value – minimum value. (b) Appropriate statistical data according to administrative units.67. number of dots in Maharashtra will be 9. sex-ratio.5.000 = 967. .literacy/growth rates.52. (d) Patterns.247/100.52.(a) Select the size and value of a dot. (c) Place the dots in each state as per the determined number in all states. 10. (c) The interval between the categories may be identified on the following formulae i. as the fraction is more than 0. It may be rounded to 968.e. (b) Determine the number of dots in each state using the given scale. Requirement for drawing Choropleth Map (a) A map of the area depicting different administrative units. Steps to be followed (a) Arrange the data in ascending or descending order. high. medium. shades or colour to be used to depict the chosen categories should be marked in an increasing or decreasing order. Choropleth Map The choropleth maps are also drawn to depict the data characteristics as they are related to the administrative units. These maps are used to represent the density of population. etc.

9%) respectively. the range would be 91.Construction (a) Arrange the data in ascending order as shown above. In the present case. the states recording the lowest and highest literacy rates are Bihar (47%) and the Kerala (90. Hence.0 = 44.0 .0 – 47. (b) Identify the range within the data.

contours (equal heights). Kerala) (e) Assign shades/pattern to each category ranging from lower to higher hues. (b) Interval of 5. Manipur. Tamil Nadu) 74 – 83 High (Himachal Pradesh. Orissa.0 to the lowest value of 47.Isobaths (equal depths). We will finally get following categories: 47 – 56 Very low (Bihar. Gujarat. (b) Appropriate data of temperature.0 as so on. (g) Complete the map with respect to the attributes of map design. Rajasthan. Isopleth Map Variations in the degrees of slope. (c) Drawing instrument specially French Curve. Jharkhand. Sikkim.0/ 5 = 8. may be represented by drawing the lines of equal values on a map.80). ☞ Example 10: Construct a Choropleth Map.0. Chhattisgarh) 65 – 74 Medium (Nagaland. We can convert this value to a round number 9. Meghalaya. etc. etc. (44. Andhra Pradesh. Assam.(c) Divide the range by 5 to get categories from very low to very high. Karnataka. Delhi. Tripura. Isohyets (equal rainfall). an imaginary line. Maharashtra. 10. rainfall. over a definite period of time. Add 9. Isohels (equal sunshine). Uttaranchal. is referred as Isopleth. etc. All such maps are termed as Isopleth Map. Goa) 83 – 92 Very High (Mizoram. (c) The value of Isopleth should be written along the line on either side or in the middle by breaking the line. which joins the places of equal values. Isobar (equal pressure). Thus. (f) Prepare the map as shown in Fig. Requirement (a) Base line map depicting point location of different places. Jammu and Kashmir) 56 – 65 Low (Uttar Pradesh.Punjab. occurrence of rainfall. Isohaline (equal salinity).Madhya Pradesh. Rules to be observed (a) An equal interval of values be selected. Interpolation . West Bengal. The word Isopleth is derived from Iso meaning equal and pleth means lines. or 20 is supposed to be ideal. Arunachal Pradesh. Isonephs (equal cloudiness). pressure. Haryana. The more frequently drawn isopleths include Isotherm (equal temperature). (d) Determine the number of the categories along with range of each category. temperature. 11.

follow the following steps: (a) Firstly. thus. (c) Based on range. Range = maximum value – minimum value. 10. drawing of isopleths joining the places of same value is also termed as interpolation. 15. The exact point of drawing an Isopleth is determined by using the following formulae. in an Isotherm map of two places show 28º C and 33º C and you want to draw 30ºC isotherm. measure the distance between the two points. Suppose the distance is 1cm or 10 mm and the difference between 28 and 33 is 5. exact point of 30 will be plotted 4mm away from 28ºC or 6mm ahead of 33ºC. determine the minimum and maximum values given on the map.e. . Generally. For example. Method of Interpolation: For interpolation. The interval is the difference between the actual value on the map and interpolated value. determine the interval in a whole number like 5. (b) Calculate the range of value i.Interpolation is used to find the intermediate values between the observed values of at two stations/locations. etc.

.☞ Example 11: Construct an Isopleth Map.

for some demographic groups conducting a survey by questionnaire may not be practical. this is not always the case. Questionnaires have advantages over some other types of surveys in that they are cheap. Knowing what questions should be asked early on in the questionnaire. do not require as much effort from the questioner as verbal or telephone surveys. Although they are often designed for statistical analysis of the responses.Research Methodology Assignment Set 2 Question 1: What is questionnaire? Discuss the main points that you will take into account while drafting a questionnaire? Answer: A questionnaire is a research instrument consisting of a series of questions and other prompts for the purpose of gathering information from respondents. These are:  Considering the differences that exist when writing a questionnaire that respondent’s will fill out themselves as opposed to when a professional interviewer administers the questionnaire to the respondent. in the middle or toward the end. questionnaires also have many of the same problems relating to question construction and wording that exist in other types of opinion polls. Questionnaires may be classified as: Structured/ Standardized Questionnaire: Structured questionnaires are those in which there are definite. Points to take into account while drafting a questionnaire: Writing an effective questionnaire is not a task for novices. such standardized answers may frustrate users. and often have standardized answers that make it simple to compile data. concrete and preordained questions with additional questions limited to those necessary to clarify inadequate answers or to elicit more detailed responses.    . At the very least it requires an understanding of four basics. Thus. The questions are presented with exactly the same wording and in the same order to all the respondents. As a type of survey. Understanding how to phrase questions. However. Being sensitive to questionnaire length. Questionnaires are also sharply limited by the fact that respondents must be able to read the questions and respond to them. The questionnaire was invented by Sir Francis Galton. Unstructured Questionnaire: In unstructured questionnaires the respondent is given the opportunity to answer in his own terms and in his own frame of reference.

when pages are crowded or hard to read or when instructions for completion are overly complex. Keep the respondent in one mind-set at a time. Because interviewers are trained in the flow of the questionnaires they administer and will conduct a number of practice interviews prior to confronting a respondent. If at all possible.      . Question 3 should follow question 2. straightforward and logical. Save sensitive questions for the end. Biased question: What do you like about the last airline flight you took? Assumption here is that respondent liked something and the question tends to push for a positive response. but when it doesn’t matter. complete all your questions about one topic before moving on to the next. Further. do you like the last airline flight you took? By simply using if anything as part of the question phrasing. Question 2 should follow question 1. if anything. For example. If asked at the end. then. When writing a selfadministered questionnaire.There are some basic differences in how the questionnaire should be constructed if it is to be filled out personally by the respondent or if an interviewer is going to administer it. developing a complex questionnaire that is interviewer-administered does not present a problem for the respondent. When conducting telephone interviews. then about brands used and then go back to additional questioning on favorite place to shop. the respondent is not put on the spot to find something to like. it’s relatively easy to keep respondents on the phone and answering questions for 15. every care must be taken to ensure that it is easy to complete in that it almost answers itself. be aware that sensitive questions such as race or income can alienate respondents and turn them off to the entire interview process. But try keeping a respondent on the phone for 3 minutes with a questionnaire that is the least bit confusing. What. the going-in assumption with selfadministered questionnaires should be that respondents will not complete a questionnaire when there are complex skip patterns. respondents are more likely to answer as they are wholly invested in the questionnaire. and so forth. this might not always be possible. These are:  Self-administered questionnaires should be simple.  Self-administered questionnaires should be written with an eighth grade mentality in mind while interviewer-administered questionnaire can be quite complex. Again. It has been estimated that as many as 50% of respondents who start a self-administered questionnaire will not complete it because they become irritated and annoyed at the way it is constructed. seems redundant or is insensitive to sensitive issues. 20 or 25 minutes if the questionnaire has a good flow and is thoughtfully written. don’t ask about a favorite place to shop. Unbiased question.

primary data have to be gathered. murder etc. viewing surveys. leadership studies. farm managements studies. Each method has its relative merits and demerits. knowledge-awareness practice (KAP) studies. It is neither difficult for the enumerator nor the informants because both are present at the spot of data collection. Here information is not collected directly from the source but by interviewing persons closely related with the problem. business management studies etc. This method provides most accurate information as the investigator collects them personally. unbiased and experienced. 2) Indirect Oral Interviews: This is an indirect method of collecting primary data. In such cases where the available data are inappropriate. 1) Direct Personal observation: This is a very general method of collecting primary data. solicits their cooperation and enumerates the data. in marketing. The information relating to one's personal life or which the informant . But as the investigator alone is involved in the process. radio listening and T. attitudinal surveys. The information are collected by direct personal interviews. i. Published data and the data collected in the past or other parties are called secondary data. The novelty of this method is its simplicity. But the collection of primary data is costly and time consuming. They include: socio economic surveys.. Data observed or collected directly from first-hand experience.Question 2: What do you mean by primary data? What are the various methods of collecting primary data? Answer: Primary Date is data that has not been previously published. Primary data are directly collected by the researcher from their original sources. inadequate or obsolete. This method is applied to apprehend culprits in case of theft.g. e. the researcher can collect the required date precisely according to his research needs. for several types of social science research required data are not available from secondary sources and they have to be directly gathered from the primary sources. So the method should be used when the scope of enquiry is small.V. Marketing research. the data is derived from a new or original research study and collected at the source. Primary data are always collected from the source. However. The choice to a large extent depends on the preliminaries to data collection some of the commonly used methods are discussed below. sociological studies of social problems and social institutions. it is information that is obtained directly from first-hand sources by means of surveys. In such cases the data collected may be fairly accurate. social anthropological studies of rural communities and tribal communities. In this case. Yet. There are different methods of collecting primary data. So it is necessary that the investigator should be honest. opinion polls. he can collect them when he wants them and in the form he needs them. readership. It is collected either by the investigator himself or through his agents. Here the investigator directly contacts the informants. observation or experimentation. the method is quite costly and time-consuming.e. his personal bias may influence the accuracy of the data. The investigator has to choose a particular method to collect the information.

However the accuracy of the information depends on the cooperation and honesty of the informants. For example: Is Adam Smith called father of Statistics? Yes/No In the multiple choice type.hesitates to reveal are better collected by this method. Success of this method greatly depends upon the way in which the questionnaire is drafted. The questionnaire should carry a polite note explaining the aims and objective of the enquiry. Here the investigator prepares 'a small list of questions relating to the enquiry. For better response the investigator should bear the postal charges. This method is time saving and involves relatively less cost. 3) Mailed Questionnaire method: This is a very commonly used method of collecting primary data. The accuracy of the information largely depends upon the integrity of the investigator. Here information is collected through a set of questionnaire. ‘right or wrong’ etc. Data collected by this method are not affected by the personal bias of the investigator. multiple-choice or open-end type In the simple alternative question type. The answers (information) are collected by interviewing persons well connected with the incident. The questions are like – b) What are the defects of our educational system? The questionnaire method is very economical in terms of time. . The investigator should cross-examine the informants to get correct information. A questionnaire is a document prepared by the investigator containing a set of questions. the respondent has to answer from any of the given alternatives. energy and money. This limits the scope of the method. Besides this the investigator should ensure the secrecy of the information as well as the name of the informants. non-aggressive type Simple alternative. So the investigator must be very careful while framing the questions. It is desirable that the investigator should be experienced and capable enough to inspire and create confidence in the informant to collect accurate data. the respondent has to choose between alternatives such as ‘Yes or No’. if required. The questions should be:       a) Short and clear Few in number Simple and intelligible Corroboratory in nature or there should be provision for cross check Impersonal. Here first the questionnaires are mailed to the informants with a formal request to answer the question and send them back. The method is widely used when the scope of enquiry is large. These questions relate to the problem of enquiry directly or indirectly. definition of various terms and concepts used there. This method can be used only if the informants are cooperative. conscious and educated. Example: To which sector do you belong?  Primary Sector  Secondary Sector  Tertiary or Service Sector c) In the Open-end or free answer questions the respondents are given complete freedom in answering the questions.

The accuracy of the data collected by this method depends on the honesty and sincerity of the agents because they actually collect the information from the spot. The success of this method depends on the sincerity and efficiency of the enumerators. descriptive research can be said to have a low requirement for internal validity. trained and well-behaved. 5) From Local Agents: Sometimes primary data are collected from local agents or correspondents. Analyse the case study and descriptive approach to research. Here the questionnaires are sent through the enumerators to collect information. to collect data. So the enumerator should be sweet-tempered. food habits. It gives fairly correct result as the enumerators directly collect the information. Although the data description is factual. good-natured. They explain the scope and objective of the enquiry to the informants and solicit their cooperation. .. where. In other words. the research cannot describe what caused a situation. periodicals etc. schedule method is used to collect data. Thus. when and how. Distinguish between research methods & research Methodology. The method is generally used by government agencies. Enumerators are persons appointed by the investigator for the purpose. Primary data can be collected by employing any of the above methods. Being on the spot and well acquainted with the nature of the enquiry they are capable of furnishing reliable information. Information is like raw materials or inputs in an enquiry. They should be unbiased. This method is relatively more costly and time-consuming than the mailed questionnaire method. traditions etc. The investigator should make a rational choice of the methods to be used for collecting data because collection of data forms the beginning of the statistical enquiry. Question 3 a.4) Schedule Method: In case the informants are largely uneducated and non-responsive data cannot be collected by the mailed questionnaire method. Descriptive research answers the questions who. They directly meet the informants with the questionnaire. They are well conversant with the local conditions like language. also known as statistical research. what.. accurate and systematic. Information from a wide area at less cost and time can be collected by this method. Schedule method is widely used in extensive studies. where one variable affects another. Descriptive research cannot be used to create a causal relationship. Answer: a) Case Study and descriptive approach to research: Descriptive research. newspapers. The result of the enquiry basically depends on the type of information used. b. communication. The accuracy of the information depends upon the honesty of the enumerators. These agents are appointed by the sponsoring authorities. The enumerators ask the questions to the informants and record their answers in the questionnaire and compile them. In such cases. describes data and characteristics about the population or phenomenon being studied.

They may be prospective. Your research must have an impact to the lives of the people around you e. But there are always restrictions to that. They provide a systematic way of looking at events. or retrospective. averages and other statistical calculations. They are essentially planned. Qualitative research often has the aim of description and researchers may follow-up with examinations of why the observations exist and what the implications of the findings are. but instead it can utilize elements of both. in which criteria are established and cases fitting the criteria are included as they become available. prior to writing descriptive research. Single-subject research provides the statistical framework for making inferences from quantitative case-study data b) Distinction between research methods and research Methodology: Research Methods Research methods are the various procedures. Case studies may be descriptive or explanatory. and what might become important to look at more extensively in future research. and data analysis that will be applied to a given topic. Often the best approach. in which criteria are established for selecting cases from historical records for inclusion in the study. The term descriptive research refers to the type of research question. Rather than using samples and following a rigid protocol (strict set of rules) to examine limited number of variables. more people will live a healthy life. Descriptive research does not fit neatly into the definition of either quantitative or qualitative research methodologies. while inferential statistics try to determine cause and effect. explaining and predicting phenomena are called . As a result the researcher may gain a sharpened understanding of why the instance happened as it did. finding the most frequent disease that affects the children of a town. group. can include quantitative evidence. or event. collecting data. Descriptive statistics tell what is. and reporting the results.The description is used for frequencies.g. used in research. design. schemes. scientific and value-neutral. relies on multiple sources of evidence and benefits from the prior development of theoretical propositions. Essentially. often within the same study. The reader of the research will know what to do to prevent that disease thus. the procedures by which researchers go about their work of describing. longitudinal (over a long period of time) examination of a single instance or event: a case. case study methods involve an in-depth. is to conduct a survey investigation. Case studies lend themselves to both generating and testing hypotheses. analyzing information. They include Research Methodology Research methodology is a systematic way to solve a problem. It is based on an indepth investigation of a single individual. Case study research means single and multiple case studies. Another suggestion is that case study should be defined as a research strategy. In short descriptive research deals with everything that can be counted and studied. Case studies should not be confused with qualitative research and they can be based on any mix of quantitative and qualitative evidence. All the methods used by a researcher during a research study are termed as research methods. an empirical inquiry that investigates a phenomenon within its real-life context. It is a science of studying how research is to be carried out. algorithms. The latter type is used to explore causation in order to find underlying principles. etc. A case study is a research method common in social science.

theoretical procedures. numerical schemes. age is a continuous variable. Dependent and Independent variables: A magnitude that varies is known as a variable. Question 4: Explain the important concepts in Research design? Answer: The research designer understandably cannot hold all his decisions in his head. Jahoda and Destsch and Cook describe. The concept may assume different quantitative values. It constitutes the blue print for the plan is the overall scheme or program of research. Particularly. income. A research design is the program that guides the investigator in the process of collecting. the methodology and techniques to be adopted for achieving the objectives. they are also known as „discrete variable. like height. the qualitative phenomena may also be quantified in terms of the presence or absence of the attribute considered. etc.” Components of Research Design: It is important to be familiar with the important concepts relating to research design. all variables need not be continuous. Therefore. scientific research methods call for explanations based on collected facts. he would have difficulty in understanding how these are interrelated. Values that can be expressed only in integer values are called” non-continuous variables. Even if he could. It is also defined as the study of methods by which knowledge is gained. A research design is a logical and systematic plan prepared for directing a research study. Qualitative variables are not quantifiable in the strictest sense of objectivity. In statistical term. measurements and observations and not on reasoning alone. For example. research methodology. It specifies the objectives of the study. But. Its aim is to give the work plan of research. statistical approaches. data and find a solution to a problem. When changes in one variable depends upon the changes in one or more other variables. weight. Phenomena that assume different values quantitatively even in decimal points are known as “continuous variables. whereas the number of children is a non-continuous variable. “A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure. Research methods help us collect samples. etc. Such a symbolic construction may be called the research design or model. However. and the variables that cause the changes in the dependent variable are known as the independent or explanatory or . analysing and interpreting observations. it is known as a dependent or endogenous variable. It provides a systematic plan of procedure for the researcher to follow elltiz. experimental studies. They ac.cept only those explanations which can be verified by experiments. They are: 1. he records his decisions on paper or record disc by using relevant symbols or concepts.

4. Generally. it is known as an „experimental group. In the afore-mentioned example. Technically. Confounded relationship: The relationship between dependent and independent variables is said to be confounded by an extraneous variable. the dependent variable. 2. since it is not directly related to the purpose of the study undertaken by the researcher. And if. like income and prices of substitute commodity. it is known as research hypothesis. 3. demand is a dependent variable which is determined by the independent variables like own price. then demand is a dependent variable. The term control is used in experimental research to reflect the restrain in experimental conditions. more variables determine demand. it is known as „control group. In this context. For example. Whereas. intelligence may also influence the school performance. Extraneous variable: The independent variables which are not directly related to the purpose of the study but affect the dependent variable are known as extraneous variables. Control: One of the most important features of a good research design is to minimize the effect of extraneous variable. The research hypothesis is a predictive statement which relates a dependent variable and an independent variable. A research design . if demand depends upon price.exogenous variables.  Experimental and control groups: When a group is exposed to usual conditions in an experimental hypothesis-testing research. while price is the independent variable. the Group A can be called a control group and the Group B an experimental one. a research hypothesis must consist of at least one dependent variable and one independent variable. assume that a researcher wants to test the hypothesis that there is relationship between children’s school performance and their self-concepts.  Research hypothesis: When a prediction or a hypothesized relationship is tested by adopting scientific methods. in which case the latter is an independent variable and the former. then both the groups may be called as „experimental groups. On the other hand. a research study should always be framed in such a manner that the dependent variable completely influences the change in the independent variable and any other extraneous variable or variables. it would be known as an extraneous variable. Then. If both the groups A and B are exposed to some special feature. However. when the dependent variable is not free from its effects. the term control is used when a researcher designs the study in such a manner that it minimizes the effects of extraneous independent variables. The influence caused by the extraneous variable on the dependent variable is technically called as an „experimental errors Therefore. income and price of substitute. the relationships that are assumed but not be tested are predictive statements that are not to be objectively verified are not classified as research hypothesis. then demand also depends upon them in addition to the own price. when the group is exposed to certain new or special condition. For instance.

then it is known as absolute experiment. then the experiment is known as a comparative experiment. It is worth mentioning here that such experimental units must be selected with great caution. There are many techniques of data collection along a continuum and observation and interviewing are two of the popular methods on this continuum that has quantitative methods at one end while qualitative methods at the other end. characteristics or the blocks. as the name implies refers to situations where participants are observed from a safe distance and their activities are recorded minutely.  Experiment unit: Experimental units refer to the predetermined plots.  Treatments: Treatments are referred to the different conditions to which the experimental and control groups are subject to. then the three types of fertilizers would be treated as the three treatments. Though there are many similarities in these two methods and they serve the same basic purpose. It is a . If a researcher wishes to determine the impact of a chemical fertilizer on the yield of a particular variety of rice crop. For instance. Answer: Observation vs. interviewing as Methods of Data Collection: Collection of data is the most crucial part of any research project as the success or failure of the project is dependent upon the accuracy of the data.  Experiment: An experiment refers to the process of verifying the truth of a statistical hypothesis relating to a given research problem. absolute experiment and comparative experiment. if a research study attempts to examine through an experiment regarding the comparative impacts of three different types of fertilizers on the yield of rice crop. Experiments may be categorized into two types namely. experiment may be conducted to examine the yield of a certain new variety of rice crop developed. Use of wrong methods of data collection or any inaccuracy in collecting data can have significant impact on the results of a study and may lead to results that are not valid. to which the different treatments are applied. Further. Likewise. there are differences that will be highlighted in this article. Observation: Observation. Question 5: What are the differences between observation and interviewing as methods of data collection? Give two specific examples of situations where either observation or interviewing would be more appropriate. In the example considered. the two treatments are the parents with regular earnings and those with no regular earnings. if the researcher wishes to determine the impact of chemical fertilizer as compared to the impact of bio-fertilizer. Meanwhile.may include only the experimental group or the both experimental and control groups together.

You should be prepared to prove yourself. Classic examples of observation are wild life researchers who wait for the animals of birds to be in a natural habitat and behave in situations that they want to focus upon. there are limitations of interviewing as participants may not come up with true or honest answers depending upon privacy level of the questions. Competency/criteria based interviews: These are structured to reflect the competencies or qualities that an employer is seeking for a particular job. but also to admit to what you do not know and stress that you are keen to learn. Do not worry if you do not know the exact answer . It is important to keep in mind which one of the two will produce desired results before finalizing. Interview format: Interviews take many different forms. Though both observation and interviewing are great techniques of data collection. Interviewing Interviewing is easier but suffers from the fact that participants may not come up with honest replies. in the form of questionnaires. As a method of data collection. Observation vs. Questions may focus on your final year project or on real or hypothetical technical problems. These interviews could be either one to one. Though they try to be honest. it is likely that you will be asked technical questions or has a separate technical interview. Interviewing: Interviewing is another great technique of data collection and it involves asking questions to get direct answers. Technical interviews: If you have applied for a job or course that requires technical knowledge. The interviewer is looking for evidence of your skills and may ask such things as: µGive an example of a time you worked as part of a team to achieve a common goal. or the more recent form of asking opinions through internet. interviewing: Observation Observation requires precise analysis by the researcher and often produces most accurate results although it is very time consuming. which will usually have been detailed in the job specification or advert.interviewers are interested in your thought process and logic. they have their own strengths and weaknesses. observation has limitations but produces accurate results as participants are unaware of being closely inspected and behave naturally. However.time consuming method of data collection as you may not get the desired conditions that are required for your research and you may have to wait till participants are in the situation you want them to be in. It is a good idea to ask the organisation in advance what format the interview will take. there is an element of lie in answers that can distort results of the project. .

media or communications industries. however informal the discussion may seem. you may be asked to bring a portfolio of your work to the interview. how you pursue a particular line of thinking and whether you can develop and present an appropriate framework for organising your thoughts. Save your winning personality for the person making hiring decisions! .) Sometimes human professionals are the gatekeepers. while others will feel more like an informal chat about you and your interests. Be aware that you are still being assessed. how you identify the key issues. (This is why you need a digital resume that is screening-friendly.  Formal/informal interviews: Some interviews may be very formal. and to have an in-depth discussion about the pieces you have chosen to include. Academic interviews: These are used for further study or research positions. Personality is not as important to the screener as verifying your qualifications. You will be evaluated on your analysis of the problem. Screening interviewers often have honed skills to determine whether there is anything that might disqualify you for the position. Remember they do not need to know whether you are the best fit for the position. only whether you are not a match. See our resume centre for help. screeners tend to dig for dirt.  Get into the straightforward groove. Specific types of interview The Screening Interview: Companies use screening tools to ensure that candidates meet minimum qualification requirements.  Portfolio based interviews: If the role is within the arts. Questions are likely to centre on your academic history to date. They also will want to know from the outset whether you will be too expensive for the company.  Structured interviews: The interviewer has a set list of questions. For this reason.g. Computer programs are among the tools used to weed out unqualified candidates. µWhat would you do in a situation where to the detailed analysis of a hypothetical business problem.  Senior/case study interviews: These ranges from straightforward scenario questions (e. and asks all the candidates the same questions. Screeners will hone in on gaps in your employment history or pieces of information that look inconsistent. Some tips for maintaining confidence during screening interviews:  Highlight your accomplishments and qualifications. Answer questions directly and succinctly.

The Meandering Style: This interview type. Either way. following his or her lead."  If the interview is conducted by phone. are often open to informational interviews. politely interject it. This takes off some of the performance pressure. remember:· Flex with the interviewer.· Do not relinquish complete control of the interview. Give a range. This interview style allows . Directive interviewers rely upon their own questions and methods to tease from you what they wish to know. or esteem the mutual friend that connected you to them. If the interviewer does not ask you for information that you think is important to proving your superiority as a candidate. Employers that like to stay apprised of available talent even when they do not have current job openings. they can more readily compare the results. when interviewers ask each candidate the same series of questions. Be tactful about addressing income requirements. or you might find the conversation develops naturally. Gain references to other people and make sure that the interviewer would be comfortable if you contact other people and use his or her name. although you should keep an eye open for these if the interviewer would be your supervisor. it is helpful to have note cards with your vital information sitting next to the phone. Give the interviewer your card. A meeting that you initiate. You might feel like you are being steam-rolled. Their style does not necessarily mean that they have dominance issues. the jobseeker and employer exchange information and get to know one another better without reference to specific job opening. That way. contact information and resume. whether the interviewer catches you sleeping or vacuuming the floor. you will be able to switch gears quickly The Informational Interview: On the opposite end of the stress spectrum from screening interviews is the informational interview. It might begin with a statement like "tell me about yourself. but be intentional nonetheless:  Come prepared with thoughtful questions about the field and the company.   The Directive Style: In this style of interview. the interviewer has a clear agenda that he or she follows unflinchingly." which you can use to your advantage. the informational interview is underutilized by job-seekers who might otherwise consider themselves savvy to the merits of networking. "I would be willing to consider your best offer. feel flattered by your interest. usually used by inexperienced interviewers. open-ended question before falling into silence. Jobseekers ostensibly secure informational meetings in order to seek the advice of someone in their current or desired field as well as to gain further references to people who can lend insight. especially if they like to share their knowledge. and try to avoid giving specifics by replying.· Write a thank you note to the interviewer. relies on you to lead the discussion. Sometimes companies use this rigid format to ensure parity between interviews. The interviewer might ask you another broad. During an informational interview.

Question 6: Strictly speaking. cases are only one of many possible tools. roles and responsibilities for discussion leader) outcomes for case discussion (answers to specific questions. Cases are designed to confront readers with specific real-life problems that do not lend themselves to easy answers. to appreciate alternative approaches to identifying and resolving ethical problems. small group. The effective use of case studies is comprised of many factors. are particularly important when interviewers use a non-directive approach:  Come to the interview prepared with highlights and anecdotes of your skills. Do not rely on the interviewer to spark your memory-jot down some notes that you can reference throughout the interview. cases help trainees to define or refine their own standards.  Variable: Characteristics by which people or things can be described. 2002). when implemented in small groups. to be able to change over . running with your own agenda and dominating the conversation means that you run the risk of missing important information about the company and its needs. The following strategies. which are helpful for any interview. If he or she becomes more directive during the interview. adjust. Case discussion demands critical and analytical skills and. Must have more than one level. length.you tactfully to guide the discussion in a way that best serves you. answers to general questions. Even if you feel like you can take the driver's seat and go in any direction you wish. also fosters collaboration (Pimple. Although the open format allows you significantly to shape the interview. written or verbal summaries) Research methods don't seem so intimidating when you're familiar with the terminology. would case studies be considered as scientific research? Why or why not? Answer: Case studies are a tool for discussing scientific integrity. and to develop skills for analyzing and dealing with hard problems on their own. Many of the principles discussed below for discussing case studies can be generalized to other approaches to encouraging discussion about research ethics. complexity) method of case presentation (verbal. in other words. By providing a focus for discussion. including:      appropriate selection of case(s) (topic. Although one of the most frequently used tools for encouraging discussion. printed. remain respectful of the interviewer's role. before or during discussion) format for case discussion (Email or Internet-based. here are some basic definitions used.  Ask well-placed questions.  Remain alert to the interviewer. qualities and experiences. relevance. This is important whether you're conducting evaluation or merely reading articles about other studies to incorporate in your program. To help with understanding. large group) leadership of case discussion (choice of discussion leader.

A case study often involves direct observation or interviews with single subjects or single small social units such as a family. the results can be statistically similar to taking a census of an entire population--with reduced effort and cost. This occurs when subjects self-select the level of the independent variable. This is typically considered qualitative research. etc. Sample: A subset of subjects that can be studied to make the research project more manageable. is what you're trying to "prove. 4-H members attending 4-H summer camp stay enrolled in 4-H longer. etc.time for the same person/object. It is denoted as "X" on the horizontal axis of a graph. or from person to person. the more health problems he or she encounters. or presumed cause that will produce a change in the dependent variable. This is the observation made and is denoted by "Y" on the vertical axis of a graph. Some variables. etc. Dependent variable: The presumed effect or consequence resulting from changes in the independent variable. gender." Examples of research hypotheses for a relational study:    The older the person. factor. that is.    Case Study: A case study is conducted for similar purpose as the above but is usually done with a smaller sample size for more in-depth study. the greater the amount of annual savings achieved. Correlational Study: .g. There are a variety of ways samples can be taken.. This is what the experimenter tries to manipulate. called attributes. Some variables can be manipulated but are not in a particular study. school classroom. If a large enough random samples are taken." Population: The complete set of subjects that can be studied: people. cannot be manipulated by the researcher (e. objects. animals. club.). race. socioeconomic status. subjects to levels of the  Independent variable: The treatment. The score of "Y" depends on the score of "X.  Manipulation: Random assignment of independent variable (treatment groups). IQ score. or object to object. Types of relational studies include correlational studies and ex post facto studies. or the level is naturally occurring (as with ex post facto research). plants. Purpose: Explain or Predict Type of Research to Use: Relational Study In a relational study you start with a research hypothesis. The greater the number of money management classes attended.

This type of study is very common and useful when using human subjects in realworld situations and the investigator comes in "after the fact. it might be observed that students from one town have higher grades than students from a different town attending the same high school. a student's grade point average might predict the same student's grade point average during senior year. and it certainly was not the cause for victory. For instance. in fact. Similarly. such as differences in income. a student's SAT score is designed to predict college freshman grade point average. It is important to recognize that. etc." For example. parent support. specific reasons for the differences would be explored. The researcher starts by specifying a dependent variable and then tries to identify possible reasons for its occurrence as well as alternative (rival) explanations such confounding (intervening. All that can be claimed is that that there is a relationship between the variables. For example. A predictive correlational study could also use one characteristic to predict what another characteristic will be at another time.A correlational study compares two or more different characteristics from the same group of people and explains how two characteristics vary together and how well one can be predicted from knowledge of the other. ethnicity. For example. Ex Post Facto (After the Fact) Study: An ex post facto study is used when experimental research is not possible. variables that are completely unrelated could. For example. such as when people have self-selected levels of an independent variable or when a treatment is naturally occurring and the researcher could not "control" the degree of its use. or extraneous) variables are "controlled" using statistics. in a relational study. . Would just "being from a certain town" explain the differences? In an ex post facto study. contaminating. There is no likely reason why the uniform color had any relationship to the games' outcomes. you must be careful about claiming that your Extension program was the "cause" of possible results. For that matter. A concurrent correlational study draws a relationship between characteristics at the same point in time. it might be found that all football teams with blue uniforms won last week. a student's grade point average is related to his or her class rank. vary together due to nothing more than coincidence. That is why the researcher needs to establish a plausible reason (research hypothesis) for why there might be a relationship between two variables before conducting a study. A predictive correlational study could predict a later set of data from an earlier set. "cause and effect" cannot be claimed.

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