The human immunodeficiency virus attacks the body's immune system. Healthy immune system means a natural defence against disease and infection. If the immune system is damaged by HIV, it increases the risk of causing a dangerous infection and disease such as cancer or pneumonia. HIV infects cells, called CD4, that are found in the blood. They are responsible for fighting infection. After they become infected, the cells are killed by HIV. Although the body will attempt to produce more CD4 cells, numbers will eventually decline and the immune system will stop working and become damaged. (AIDS) Acquired immune deficiency syndrome is a term that is used to describe the late stage of HIV. It is when the immune system has stopped working and the person develops a life-threatening condition cancer. HIV is spread through bodily fluids. This most commonly happens during unprotected sexual contact, such as vaginal, oral and anal sex. Injection of illegal drugs and sharing needles are also at risk of catching HIV.Can also be spread from a mother to her unborn child.
Symptoms: Possible symptoms of a serious infection caused by a damaged immune system include:
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persistent tiredness night sweats unexplained weight loss persistent diarrhoea blurred vision white spots on your tongue or mouth dry cough shortness of breath a fever of above 37C (100F) that lasts a number of weeks swollen glands that last for more than three months
bleeding and white spots in the retina.a noncancerous or cancerous tumour that can appear on any part of the body.Structure of aids virus
HIV exists as roughly spherical particles known as virons. The viral core known as the caspid is usually shaped like a bullet and is made from the protein p24. red eye -.
Affect on the eye There are a number of eye-related symptoms caused by AIDS:
cotton wool spots -. which is made from the protein p17. In the eye. The surface of each particle is studded with lots of little spikes. integrase and protease. Kaposi's sarcoma -. Also held within the core is HIV's genetic material. a Kaposi's sarcoma appears as a purple-red
. Just below the viral envelope is a layer called the matrix.infections that last for a long time and cause reddening of the eyes. are not dangerous and often disappear in a matter of weeks. which are formed from the proteins gp120 and gp41. Cotton wool spots. which consists of two identical strands of RNA. resulting from inflammation of the blood vessels of the retina. including the eyes. Inside the core are three enzymes required for HIV replication called reverse transcriptase. HIV can be seen clearly with an electron microscope. HIV particles surround themselves with a coat of fatty material known as the viral envelope Projecting from this are around 72 little spikes.
. because the disease can cause permanent eye damage. If only one eye is infected with CMV.edu/patientcare/conditions/aids.umich. Ganciclovir and Foscarnet.eye infections that are common in AIDS patients CMV retinitis ± is an infection caused by the cytomegalovirus.aspx http://www. The drugs slow the progress of the disease but do not eliminate it. and zoster -. This can be treated with radiation. toxoplasmosis. the drug treatment can prevent infection of the other eye. so it is important for anyone with AIDS to have regular eye examinations.bump on the eyelid or a spot on the sclera. The symptoms of CMV infection include floating spots. The drugs used to treat CMV infection are expensive.nhs. or "spider webs.
CMV infection is treated with two drugs.
herpes. and blurred vision. and they must be taken indefinitely.asp http://www.com/library/enc/enc_aids." flashing lights. It is the most serious AIDS-related eye disorder. laser therapy. the white of the eye. or the freezing treatment called cryotherapy. blind spots. This can occur in as many as 30 percent of AIDS patients and is more prevalent as the disease progresses and the number of protective T-cells declines.kellogg. But CMV retinitis can also occur without such symptoms.uk/Conditions/HIV/Pages/Introduction.