E M Waves and Transmission Lines
Unit 1
Lecture Notes 5
5. 
Four point charges each 20µC 100µC point charge at (0,0,3)m . 
are on xy axis at 
± 4m . 
Find the force on a 
Sol. 
Due to the symmetry
F
4
F
2
=
=
0.57
0.57
ay
ax
+
+
0.434
0.4314
az
az
F
3
Net force
= − = F = F
0.57
1
ax
+
0.4314
+ F
2
+ F
3
az
+ F
4
0.44314 AZ
4
×
= = 1.7256 azN
B. I .Neelgr, ECE, GMRIT
E M Waves and Transmission Lines
Unit 1
Lecture Notes 5
Two particles each of mass ‘m’ and having a charge ‘q’ coulomb are suspended by a string of length ‘l’ from a common point. Show that each string makes, with the vertical an angle θ given by
Sol.
tan
3
θ
q
2
=
1
+ tan
2 θ
16
mgl
π
2
ε
0
The force of repulsion between the two particles is
From
le
∆
OAC
F =
q
2
4
πε
(
AB
)
2
AB / 2 
= 
( cos 90 
− 
θ 
) 

l 

AB = 2 l sin θ 

From eqn 
(1) 

2 

F = 
q 

4 πε 
0 
( 2 
2 sin l 
θ 
) 
2 
=
q
16
πε
0
l
2
sin
2
θ
= sin
θ
−
(2)
−
(1)
E M Waves and Transmission Lines
Unit 1
Lecture Notes 5
Applying Lemi’s theorem at point ‘A’ F
mg
=
(
sin 90 + 90 −
θ)
(
sin 90
+θ)
F
sinθ
=
mg
cosθ
Substituting ‘F’ from eqn(2)
q 2 mg = 

16 πε 0 l 2 sin 
3 θ 
cos θ 

i . e 
q 
2 
= 
sin 3 θ 

., 
16 πε 0 
l 
2 
mg 
cos 
θ 

i 
q 
2 
= 
sin 
3 
θ 

. 
e ., 
cos 

16 πε 0 
mgl 
2 
cos 
3 
θ 

tan 3 θ 

= 

sec 2 θ 

. i e 
q 
2 
= 
tan 3 
θ 

., 
16 πε 0 
mgl 
2 
1 
+ 
tan 
2 
θ 
2 θ
9. 
It is required to hold three equal point charges +q each at equilibrium at the corners of an equilateral triangle. Find the point charge which will do this is placed at the centre of the triangle. 
Sol. 
E M Waves and Transmission Lines
Unit 1
Lecture Notes 5
Let the required charge at the centre be ‘q’ considering the forces acting on any one charge say ‘1’ due to all other charges, the resulting shold be zero for equilibrium.
2
At equilibrium X + Y = 0 Resolving the forces along X and Y
Y
2 2

X 
= 
− q 4 πε a 2 
− 
4 
q πε a 
2 
cos60 
0 
+ 

= 
2 − q 
− q 
2 
1 + 
3 qq ′ 
3 

= 
4 πε a 8 q πε a 
2 2 
[ − 4 2 πε q a − 
2 q 
2 + 3 4 πε a
3
q ′ ] 2 
2 

= 
8 3 q πε a 
2 
[ − q − 
q ]
3
′ 

3 qq ′ 
0 
2 q 
0 

= 
sin 30 − 
sin 60 

4 πε a 2 
4 πε a 2 
=
=
cos30
0
B. I .Neelgr, ECE, GMRIT
E M Waves and Transmission Lines
Unit 1
i.e.,
X + Y = 0
Lecture Notes 5
= 0
10. It is required to hold four equal point charges +q at equilibrium at the corner of a square. Find the point charge which will do this if placed at the centre of the square.
B. I .Neelgr, ECE, GMRIT
E M Waves and Transmission Lines
Unit 1
Sol.
Lecture Notes 5
Let the required charge be − q′ placed at the centre of the square. Cosidering the forces acting on any one charge say ‘1’ due to all other charges the resultant must be zero for equilibrium.
i.e.,
2
=
At equilibrium X + Y = 0
cos45
0
= 0.965 q q′ = −0.956q C
B. I .Neelgr, ECE, GMRIT
=
0
E M Waves and Transmission Lines
Unit 1
Lecture Notes 5
B. I .Neelgr, ECE, GMRIT
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