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SUMMARY In this experiment we study flow in pipes and the resistance is caused by the roughness of the pipe surface, and how we can measure the pressure difference, Reynolds number , fraction factor ,also measure pressure (difference, flow rate for (Venturi meter, orifice plate

CONTENTS .PAGE NO

3 Introduction Theory Apparatus 4 7 ...

INTRODUCTION When fluid flows through a pipe or conduit, it counters resistance to its flow. In straight piping, this resistance is caused by the roughness of the pipe surface. In addition to friction losses, there are also losses due to turning gate valves, globe valves, flow control valves, sudden enlargements, 45 or junctions, etc. Finally, if the pressure drops in these sections of fluid 90 systems also take place. Local losses must be taken into account in fluid .power systems All losses can be determined for each of the various elements in a system and then added together in order to ascertain the total system loss. The K factor of some elements can be determined using empirical formulae that have been developed via experimentation. This permits the calculation of energy losses for any system components. Bernoullis equation and the continuity equation can be utilised in order to perform a complete analysis of a fluid power system. This includes calculating the pressure drops, flow rates and horsepower losses for all of the components of a fluid power .system There are two basic types of flow in pipes, depending on the nature of the different factors mentioned above that affect the flow. The first type is laminar flow, which is characterized by the fluid flowing in smooth layers of lamina. This type of fluid motion is called streamline flow because all of the .particles of fluid are moving in parallel paths If the velocity of flow reaches a high enough value, the flow ceases to be laminar and becomes turbulent. The movement of a particle becomes random and fluctuates up and down in a perpendicular direction, as well as parallel to the mean flow direction, in a turbulent flow. Reynolds numbers (Re) are very important in identifying whether or not the flow pattern inside .[a pipe is laminar or turbulent [1 If the Re value is less than 2,000 the flow is laminar, but if the Re value is greater than 4,000, the flow is turbulent. Reynolds numbers between 2,000 .[and 4,000 cover a critical zone between laminar and turbulent flow [2 There are well-established methods to determine friction losses, which can be found in numerous textbooks and engineering handbooks [3]. Two

frequently cited references are Cameron Hydraulic Data, and the .[Flow of Fluids through Valves, Fittings and Pipe [4][5 Friction losses are a function of velocity (flow rate); there is a unique pressure value for every flow rate value. Therefore, friction and local losses should be calculated experimentally to determine the minimum and .maximum flow rates Manufacturers of pipes, valves, fittings, elbows, XYT junctions, etc, are identify values using computerized friction or local losses apparatuses and prepare information in their catalogue or on their Internet site, as well .as in some books on fluids

THEORY Experiment A-Fluid Friction in a pipes The objective of this experiment is to determine the fluid friction coefficient and Reynold's number for flow of water through a pipes having a roughened .bore by reading a head loss at flow rates through the roughened test pipe The water cycle through the unit is distinguished by a numbers denote to the fitting From 1 to 12. See figure (4). So the equipment must set up to allow water to pass in the last pipe passing the fittings 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-10.(11-12 to the exit stream. figure (4 (Simply open the ball valve 4 and close the all others ball valves) :The head loss due to friction in a pipe is given by ( or :Where the length of the pipe between tappings, The distance between tappings =1m ,the internal diameter of the pipe mean velocity of water through the pipe in, m/s gravity acceleration, = 9.81 m/s (1

Equation ( 1 ) used to calculate for turbulent flow. For laminar flow .be calculated from Fanning or Moody Equation :Reynold's number can be founded from the equation (2) :Where ,water density = ,water viscosity :A typical curve of friction factor versus Reynold's number is as follow

can

Experiment B-Flow Measurement Using Differential Head In this section we want to demonstrate the application of differential head devices (venture meter, orifices .) in the measurement of flow rate of .water and velocity in a pipe And this is achieved by measuring the head loss _at different flow rates_ :through

1- Venturi meter 2- orifice plate :For the Venturi & orifice plate (3) :Where flow rate, m/s .(discharge coefficient (dimensionless For venturi For orifice 0.98 0.62

, area of throat the area of the pipe upstream, m differential head measured, manometer read mm gravity acceleration, Where 9.81 m/s = .differential head

APPARATUS

Pipe friction is one of the classic laboratory experiments and has always .found a place in the practical teaching of fluid mechanics With this unit friction head losses in straight pipes of very different sizes can be investig-ated over a range of Reynolds' numbers from 103 to nearly 105, thereby covering the laminar, transitional and turbulent flow regimes in .smooth Pipes In addition an artificially roughened pipe is supplied which, at the higher Reynolds' numbers, shows a clear departure from the typical smooth bore .pipe characteristics In addition to the equipment for the study of losses in straight pipes, a wide range of accessories are standard including pipe fittings and control valves, .a Venturi tube, an orifice plate assembly and a Pitot tube :An arrangement of six pipes provides facilities for testing the following smooth-bore pipes of different diameters 4 artificially roughened pipe (90 bends (large & small radii 90 elbow 90 miter 45 elbow 45Y 90T sudden enlargement sudden contraction gate valve globe valve ball valve inline strainer Perspex Venturi Perspex orifice meter

PROCEDURE

Experiment A

Water is allowed to flow through the roughened pipe by opening and closing .the appropriate valves .The flow rate Q is measured by using a volumetric tank .Measure the head loss between the toppings using manometer Experiment B .Water is allowed to flow through Venture and orifice plate .we measure the differential head produced by flow rate The differential head developed by orifice plate and Venture meter measured by connecting the probes from the appropriate manometer to the .two tapings on the flow meter body, up stream and the throat

(V H2O (L

t sec

Q=V/t

Re=ud/

h [cm.H2O]

Plot f vs Re

Experment 2- Pressure Drop vs Pipe Dimeter Select 2 pipes Pipe 1 (V H2O (L t sec Q=V/t Re=ud/

h [cm.H2O]

h [cm.H2O]

Experment 3- Pressure Drop vs Pipe Roughness Select 2 pipes Pipe 1 (V H2O (L t sec Q=V/t Re=ud/

h [cm.H2O]

h [cm.H2O]

Experment 3- Pressure Drop for Fittings (Select different fittings (Elbows and valves (Fitting 1 (45 degrees elbow (V H2O (L t sec Q=V/t Re=ud/

h [cm.H2O]

h [cm.H2O]

When the fluid is flowing in pipe at constant flow rate, the roughness causes decay in the pressure difference between two points (head loss). And when we study table ( 1 ) we found the results are inadmissible, before that we didnt can read head in pipe #2 because the aperture for point two was .close .For venture meter and orifice meter that date not enough to study them

CONCLUTION

The head loss caused by fluid friction in straight pipes and the effects of fluid velocity, pipe diameter and surface roughness can be fully investigated. The complete system allows investigation of the phenomenon .associated with incompressible fluid flow in pipes

RECOMMENDATIONS

Close the control valve to leave the system at a high static pressure when .the reading on meter has stabilized, press the tube to reset the meter

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