314 views

Uploaded by Ronald Tantiado

save

- Ch.4 Numerical Methods Edexcel
- june 2015 specimen paper
- Chapter 1 Introduction to Physics (Teacher' Guide)
- Chapter 7 - Electricity(Teacher's Guide)
- Measuring Instruments Lecture
- Sig Figs and Uncertainty Note
- Chapter 2 Force and Motion TEACHER's GUIDE
- Measurement and Calibration
- Quiz1 Chap1 Sol 042
- jresv77Bn3-4p111
- ChemistryCh3_SigFigsPowerpoint
- michael paci - drexel lesson plan
- arun hj
- Chapter 3 Forces & Pressure Teachers Guide
- 0580_m16_qp_12
- Significant Figures
- metotos numericos
- 0580_w15_qp_13
- Estimation
- RES16_chem_prac_skills
- Ncert Physics11 Solution
- 1
- 0580_s13_qp_12
- octnov2012xtmaths.pdf
- 0580_w16_qp_11
- 147817 2015 Paper 1 Specimen Paper
- 0581_w14_qp_12.pdf
- 0580_w13_qp_255
- Introductory Chemistry Tro Cpt 2 Notes
- exer9
- OBE CoE535 Syllabus
- comp37fe
- Nursing)
- exer2
- exer5
- CoE422 Midterm Exam 2nd1314
- exer6
- exer3
- PhysLab Midterm
- exer1
- exer7
- exer8
- exer1
- exer4
- Longitudinal Waves
- PhsyLabq1
- Sound and Hearing
- PhsyLabfq2
- Biological and Medical Application - 2F B
- Physics 101ah- Lesson 5
- Waves
- Hearing Loss and Correction
- PhsyLabq2
- Medical and Biological Application of Pressure and Fluids -2E
- Superposition of Waves
- PhsyLabq3
- Biological and Medical Applications of Pressure and Fluids - Ph 2F
- Superposition Principle...Cuevas and Delacruz
- PhsyLabfq3

You are on page 1of 5

PHYSICS. The word “physics” (Latin, physics, or Greek, physis), means nature and Physics is the study of the laws that determine the structure of the universe with reference to the matter and energy. It is concerned not with the chemical changes that occur but with the forces that exists between objects and the interrelationship between matter and energy (Parker, 1994). There are six branches of Pgysics: (1) Mechanics: kinematics/ dynamics; (2) Heat & Thermodynamics; (3) Sound and Waves; (4) Light and Optics; (5) Electricity and Electromagnetism; and (6) Modern Physics. A measurement can be defined as number with attached units. The numerical value of a measurement should reflect the sensitivity of the measurement used to make the measurement. Consider a bathroom scale, which measurement is reasonable? 165.674 lbs or 166 lbs. An ‘exact measurement’ does not really exist because every instrument has some degree of uncertainty. An instrument reads only a finite number of digits that have meaning. Every measurement has some degree of uncertainty in the last decimal place. The last digit read with an instrument, with analog readout, is estimated. 1.1Methods: Direct and Indirect 1.2Quantities: Fundamental (Basic) and Derived Standards of Length, Mass and Time There are five basic quantities: • • • • • Length (L) Mass (M) Time (t) Electric current (I) Temperature (T)

1.3Units: Fundamental and Derived

1.4System of Units: English System (fps/fss system) and Metric System/ S.I. (mks/cgs system) In the first of the course we will only be concerned with length, mass, and time. • SI units (used mostly in physics): o o o Length: meter (m) Mass: kilogram (kg) Time: second (s)

This system is also referred to as the mks system for meter-kilogramsecond. • Gaussian Units (used mostly in physics/ chemistry): o o o Length: centimeter (cm) Mass: gram (g) Time: seconds (s)

This system is also referred to as the cgs system for centimeter-gramsecond. • British Engineering System: o o o Length: foot (ft) Mass: slug Time: second (s)

1.5Significant Figures: All Non-zero digits RULES FOR DETERMINING SIGNIFICANT DIGITS 1. Nonzero digits are always significant. 2. Leading zeros that appear at the start of a number are never significant because they act only to fix position of the decimal point in a number less than 1. 3. Confined zeros that appear between nonzero numbers are always significant. 4. Trailing zeros at the end of a number are significant only if the number contains a decimal point or contains an over-bar.

1.6Rules for Rounding Off 1. If the first non-significant digit is less than 5, drop it and the last significant digit remains the same. 2. If the first non-significant digit is more than 5 or is 5 followed by numbers other than zeros, drop the non-significant digit(s) in increase the last significant digit by 1. Hence, 47.26 and 47.252 are both equal to 47.3 (when rounded to 3 sig. figs) 3. If the first non-significant digit is 5 and is followed by zeros, drop the 5 and, a) increase the last significant digit by one if it is odd, or b) leave the significant digit the same if it is even. c. the new rule is hereby accepted too. That when the number to be dropped is exactly five, add immediately one to the preceding number. 4. Non-significant digits to the left of the decimal point are not discarded, but are replace by zeros. Thus 1781 becomes 1780 and not 178 when rounded to three significant figures. 1.7Rule for Addition and Subtraction The answer must not contain a smaller place than the number with the smallest place. 1.8Rule for Multiplication and Division The answer must not contain any more significant digits than the least number of significant digits in the numbers used in multiplication or division. 1.9A Special Rule: Exact Numbers Exact numbers are precisely know and can have as many significant digits as a calculation requires, so there are not used to determine the number of significant digits for the answer. 1.10 Exponential Notation

Form of mathematical expression in which a number is expressed as the product of two numbers, one a decimal and the other a power of 10. (1000 = 1 X 103) Scientific Notation Form of exponential notation in which the decimal part must have exactly one nonzero digit to the left of the decimal point; it is widely used by scientist. 1.11 Conversion and Equivalencies

Idea: Units can be treated as algebraic quantities. For example, we can use the conversion factor 1in = 2.54cm to rewrite 15 inches in centimeter. 15 in = 15 in (2.54 cm/ 1 in) = 38.1 cm Measuring Length • • • • • • The basic unit of measurement in Metric System is meter. On a ruler, the distance from one tick mark to the next is 1 millimeter Millimeters are used to measure very short lengths. There are 10 millimeters in a centimeter. For large distances, you would measure in kilometers. All metric units are related by units of tens.

Measuring Mass • • • • • • The basic metric unit of mass is gram There are 1000 grams in one kilogram The metric ton is used to measure very heavy objects The milligram is used to measure very light objects It is common outside the field of science to use weight to mean the same as mass. In Physics: Mass is different from weight. Mass is the measure of the amount of matter in an object. Weight is the force exerted by gravity on an object. A scale uses a spring to measure weight. A balance measures mass by comparing the force acting equally on both pans of a balance. Measuring capacity • • • • Capacity is the term used for measuring a liquid. The dictionary defines capacity as the amount of space that can be filled The liter is the basic unit of capacity in the metric system The milliliter is used to measure very small capacities

• •

The kiloliter is used to measure large capacities There are1000 liters in every kiloliter

Commonly used prefixes for powers of 10 used with metric units are given below: nano 10-9 micro 10-6 mili 10-3 n µ nm c n k M

centi 10-2 deci kilo 10-1 103

mega 106

- Ch.4 Numerical Methods EdexcelUploaded bysriniyfa
- june 2015 specimen paperUploaded byapi-362022372
- Chapter 1 Introduction to Physics (Teacher' Guide)Uploaded bykamalharmoza
- Chapter 7 - Electricity(Teacher's Guide)Uploaded bykamalharmoza
- Measuring Instruments LectureUploaded byraj_kamal
- Sig Figs and Uncertainty NoteUploaded byFESSCHEM
- Chapter 2 Force and Motion TEACHER's GUIDEUploaded bykamalharmoza
- Measurement and CalibrationUploaded bySanjay Veerasammy
- Quiz1 Chap1 Sol 042Uploaded byGason Ayisyin
- jresv77Bn3-4p111Uploaded bykgrhoads
- ChemistryCh3_SigFigsPowerpointUploaded bynutterbutter1766
- michael paci - drexel lesson planUploaded byapi-267868743
- arun hjUploaded byMukeshwaran
- Chapter 3 Forces & Pressure Teachers GuideUploaded bykamalharmoza
- 0580_m16_qp_12Uploaded byTalithaRifdahF
- Significant FiguresUploaded byraghavajay
- metotos numericosUploaded byRaul Jaramillo
- 0580_w15_qp_13Uploaded byAroon Chang
- EstimationUploaded byhema16
- RES16_chem_prac_skillsUploaded byPavan Varsani
- Ncert Physics11 SolutionUploaded byRebel Mad
- 1Uploaded byRippleIllusion
- 0580_s13_qp_12Uploaded byshahul
- octnov2012xtmaths.pdfUploaded byAnonymous Kx8TAybnXQ
- 0580_w16_qp_11Uploaded byRunWell
- 147817 2015 Paper 1 Specimen PaperUploaded byseyka4
- 0581_w14_qp_12.pdfUploaded byCorinSaputra
- 0580_w13_qp_255Uploaded byTHE GAMER
- Introductory Chemistry Tro Cpt 2 NotesUploaded by吕家奇

- exer9Uploaded byRonald Tantiado
- OBE CoE535 SyllabusUploaded byRonald Tantiado
- comp37feUploaded byRonald Tantiado
- Nursing)Uploaded byRonald Tantiado
- exer2Uploaded byRonald Tantiado
- exer5Uploaded byRonald Tantiado
- CoE422 Midterm Exam 2nd1314Uploaded byRonald Tantiado
- exer6Uploaded byRonald Tantiado
- exer3Uploaded byRonald Tantiado
- PhysLab MidtermUploaded byRonald Tantiado
- exer1Uploaded byRonald Tantiado
- exer7Uploaded byRonald Tantiado
- exer8Uploaded byRonald Tantiado
- exer1Uploaded byRonald Tantiado
- exer4Uploaded byRonald Tantiado
- Longitudinal WavesUploaded byRonald Tantiado
- PhsyLabq1Uploaded byRonald Tantiado
- Sound and HearingUploaded byRonald Tantiado
- PhsyLabfq2Uploaded byRonald Tantiado
- Biological and Medical Application - 2F BUploaded byRonald Tantiado
- Physics 101ah- Lesson 5Uploaded byRonald Tantiado
- WavesUploaded byRonald Tantiado
- Hearing Loss and CorrectionUploaded byRonald Tantiado
- PhsyLabq2Uploaded byRonald Tantiado
- Medical and Biological Application of Pressure and Fluids -2EUploaded byRonald Tantiado
- Superposition of WavesUploaded byRonald Tantiado
- PhsyLabq3Uploaded byRonald Tantiado
- Biological and Medical Applications of Pressure and Fluids - Ph 2FUploaded byRonald Tantiado
- Superposition Principle...Cuevas and DelacruzUploaded byRonald Tantiado
- PhsyLabfq3Uploaded byRonald Tantiado