ABSTRACT The paper presents a review of the most important measurement methods applied to determination of zari yarn faults and a method of evaluating online processing technique. By using this method the fault in zari yarn has been analyzed and the faults can be categorized. This method is useful to find the fault present in zari yarn by a onlined monitoring system. Since the yarn comprises of gold, silver and red silk its has more value. The fault in the yarn deteriorates the quality. So for no such fault measurement has been done for quality in case of zari yarn. This present is an attempt to fabricate the online zari fault finding machine using online processing techniques. Keywords- Zari yarn, online processing.

In textile the most valued products are made from silk. The product made from this fiber is of more lustrous and gives rich look to the wearer. The cost of the silk product is also very high when compared to other textile products. The silk manufacturing is a specialized skill required area and the Zari silk production needs a very good technical skill and knowledge. The cost of the Zari is high because of gold and sliver present in the yarn. For example the Zari yarn of about 64.8 grams Net.wt cost around more than Rs.5000 in market. The cost of yarn varies with respect to the percentage of gold coating given to the final yarn. So far in the industry there is no quality check practiced. In this paper a Novel lab model testing instrument is developed to ascertain the No. of faults present in a package which will give an idea to manufactures to take preventive steps in processing stage. Due to the lack of control measures in processing stages the fine Zari yarn has got more faults like unwrapped portions, uneven coated portions and etc..,which will give more wastage during weaving stage. Laboratory methods for the quantitative analysis of zari threads were investigated. Methods for determining the amount of gold, silver, zinc, and copper in zari threads and procedures for analyzing commercial zari threads were considered. For determining metal content, volumetric, gravimetric, and colorimetric methods were evaluated and were found to yield reasonably accurate results. For analyzing commercial zari, an analytical procedure was evaluated that estimated the amount of chemical finish and cellulosic material present in samples. This method can be used to determine the authenticity of commercially available threads.

Mechanical action (rubbing. Kancheepuram. Zari is an important ornamental thread used since ancient times to decorate such textile goods as dress materials. The Fig.1 Zari Yarn A-Gold coated B-Silver wrapped red silk 2. friction. METHODOLOGY The Zari thread is basically a three component structure consists of Red silk. such as brass or aluminized plastic. This analyzer will also give the contents of each metal used in the manufacturer of zari separately. gives an idea about Zari yarn. face the problem of identifying these imitations. and tannin formulae stronger than 28 percent will damage or dissolve most metallic finishes. and exporters. and tamping). FIG. installed "X-Ray Fluorescence Analyser" in collaboration with Technology Information Forecasting and Assessment Council (TIFAC) . Special precautions are required in removing stains from garments featuring metallic finishes made by spraying or rolling a base fabric with a combination of adhesive and metallic powders.1 BASIC TECHNOLOGY OF ZARI MANUFACTURING 2. A comparative drycleaning analysis reveals that the most appropriate stain removal agents for fabrics with metallic finishes are wet stain removal agents. The metallic sheen of zari thread can be imparted by such precious metals as gold. rust removal solutions.1.1 Stages Of Zari Yarn Making Flattening (Silver Wire). therefore. This analyzer has been devised and specially calibrated to test the zari samples and zari fabrics. Silver and Gold.Spot tests for identifying the metallic content of zari are discussed.The Red Silk Yarn of 14. The Zari yarns consist of a core made up of red silk wrapped around by a silver wire. 2. and footwear. Consumers. coated with gold solution. fashion fabrics. The Tamilnadu Zari Limited. or by imitations. oily type paint removers. weavers. The Silver wire of 16 Micron diameters is first made flattened cross-section by using a flattening . sarees. amyl acetate. table cloths. 16 Denier (combined yarn) is used for the core.

1. 2.machine by applying optimum pressure and it is wound on small spools called as "Reels”. The film sheet is tired by manually into several small pieces. The guiding finger makes the silver wire to wrap around the passing Red silk yarn emerging out the hollow spindle. Initially the silver thread is passed through a cold and hot water bath to remove any suspended impurities. The spool is taken to the precision winding machine in which a larger package is made.4 Coating Process This process consists of series of immersion rollers and heaters.Converting gold (24 carrots) biscuit to thin paper like sheet by passing through reputably to the pressing machine.3 Preparation Of Gold Solution It is done by electrolysis method. Then it is processed through a . the mediator solution is prepared by dissolving cyanide in water. The anode is made up of nickel and cathode is a silver rod.2 Wrap Spinning In this stage silver yarn is wrap over the red silk yarn. It consists of an anode and cathode. Due to this process the silk yarn is fully covered by silver then only gold coated over the yarn . which helps to easy handling during the subsequent process. 2. The red silk is wrapped around by the silver thread by using the Wrap Spinning machine. under optimum tension. Silver uncovered areas gold is not coated so it creates faults in yarn. The spindle is positively rotated the by drive from motor. The delivery package is wound on a double flanged spool.1. The reel containing silver wire is loosely mounted over the hollow spindle and passed through a finger called wrapping finger. 2. The take up roller is arranged in such a way that it pulls the Red silk from the supply package during the course of winding or wrapping. The purpose of flattering is to increase the cover area and reduce the consumption of silver to cover the Red Silk during wrapping zone. So take more attention on warping process. The wrap spinning machine consists of a Hollow Spindle through which the Red Silk is passed from the creel.1. Each reel contains 1000 to 1500 Meter of length of silver wire. The instrument is based on electroplating principle.

Each spool is of 64. DESIGN OF THE INSTRUMENT FIG.2 Testing Instrument PARTS A .Supply Package B .Speed Variator E . 3.Sensor C . By this process the faults are cleared manually in the final yarn. 2.LCD D . In the post winding process the final Zari yarn is wounded on flanged small wooden spools under constant tension and constant length. Then the yarn is passed through a gold solution at 240`c where the silver is coated with gold.1.8gms net weight and a package of 4 bobbins is called one "Mark". The yarn is passed through the electrically heated plates to fix the gold plating and through a water bath to extract the residual gold in the yarn and finally passed through another heater and to the take up system where the Zari thread is wound on double flanged bobbins.5 PRE WINDING AND POST WINDING The Zari spools obtained from the coating department is wound on wooden spools.Rubber Cot Rollers .bath containing potassium hydroxide solution kept at 90`C (under 20% concentration).This process act as a catalyst in order to make the silver to attract the gold plating.

3.1circuit Diagrams 83PF 10K LCD 83PF 12 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 15 16 18 X1 Vcc GND 19 X1 Vcc Motor 26 Sen1 Sen2 To (14) Ti (15) 1 2 3 SIP 4 Res 5 10R 6 7 FIG.3 LCD Circuit Diagram + 5v + 5v 10k + +5v LM 358 Sen1/ Sen2 _ R5 10k .

4 Sensor Circuit Diagram Vcc R2 Motor R1 BC547 R3 +12 V BC547 MOTO R 1 FIG. After wrapping with silver thread.R6 10k FIG. After coating with gold.5 Motor Circuit Diagram 4. Final fault analysis . Red silk stage. TESTING The Zari yarn character is analyzed at.

Load Cell (N) 5. Den Speed (mm/m) 150. Microscopical examination of Red silk. silver yarn and Zari yarn.1 TEST RESULTS The final report will give the following results. 4. elongation and load at break. Total no. Elongation and a statistical report to be prepared for the existing process.1 TEST RESULT OF ZARI YARN Title: Offline Quality Testing Machine for Zari Yarn Specimen label: Dimension: Number Inputs: Number Inputs: Zari yarn Linear density 108. The rubbing and washing fastness is also to be evaluated in various stages.The Zari yarn is tested in various stages for strength. Table-I (Test Result of Zari Yarn) . Testing and statistical interface by using the model equipment. Identifying and selection of suitable optical sensors to sense the fault in the final product.1. Quality parameters such as strength. The analytical test is done to find out the content of gold and sliver in Zari yarn. 4. of errors per meter. Stage by stage analyzing of intermittent end product for their quality parameters such as strength. of faults per meter. No. elongation and contents.Analyzing the existing Zari manufacturing products adopted in Zari industries.

37 3.70 39 35 37.99 TABLE – I1 INSTRUMENT TEST RESULT (Faults per Meter) .1 Silver 5 7 6 5 4 4 4 7 6 5 0.75 3 rpm Red Silk Silver 8 6 6 5 7 8 6 7 7 8 0.421 7.29 37 32 34.6 3.53 8 5 6.33 Red Silk 33 35 34 37 35 34 36 33 32 33 1.47 4.80 7 4 5.981 14.25 9 rpm Silver 3 4 3 5 3 4 5 3 5 4 0.09 5 33 3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 SD CV % MAX MIN MEAN 40 42 41 38 40 43 39 42 40 43 1.Machine Speed ( Rpm) Sample No.83 2.93 43 38 40.75 6 rpm Red Silk 37 38 37 39 35 37 36 39 38 35 1.

PHOTOGRAPHS MICROSCOPIC VIEW FIG. CONCLUSION The Zari yarn is basically a metallic yarn which will be a more valuable yarn in the textile field.7 FABRICATED MACHINE 5.6 Longitudinal view of Zari yarn without defect Zari yarn with defect FIG. The amount of awareness of quality of the product is not up to the mark neither at the manufacturer’s side nor .4.

India. R. Schreier B.Issue 20. Thakore K. 188th ACS National Meeting [CELL44 Aug. 8: 74-76 May 1993]. Shukla R. 10.. J. Asha krishnakumar. It will give a broad idea to the consumer about the product quality which they are purchasing. “Investigations Regarding Specimen Metallic Yarns From The Ground Of Dalmatia Through A Thousand Years”. The waste at different stages of process can be controlled and the manufacturer can increase the realization of final product. P. Colourage [36. 1991].. Pathak S. Raffaelil D. Dragicevic M.India.USA. Thakore K. 9: 18-23 Sept. 1984]. No. Sarkar B.. No. By using this testing instrument the Zari quality can be analyzed. No.India.. 8. “Lurex -. Duffield F.. Conf. India. “History Of Decorative Metallic Yarns”. “Characterization Of Metallic Yarns In Historic Persian Textiles By Microanalysis”. P. A. The instrument can be used to analyze the intermediate stages of processing which is very helpful for to the manufacturer to enhance control measures on quality in different stages of processing and to maintain the quality of output in a standard manner. A. A. . So by improving the technology and quality measures we can be able to produce a Zari yarn of international quality. 1994] . 07.. S.. 19: 19-23 Oct. 4. R. “Quantitative Analytical Methods For Analysis Of Zari”. “Salwar Kameez: Winds of Change”. In future using image processing techniques to find out the zari yarn faults in more effective then now using methods that much result is expected. “Stain Removal on Metallic Yarns”.. American Chemical Society. 2005].India. Cunko R.. V. Shambhulingappa H.India. No. “First stops on the silk route”. “Varanasi Silk Industry-A Survey”. Dasa S. Nagabhushanaiah Y. Abstracts of Papers. Patel M. India's National Magazine from the publishers of THE HINDU [Volume 22 . Tech. 10: 18 Oct. Sep. R. S.Oct.more than just a metallic yarn”. 6. “Development Of Spot-Tests For The Identification Of Zari”. Jacob M. 9: 66+. No. India. 7. Tekstil [31. No. IFI Fabricare News[23.. Colourage [38. 26-31. Knitting International [98. 6. Hardin I. 5 pages]. 2. 1989].Shukla R. 1171: 34-35 July 1991]. No.. Sarkar B. Year[1996]. Nadiger G.. AATCC Nat. 24 . 5. Papers [ 137-140 1979].BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. 12: 827-838 1982]. Publ. Bresee R.India.AITRA. 1. Indian Textile Journal [106. 3..from the consumer side. Indian Textile Journal [103. R.USA. 9.AITRA.

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