Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 1

Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon
of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 2
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon
of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 3
Þrepared by uLrechL School of Lhe ArLs (Pku), wlLh k2M LLd and
Luroklels S.r.l., for Lhe Lducauon & CulLure uC of Lhe Luropean
Commlsslon
2
K M
Co|ophon
1hls reporL was prepared for Lhe Luropean
Commlsslon Lducauon & CulLure unlL by
uLrechL School of Lhe ArLs (Pku) ln Lhe
neLherlands. 1he locolty of Att, MeJlo &
1ecbooloqy and Lhe locolty of Att & ícooomlcs
co-operaLed on Lhls sLudy.
1he sLudy was co-ordlnaLed by uavld Cromble.
1he research advlser was Þrof. Clep PagoorL
and Lhe managlng edlLor 8ene kooyman. 1he
research Leam managed by Lmma 1llquln wlLh
Lhe supporL of k2M LLd and Luroklels S.r.l.
More lnformauon abouL uLrechL School of Lhe
ArLs ls provlded ln Lhe AbouL us secuon. lor
more lnformauon regardlng Lhls reporL, please
conLacL Þlerre Mersch aL Pku ln Lhe ñrsL
lnsLance: plerre.mersch[kmL.hku.nl.
AckoowleJqemeots
We would llke Lo Lhank everyone who helped
wlLh Lhls sLudy. llrsLly, we would llke Lo Lhank
Lhe experLs ln Lhe culLural and creauve
lndusLrles who agreed Lo paruclpaLe ln Lhe
s L udy a nd gav e up L he l r ume f or
quesuonnalres, lnLervlews and workshops.
Secondly, we would llke Lo Lhank Þrof. !eroen
van MasLrlgL, urs 8oger Lenolr, ur Ceorge
loannldls and ur lrancesco 8elllnl for Lhelr co-
operauon and experuse. 1hlrdly, we would llke
Lo Lhank our researchers, namely Mauro
navarra, Marla lellce Arezzo, Þlerre Mersch,
Clovannl Clovlnazzo, Marllla valenLe, Sandra
Len Zl[Lhoñ, Chlara Cerllch, Zameer 8azack,
kwaku Afrlyle and Luz Cuuerrez.
ulsclolmet
1hls sLudy ls sub[ecL Lo a dlsclalmer and
copyrlghL. 1he sLudy was carrled ouL for Lhe
Luropean Commlsslon and expresses Lhe
opl nl ons of Lhe organl sauons havl ng
underLaken Lhe sLudy. 1he vlews have noL been
adopLed or ln any way approved by Lhe
Luropean Commlsslon and should noL be
relled upon as a sLaLemenL of Lhe Luropean
Comml s s l on' s vl ews . 1he Lur opean
Commlsslon does noL guaranLee Lhe accuracy
of Lhe lnformauon glven ln Lhe sLudy, nor does
lL accepL responslblllLy for any use made
Lhereof.
copytlqbt
CopyrlghL ls held by Lhe Luropean unlon.
Þersons wlshlng Lo use Lhe conLenLs of Lhls
sLudy (ln whole or ln parL) for purposes oLher
Lhan Lhelr personal use are lnvlLed Lo submlL a
wrluen requesL Lo Lhe followlng address:
Luropean Commlsslon, Lducauon Audlovlsual
& CulLure Lxecuuve Agency, Avenue du
8ourgeL 1, 8Cu8 / 8Cu2*, 8L-1140 8russels
kefeteoce
Pku, (2010), 1he LnLrepreneurlal ulmenslon of
Lhe Cul Lural and Creauve l ndusLrl es,
Pogeschool vor de kunsLen uLrechL, uLrechL.
lS8n/LAn: 978-90-817243-1-9
ulglLal coples can be downloaded from:
hup://ec.europa.eu/culLure/key-documenLs/
doc3124_en.hLm. lurLher prlnL coples are
a v a l l a b l e o n r e q u e s L L o :
plerre.mersch[kmL.hku.nl
lobllsbet
C C L C 8 S L 1 g r a ñ s c h e p r o d u c u e s ,
PorLusplanLsoen 7-8,
1018 1Z, AmsLerdam,
neLherlands.
emall: lnfo[colorseL.nl
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 4
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 3
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon
of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles
execuuve summary
Context
1.0 1he lmpacL of culLure and creauvlLy or ´coltote-boseJ cteouvlty' has auracLed much auenuon ln
Lhe debaLe on fosLerlng and unlocklng Lhe poLenual of a Luropean ´cteouve ecooomy´ Lhrlvlng on
lLs lnnovauve poLenual. 1hls sLudy, commlssloned by Lhe Luropean Commlsslon, responds Lo Lhe
growlng lmporLance of Lhe creauve economy, and more speclñcally of Lhe role of Lhe CulLural and
Creauve lndusLrles (CCls), as Lools Lo Lackle Lurope's currenL and fuLure challenges. lndeed,
lnnovauon ls now acknowledged as encompasslng more Lhan [usL Lechnologlcal and sclenuñc
changes. 1he culLural and creauve lndusLrles oñer Lhe opporLunlLy Lo brlng essenual change ln non-
Lechnologlcal lnnovauon for producLs and processes, conLrlbuung Lo a more lnvenuve Lurope.
1.1 1he alm of Lhls sLudy ls Lo provlde a beuer undersLandlng of Lhe operauons and needs of
companles ln Lhe CCls, especlally small and medlum-slzed enLerprlses (SMLs). 1he lnLenuon ls noL
Lo provlde a comprehenslve overvlew buL raLher Lo descrlbe some of Lhe problems and provlde
recommendauons. 1he sLudy hlghllghLs Lransversal problems common Lo all Lhese culLural and
creauve lndusLrles. lL lndlcaLes speclñc challenges LhaL could hamper enLrepreneurshlp and prevenL
culLural and creauve lndusLrles from beneñung from Lhe lnLernal markeL and Lhe dlglLal shlû.
1.2 1he sLudy descrlbes Lhe maln characLerlsucs of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles and
conslders nauonal envlronmenLal facLors LhaL lnßuence Lhe developmenL of Lhese enLerprlses. 1he
sLudy provldes an undersLandlng of Lhe key deLermlnanLs for sLrengLhenlng enLrepreneurshlp for
culLural and creauve lndusLrles, such as access Lo ñnance, markeL barrlers, lnLellecLual properLy
rlghLs, educauon and Lralnlng, lnnovauon, and collaborauve processes. lrom Lhese key challenges,
Lhe sLudy suggesLs general approaches for developlng a conduclve envlronmenL as well as speclñc
recommendauons Lo provlde supporL for each deLermlnanL, hlghllghung besL pracuces and
conslderlng secLoral dlñerences, Lhe dlñerenL levels of pollcy as well as Lhe dlñerenL developmenL
phases ln whlch Lhe enLerprlses ñnd Lhemselves.
Creanve Lntrepreneursh|p & Character|sncs of the CCIs
2.0 1here ls a no general agreemenL on how Lo deñne enLrepreneurshlp, wheLher as rlsk-bearlng,
enLerprlse creauon or sumulauon of lnnovauon, and even less agreemenL on how Lhls can be
deñned wlLhln Lhe culLural and creauve secLor. Powever, glven Lhe sLrong economlc conLrlbuuon
made by Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles Lo CuÞ ln Lu Member SLaLes, deñnlng Lhe
enLrepreneurlal dlmenslon of Lhls secLor ls clearly lmporLanL. 2.1 WlLh Lhls focus on
enLrepreneurshlp, Lhe quesuon arlses under whaL clrcumsLances enLrepreneurs can ßourlsh or are
hlndered ln Lhelr operauons. 1he CLCu/Lu8CS1A1 LnLrepreneurshlp lndlcaLor Þro[ecL has
ldenuñed slx Lhemes LhaL descrlbe Lhe deLermlnanLs añecung enLrepreneurlal performance. ln
oLher words, slx mojot oteos tbot Jetetmloe tbe looJscope of eottepteoeotsblp: access Lo caplLal,
Lechnology and 8&u, enLrepreneurlal capablllues, markeL condluons, regulaLory framework and an
enLrepreneurlal culLure.
2.2 AL Lhe same ume CCl enLerprlses, ln parucular SMLs, have speclñc characLerlsucs LhaL may
separaLe Lhem from 'regular' enLrepreneurshlp. 1hey frequenLly operaLe ln speclñc markeL
condluons, produce goods LhaL are 'culLural' by naLure, work wlLh people who are oûen more
conLenL-drlven Lhan commerclally orlenLed and usually creaLe very small enLerprlses (mlcro-SMLs)
LhaL may exlsL on Lhe basls of permanenL neLworks.
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 6
2.3 A coltotol ooJ cteouve eottepteoeot can be undersLood as someone who creaLes or brlngs Lo
markeL a culLural or creauve producL or servlce and who uses enLrepreneurlal prlnclples Lo organlse
and manage Lhls creauve acuvlLy ln a commerclal manner. Powever, achlevlng a balance beLween
creauvlLy and enLrepreneurshlp ls noL sLralghuorward and enLrepreneurs dlñer accordlng Lo Lhelr
mouvauons and Lhe secLors ln whlch Lhey operaLe. 1he Lerm Lhus refers Lo Lhe facL LhaL Lhese
enLerprlses have cerLaln characLerlsucs LhaL wlll añecL Lhe managemenL of Lhelr enLrepreneurlal
acuvlLy.
2.4 1he Lerm ls noL always well accepLed ln Lhe culLural secLor as lL ls sull overly assoclaLed wlLh a
ñnanclal dlmenslon whlle noL sumclenLly recognlslng Lhe culLural and soclal values behlnd Lhls. Cn
Lhe oLher hand, Lhe cllche of Lhe arusL who cannoL manage a buslness and lacks ñnanclal skllls ls
sull commonly held among economlc pollcy-makers and lnßuences Lhe ongolng dlvlslon beLween
enLrepreneurshlp pollcles and culLural pollcles.
2.3 !usL as arusLs are oûen relucLanL Lo descrlbe Lhelr lndlvldual expresslve processes, so Loo are
enLrepreneurs oûen relucLanL Lo dlvulge Lhelr lndlvldual paLhs Lo lnnovauon. lf we accepL LhaL all of
Lhese processes are lmporLanL, Lhere ls a clear need for Lhem Lo be consldered expllclLly ln order Lo
forge more creauve paLhs Lo growLh. 1he Lerm culLural and creauve enLrepreneurshlp Lhus
auempLs Lo draw Lhese worlds LogeLher: recognlslng Lhe laLenL enLrepreneurlal splrlL of an arusL,
Lhe laLenL creauve splrlL of Lhe enLrepreneur.
2.6 1he Lenslon beLween Lhe creaLor of a culLural work and Lhe enLrepreneur, Lyplcal of many
culLural and creauve enLerprlses, ls oûen seen ln Lhe deslre Lo prlorluse Lhe culLural value of Lhe
creauon wlLh llule mouvauon for generaung economlc value (creauon-orlenLed), whlle Lhe
enLrepreneur wlll prlorluse Lhe economlc explolLauon over lLs culLural value (growLh-orlenLed).
2.7 1he dlverslLy of culLural and creauve lndusLrles ls reßecLed ln lLs range of buslnesses. 1hls
lncludes every Lype of enLerprlse from mulu-nauonal corporauons Lo secLors characLerlsed by a
hlgh proporuon of SMLs (for example, archlLecLure, fashlon, craûs) and oLhers LhaL lnclude a
broader spread of large and small buslnesses (noLably soûware, publlshlng and medla).
2.8 Powever, Lhe ma[orlLy of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles conslsL of very small enLerprlses.
Around 80° of enLerprlses ln Lhe CCls are SMLs wlLh many sole Lraders or mlcro-SMLs employlng
only a handful of people. ln facL, CCl workers are more Lhan Lwlce as llkely Lo be self-employed Lhan
Lhe average for Lhe whole economy. AlLhough Lhe vasL ma[orlLy of culLural and creauve lndusLrles
buslnesses are mlcro-enLerprlses (smaller Lhan 10 people), Lhey are responslble for only a modesL
percenLage of Lhe LoLal Lurnover of Lhe CCls (18 °). WlLhln Lhls ma[orlLy of 'mlcro-enLerprlses'
almosL slxLy percenL conslsL of very small mlcro-buslnesses wlLh only 1 Lo 3 employees.
2.9 1he number of large-scale enLerprlses ls marglnal aL less Lhan one percenL, buL Lhey are
responslble for more Lhan 40 ° of Lhe annual Lurnover. 1hese sLausucs conñrm an lmporLanL baslc
characLerlsuc of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles: namely LhaL whlle Lhe vasL ma[orlLy of
enLerprlses are SMLs and mlcro-enLerprlses, Lhe larger enLerprlses (wlLh more Lhan 30 employees)
conLrlbuLe a subsLanual parL of Lhe overall revenues. noL surprlslngly Lhls characLerlsuc has
lmporLanL lmpllcauons for pollcy-makers.
2.10 1hls characLerlsuc llnked Lo slze and Lhe composluon of culLural and creauve lndusLrles ls oûen
called Lhe 'mlsslng mlddle': medlum slzed enLerprlses seem Lo be almosL absenL. ln vlew of Lhe
sLausucal observauons and Lhe lnLervlews conducLed, Lhere ls subsLanual dlmculLy for small
enLerprlses Lo grow from small lnluauves lnLo medlum-slzed ñrms. 1he gap beLween Lhe 'blgger
players' and Lhe mlcro-SMLs renders Lhe growLh of mlcro-SMLs dlmculL and lncreases Lhe dlmculLy
ln accesslng markeLs for Lhe 'smaller players'. A very small number of large-scale enLerprlses have
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 7
long-esLabllshed lnfrasLrucLures for research and developmenL acuvlues whlle, on Lhe oLher hand,
mlcro-SMLs do noL have access Lo slmllar paLhs Lo susLalnablllLy and growLh.
2.11 1he use of dlñerenL sLraLegles by Lhese mlcro-SMLs ls necessarlly small-scale, hlghly dynamlc
and requlres rlsk-Laklng ln order Lo compeLe wlLh more esLabllshed enLerprlses LhaL do noL requlre
such ßexlblllLy. 1he sLrucLural characLerlsucs of Lhese mlcro-SMLs lmpose a requlremenL for
dynamlc enLrepreneurlal skllls buL do noL seem Lo provlde clear paLhs Lo enLerprlse growLh. Smaller
enLerprlses Lend Lo adopL a more ßexlble and dynamlc amLude when respondlng Lo markeL
opporLunlues. 1hls may lnvolve ouLsourclng, Laklng up of muluple pro[ecLs or clusLerlng wlLh
dlñerenL organlsauons ln order Lo beneñL from a larger collecuve sLrucLure.
2.12 ln addluon Lo faclng uncerLalnLy and hlgh compeuuon, dlglLal convergence has also modlñed
Lhe dlsLrlbuuon process of culLural and creauve producLs and servlces. 1he 'dlglLal shlû' ls changlng
Lhe pauern of dlsLrlbuuon and dlsLurblng Lradluonal producuon value chalns. 1he lncrease ln Lhe
speed of communlcauon channels and Lechnologlcal lmprovemenLs have opened up many
opporLunlues Lo reach a wlder audlence and a much broader range of culLurally dlverse producLs
and servlces can be oñered. 1he Lradluonal value chaln of creauon and consumpuon ls belng
acuvely reshaped by Lhese changes and ln many lnsLances lL ls SMLs ln Lhe culLural and creauve
lndusLrles LhaL are aL Lhe forefronL of Lhese changes.
2.13 1he Lradluonal concepL of Lhe producuon chaln ls now ln quesuon, glven Lhe posslblllLy Lo
bypass lnLermedlarles. 1aklng lLs dlsLance from Lhe unl-llnear producuon process lmplled ln Lhe
concepL of a value chaln, Lhe Lerm ´voloe cteouoq ecoloqles´ encompasses Lhe ldea of a
'consLellauon of ñrms LhaL are dynamlc, wlLh value ßow belng mulu-dlrecuonal and worklng
Lhrough clusLers of neLworks'. Cûen Lhe culLural and creauve enLrepreneurs have Lo creaLe dlrecL
user-producer lnLeracuon. 1hey have Lo lnLeracL closely wlLh Lhelr LargeL audlence so LhaL Lhey can
monlLor Lrends or lnlual reacuons by early consumers of Lhelr own producLs.
2.14 Conslderlng Lhe speclñc characLerlsucs of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles, wlLh regard Lo
slze, composluon and producL creauon, Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles have many complex
challenges Lo face. 1hey are also worklng ln an envlronmenL LhaL ls noL always prone Lo rewardlng
rlsk Laklng behavlour, buL whlch puLs furLher compllcauons on Lhelr paLhs Lo susLalnablllLy and
growLh.
Ma|n 1hemanc Cutcomes
3.0 ln vlew of Lhe characLerlsucs of Lhe CCls, a framework was developed Lo ellclL polnLers for
blendlng new models of collaborauve and compeuuve advanLage for CCls ln order besL Lo supporL
Lhem and embed CCl supporL wlLhln lnnovauon, SML, LnLrepreneurshlp and CulLural Þollcles.
3.1 lrom Lhe lnLervlews conducLed across Lurope for Lhls sLudy, one of Lhe general ñndlngs LhaL
qulckly emerged was Lhe overrldlng need Lo gaLher more conslsLenL daLa regardlng culLural and
creauve lndusLrles. nauonal sLausucs are noL homogeneous and Lhls means LhaL any comparlson ls
ßawed.
!""#$$%&'%()*+*"#
3.2 Þerhaps Lhe greaLesL obsLacle faced by enLrepreneurs and enLerprlses ln Lhe culLural and
creauve lndusLrles ls how Lo locaLe Lhe funds Lo ñnance Lhelr endeavours. 1he percelved lack of
ñnance for Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles was furLher exacerbaLed by Lhe eñecL of Lhe recenL
ñnanclal crlsls.
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 8
3.3 MosL of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles consulLed have a shorL-Lerm span of ñnanclal
plannlng. 1he onllne quesuonnalre revealed LhaL 22° of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles had no
ñnanclal and economlc plannlng, whlle 33° had a one-year forecasL. Cnly 4° had a ñnanclal
forecasL of up Lo 3 years. Moreover, conslderlng Lhe necesslLy Lo comblne admlnlsLrauve Lasks wlLh
Lhe creauve process, Lhe onllne survey showed LhaL 73° of Lhese companles elaboraLed Lhelr
forecasLs Lhemselves, as opposed Lo 20° LhaL used a professlonal consulLancy servlce.
3.4 Cne characLerlsuc LhaL seLs Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles aparL and, ln many ways,
lmpedes Lhelr access Lo ñnance, ls Lhe dependency on lnLanglble asseLs. 1he creauve enLrepreneur
comblnes Lradluonally Langlble lnformauon wlLh lnLanglble lnformauon producLs, culLural quallues
and 'medla conLenL'. Powever, lnLanglble asseLs such as novelLy, soû lnnovauon, copyrlghL and
creauvlLy are oûen noL reßecLed ln accounLs. llnanclal lnsuLuuons such as banks oûen fall Lo
sumclenLly recognlse Lhelr economlc value.
3.3 Whlle many slmllar Lypes of supporL are oñered LhroughouL Lurope, Lhe level aL whlch Lhey are
oñered and Lhe secLors Lo whlch Lhey are made avallable may dlñer conslderably. llndlngs from Lhe
sLudy's onllne quesuonnalre reveal LhaL Lhe mosL lmporLanL ñnanclng source ls undoubLedly self-
ñnanclng. Þubllc and prlvaLe granLs have a resldual role, whlle Lhe oLher sources are secondary.
8ank loans remaln one of Lhe mosL lmporLanL ways Lo ñnance SMLs.
3.6 Powever, due Lo Lhe ñnanclal recesslon, many banks have become more rlsk-averse and, as a
resulL, are lncreaslngly less llkely Lo supporL buslnesses ln Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles due Lo
Lhelr percelved hlgh-rlsk characLerlsucs. lnvesLmenL ln Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles oûen
needs Lo be longer-Lerm Lhan oLher venLure caplLal lnvesLmenLs. lor Lhe mlcro, small and even
medlum slzed enLerprlse, lL ls excepuonally dlmculL Lo auracL sLraLeglc lnvesLmenL. Slmllarly, many
culLural and creauve enLrepreneurs are generally nervous abouL parLnershlps wlLh lnvesLors,
fearlng loss of conLrol of Lhelr company, and are relucLanL Lo share proñLs ln reLurn.
3.7 Whlle subsldles from Lhe publlc secLor may asslsL ln Lhe sLarL-up and fundlng of SMLs, Lhey are
oûen more accesslble Lo Lhe core culLural secLors Lhan Lo Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles as a
whole. ln addluon, responses from experLs suggesL LhaL publlc lnluauves seem unable Lo meeL Lhe
expecLauons and needs of enLrepreneurs ln Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles because Lhey are
compllcaLed Lo undersLand, oûen deLached from Lhe LerrlLory ln whlch Lhe company operaLes and
are noL necessarlly long Lerm ñnanclal supporL.
3.8 Many experLs suggesLed Lhe use of Lax credlLs and ñscal exempuons. 1ax exempuons and bank
loan guaranLees were, overall, Lhe mosL favoured means Lo provlde ñnanclal supporL. CLher
sources such as buslness angels, venLure caplLal and lnnovauon vouchers were also puL forward as
provldlng eñecuve ñnanclal supporL. CreaLer undersLandlng of Lhe parucular needs of culLural and
creauve lndusLrles was cruclal when provldlng Lhe correcL fundlng mechanlsms, such as Lhe need Lo
recognlse Lhe value of lnLanglble asseLs ln fundlng programmes. lor Lhls reason, Lhe reglon, as an
lnLermedlary level provlder of ñnanclal supporL, ls oûen 'noL sumclenLly developed'. 8eglonal
lnsLrumenLs were reporLedly a beuer opuon Lo adequaLely lmplemenL fundlng.
,+-.#&%!""#$$
3.9 8elng able Lo access a markeL ls necessary for Lhe bulld up of Lhe acuvlLy and ls essenual for Lhe
growLh and Lhe susLalnablllLy of Lhe culLural and creauve enLerprlse. 1he markeLs for culLural and
creauve producLs and servlces are oûen characLerlsed by unpredlcLable demand condluons.
LnLrepreneurs have Lo Lake heLerogeneous, changlng LasLes lnLo accounL. 1hls means LhaL aL
vlrLually no sLage ln Lhe producuon sequence can Lhe pro[ecL's ñnal ouLcome be predlcLed wlLh any
degree of cerLalnLy: sleepers lnexpllcably Lurn lnLo smash hlLs, and sure-ñre successes ßop.
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 9
3.10 1he posluon of Lhe mlcro-SML enLrepreneur has Lo be Laken lnLo accounL ln Lhls conLexL. 1he
maln barrlers Lo enLerlng Lhe markeL are ln greaL parL due Lo Lhe excluslve agreemenLs wlLh key
dlsLrlbuLors and access Lo knowledge on markeL opporLunlues. 1he presence of large and muluple
compeuLors was also a complemenLary lmpedlng facLor. Mlcro-SMLs maln concerns relaLe Lo
knowledge abouL new exLernal markeL opporLunlues and Lhe compeuuve envlronmenL Lyplcal of
Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles secLor. 1he lmporLance of access Lo knowledge abouL markeL
opporLunlues ls key Lo enabllng mlcro enLerprlses Lo ßourlsh.
3.11 1he prevalence of SMLs ln Lhe culLural and creauve secLor hlghllghLs Lhe need for pollcy-
makers Lo address slze-relaLed consLralnLs ln Lhe markeL. 1he absence of medlum-slzed enLerprlses
lncreases Lhe lmpacL of Lhe gap beLween Lhe mlcro-SMLs and Lhe blg ma[ors ln cerLaln secLors. 1he
asymmeLry ln Lhe markeL posluon beLween Lhe Lwo exLremes ls sLrlklng. Lnabllng access Lo Lhe
markeL for sLarL-up SMLs and, aL Lhe same ume, worklng on poLenual paLhs Lo growLh ln Lhe
markeL for 'growLh orlenLed' culLural and creauve enLerprlses, can Lhus ensure a culLural dlverslLy.
3.12 1he key challenge ls also Lo ñnd approprlaLe new buslness models. 1he overall consequences
of lC1 for culLure are amblvalenL. Cn Lhe one hand Lechnology opens up new opporLunlues for
creaLors Lo produce and dlsLrlbuLe Lhelr works Lo a wlder publlc, lndependenLly of physlcal and
geographlcal consLralnLs. Cn Lhe oLher hand lC1 dlsrupLs Lradluonal conLenL. Whlle new models
sLruggle Lo emerge, Lhe rlsk ls LhaL culLural conLenL may be consldered as any oLher commodlLy
Lraded ln Lhe vlrLual world and may be devalued.
/01%)*$&-23#*&$%
3.13 lrom Lhe onllne survey, a ma[orlLy of SMLs dld noL recelve any lÞ8 advlce before Lhe sLarL of
Lhelr enLrepreneurlal acuvlLy. lL was also reporLed LhaL one Lhlrd of Lhe CCl SMLs dld noL use any
speclñc lnsLrumenL for proLecuon. lnformal lÞ8, namely conñdenuallLy agreemenLs, were used by
one ñûh of CCl SMLs.
3.14 luLure pollcles Lo supporL Lhe developmenL of culLural and creauve lndusLrles wlll have Lo Lake
lnLo accounL Lhe changlng lÞ envlronmenL and changlng buslness models, whlle keeplng ln mlnd
Lhe lmporLance of lÞ8 as an lncenuve for culLural and creauve enLrepreneurs and Lhe reward for
Lhelr creauon. Moreover, as many culLural and creauve SMLs do noL presenLly make use of lÞ8, Lhe
quesuon of how Lo besL make use of lÞ8 ln Lhelr enLrepreneurlal acuvlLy comes Lo Lhe fore.
3.13 1he relauvely low use of proLecuon measures can demonsLraLe Lhe need Lo lncrease
awareness on Lhe use of lÞ8 reglme and Lo faclllLaLe lLs access by CCl SMLs for whlch such sysLems
are sull complex. 1he lssue of lÞ managemenL for Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles ls a cenLral
deLermlnanL Lo Lhelr enLrepreneurlal drlve as lL glves Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles
enLrepreneur Lhe opporLunlLy Lo be rewarded and can acL as an enabler for Lhelr acuvlLy. 1he
avallablllLy of lÞ8 advlce Lo culLural and creauve enLrepreneurs ls crlucal and Lhe momenL when lL ls
glven ls lmporLanL.
íottepteoeotsblp eJocouoo, skllls ooJ ttololoq
3.16 1here ls a general lack of enLrepreneurlal skllls wlLhln all secLors of Lhe CCls. uesplLe Lhe
dramauc lncrease ln enLrepreneurshlp and educauon programmes ln recenL years, Lhere ls
relauvely llule daLa and evaluauon on Lhe ouLcomes of Lhese programmes. 1he narrow model of
enLrepreneurshlp focused solely on commerclal success does noL seem Lo correspond Lo Lhe
culLural and creauve lndusLrles for whom crlucal creauve and culLural achlevemenLs are oûen more
lmporLanL. Powever, sumulaung Lhe developmenL of enLrepreneurlal skllls ls needed for enLerprlse
growLh, markeL orlenLauon, reLurn on creauvlLy, communlcauon skllls, neLworklng, and Leam-
bulldlng wlLhln Lhe enLrepreneurlal llfecycle.
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 10
3.17 A speclñc sklll seL ranglng from baslc buslness plannlng skllls Lo presenLauon (l.e. plLchlng an
ldea) and managemenL skllls are crlucal for Lhe culLural and creauve enLrepreneurs. lrom Lhe
experL quesuonnalres, lL appears LhaL markeL enLry, as well as oLher deLermlnlng barrlers Lo
success, ls dlrecLly lnhlblLed by knowledge-obsLrucung facLors such as Lhe lack of buslness skllls and
lack of knowledge abouL markeL opporLunlues.
3.18 1he dlñerence beLween formal and lnformal enLrepreneurshlp educauon ls a recurrenL
dlscusslon ln Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles. lor some of Lhe lnLervlewees, Lhere ls a lack of
lnLegrauon of enLrepreneurshlp educauon ln nauonal currlcula and arLs educauon. Accordlng Lo
some of Lhe respondenLs, supporL Lo develop enLrepreneurlal skllls should come as early as
posslble, and Lhe quesuon of Lhe deslrablllLy of becomlng an enLrepreneur should be addressed
very early. lor some of Lhe respondenLs, classes ln ñnanclal or admlnlsLrauve managemenL should
be lncorporaLed wlLhln Lhe educauonal currlculum Lo address Lhe lack of enLrepreneurlal skllls.
3.19 Conversely, some experLs clalm LhaL compeLence bulldlng and skllls ln enLrepreneurshlp are
lrrelevanL. AgalnsL Lhe lack of evaluauon of educauonal programmes, Lhere are suggesuons Lo
redlrecL Lhe presenL educauonal mlcro eñorLs almed aL sumulaung enLrepreneurshlp (boLh
governmenLal and non governmenLal programmes) Lo lnsLead develop macro pollcles LhaL are
deemed more eñecuve ln Lhe long run Lo supporL enLrepreneurshlp for SMLs. Accordlng Lo such
argumenLs, macro measures such as Laxauon and sLaLe regulauons are whaL lnßuence levels of
enLrepreneurshlp.
3.20 1hls Lenslon beLween Lhe mlcro and Lhe macro 'lnLervenuonlsL' lnluauves ls reßecLed ln
culLural and creauve lndusLrles' supporL programmes, ulung Lhe balance Lowards lnLermedlary and
complemenLary soluuons LhaL comblne 'learnlng by dolng' and 'peer Lo peer' coachlng. lndeed,
raLher Lhan focuslng on educauon currlcula, a complemenLary alLernauve Lo supporL susLalnablllLy
and growLh could be Lo bolsLer Lhe connecuons beLween Lhe culLural and creauve enLrepreneurs
and lndlvlduals experlenced ln buslness. Muludlsclpllnary pro[ecLs beLween buslnesses and
educauonal lnsuLuuons could be helpful ln lncreaslng Lhe lnLeracuon beLween Lhe 'buslness' and
Lhe 'creauve' worlds.
3.21 lrom slmple Lo complex ñnanclal supporL, Lhe culLural and creauve enLrepreneurs are
responslble for Lhelr own buslness model and ñnanclal resources: bank loans, guaranLeed loans by
governmenLal or non-proñL agencles, crowd-sourclng, granLs and subsldles. 8uslness models are
focused malnly on componenLs of value proposluons, relauonshlps wlLh vlslLors and cllenLs, cosL
sLrucLures and value chalns. uue Lo Lhe lnvolvemenL of culLural values, buslness modelllng based on
culLural and creauve lndusLrles ls an essenual compeLence. lormal educauon sysLems do noL
provlde Lhe proper enLrepreneurlal and buslness Lools. Larly lnLegrauon of creauvlLy and
enLrepreneurshlp ln Lhe educauonal sysLem currlculum ls lmporLanL. 1hereaûer Llfe Long Learnlng
programmes can provlde valuable on-demand supporL.
!""#$$%&'%)**'4+5'*%
3.22 1he acknowledgmenL of lnnovauon, lncorporaung hldden lnnovauon, soû lnnovauon, or
deslgn processes as a drlver of user-cenLred lnnovauon are slgns of Lhe poLenual role LhaL Lhe
culLural and creauve lndusLrles could have ln enabllng lnnovauon ln Lurope. Cpen lnnovauon
meLhods LhaL lnclude collaborauon beLween dlñerenL secLors can be enablers ln promoung culLural
and creauve lndusLrles Lo engage ln lnnovauon. 1rlangulauon of meLhods and knowledge beLween
academla, culLural and creauve lndusLrles SMLs, and buslnesses, as well as engaglng wlLh oLher
secLors can be anoLher prompL for culLural and creauve lndusLrles Lo access lnnovauon.
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 11
3.23 ueslgn ls lncreaslngly seen as a parucular sLrengLh for Lurope and a source of compeuuve
advanLage. 1he Commlsslon sLañ worklng documenL on ueslgn as a drlver of user-cenLred
lnnovauon showed LhaL non-Lechnology 8&u was as compeuuve as Lechnology 8&u and could be
seen as a soluuon for low Lechnology SMLs Lo lncrease Lhelr compeuuveness. 1hls was conñrmed
ln Lhe resulLs of Lhe open consulLauon on deslgn whlch led user-cenLred lnnovauon Lo be
lnLegraLed ln Lhe fuLure lnnovauon pollcy. Powever, one of Lhe greaLesL barrlers ls Lhe lack of
awareness of pollcy makers and CCl SMLs Lhemselves of Lhe economlc and lnnovauve poLenual of
deslgn.
3.24 Many culLural and creauve enLerprlses deploy user-orlenLed sLraLegles. uesplLe oûen belng
assoclaLed wlLh a speclñc secLor llnked Lo 'producL aesLheucs', Lhe LC recognlses deslgn as a
poLenual lnsLrumenL for lnnovauve soluuons and producLs. 1he changlng dynamlc beLween
audlence and conLenL creaLor, especlally wlLh Lhe rlse of dlglLal conLenL, ls sLrongly lnßuenclng Lhe
dlsLrlbuuon and buslness models of creauve lndusLrles. Lnabllng such exploraLory envlronmenLs Lo
emerge ls vlLal for unlocklng Lhe poLenual of culLural and creauve lndusLrles Lo lnnovaLe and
consequenLly spread Lhelr lnnovauon Lo oLher secLors.
3.23 Access Lo exLernal knowledge ls also a key facLor for a ñrm's compeuuveness. 1here ls a need
Lo promoLe knowledge sharlng and sumulaLe new skllls and cross-secLor collaborauon ln order Lo
promoLe open lnnovauon processes and develop new brands, producLs and servlces. As Lhe
dlñerences beLween secLors become blurred, cross-secLor knowledge Lransfer can Lake place more
easlly. 1he exchange of knowledge beLween varlous acLors such as academla, buslness and creauve
lndusLrles can enhance Lhe poLenual of lnnovauon. AL a nauonal level, Lhe use of alLernauve
opuons such as lnnovauon vouchers could be promoLed by reglonal and nauonal governmenLs.
8eglons are encouraged Lo work wlLh lnLermedlarles ln order Lo llnk CCls, ln parucular CCl SMLs,
wlLh oLher buslnesses so as Lo fosLer lnnovauve plauorms and processes Lo emerge.
3.26 losLerlng a culLure of lnnovauon Lhrough non-Lechnologlcal drlvers such as enLrepreneurshlp
requlres more auenuon Lo Lhe skllls gap and Lhe relauonshlp beLween Lhe Applled 8esearch secLor
and SMLs. ln order Lo enable SMLs Lo locaLe susLalnable paLhs Lo growLh, Lhey musL be able Lo Lap
lnLo speclñc skllls more-or-less as Lhey are requlred, or on-demand. SMLs are Lhemselves oûen
unaware of Lhelr applled research needs and are unable coherenLly Lo express Lhem. A medlaung
lnLermedlary level ls clearly requlred Lo negouaLe beLween Lhe educauonal and Lralnlng perspecuve
and Lhe economlc perspecuve. Such a layer could be provlded on a reglonal basls Lo supporL small
scale, pracuce-orlenLed buslness lnnovauon.
672$&#-$%+*8%"'77+9'-+5'*%
3.27 ln order Lo lncrease Lhe capaclLy Lo experlmenL, Lo lnnovaLe, Lo grow as successful culLural and
creauve enLrepreneurs wlLh Lhe rlghL skllls and sources of ñnance, Lhere ls a need Lo fosLer
conduclve envlronmenLs where culLural and creauve lndusLrles wlll prosper wlLh a cerLaln securlLy
and wlLh access Lo Lhe rlghL lnformauon and knowledge. ln Lhls regard, collaborauon and
neLworklng ls a key enabler Lo sLrengLhen all of Lhe lssues menuoned above.
3.28 Collaborauon and neLworks can allow culLural and creauve lndusLrles SMLs Lo enLer a pool of
lnformauon. neLworklng can allow a greaLer exchange of lnformauon and ls key ln enabllng
lnnovauve processes, buL worklng ln a collaborauve manner also lmplles exchanglng pracucal
lnformauon LhaL mlghL serve Lhe company, especlally Lhe sLarL ups LhaL need guldance ln
admlnlsLrauve, ñnanclal and lnnovauon measures. Þlaclng culLural and creauve lndusLrles SMLs
LogeLher can enable Lhem Lo noL only beneñL from each oLher's resources, buL also pool Lhelr
eñorLs for worklng space, for accounung servlces and oLher requlred supporL for enLrepreneurshlp.
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 12
3.29 1here ls now a conßauon of producer and consumer and dlñerenL secLors are adapung Lhelr
processes Lo lnLegraLe Lhese changes Lhrough applled research. Powever, Lhe secLoral concerns and
processes of adapLauon are more dlmculL Lo explaln and Lo map across academlc approaches and
dlsclpllnes. knowledge can lead Lo experlence buL ln Lhe case of creauve processes, experlence also
leads Lo new knowledge, whlch may noL be emclenLly capLured.
3.30 1he use of collaborauve processes found ln mulu-dlsclpllnary envlronmenLs where culLural
and creauve lndusLrles, academla and prlvaLe secLors work wlLhln a dynamlc framework, where
producLs and processes can be consLanLly evaluaLed and can beneñL from supporL (research as well
as ñnanclal), ls clearly Lo be encouraged. 1hls can enable Lhe culLural and creauve enLrepreneur Lo
beneñL from Lralnlng and learnlng processes as parL of Lhe lnLeracuon wlLh Lhe oLher sLakeholders.
CulLural and creauve lndusLrles are hlghly dynamlc ln merglng Lhe creauon of experlence, as well as
knowledge, ln Lerms of new processes and producLs by deslgnlng, developlng and produclng
emclenL new lnsLrumenLs. Assoclaung venLure caplLal sLraLegles wlLh such collaborauve processes
can secure a reLurn on lnvesLmenL for Lhe funders as well as securlng funds for Lhe culLural and
creauve lndusLrles SMLs and enLrepreneurs.
3.31 lrom Lhe sLausucs of Lhe sLudy, lL can be seen LhaL ln Lhe beglnnlng of Lhe enLrepreneurlal
acuvlLy Lhe culLural and creauve enLrepreneur wlll mosLly rely on lnformal and personal neLworks
and collaborauon whlle ln Lhe laLer sLages of lLs acuvlLy, such as ln Lhe bulld up and bulld-ouL
phase, Lhe culLural and creauve SMLs make greaLer use of clusLer lnluauves. 1hls suggesLs LhaL
personal, on demand supporL such as maLchlng and coachlng, mlghL be more useful ln Lhe
beglnnlng, whlle more formal collaborauve schemes such as clusLers may be more sulLed Lo Lhe
culLural and creauve lndusLrles LhaL are looklng Lo grow Lo a broader markeL and beneñL from Lhe
lnluauves of Lhe surroundlng parLners.
Ma|n kecommendanons
4.0 Cn Lhe basls of Lhe work underLaken a number of general and speclñc recommendauons were
made. 1hese recommendauons cover Lhe general Luropean conLexL, Lhe wlder lnnovauon agenda
and Lhe need Lo sumulaLe enLrepreneurshlp as a non-Lechnologlcal drlver of lnnovauon.
4.1 ln order Lo correcLly LargeL Lhe needs of culLural and creauve lndusLrles, more daLa and
sLausucs are needed for Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles, and especlally for each lndlvldual
secLor.
4.2 1argeLed supporL needs Lo be maLched wlLh Lhe characLerlsucs of culLural and creauve
lndusLrles and mosL lmporLanLly wlLh Lhelr sLrucLure. 1argeLed measures for SMLs and mlcro-SMLs
LhaL wlll be developed Lhrough Lhe varlous ßagshlp lnluauves of Lhe Lurope 2020 SLraLegy should
Lake lnLo accounL Lhe speclñc needs of mlcro-SMLs ln Lhe formulauon for SMLs.
4.3 As seen from counLrles LhaL have advanced supporL mechanlsms for culLural and creauve
lndusLrles and sLrong lnnovauon resulLs, Lhe co-ordlnauon of several MlnlsLrles Lo formulaLe pollcy
for culLural and creauve lndusLrles supporL mechanlsms can serve Lo LargeL Lhe eñorLs and enable
beuer coherence. As Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles are cross dlsclpllnary and address boLh
culLural and economlc facLors, Lhe collaborauon beLween MlnlsLrles, especlally CulLure and
Lconomlc mlnlsLrles, should be encouraged and co-ordlnauon and coherence of mulu layered
pollcles should be relnforced Lo achleve emclenL supporung schemes.
4.4 Sumulauon pollcles are needed, on reglonal, nauonal and Luropean levels, ln order Lo fully
address Lhe speclñc characLerlsucs of Lhe CCls. All levels of pollcy governance should acknowledge
Lhe conLrlbuuon of CCls Lo Lhe new economy and help ensure a level playlng ñeld for Lhe CCls.
nauonal bodles shape Lhe regulaLory framework ln whlch CCls work. 1ax exempuons for CCl
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 13
producLs or servlces could encourage Lhe producuon and dlsLrlbuuon of CCls producLs and servlces
and sumulaLe growLh across many secLors. Slmllarly, Lhe moblllLy of arusLs could be encouraged by
faclllLaung Lhe regulaLory procedures for cross border lnluauves. As CCls prefer Lo have close
lnLeracuon and supporL on demand, reglons could acL as lnLermedlarles beLween Lhe CCls and
oLher pollcy levels such as Lhe nauonal or Lhe Luropean. 8eglons could encourage reglonal clusLers
and secLoral neLworks Lo be plauorms of lnnovauon, encouraglng CCl SMLs Lo be lnLegraLed wlLhln
clusLers.
4.3 1he Lu should encourage exlsung and fuLure framework programmes for 8esearch and
1echnologlcal uevelopmenL such as lÞ7 and lÞ8 or Lhe Compeuuveness and lnnovauon
Þrogramme (ClÞ) as well as Lhe Coheslon Þollcy Lo be more LargeLed Lowards CCls lnLer alla by
lncludlng non Lechnologlcal lnnovauon pro[ecLs and lncorporaung CCl SMLs (noL only ln Lhe lC1
secLor). lL should also lncrease Lhe vlslblllLy of ongolng acuvlues aL reglonal and nauonal levels and
encourage Lhelr neLworklng.
kecommeoJouoos oo occessloq foooce
4.6 Lack of ñnance ls a recurrenL lssue for CCls and especlally for mlcro-SMLs. Þrovlslon of ñnance
should respond Lo Lhe dlñerenL phases of Lhe enLrepreneurlal llfe cycle accordlng Lo Lhe needs of
Lhe CCl SMLs. 1he use of reglons Lo channel Lhe funds and Lhe use of ñnanclal lnLermedlarles LhaL
are aware of Lhe characLerlsucs of CCl SMLs ls essenual ln Largeung supporL for Lhe CCls.
4.7 1he large fundlng schemes for supporung lnnovauon are Loo complex for CCls. AL Lhe Lu level,
Lhe fundlng schemes should be made less complex so as Lo allow CCl SMLs Lo apply more easlly.
Lxlsung programmes (lÞ7, ClÞ) should be sLrongly LargeLed aL CCl SMLs. 1he MLulA programme
glves speclñc supporL Lo a parucular secLor ln Lhe dlñerenL sLages of Lhe 'value chaln'. Slmllar
supporL opporLunlues should be developed for oLher secLors of Lhe CCls aL cruclal polnLs of Lhelr
respecuve value chalns.
4.8 AL Lhe Lu level, Lhe Ll8 and Lll funds, LhaL also promoLe lnnovauon, could be used Lo fund CCls
debL ñnanclng or venLure caplLal for developmenL of non Lechnologlcal lnnovauon. 1hey could also
back nauonal or reglonal lnluauves almed aL developlng guaranLee schemes. ln Lhls regard, due
auenuon should be pald Lo Lhe example of Lhe guaranLee fund for Lhe audlovlsual secLor soon Lo be
lnLroduced ln Lhe MLulA programme for dlglLallsauon of clnema. ln co-ordlnauon wlLh Lhe Member
SLaLes, lL ls recommended LhaL Lhe Lu conslder Lhe creauon or sLrengLhenlng of lower vA1 raLe and
oLher Lax lncenuves for boLh onllne and oñ-llne labour lnLenslve creauve servlces and producLs.
4.9 nauonal SLaLes are encouraged Lo conslder Lax shelLer measures for oLher secLors and supporL
Lhe developmenL of venLure CaplLal lunds (such as publlc venLure caplLal funds), Lhe lnvesLmenL of
8uslness Angels ln CCls and mlcro credlLs Lo fund CCls. Slmllarly, Lhe nauonal level could sumulaLe
ñnanclal supporL sLrucLures Lhrough speclñc measures such as bank guaranLees. 1he lnvesLmenL of
Lhe Luropean SLrucLural lunds ln CCls should be encouraged , wlLh speclal supporL for reglonal
neLworklng lnluauves and plauorms for CCls.
kecommeoJouoos oo occessloq tbe motket
4.10 1he Lu should promoLe Lhe opporLunlues for CCls Lo access Lhe markeL by uslng publlc
procuremenL measures LhaL hold unLapped poLenual Lo supporL lnnovauon. Þubllc procuremenL
requesLs could be LargeLed aL lnnovauve non-Lechnologlcal processes, producLs and servlces Lo
whlch CCls, and especlally mlcro-SMLS, could apply.
4.11 1he Lead MarkeL lnluauve (LMl) launched by Lhe Lu ln 2008 was seL up Lo ldenufy new needs
and new markeLs for lnnovauve producLs or servlces. 1hls can help LargeL fuLure demand and Lhus
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 14
oñer an experlmenLal playlng ñeld for lnnovaLors. ln order Lo LargeL socleLal needs, Lhe Lu should
conslder openlng up LMl Lo non-Lechnologlcal lnnovauon and lnnovauon ln servlces Lo Lap lnLo
CCls' lnnovauve poLenual.
4.12 Accesslng Lhe markeL remalns dlmculL for CCl SMLs, especlally where a few large companles
domlnaLe Lhe markeL. 1he Lu should conslder adapung compeuuon pollcy Lo CCls' characLerlsucs
Lo avold excesslve markeL concenLrauon. 1hls could ensure LhaL all culLural players have a mlnlmum
access Lo all dlsLrlbuuon channels, lncludlng on Lhe onllne markeL Lo oñer real culLural dlverslLy and
cholce for consumers.
4.13 CCls and especlally mlcro-SMLs do noL have sumclenL lnformauon on markeL opporLunlues
boLh ln Lhelr reglon buL also more speclñcally across reglons and for cross-border markeLs. 8eglons
should promoLe Lhe dlssemlnauon of lnformauon abouL cross-secLoral and cross-border markeL
opporLunlues Lo CCls Lhrough a reglonal neLwork. 8eglons can acL as a plauorm for exchange of
besL pracuces on boLh Lechnologlcal and non-Lechnologlcal lssues. 8eglons could encourage a
mlnlmum access Lo Lhe markeL by semng up plauorms where CCl SMLs could showcase Lhelr
producLs/servlces and as such promoLe Lhe vlslblllLy of Lhe CCls ln Lhe reglon.
kecommeoJouoos oo btlJqloq tbe eottepteoeotlol skllls qop
4.14 1here ls a general lack of enLrepreneurlal skllls wlLhln all secLors of Lhe CCls. uesplLe Lhe
lmporLance of Lhe Loplc, Lhere ls sull llule lnLegrauon of enLrepreneurshlp educauon ln general
currlcula, and parucularly ln arLs educauon. WlLh a budgeL of t 7 bllllon for 2007-2013, Lhe Llfe
Long Learnlng Þrogramme ls Lhe Lu's maln fundlng programme for educauon and Lralnlng pro[ecLs
and acuvlues. lL ls suggesLed LhaL Lhe programme prlorluse Lhe developmenL of creauvlLy and
supporL for enLrepreneurshlp Lralnlng lncludlng ln Lhe creauve secLor.
4.13 Luropean Soclal lunds could be used Lo help sLrengLhen employmenL ln CCls by, for example,
channelllng Lhe funds lnLo creauve apprenuceshlps ln order Lo ease Lhe Lransluon from educauon
Lo employmenL by promoung 'on Lhe [ob' learnlng. lC1 skllls Lralnlng should be lncluded or
sLrengLhened ln Lhe currlculum of arLs lnsuLuuons ln order Lo fosLer Lhe lnnovauve poLenual of CCls
and help Lhem furLher explolL Lhe opporLunlues oñered by Lhe dlglLal shlû.
4.16 CCls are also producers of knowledge Lhrough applled research processes. Llnklng
collaborauve work beLween knowledge lnsuLuuons and local SMLs could acL as a complemenLary
caLalysL Lo lnnovauve capaclues ln Lhe reglon. unlverslues of Applled Sclence (uAS) could play a
valuable role ln llnklng reglonal acuvlues Lo oLher Luropean reglons and neLworks of CCls. lurLher
llnklng CCl enuues and applled research lnsuLuuons would also conLrlbuLe Lo Lhe professlonal skllls-
upgradlng of SMLs ln Lhe reglon regardlng professlonally orlenLed lnnovauon, enLrepreneurshlp,
creauvlLy and research compeLencles.
kecommeoJouoos oo Jeveloploq eottepteoeotsblp os ooo-tecbooloqlcol Jtlvet of looovouoo
4.17 ln order Lo sumulaLe Lhe lnnovauon poLenual of CCls, and develop enLrepreneurshlp as a non-
Lechnologlcal drlver of lnnovauon, conslderauon should be glven Lo Lhe wldenlng of Lhe deñnluon
of lnnovauon ln Lhe up-comlng revlew of lnnovauon and research pollcy Lo encompass all forms of
lnnovauon, boLh from Lhe publlc and prlvaLe secLor, lncludlng processes of soû and hldden
lnnovauon and recognlse 8&u ln some of Lhe processes Lyplcal of Lhe CCls, such as deslgn
processes or LalenL scouung.
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 13
kecommeoJouoos oo soppotuoq tbe ose of copytlqbt
4.18 1he Lu should lmprove SMLs' access Lo copyrlghL lnsLrumenLs and faclllLaLe easler use of lÞ
lnsLrumenLs for SMLs. 1he dlglLal envlronmenL has broughL some challenges ln Lerms of lÞ8 ln Lhe
dlglLal world. Creauve soluuons LhaL reward Lhe rlghLs-holders buL ensure ßexlblllLy and easler
appllcablllLy should be soughL aL Lhe Luropean level.
4.19 CCls face new opporLunlues as well as challenges wlLh Lhe 'dlglLal shlû' and Lhey need Lo be
adequaLely supporLed Lo Lake advanLage of Lhem. Speclal funds should be allocaLed Lo CCls,
especlally SMLs, Lo ensure greaLer medla llLeracy and Lake-up of dlglLal Lools wlLhln Lhelr
enLerprlses.
4.20 Cne of Lhe key ouLcomes of Lhls sLudy ls Lhe reallsauon LhaL culLural and creauve
enLrepreneurs rely heavlly on Lhe use of neLworks wlLhln hlghly lnnovauve and rlsk-orlenLed
envlronmenLs. 1hls shapes Lhe need for CCl SMLs Lo look for collaborauve soluuons ln Lerms of
organlsauon, buslness supporL or producuon. ueveloplng an enLrepreneurlal acuvlLy ln Lhls conLexL
requlres a cerLaln degree of ßexlblllLy, rlsk orlenLed soluuons and cross-dlsclpllnary skllls LhaL can
also provlde a non-Lechnologlcal lnnovauon drlver for Lhe resL of Lhe economy. ln order Lo supporL
Lhe CCls, collaborauon and neLworks need Lo be supporLed.
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 16
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 17
La dlmenslon entrepreneur|a|e
des lndusLrles culLurelles eL creauves
resume execuuf
Le contexte
1.0 Ces dernleres annees, ll a eLe beaucoup quesuon de l'lmpacL de la culLure eL de la creauvlLe -
ou de la « creauvlLe generee par la culLure » - dans le debaL sur le renforcemenL ou le deplolemenL
d'une « economle creauve » en Lurope, qul s'appuleralL sur sa capaclLe a lnnover. La presenLe
eLude, commandee par la Commlsslon europeenne, repond a l'lmporLance crolssanLe de
l'economle creauve eL - plus speclñquemenL - du rôle des lndusLrles culLurelles eL creauves (lCC)
en LanL qu'lnsLrumenLs de naLure a conLrlbuer a relever les deñs acLuels eL fuLurs de l'Lurope. Ln
eñeL, l'lnnovauon n'esL plus enLendue comme se llmlLanL a des changemenLs Lechnologlques ou
sclenuñques. Les lCC permeuenL d'apporLer des lnnovauons non Lechnologlques a des produlLs eL
processus, conLrlbuanL alnsl a une Lurope plus lnvenuve.
1.1 L'ob[ecuf de la presenLe eLude esL d'oñrlr une mellleure comprehenslon du foncuonnemenL eL
des besolns des enLreprlses du secLeur culLurel eL creauf, en paruculler les ÞML. L'lnLenuon n'esL
pas d'oñrlr un panorama compleL mals de decrlre cerLalns problemes eL de formuler des
recommandauons. L'eLude soullgne les problemes Lransversaux qul sonL communs a LouLes les lCC.
Llle ldenuñe aussl quelques deñs speclñques suscepubles d'enLraver l'enLrepreneurlaL au seln des
lCC eL d'empôcher ces dernleres de urer paru du marche lnLerleur eL de la revoluuon numerlque.
1.2 L'eLude decrlL les grandes caracLerlsuques des lCC eL consldere les facLeurs envlronnemenLaux
nauonaux qul lnßuencenL leur developpemenL. Llle cherche a mleux comprendre les deLermlnanLs
cles qul sonL de naLure a renforcer la dlmenslon enLrepreneurlale des lCC, a savolr l'acces au
ñnancemenL, l'acces au marche, les drolLs de proprleLe lnLellecLuelle, l'enselgnemenL eL la
formauon, l'lnnovauon, eL les processus collaboraufs. L'eLude suggere des approches generales
vlsanL a developper un envlronnemenL favorable alnsl que des recommandauons speclñques pour
chacun de ces deLermlnanLs, en meuanL en lumlere des «bonnes prauques » eL en LenanL compLe
des dlñerences secLorlelles, des dlñerenLs nlveaux de gouvernance polluque eL des dlñerenLes
phases de developpemenL dans lesquelles se LrouvenL les enLreprlses.
L'entrepreneur|at cróanf et |es caractór|snques des ICC
2.0 Le sens a donner au concepL d'enLrepreneurlaL ne falL pas consensus, fauL-ll l'assocler a la prlse
de rlsque, a la creauon d'enLreprlse ou a la sumulauon de l'lnnovauon• La fa€on donL ce concepL
s'arucule au secLeur culLurel eL creauf falL encore molns consensus. CependanL, vu la forLe
conLrlbuuon des lCC au Þl8 des LLaLs membres de l'uL, ll esL a l'evldence lmporLanL de salslr la
dlmenslon enLrepreneurlale de ce secLeur.
2.1 A ceL egard, la quesuon esL de mleux comprendre les condluons qul favorlsenL ou - au conLralre
- enLravenL les acuvlLes des enLrepreneurs. Le programme d'lndlcaLeurs de l'enLrepreneurlaL CCuL/
LurosLaL a permls d'ldenuñer slx deLermlnanLs qul añecLenL la performance enLrepreneurlale. Ln
d'auLres Lermes, slx facLeurs cles qul deLermlnenL le paysage enLrepreneurlal, a savolr: l'acces au
caplLal, la Lechnologle eL la 8&u, les capaclLes enLrepreneurlales, les condluons de marche, le cadre
reglemenLalre eL l'esprlL d'enLreprlse.
2.2 uans le môme Lemps, les enLreprlses culLurelles eL creauves, eL noLammenL les ÞML,
presenLenL des caracLerlsuques speclñques, qul pourralenL appeler un Lype d'enLrepreneurlaL
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 18
paruculler. Llles operenL frequemmenL dans des condluons de marche qul leur sonL propres,
produlsenL des blens qul sonL « culLurels » par naLure eL LravalllenL avec des personnes donL la
mouvauon esL plus llee au conLenu qu'a l'envle de gagner de l'argenL eL qul creenL le plus souvenL
de Lres peuLes sLrucLures (mlcro-enLreprlses) s'appuyanL sur des reseaux permanenLs.
2.3 un enLrepreneur culLurel eL creauf peuL s'enLendre comme une personne qul cree ou
commerclallse un produlL ou servlce culLurel ou creauf eL qul uullse des prlnclpes enLrepreneurlaux
pour organlser eL gerer son acuvlLe creauve d'une manlere commerclale. CependanL, ll n'esL pas
faclle de Lrouver le bon equlllbre enLre creauvlLe eL enLrepreneurlaL, eL les enLrepreneurs dlñerenL
les uns des auLres en foncuon de leur mouvauon ou du secLeur dans lequel lls LravalllenL. Ln
consequence, l'expresslon soullgne le falL que les enLreprlses de ces secLeurs onL cerLalnes
caracLerlsuques qul sonL de naLure a añecLer la gesuon de l'acuvlLe enLrepreneurlale.
2.4 Le Lerme n'esL pas Lou[ours blen accepLe dans le secLeur culLurel dans la mesure o• ll conunue
d'ôLre Lrop largemenL assocle a une dlmenslon ñnanclere occulLanL les valeurs culLurelles eL
soclales sous-[acenLes. ‚uanL au cllche de l'arusLe mauvals gesuonnalre depourvu de la
compeLence ñnanclere necessalre, ll a encore Lrop largemenL cours dans les mllleux economlques,
ce qul favorlse la sclsslon enLre polluques de souuen a l'enLrepreneurlaL eL polluques culLurelles.
2.3 ue môme que les arusLes sonL souvenL reucenLs a decrlre leurs processus d'expresslon creauve,
de môme les enLrepreneurs sonL generalemenL peu encllns a expllquer leur chemlnemenL vers
l'lnnovauon. 1ouLefols, sl nous reconnalssons l'lmporLance de Lous ces processus, ll devlenL
necessalre de les ldenuñer expllclLemenL de sorLe a creer davanLage de chemlns creaufs vers la
crolssance. Le concepL d'« enLrepreneurlaL culLurel eL creauf » cherche a rapprocher ces deux
mondes en reconnalssanL l'esprlL enLrepreneurlal laLenL de LouL arusLe eL l'esprlL creauf laLenL de
LouL enLrepreneur.
2.6 La Lenslon qul exlsLe enLre le creaLeur d'un produlL culLurel eL l'enLrepreneur, sl Lyplque de blen
des enLreprlses culLurelles eL creauves, se donne a volr dans le cholx de donner la prlorlLe a la
valeur culLurelle de la creauon au deLrlmenL de la valeur economlque (orlenLauon « creauon ») ou
- au conLralre - a l'explolLauon economlque par rapporL a la valeur culLurelle (orlenLauon «
crolssance »).
2.7 La dlverslLe des lCC se reßeLe aussl dans les Lypes Lres varles d'enLreprlses qul s'y côLolenL: des
mulunauonales aux secLeurs qul se caracLerlsenL par une forLe proporuon de ÞML (comme
l'archlLecLure, la mode ou l'arusanaL) a ceux qul comblnenL grandes eL peuLes enLreprlses (comme
le secLeur des loglclels, de l'edluon eL des medlas).
2.8 CependanL, la ma[orlLe des lCC se caracLerlsenL par un nombre eleve de Lres peuLes sLrucLures.
Lnvlron 80° des enLreprlses culLurelles eL creauves sonL des ÞML eL ll exlsLe enormemenL
d'enLrepreneurs lndlvlduels ou de mlcro-enLreprlses employanL une polgnee de salarles. Ln falL, les
personnes qul LravalllenL au seln des lCC sonL deux fols plus suscepubles d'ôLre a leur compLe que
la moyenne de l'economle. 8len que la ma[eure parue des enLreprlses de ces secLeurs solenL des
mlcro-enLreprlses (molns de 10 personnes), ces dernleres ne represenLenL qu'un falble
pourcenLage du chlñre d'añalres LoLal des lCC (18°). Þarml ces « mlcro-enLreprlses », pres de 60°
sonL de Lres peuLes sLrucLures comprenanL de 1 a 3 employes.
2.9 Sl les grandes enLreprlses sonL Lres peu nombreuses (molns de 1°), elles reallsenL LouLefols plus
de 40° du chlñre d'añalres annuel genere par ces secLeurs. Ces sLausuques corroborenL une
caracLerlsuque fondamenLale des lCC: alors que la Lres grande ma[orlLe des enLreprlses sonL des
(mlcro) ÞML, les grandes enLreprlses (plus de 30 employes) sonL redevables d'une parL
subsLanuelle des revenus LoLaux. ll va sans dlre que ceue caracLerlsuque a des lmpllcauons
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 19
lmporLanLes pour les decldeurs polluques.
2.10 Ceue caracLerlsuque llee a la Lallle eL a la composluon des lCC esL souvenL connue sous
l'appellauon « mllleu manquanL » : les enLreprlses de Lallle moyenne semblenL quaslmenL absenLes
du paysage. ll ressorL des observauons sLausuques eL des enLreuens reallses dans le cadre de
l'eLude qu'll esL Lres dlmclle pour les peuLes sLrucLures d'acquerlr une Lallle moyenne. L'ecarL enLre
les plus grands eL les plus peuLs enLrave la crolssance de ces dernlers eL leur rend l'acces au marche
malalse. Les Lres grandes enLreprlses dlsposenL de solldes lnfrasLrucLures de recherche eL de
developpemenL Landls que les mlcro-enLreprlses n'onL pas acces aux mômes moyens pour assolr
leur perennlLe eL leur crolssance.
2.11 Ces mlcro-enLreprlses dolvenL donc recourlr a dlverses sLraLegles a peuLe echelle, falre preuve
d'un grand dynamlsme eL ôLre prôLes a prendre des rlsques pour concurrencer des enLreprlses
mleux eLablles n'ayanL pas besoln de falre preuve de la môme ßexlblllLe. Ces caracLerlsuques
sLrucLurelles fonL que les mlcro-enLreprlses onL besoln de compeLences enLrepreneurlales
dynamlques eL ne dlsposenL pas de chemlns de crolssance evldenLs. Les plus peuLes sLrucLures
LendenL a adopLer des comporLemenLs plus ßexlbles eL dynamlques pour repondre aux
opporLunlLes du marche, comme l'exLernallsauon, la poursulLe de pro[eLs muluples ou la
paruclpauon a des grappes d'enLreprlses añn de beneñcler d'une sLrucLure collecuve plus large.
2.12 S'a[ouLanL a l'lnceruLude eL a la forLe concurrence qul caracLerlsenL le secLeur, la convergence
numerlque a modlñe les processus de dlsLrlbuuon des produlLs eL servlces culLurels eL creaufs. Le
passage au numerlque bouleverse le modele de dlsLrlbuuon eL perLurbe les chaƒnes de valeur
Lradluonnelles. La rapldlLe crolssanLe des canaux de communlcauon eL les progres Lechnlques
permeuenL d'auelndre un publlc plus large eL d'oñrlr une gamme de produlLs eL servlces beaucoup
plus eLendue. Les modes de creauon eL de consommauon Lradluonnels sonL remodeles eL ce sonL
blen souvenL les ÞML culLurelles eL creauves qul se reLrouvenL a l'avanL-plan de ces changemenLs.
2.13 Le concepL Lradluonnel de la chaƒne de producuon esL au[ourd'hul remls en quesuon du falL
qu'll devlenL posslble de falre l'economle des lnLermedlalres. S'ecarLanL du processus de producuon
unlllnealre qu'lmpllque le concepL de « chaƒne de valeur », la nouon d' « ecologles creaLrlces de
valeur » renvole a l'ldee d'une consLellauon d'enLreprlses qul sonL dynamlques, sublssenL des ßux
muludlrecuonnels eL LravalllenL en grappes de reseaux. Les enLrepreneurs culLurels eL creaufs
dolvenL souvenL creer des lnLeracuons dlrecLes « uullsaLeur-producLeur ». lls dolvenL lnLeraglr
eLrolLemenL avec leurs cllenLs clbles añn de mleux salslr les Lendances alnsl que les premleres
reacuons des consommaLeurs de leurs produlLs.
2.14 CompLe Lenu de leurs caracLerlsuques speclñques en Lermes de Lallle, de composluon eL de
processus de creauon, les lCC fonL face a des deñs nombreux eL complexes. Llles evoluenL
egalemenL dans un envlronnemenL qul n'esL pas Lou[ours prôL a recompenser la prlse de rlsque, ce
qul rend encore plus compllque leur chemlnemenL vers la perennlLe eL la crolssance.
Les pr|nc|paux rósu|tats thómanques
3.0 CompLe Lenu des caracLerlsuques des lCC, un cadre a eLe developpe añn de mleux comprendre
les nouveaux modeles de collaborauon eL d'avanLages concurrenuels des lCC dans le buL de mleux
les souLenlr eL d'lnLegrer ce souuen dans les polluques relauves a l'lnnovauon, aux ÞML, a
l'enLrepreneurlaL eL a la culLure.
3.1 L'une des concluslons generales qul a rapldemenL emerge des enLreuens reallses a Lravers
l'Lurope esL le besoln de recuellllr des donnees plus coherenLes sur ces lndusLrles. Les sLausuques
nauonales ne sonL pas homogenes, ce qul fausse LouLe comparalson.
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 20
:;+""<$%+2%=*+*"#3#*&
3.2 La plus grande dlmculLe pour les enLrepreneurs eL les enLreprlses des lCC esL sans douLe de
Lrouver les ressources donL lls onL besoln pour ñnancer leurs acuvlLes. Ceue dlmculLe a encore eLe
exacerbee par la recenLe crlse ñnanclere.
3.3 La pluparL des enLreprlses consulLees onL une planlñcauon ñnanclere a courL-Lerme. ll esL
ressoru du quesuonnalre en llgne que 22° d'enLre elles n'avalenL pas de planlñcauon ñnanclere eL
economlque Landls que 33° avalenL une planlñcauon a un an. SeulemenL 4° de ces enLreprlses
onL une planlñcauon ñnanclere a 3 ans. ue plus, compLe Lenu de la necesslLe de comblner L„ches
admlnlsLrauve eL processus creauf, l'enquôLe a monLre que 73° des enLreprlses elaboralenL leur
planlñcauon elles-mômes, alors que 20° avalenL recours aux servlces d'un consulLanL
professlonnel.
3.4 Les lCC se caracLerlsenL aussl par leur forLe dependance vls-a-vls des acufs lmmaLerlels, ce qul -
a blen des egards - rend encore plus dlmclle leur acces aux ñnancemenLs. L'enLrepreneur creauf
comblne LradluonnellemenL conLenu Langlble eL conLenu lnLanglble a dlmenslon culLurelle.
CependanL, les acufs lmmaLerlels comme la nouveauLe, l'lnnovauon dlLe « soû », le drolL d'auLeur
ou la creauvlLe ne sonL pas reprls dans les compLes. Les lnsuLuuons ñnancleres comme les banques
ne reconnalssenL souvenL pas leur valeur economlque.
3.3 S'll exlsLe de nombreux mecanlsmes de souuen slmllalres a Lravers l'Lurope, le nlveau auquel lls
sonL oñerLs eL les secLeurs suscepubles d'en beneñcler peuvenL varler conslderablemenL. ll ressorL
du quesuonnalre en llgne de l'eLude que la prlnclpale source de ñnancemenL resLe a l'evldence
l'auLoñnancemenL. Les aldes publlques ou prlvees n'onL qu'un rôle reslduel, Landls que les auLres
sources sonL secondalres. Les prôLs bancalres consuLuenL pour les ÞML l'un des moyens les plus
lmporLanLs de ñnancer leurs acuvlLes.
3.6 CependanL, en ralson de la recesslon economlque, beaucoup de banques heslLenL encore plus
que dans le passe a prendre des rlsques eL donc a souLenlr les enLreprlses culLurelles eL creauves,
auxquelles elles assoclenL un nlveau de rlsque eleve. L'lnvesussemenL en caplLal rlsque dans les lCC
dolL souvenL se falre a plus long -Lerme que dans les auLres secLeurs d'acuvlLes. Þour les mlcros,
peuLes eL môme moyennes enLreprlses, ll esL exLrômemenL dlmclle d'amrer des lnvesussemenLs
sLraLeglques. ue môme, de nombreux enLrepreneurs culLurels eL creaufs redouLenL de nouer des
parLenarlaLs avec des lnvesusseurs, par cralnLe de perdre le conLrôle de leur compagnle eL d'avolr a
parLager les beneñces en echange.
3.7 Sl les subvenuons publlques peuvenL conLrlbuer a la creauon eL au ñnancemenL des ÞML, elles
sonL le plus souvenL surLouL accesslbles - au seln des lCC - aux secLeurs qul sonL puremenL
culLurels. Ln ouLre, selon les experLs lnLervlewes, les mesures du secLeur publlc ne semblenL pas
en mesure de repondre aux auenLes eL aux besolns des enLreprlses culLurelles eL creauves du falL
qu'elles sonL compllquees a comprendre, qu'elles sonL deLachees du LerrlLolre dans lequel les
enLreprlses evoluenL eL qu'elles n'oñrenL pas Lou[ours de souuen a long Lerme.
3.8 ue nombreux experLs preconlsenL l'uullsauon du credlL d'lmpôL eL des exonerauons ñscales. ue
fa€on generale, les exonerauons ñscales eL les garanues de prôLs sonL les mecanlsmes de souuen
ñnancler [uges les plus approprles. u'auLres sources de ñnancemenL comme les lnvesusseurs
provldenuels, le caplLal rlsque eL les bons a l'lnnovauon onL egalemenL eLe clLees. ll esL aussl cruclal
de mleux comprendre les besolns speclñques des lCC pour oñrlr des mecanlsmes de souuen
approprles, de môme qu'll esL necessalre de reconnaƒLre la valeur des acufs lmmaLerlels dans les
programmes de ñnancemenL. Aussl esL-ll regreuable que la reglon, en LanL que pourvoyeuse
lnLermedlalre de souuen ñnancler, ne solL pas sumsammenL mlse a conLrlbuuon. ue l'avls general,
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 21
ce sonL en eñeL les lnsLrumenLs reglonaux qul sonL les plus a môme de repondre aux besolns de
ñnancemenL.
:;+""<$%+2%3+-">?
3.9 Þour les enLreprlses culLurelles eL creauves, ll esL essenuel de pouvolr acceder au marche añn
de consollder leur acuvlLe eL d'assolr leur crolssance eL leur perennlLe. Les marches des produlLs eL
servlces culLurels eL creaufs sonL souvenL caracLerlses par une demande volaule. Les enLrepreneurs
dolvenL Lenlr compLe de go…Ls heLerogenes eL changeanLs. A quaslmenL aucun momenL de la
chaƒne de producuon ll n'esL posslble de prevolr avec ceruLude l'accuell qul sera reserve a un
pro[eL: des pro[eLs auxquels personne ne croyalL se LransformenL sans expllcauon en Lrlomphes
Landls que des « succes garanus » sonL des echecs reLenussanLs.
3.10 C'esL dans ce conLexLe qu'll fauL conslderer la posluon du mlcro-enLrepreneur. Les prlnclpaux
obsLacles pour acceder au marche sonL en grande parue lles aux arrangemenLs excluslfs lmposes
par les grands dlsLrlbuLeurs, mals aussl a la dlmculLe d'avolr de l'lnformauon sur les opporLunlLes
commerclales. La presence de grands eL nombreux concurrenLs esL aussl un facLeur enLravanL. Þour
les mlcro-enLreprlses, le prlnclpal deñ conslsLe a obLenlr de l'lnformauon sur les opporLunlLes
commerclales a l'exLerleur eL d'añronLer la concurrence sl Lyplque du secLeur culLurel eL creauf. La
connalssance de ces opporLunlLes esL cruclale pour permeure aux mlcro-enLreprlses de se
developper.
3.11 La prevalence des ÞML dans le secLeur culLurel eL creauf meL en evldence le besoln pour les
responsables polluques de lever les enLraves a l'enLree sur le marche qul sonL llees a la Lallle.
L'absence d'enLreprlses de Lallle moyenne augmenLe l'lmpacL du fosse qul exlsLe enLre les mlcro-
enLreprlses eL les grands acLeurs dans cerLalns secLeurs. L'asymeLrle de posluon sur le marche enLre
ces deux exLrômes esL ßagranLe. C'esL en permeuanL aux ÞML nouvellemenL creees d'avolr acces
au marche eL, dans le môme Lemps, en elaboranL des chemlns de crolssance poLenuels pour les
enLreprlses qul cherchenL a croƒLre qu'on pourra garanur la dlverslLe culLurelle.
3.12 Le grand deñ esL aussl de Lrouver de nouveaux modeles d'añalres approprles. Les reLombees
globales des 1lC pour la culLure sonL amblvalenLes. u'un côLe, la Lechnologle oñre de nouvelles
opporLunlLes pour les creaLeurs, qul peuvenL produlre eL dlsLrlbuer leurs †uvres a un publlc plus
large, lndependammenL des conLralnLes physlques eL geographlques. u'un auLre côLe, les 1lC
perLurbenL les conLenus Lradluonnels. 1andls que de nouveaux modeles pelnenL a emerger, le
rlsque esL que les conLenus culLurels solenL conslderes comme n'lmporLe quel auLre produlL
commerclallse dans le monde vlrLuel eL solL alnsl devalorlse.
:#$%'257$%8#%@-'@-)?&?%)*&#77#"&2#77#%
3.13 ll ressorL de l'enquôLe en llgne qu'une ma[orlLe de ÞML n'onL pas re€u de consell en mauere
de drolL de proprleLe lnLellecLuelle (uÞl) avanL de commencer leur acuvlLe enLrepreneurlale. ll
apparaƒL aussl qu'un uers des ÞML culLurelles eL creauves n'onL pas uullse d'ouul de proLecuon
speclñque. Les ouuls de proLecuon lnformels comme les accords de conñdenuallLe ne sonL uullses
par une ÞML du secLeur sur clnq.
3.14 1ouLe polluque fuLure de souuen au developpemenL des lCC devra Lenlr compLe des
evoluuons qul añecLenL les uÞl eL les modeles d'añalres, sans cependanL oubller que ces drolLs
resLenL pour l'enLrepreneur culLurel eL creauf une source lmporLanLe de mouvauon en ce qu'lls
permeuenL de recompenser sa creauon. Ln ouLre, dans la mesure o• beaucoup de ÞML culLurelles
eL creauves n'uullsenL acLuellemenL pas d'ouuls de proLecuon, la quesuon se pose de savolr
commenL les encourager a falre un mellleur usage des uÞl dans leur acuvlLe enLrepreneurlale.
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 22
3.13 L'uullsauon relauvemenL falble qul esL falLe des lnsLrumenLs de proLecuon lalsse a penser qu'll
seralL necessalre de mleux les falre connaƒLre eL d'en faclllLer l'acces pour les ÞML culLurelles eL
creauves, pour lesquelles ces sysLemes resLenL encore complexes. La quesuon de la gesuon des uÞl
esL pour les lCC une quesuon cenLrale qul condluonne dans une large mesure leur dynamlsme
enLrepreneurlal car ces drolLs remunerenL leur acuvlLe eL la rendenL alnsl posslble. ll esL donc
lmporLanL de fournlr un consell aux enLrepreneurs culLurels eL creaufs, eL que ce consell arrlve au
bon momenL.
:;?82"+5'*%A%7;#*&-#@-#*#2-)+&B%7#$%"'3@?&#*"#$%#&%7+%C'-3+5'*
3.16 Cn consLaLe un manque general de compeLences enLrepreneurlales dans Lous les secLeurs des
lCC. Ln deplL d'une forLe augmenLauon des programmes de formauon a l'enLrepreneurlaL ces
dernleres annees, ll exlsLe relauvemenL peu de donnees ou d'evaluauon sur leur lmpacL. Le modele
d'enLrepreneurlaL eLrolL Lradluonnel, qul s'lnLeresse unlquemenL au succes commerclal, ne semble
pas adapLe aux lCC, pour qul la reusslLe sur le plan creauf ou culLurel revôL souvenL plus
d'lmporLance. CependanL, souLenlr le developpemenL de compeLences enLrepreneurlales esL
necessalre pour permeure la crolssance de l'enLreprlse, son orlenLauon « marche », le reLour sur
l'lnvesussemenL creauf, la communlcauon, la mlse en reseau ou encore le Lravall en equlpe LouL au
long du cycle de vle de l'enLreprlse.
3.17 Les enLrepreneurs culLurels eL creaufs onL besoln d'un ensemble de compeLences speclñques
qul va des compeLences de base en mauere de planlñcauon enLrepreneurlale aux compeLences de
presenLauon (commenL vendre une ldee) eL de gesuon. ll ressorL des quesuonnalres envoyes aux
experLs que l'acces au marche - de môme que d'auLres facLeurs de succes - esL dlrecLemenL
enLrave par des facLeurs qul llmlLenL la connalssance a la dlsposluon de l'enLreprlse comme le
manque de compeLences enLrepreneurlales ou encore le manque d'lnformauon sur les
opporLunlLes commerclales.
3.18 La dlñerence enLre la formauon formelle eL lnformelle a l'enLrepreneurlaL esL un Lheme de
dlscusslon recurrenL au seln des lCC. Þour cerLalns experLs lnLerroges dans le cadre de l'eLude, la
formauon a l'enLrepreneurlaL n'esL pas sumsammenL presenLe dans les cursus nauonaux eL dans
l'enselgnemenL arusuque. Selon cerLalns, le souuen au developpemenL de compeLences
enLrepreneurlales dolL lnLervenlr le plus LôL posslble eL ll fauL encourager des le plus [eune „ge les
vocauons a devenlr chef d'enLreprlse. ues cours de gesuon ñnanclere ou admlnlsLrauve devralenL
ôLre lncorpores dans les cursus añn de palller le manque de compeLences enLrepreneurlales.
3.19 lnversemenL, d'auLres experLs amrmenL qu'll ne serL a rlen de chercher a developper les
compeLences enLrepreneurlales. Ln l'absence d'evaluauon des programmes en quesuon, lls
suggerenL de remplacer les eñorLs deployes pour sumuler l'enLrepreneurlaL (que ceux-cl solenL a
meure sur le compLe des gouvernemenLs ou non) par le developpemenL de polluques
macroeconomlques, qu'lls conslderenL plus emcaces a long-Lerme pour renforcer la performance
enLrepreneurlale des ÞML. Selon ces experLs, des mesures macroeconomlques Lelles que la
Laxauon ou les dlsposluons reglemenLalres sonL plus a môme de deLermlner le nlveau
d'enLrepreneurlaL.
3.20 Ceue Lenslon enLre lnluauves mlcroeconomlques eL lnLervenuons macroeconomlques se
reßeLe dans les programmes de souuen aux lCC, falsanL pencher la balance en faveur de soluuons
lnLermedlalres eL complemenLalres qul comblnenL l'apprenussage sur le Lerraln eL la formauon par
les palrs. Ln eñeL, pluLôL que de se focallser sur les cursus de formauon, une auLre soluuon
permeuanL de renforcer perennlLe eL crolssance seralL de favorlser les connecuons enLre les
enLrepreneurs culLurels eL creaufs eL les personnes ayanL l'experlence des añalres. ues pro[eLs
muludlsclpllnalres enLre enLreprlses eL lnsuLuuons d'enselgnemenL pourralenL conLrlbuer a
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 23
accroƒLre les lnLeracuons enLre le monde des añalres eL le monde de la creauon.
3.21 8ecouranL a des formes plus ou molns complexes de souuen ñnancler - prôLs bancalres, prôLs
garanus par des agences gouvernemenLales ou a buL non lucrauf, crowd-sourclng, aldes eL
subvenuons - les enLrepreneurs culLurels eL creaufs sonL responsables de leurs modeles d'añalres
eL de leurs ressources ñnancleres. Les modeles d'añalres se concenLrenL prlnclpalemenL sur les
elemenLs lles a la producuon de valeur, les relauons avec les vlslLeurs eL les cllenLs, les sLrucLures de
co…Ls eL les chaƒnes de valeur. uu falL de la dlmenslon culLurelle, ll esL essenuel d'avolr la
compeLence permeuanL de developper un modele d'añalres qul solL adapLe aux besolns des lCC.
L'educauon formelle n'oñre pas les ouuls adequaLs en la mauere. ll esL lmporLanL d'lnLegrer Lres LôL
l'enLrepreneurlaL eL la creauvlLe dans l'enselgnemenL. Les programmes d'educauon LouL au long de
la vle peuvenL ensulLe prendre le relals eL oñrlr un souuen a la demande.
:;+""<$%A%7;)**'4+5'*%
3.22 La reconnalssance de l'lnnovauon cachee, de l'lnnovauon dlLe « soû » ou des procedes lles au
deslgn comme des moLeurs d'une lnnovauon cenLree sur les uullsaLeurs donne a penser que les lCC
pourralenL avolr un rôle a [ouer dans le renforcemenL du poLenuel d'lnnovauon de l'Lurope. ues
meLhodes d'lnnovauon ouverLe qul lncluenL la collaborauon enLre dlñerenLs secLeurs peuvenL
lnclLer les lCC a s'engager dans des processus d'lnnovauon. La Lrlangulauon des meLhodes eL des
connalssances enLre le monde academlque, les ÞML culLurelles eL creauves eL le monde des
añalres alnsl que la formauon de llens avec d'auLres secLeurs peuvenL aussl alder les lndusLrles
culLurelles eL creauves a acceder a l'lnnovauon.
3.23 Le deslgn esL de plus en plus per€u comme une force parucullere eL une source d'avanLage
concurrenuel pour l'Lurope. Le documenL de Lravall des servlces de la Commlsslon sur le « ueslgn
en LanL que moLeur d'une lnnovauon axee sur l'uullsaLeur » a monLre que la 8&u non
Lechnologlque eLalL - au môme uLre que la 8&u Lechnologlque - un facLeur concurrenuel, auquel
les ÞML a falble Lechnologle pouvalenL recourlr pour augmenLer leur compeuuvlLe. Ceue
consLaLauon a eLe conñrmee par les resulLaLs de la consulLauon lancee par ce documenL de Lravall,
qul a abouu a l'lnLegrauon de l'lnnovauon axee sur l'uullsaLeur dans la fuLure polluque de
l'lnnovauon. 1ouLefols, l'un des obsLacles les plus lmporLanLs reslde dans le falL que les
responsables polluques eL les ÞML culLurelles eL creauves elles-mômes n'onL pas sumsammenL
consclence du poLenuel du deslgn sur le plan economlque eL de l'lnnovauon.
3.24 ue nombreuses enLreprlses culLurelles eL creauves deplolenL des sLraLegles axees sur
l'uullsaLeur. 8len qu'll alL longLemps eLe vu comme un secLeur speclñque charge d'amellorer
l'esLheuque des produlLs, le deslgn esL malnLenanL consldere par la Commlsslon europeenne
comme un lnsLrumenL qul peuL conLrlbuer au developpemenL de soluuons eL de produlLs
lnnovanLs. La nouvelle dynamlque qul s'lnsLaure enLre consommaLeurs eL producLeurs de conLenus,
en paruculler avec le numerlque, a une lnßuence conslderable sur les modeles de dlsLrlbuuon eL les
modeles d'añalre des lCC. ll esL vlLal de permeure a de Lels envlronnemenLs exploraLolres
d'emerger añn de debloquer le poLenuel des lCC, en les lnclLanL a lnnover puls a eLendre leurs
lnnovauons a d'auLres secLeurs.
3.23 La compeuuvlLe d'une enLreprlse depend cruclalemenL de sa capaclLe a acceder a un savolr
exLerleur. ll esL donc necessalre de promouvolr le parLage des connalssances eL de sumuler
l'acqulsluon de nouvelles compeLences alnsl que les collaborauons lnLersecLorlelles añn de
promouvolr des procedes d'lnnovauon ouverLe eL developper des marques, produlLs eL servlces
nouveaux. Alors que les dlñerences enLre les secLeurs LendenL a s'esLomper, le LransferL
lnLersecLorlel de connalssances s'en Lrouve faclllLe. Ces LransferLs enLre dlñerenLs acLeurs, Lels que
le monde academlque, le monde des añalres eL les lndusLrles culLurelles eL creauves peuL
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 24
amellorer le poLenuel d'lnnovauon. Au nlveau nauonal, le recours a des soluuons alLernauves
comme les bons a l'lnnovauon pourralL ôLre encourage par les auLorlLes nauonales eL reglonales.
Les reglons sonL encouragees a Lravalller avec des lnLermedlalres de sorLe a connecLer les lCC, eL
paruculleremenL les ÞML, a d'auLres secLeurs en vue de favorlser l'emergence de plaLeformes eL
procedes lnnovanLs.
3.26 SouLenlr une culLure de l'lnnovauon vla des facLeurs non Lechnologlques comme
l'enLrepreneurlaL necesslLe qu'une plus grande auenuon solL accordee aux deñclLs de compeLences
eL a la relauon enLre le secLeur de la recherche appllquee eL les ÞML. Añn de permeure aux ÞML
d'ldenuñer des chemlns de crolssance durables, celles-cl dolvenL pouvolr falre appel a des
compeLences speclñques plus ou molns au momenL o• les besolns surglssenL, c'esL-a-dlre a la
demande. Les ÞML sonL elles-mômes souvenL lnconsclenLes de leurs besolns en recherche
appllquee eL lncapables de les exprlmer de fa€on coherenLe. un nlveau lnLermedlalre de medlauon
esL a l'evldence necessalre pour conclller la perspecuve de l'educauon eL de la formauon eL la
perspecuve economlque. Cela pourralL se falre sur base reglonale, avec un souuen pour
l'lnnovauon commerclale a orlenLauon prauque eL a peuLe echelle.
:#$%D-+@@#$%8;#*&-#@-)$#$%#&%7+%"'77+9'-+5'*%
3.27 Añn de permeure aux enLreprlses culLurelles eL creauves de reusslr a experlmenLer, lnnover eL
croƒLre LouL en dlsposanL des compeLences eL sources de ñnancemenL approprlees, ll esL necessalre
de favorlser un envlronnemenL qul leur donne un cerLaln nlveau de sLablllLe alnsl que l'acces aux
lnformauons eL connalssances donL elles onL besoln. A ceL egard, la collaborauon eL la mlse en
reseau sonL des ouuls cles.
3.28 Collaborauon eL reseaux permeuenL aux ÞML culLurelles eL creauves de beneñcler d'un
glsemenL d'lnformauons. Ln faclllLanL l'echange d'lnformauons, lls conLrlbuenL de fa€on essenuelle
a l'emergence de procedes lnnovanLs, mals l'echange porLe aussl sur des quesuons prauques qul
sonL uules aux enLreprlses, en paruculler aux [eunes enLreprlses qul onL besoln de consells sur des
aspecLs admlnlsLraufs, ñnanclers ou lles a l'lnnovauon. ConcenLrer des ÞML culLurelles eL creauves
dans un môme endrolL peuL leur permeure non seulemenL de beneñcler de leurs ressources
reclproques mals aussl de parLager leur espace de Lravall, des servlces de compLablllLe eL d'auLres
Lypes de souuen a l'enLrepreneurlaL.
3.29 ll exlsLe au[ourd'hul une convergence enLre les producLeurs eL les consommaLeurs, eL
dlñerenLs secLeurs adapLenL leurs procedes añn d'lnLegrer ces changemenLs par la recherche
appllquee. CependanL, les en[eux eL les processus d'adapLauon de ces secLeurs sonL plus dlmclles a
expllquer eL a ldenuñer par des approches academlques. La connalssance peuL mener a
l'experlence, mals - dans le cas des processus creaufs -l'experlence abouuL aussl a de nouvelles
connalssances, qu'll pourralL ôLre slnon dlmclle d'apprehender de fa€on sausfalsanLe.
3.30 ll convlenL clalremenL d'encourager le recours aux processus collaboraufs sl Lyplques des
envlronnemenLs muludlsclpllnalres o• les lCC, le monde academlque eL le secLeur prlve LravalllenL
dans un cadre dynamlque eL o• les produlLs eL les processus peuvenL ôLre consLammenL evalues eL
peuvenL beneñcler d'un souuen (que ce solL sur le plan ñnancler ou de la recherche). uans ses
lnLeracuons avec les auLres, l'enLrepreneur culLurel eL creauf esL en eñeL suscepuble de beneñcler
d'un processus de formauon eL d'apprenussage. une grande force des lCC esL de parvenlr a
Lransformer des connalssances eL des experlences nouvelles en nouveaux procedes eL produlLs.
Assocler des sLraLegles de caplLal rlsque a de Lels processus collaboraufs peuL enLraƒner un reLour
sur lnvesussemenL eL fournlr des ressources ñnancleres aux ÞML eL enLrepreneurs des lCC.
3.31 ll ressorL des sLausuques de l'eLude que c'esL au debuL de son acuvlLe enLrepreneurlale que les
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 23
collaborauons eL reseaux formels eL personnels seronL les plus uules a l'enLrepreneur culLurel eL
creauf, Landls que dans les phases sulvanLes, comme les phases de consolldauon eL d'expanslon, les
ÞML culLurelles eL creauves seronL plus lnLeressees par les grappes d'enLreprlses. Cela semble
suggerer que les formes de souuen personnel eL a la demande du Lype « maLchlng » ou «
coachlng » sonL surLouL valables les premlers Lemps Landls que des formes collaborauves plus
formelles comme l'apparLenance a une grappe d'enLreprlses sonL plus approprlees aux enLreprlses
culLurelles eL creauves qul cherchenL a conquerlr de nouveaux marches ou a beneñcler des
lnluauves des parLenalres qul les enLourenL.
Les pr|nc|pa|es recommandanons
4.0 Sur la base du Lravall qul a eLe mene, un cerLaln nombre de recommandauons generales eL
speclñques esL propose. Ces recommandauons porLenL sur le conLexLe general europeen, la
polluque de l'lnnovauon alnsl que le besoln de sumuler l'enLrepreneurlaL en LanL que moLeur non
Lechnologlque de l'lnnovauon.
4.1 Añn de repondre adequaLemenL aux besolns des lCC, ll esL necessalre de dlsposer de davanLage
de donnees sLausuques sur ces lndusLrles en general eL sur chacun des secLeurs qul les composenL.
4.2 1ouL souuen clble dolL correspondre aux caracLerlsuques des lCC eL, plus encore, a leur
sLrucLure. 1ouLes les mesures vlsanL les ÞML qul seronL proposees dans le cadre des lnluauves
phares de la SLraLegle Lurope 2020 devralenL Lenlr compLe des besolns speclñques des mlcro-
enLreprlses.
4.3 Comme le monLre l'exemple des pays qul onL developpe des mecanlsmes de souuen
perfecuonnes pour les lCC eL enreglsLrenL de bons resulLaLs en mauere d'lnnovauon, le falL pour
plusleurs mlnlsLeres de coordonner leur acuon en faveur de ces lndusLrles permeL un mellleur
clblage eL une plus grande coherence. LLanL donne que les lCC onL souvenL une dlmenslon
lnLerdlsclpllnalre eL qu'elles relevenL a la fols du champ culLurel eL du champ economlque, ll
convlendralL d'encourager la collaborauon enLre mlnlsLeres, noLammenL enLre mlnlsLeres de la
culLure eL mlnlsLeres de l'economle, alnsl que de renforcer la coordlnauon eL la coherence des
polluques menees aux dlñerenLs nlveaux de gouvernance polluque dans le soucl d'une plus grande
emcaclLe.
4.4 ues polluques de sumulauon sonL necessalres aux nlveaux LanL europeen, nauonal que reglonal
añn de plelnemenL repondre aux besolns speclñques des lCC. 1ous les nlveaux de gouvernance
polluque devralenL reconnaƒLre la conLrlbuuon des lCC a la nouvelle economle eL †uvrer a
l'emergence d'une slLuauon d'egallLe de concurrence pour ces lndusLrles. Le nlveau nauonal
desslne l'envlronnemenL reglemenLalre dans lequel les lCC evoluenL. La producuon eL la
dlsLrlbuuon de produlLs eL servlces culLurels eL creaufs seralenL encouragees sl ceux-cl beneñclalenL
d'exonerauons d'lmpôLs, ce qul sumuleralL la crolssance dans de nombreux secLeurs. ue môme, la
moblllLe LransfronLallere des arusLes pourralL ôLre accrue en faclllLanL les procedures
reglemenLalres y relauves. uans la mesure o• les lCC pleblsclLenL les lnLeracuons eLrolLes eL le
souuen a la demande, les reglons pourralenL devenlr les lnLermedlalres enLre ces lndusLrles eL les
nlveaux de gouvernance europeen eL nauonal. Llles pourralenL encourager les grappes
d'enLreprlses eL les reseaux secLorlels de leur LerrlLolre a se Lransformer en plaLeformes
d'lnnovauon eL les ÞML culLurelles eL creauves a s'lnLegrer dans ces grappes.
4.3 L'uL devralL davanLage Lenlr compLe des besolns des lCC dans ses programmes cadres acLuels eL
fuLurs en faveur de la recherche eL du developpemenL Lechnologlque (ÞC8u1 7 eL ÞC8u1 8) ou de la
compeuuvlLe eL de l'lnnovauon, alnsl que dans sa polluque de coheslon, noLammenL en les ouvranL
aux pro[eLs d'lnnovauon non Lechnologlque eL aux ÞML culLurelles eL creauves (eL pas unlquemenL
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 26
aux ÞML du secLeur des 1lC). L'uL devralL egalemenL augmenLer la vlslblllLe des acuvlLes qul sonL
menees dans les pays eL les reglons en favorlsanL leur mlse en reseau.
les tecommooJouoos telouves ò l´occès oo fooocemeot
4.6 Le manque de ñnancemenL esL un probleme recurrenL pour les lCC eL LouL speclalemenL pour
les mlcro-enLreprlses. L'ocLrol de ñnancemenL devralL se falre en adequauon avec les dlñerenLes
phases du cycle de vle enLrepreneurlale eL correspondre aux besolns des ÞML. Añn d'assurer un
souuen blen clble, ll esL essenuel de recourlr aux reglons pour canallser les fonds alnsl qu'a des
lnLermedlalres ñnanclers connalssanL les caracLerlsuques des ÞML culLurelles eL creauves.
4.7 Les grands dlsposlufs de ñnancemenL en faveur de l'lnnovauon sonL Lrop complexes pour les
lCC. Au nlveau de l'uL, ll convlendralL de slmpllñer les mecanlsmes de ñnancemenL añn de
permeure que les ÞML culLurelles eL creauves y alenL plus facllemenL acces. Les programmes
exlsLanLs (ÞC8u17, ClÞ) devralenL clbler les ÞML culLurelles eL creauves. Le programme MLulA oñre
un souuen speclñque a un secLeur paruculler dans les dlñerenLes phases de la chaƒne de valeur. ues
posslblllLes de souuen slmllalres devralenL ôLre developpees pour d'auLres secLeurs des lCC eL
porLer sur cerLalns momenLs cruclaux de leur chaƒne de valeur respecuve.
4.8 Au nlveau de l'uL, les fonds de la 8Ll eL du lLl, qul promeuvenL aussl l'lnnovauon, pourralenL
servlr a ñnancer des prôLs ou ôLre lnvesus en caplLal rlsque pour le beneñce des lCC añn de
renforcer l'lnnovauon non Lechnologlque. lls pourralenL egalemenL souLenlr des lnluauves
nauonales ou reglonales desunees a developper des sysLemes de garanues bancalres. Sur ce polnL,
une auenuon parucullere devralL ôLre porLee a l'exemple du fonds de garanue bancalre en faveur
du secLeur audlo-vlsuel qul sera blenLôL lnLrodulL dans le programme MLulA pour la numerlsauon
du clnema. Ln coordlnauon avec les ‡LaLs membres, ll esL recommande a l'uL d'envlsager la ñxauon
de Laux de 1vA redulLs ou leur renforcemenL ou encore l'lnsLaurauon d'auLres mecanlsmes ñscaux
lnclLaufs en faveur des servlces eL produlLs creaufs a forLe lnLenslLe de Lravall que ce solL en llgne
ou non.
4.9 Les ‡LaLs membres pourralenL envlsager des mesures du Lype «abrl ñscal » pour d'auLres
secLeurs eL souLenlr le developpemenL de fonds (par exemple publlcs) de caplLal rlsque, les
lnvesusseurs provldenuels alnsl que le mlcrocredlL. ue môme, des mecanlsmes d'lngenlerle
ñnanclere comme les garanues bancalres pourralenL ôLre encourages au nlveau nauonal. Lnñn, ll
convlendralL d'encourager l'lnvesussemenL des londs sLrucLurels europeens dans les lCC, en
paruculler en faveur des plaLeformes eL des lnluauves de mlse en reseau reglonales.
les tecommooJouoos telouves ò l´occès oo motcbé
4.10 L'uL devralL faclllLer l'acces au marche des enLreprlses culLurelles eL creauves par le blals des
marches publlcs, qul sonL encore lnsumsammenL explolLes pour souLenlr l'lnnovauon. Les marches
publlcs concerneralenL des procedes, produlLs ou servlces d'lnnovauon non Lechnologlque, eL les
lCC, eL LouL speclalemenL les mlcro-enLreprlses, pourralenL se porLer candldaLes.
4.11 L'lnluauve en faveur des marches porLeurs (« Lead MarkeL lnluauve ») lancee par l'uL en 2008
vlsalL a ldenuñer de nouveaux besolns eL de nouveaux marches pour les produlLs eL servlces
lnnovanLs. L'ob[ecuf esL de mleux clbler la demande fuLure eL d'oñrlr un Lerraln de [eu
experlmenLal pour les lnvesusseurs. Añn de mleux couvrlr les besolns socleLaux, l'uL devralL
envlsager d'ouvrlr ceue lnluauve a l'lnnovauon non Lechnologlque eL a l'lnnovauon dans les
servlces en vue d'explolLer le poLenuel lnnovanL des lCC.
4.12 L'acces au marche resLe dlmclle pour les ÞML culLurelles eL creauves, en paruculler dans les
secLeurs o• un peuL nombre d'enLreprlses onL une posluon domlnanLe. L'uL devralL envlsager
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 27
d'adapLer les regles de concurrence aux caracLerlsuques des lCC añn d'evlLer LouLe concenLrauon
excesslve. Cela pourralL permeure a Lous les acLeurs culLurels d'avolr un acces mlnlmal a l'ensemble
des canaux de dlsLrlbuuon, y comprls en llgne, eL d'oñrlr aux consommaLeurs une verlLable
dlverslLe culLurelle alnsl qu'une vrale llberLe de cholx.
4.13 Les lCC eL paruculleremenL les mlcro-enLreprlses ne dlsposenL pas d'une lnformauon
sumsanLe sur les opporLunlLes commerclales dans leur reglon mals aussl au-dela de celle-cl eL des
fronueres nauonales. Les reglons devralenL promouvolr la dlssemlnauon de ces lnformauons au
moyen de reseaux reglonaux. Les reglons peuvenL servlr de plaLeformes pour l'echange de bonnes
prauques sur des quesuons d'ordre Lechnologlque eL non Lechnologlque. Llles pourralenL
encourager un acces mlnlmal au marche en meuanL en place des plaLeformes o• les ÞML
culLurelles eL creauves pourralenL exposer leurs produlLs eL servlces eL promouvolr alnsl la vlslblllLe
des lCC reglonales.
les tecommooJouoos telouves oo Jéveloppemeot Je compéteoces eottepteoeotloles
4.14 ll y a un deñclL generallse de compeLences enLrepreneurlales au seln de Lous les secLeurs des
lCC. Ln deplL de l'lmporLance de la quesuon, on consLaLe Lou[ours un manque d'lnLegrauon de la
formauon a l'enLrepreneurlaL dans les cursus d'enselgnemenL, eL paruculleremenL dans
l'enselgnemenL arusuque. uoLe d'un budgeL de t7 mllllards pour la perlode 2007-2013, le
programme pour l'educauon LouL au long de la vle esL le prlnclpal lnsLrumenL de l'uL dans le
domalne de la formauon eL de l'educauon. ll esL suggere que ce programme fasse du
developpemenL de la creauvlLe l'une de ses prlorlLes eL souuenne la formauon a l'enLrepreneurlaL,
y comprls dans le secLeur creauf.
4.13 Le londs soclal europeen pourralL servlr a renforcer l'emplol dans les lCC, par exemple en
canallsanL des fonds pour les apprenussages creaufs dans le buL de faclllLer le passage a la vle
acuve par la promouon de l'apprenussage sur le lleu de Lravall. La formauon aux 1lC devralL ôLre
lncluse ou renforcee dans les cursus des eLabllssemenLs arusuques añn d'encourager le poLenuel
d'lnnovauon des lCC eL de les alder a mleux explolLer les opporLunlLes oñerLes par la revoluuon
numerlque.
4.16 Les lCC sonL aussl des producLeurs de savolr par le blals de processus de recherche appllquee.
Ller le Lravall collaborauf enLre lnsuLuuons de la connalssance eL les ÞML locales pourralL
dynamlser les capaclLes d'lnnovauon des reglons. Les unlverslLes de sclence appllquee pourralenL
[ouer un rôle precleux en connecLanL les acuvlLes d'une reglon donnee a celles d'auLres reglons eL
reseaux d'lndusLrles culLurelles eL creauves en Lurope. Mleux ller les enLreprlses des lCC eL les
lnsuLuuons de recherche appllquee conLrlbueralL aussl a meure a [our les compeLences
professlonnelles des ÞML de la reglon en ce qul concerne l'lnnovauon professlonnelle,
l'enLrepreneurlaL, la creauvlLe ou encore la recherche.
les tecommooJouoos telouves oo Jéveloppemeot Je l´eottepteoeotlot comme focteot J´looovouoo
ooo tecbooloqlpoe
4.17 Añn de sumuler le poLenuel lnnovanL des lCC eL de developper l'enLrepreneurlaL comme
moLeur d'lnnovauon non Lechnologlque, ll convlendralL d'elarglr la deñnluon de l'lnnovauon dans
le cadre de la prochalne revlslon de la polluque de recherche eL d'lnnovauon añn d'y englober
LouLes les formes d'lnnovauon, LanL du secLeur publlc que du secLeur prlve, y comprls l'lnnovauon
dlLe « soû » ou cachee, eL de reconnaƒLre le sLaLuL de 8&u a cerLalns procedes Lyplques des lCC,
comme le deslgn ou la recherche de nouveaux LalenLs.
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 28
les tecommooJouoos telouves oo sooueo oox losttomeots Je lo ptoptlété lotellectoelle
4.18 L'uL devralL amellorer l'acces des ÞML aux lnsLrumenLs de la proprleLe lnLellecLuelle alnsl que
leur uullsauon. L'envlronnemenL numerlque s'esL LradulL par de nouveaux deñs sur le plan de la
proLecuon du drolL de proprleLe lnLellecLuelle. ll convlendralL de rechercher au nlveau europeen
des soluuons creauves permeuanL de recompenser les proprleLalres de drolLs LouL en garanussanL
une cerLalne ßexlblllLe eL une appllcablllLe alsee.
4.19 La revoluuon numerlque s'accompagne pour les lCC d'opporLunlLes eL de deñs nouveaux eL ll
esL necessalre de leur apporLer un souuen approprle pour les alder a en urer proñL. ues fonds
speclñques devralenL ôLre alloues aux lCC, en paruculler aux ÞML, añn de renforcer l'educauon aux
medlas eL l'uullsauon des ouuls numerlques au seln des enLreprlses.
4.20 L'une des grandes concluslons de ceue eLude esL la consLaLauon que les enLrepreneurs creaufs
eL culLurels dependenL forLemenL de l'uullsauon de reseaux dans des envlronnemenLs Lres
lnnovanLs caracLerlses par un nlveau de rlsque eleve. Les ÞML de ces lndusLrles onL donc besoln de
nouer des formes de collaborauon sur le plan de l'organlsauon, du supporL de leurs operauons ou
de la producuon. uevelopper une acuvlLe enLrepreneurlale dans un Lel conLexLe necesslLe une
cerLalne ßexlblllLe, le recours a des soluuons a rlsque alnsl que des compeLences lnLerdlsclpllnalres
qul peuvenL aussl ôLre un moLeur d'lnnovauon non Lechnologlque suscepuble de proñLer au resLe
de l'economle. Añn de souLenlr les lCC, ll convlenL donc de favorlser les collaborauons eL les
reseaux.
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 29
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 30
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 31
ule unternehmer|sche ulmenslon der
kulLurellen und kreauven lndusLrlen
zusammenfassung
2usammenhang
1.0 ule 8edeuLung der kulLur und der kreauvlLˆL, oder besser dle der ‰kulLur-baslerLen kreauvlLˆLŠ,
haL sehr vlel AufmerksamkelL hlnslchLllch der SLˆrkung und slch bleLenden M‹gllchkelLen elner
Luropˆlschen ‰kreauven WlrLschaûŠ gewonnen. ulese SLudle, beauûragL von der Luropˆlschen
kommlsslon, enLhŒllL dle wachsende 8edeuLung der kreauven WlrLschaû, lnsbesondere dle der
8olle der kulLurellen und kreauven lndusLrlen (kkl), welche dazu belLragen k‹nnen, Luropas
derzeluge und zukŒnûlge Þrobleme zu l‹sen. So wlrd lnnovauon heuLzuLage nlchL mehr nur als
Lechnologlscher oder wlssenschaûllcher Wandel versLanden, sondern ln elnem vlel gr‹•eren
Zusammenhang: ule kulLurellen und kreauven lndusLrlen erm‹gllchen elnen beachLllchen
lorLschrlu, um auch nlchL-Lechnologlsche lnnovauonen fŒr ÞrodukLe und Þrozesse
mlLelnzubezlehen, was zu elner verbesserung der Lrñndungskraû ln Luropa fŒhrL.
1.1 uas Zlel dleser SLudle lsL es, elne verbesserLe Wahrnehmung und eln versLˆndnls fŒr dle
Aufgaben und 8edŒrfnlsse von unLernehmen lnnerhalb der kkl, spezlell dle der klelnen und
mluelsLˆndlschen unLernehmen (kMu), zu schañen. Ls lsL nlchL beabslchugL, elne
zusammenfassende ŽberslchL zu bleLen, sondern es gllL ÞroblemsLellungen oñenzulegen und
L‹sungsvorschlˆge zu erbrlngen. PlerfŒr werden unLerschledllche allgegenwˆruge Þroblemberelche
der kreauven und kulLurellen lndusLrle 8elsplele dargesLellL. So werden spezlelle
Perausforderungen ldenuñzlerL, welche dle unLernehmen ln der kkl davon abhalLen k‹nnLen, von
den vorLellen des europˆlschen 8lnnenmarkLes und dem allgemelnen 1rend zur ulglLallslerung zu
proñueren.
1.2 ulese SLudle beschrelbL dle PaupLkrlLerlen der kulLurellen und kreauven lndusLrlen und
berŒckslchugL nauonale lakLoren, welche dle LnLwlcklungen dleser 8eLrlebe beelnßussen.
Au•erdem vermluelL dlese SLudle eln versLˆndnls der ma•gebllchen lakLoren, dle dle SLˆrkung des
unLernehmerLums der kulLur- und kreauvwlrLschaû beelnßussen, wle z.8. der Zugang zu
llnanzlerungsm‹gllchkelLen, MarkLelnLrlusbarrleren 8echLe an gelsugem LlgenLum, allgemelne und
berußlche 8lldung, lnnovauon oder kollaborauve Þrozesse. Ausgehend von dlesen
Perausforderungen wlrd dlese SLudle sowohl generelle Perangehenswelsen fŒr eln f‹rderllches
umfeld als auch spezlñsche Lmpfehlungen fŒr [eden lndlvlduellen lakLor erarbelLen. ules garanuerL
dle besLm‹gllche unLersLŒLzung fŒr unLernehmen ln den kkl, da dleser AnsaLz dle fachspezlñschen
unLerschlede, dle unLerschledllchen Lbenen der lŒhrungspolluk sowle der unLernehmerlschen
LnLwlcklungsphasen der [ewelllgen unLernehmen berŒckslchugL
Das kreanve Unternehmertum
2.0 8ls [eLzL exlsuerL noch kelne allgemelngŒluge ueñnluon von unLernehmerLum. Man kann es als
rlslkoLragfˆhlg, unLernehmungsgrŒndungsfˆhlg oder auch als Sumulauon der lnnovauon
beschrelben und noch wenlger lsL man slch elnlg, lnwlewelL dlese ueñnluon lm 8ezug auf den
kulLurellen und kreauven WlrLschaûszwelgzuLrlñL. Lgal wle, wenn man den enormen 8elLrag des
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 32
kulLurellen und kreauven WlrLschaûszwelges ln 8ezug auf das 8lÞs ln den 1ellnehmersLaaLen ln
8eLrachL zlehL, oñenbarL slch dessen 8edeuLung und WlchugkelL.
2.1 ln dlesem Zusammenhang sLellL slch dle lrage, welche lakLoren dlesen WlrLschaûszwelg ln
selner AusŒbung unLersLŒLzen oder behlndern. uas CLCu/Lu8CS1A1 unLernehmerLum
lndlkauonspro[ekL haL sechs 8erelche ldenuñzlerL, welche ausschlaggebend fŒr dle LrfolgsquoLe
slnd. ulese slnd: Zugang zu kaplLal, 1echnologle, lorschung und LnLwlcklung, unLernehmerlsche
lˆhlgkelLen, MarkLbedlngungen/kon[unkLurlage, rechLllche 8ahmenbedlngungen und dle
unLernehmerlsche kulLur.
2.2 kkl unLernehmen, spezlell kMu, haben spezlñsche Llgenschaûen, welche dlese vom
‰gemelnenŠ unLernehmerLum unLerscheldeL. So arbelLen dlese regelmˆ•lg unLer spezlellen
MarkLbedlngungen, sle produzleren CŒLer, dle schon vom ursprung her ‰kulLurellŠ slnd, sle
arbelLen mlL Þersonen, dle eher lnhalLsbezogen als markorlenuerL vorgehen und lm Allgemelnen ln
sehr klelnen kMu (mlkro-kMu) auf der 8asls von permanenLen neLzwerken agleren.
2.3 Lln kulLureller und kreauver unLernehmer kann als [emand versLanden werden, der kreauve
oder lnnovauve ÞrodukLe oder ulensLe enLwlckelL und glelchzelug unLernehmerlsche Þrlnzlplen
nuLzL, um dlese kreauven AkuvlLˆLen ln elner kommerzlellen ArL und Welse zu organlsleren und
auszuŒben. Allerdlngs lsL es nlchL elnfach, dle 8alance zwlschen der kreauvlLˆLsbezogenen
AusŒbung und der kommerzlellen AusrlchLung zu halLen, da slch unLernehmer sLark ln lhren
Mouvauonen und 8ranchen, ln welchen sle Lˆug slnd, unLerschelden.
2.4 uer 8egrlñ ‰unLernehmerŠ wlrd ln der kulLurellen 8ranche nur z‹gerllch akzepuerL, da dleser
Œbermˆ•lg mlL dem ñnanzlellen AspekL assozllerL wlrd, ansLelle von kulLurellen und sozlalen
WerLen. AndererselLs lsL das kllschee des kŒnsLlers, der nlchL ln der Lage lsL, seln unLernehmen zu
managen, well lhm dle n‹ugen ñnanzlellen lachkennLnlsse fehlen, ,bel wlrLschaûspolluschen
LnLscheldungsLrˆgern lmmer noch welL verbrelLeL. ules beelnßussL somlL dle unLerscheldung und
unLerLel l ung zwl schen der herk‹mml l chen unLernehmerpol l uk und kul Lurel l en
unLernehmerpolluken.
2.3 Cenau wle kŒnsLler hˆuñg z‹gern, lhren lndlvlduellen Ausdrucksprozess zu beschrelben, so
geben auch unLernehmer nur wlderwllllg lhren lndlvlduellen Weg der lnnovauonsgewlnnung
bekannL. lndem man belde Þrozesse als glelchwerug anslehL, erkennL man, dass man beldes
komblnleren muss um das kreauve ÞoLenual voll aussch‹pfen zu k‹nnen. uer 8egrlñ kulLurelle und
kreauve unLernehmen versuchL, dlese belden WelLen zu verelnen: dle 8erŒckslchugung des ln
elnem kŒnsLler schlummernden unLernehmerlsche CelsLes, sowle das kreauve ÞoLenual elnes
unLernehmers.
2.6 Spannungen zwlschen kreauv 1ˆugen und unLernehmern lsL Lyplsch fŒr vlele kulLurelle und
kreauve unLernehmen. Sle ergeben slch oû durch den Wunsch des kŒnsLlers, den kulLurellen WerL
ln den vordergrund zu rŒcken, wohlngegen der unLernehmer den wlrLschaûllchen AspekL Œber
den kulLurellen WerL sLellL.
L|genschahen
2.7 ule vlelfˆlugkelL der kulLurellen und kreauven lndusLrle splegelL slch ln der brelLen
AngeboLspaleue der verschledenen unLernehmen wleder. uabel handelL es slch um alle m‹gllchen
ArLen von unLernehmen - von mulu-nauonalen ZusammenschlŒssen bls hln zu 8ranchen, dle durch
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 33
elnen hohen AnLell von kMu (z.8. ArchlLekLur, Mode, kunsLhandwerk) gekennzelchneL slnd.
Andere wlederum reprˆsenueren elne brelLe SLreuung von gro•en und klelneren unLernehmen,
lnsbesondere ln der Soûwarebranche, bel den verlagen und MedlenanbleLern.
2.8 ule MehrhelL der kkl-unLernehmen geh‹rL allerdlngs zu der kaLegorle der sehr klelnen
unLernehmen. ungefˆhr 80° der unLernehmen der kkl slnd kMu mlL mehreren
LlnzelunLernehmern oder Mlkro-kMu, welche nur Œber elne gerlnge Anzahl von 8eschˆûlgLen
verfŒgen. 1aLsˆchllch glbL es lnnerhalb der kkl mehr als doppelL so vlele SelbsLsLˆndlge, wle ln
anderen WlrLschaûszwelgen. Auch, wenn dle Œberwlegende MehrhelL der kkl unLernehmen Mlkro-
unLernehmen slnd (mlL elnem Þersonal von wenlger als 10 8eschˆûlgLen), slnd sle nur fŒr elnen
bescheldenen ÞrozenLsaLz des CesamLumsaLzes der kkl reprˆsenLauv (18°). ule melsLen Mlkro-
kMu haben sogar nur elnen bls drel AngesLellLe.
2.9 ule Anzahl der Cro•beLrlebe lsL gerlnger als 1°, aber sle machen mehr als 40° des
!ahresumsaLzes aus. ulese SLausuken besLˆugen elne wlchuge LrkennLnls der kkl: uadurch, dass
dle melsLen unLernehmen kMu und Mlkro-unLernehmen slnd, aber dle gr‹•eren 8eLrlebe (mlL
mehr als 30 8eschˆûlgLen) elnen deuLllch h‹heren AnLell der CesamLelnnahmen belsLeuern, lsL es
nlchL verwunderllch, dass dles auch Auswlrkungen auf dle Þolluk haL.
2.10 ulese Llgenschaû, dle verblndung von Cr‹•e und ZusammenseLzung der kulLur- und
kreauvwlrLschaû, wlrd hˆuñg dle ‰fehlende MlueŠ genannL: Mluelgro•e unLernehmen schelnen
fasL gar nlchL zu exlsueren. unLer 8erŒckslchugung der sLaususchen 8eobachLungen und der
durchgefŒhrLen 8efragung, exlsuerL eln wesenLllches Þroblem fŒr klelnere unLernehmen, aus der
ersLen lnluauve zu elnem mluleren unLernehmen zu wachsen. uas ‰LochŠ zwlschen den ‰blg
playersŠ und den Mlkro-unLernehmen machL den WachsLum fŒr Mlrko-unLernehmen schwlerlg
und erh‹hL glelchzelug dle Þroblemauk, elnen h‹heren MarkLanLell der ‰small playersŠ zu
gewlnnen. Llne gerlnge Anzahl von Cro•beLrleben verfŒgL Œber dle lnfrasLrukLur, dle dle
WelLerenLwlcklung durch lorschung und LnLwlcklung erm‹gllchL. ules fehlL den Mlkro-
unLernehmen, was wlederum das nachhaluge WachsLum behlnderL.
2.11 Mlkro-unLernehmen mŒssen SLraLeglen anwenden, dle an lhre gerlnge Cr‹•e angepassL, hoch
dynamlsch und rlslkoberelL slnd, um mlL den exlsuerenden unLernehmen konkurrleren zu k‹nnen,
dle wenlger auf llexlblllLˆL angewlesen slnd. . ule sLrukLurellen Anforderungen elnes Mlkro-
unLernehmen seLzen dynamlsche lachkennLnlsse voraus, schelnen allerdlngs kelne dlrekLe
WachsLumsperspekuve fŒr eln unLernehmen zu bleLen. klelnere unLernehmen nelgen dazu, elne
ßexlblere und dynamlschere PalLung bel der 8eakuon auf MarkLchancen elnzunehmen. So werden
8essourcen ausgelagerL, vlelen Þro[ekLe angenommen oder der Zusammenschluss von
unLerschledllchen Crganlsauonen genuLzL, um von der konzenLrlerLen lachkompeLenz proñueren
zu k‹nnen.
2.12 ZusˆLzllch zu der unslcherhelL und der gro•en konkurrenz haL der Lechnlsche lorLschrlu und
dle ulglLallslerung auch den verLellungsprozess von kulLurellen und kreauven ÞrodukLen und
ulensLlelsLungen verˆnderL. uer ‰dlglLale WandelŠ beelnßussL dle SLrukLur der verLellung und dle
Lradluonellen ÞrodukLwerLsch‹pfungskeuen. ule zunehmend schnelleren kommunlkauonskanˆle
und Lechnologlschen verbesserungen bleLen neue M‹gllchkelLen, um eln gr‹•eres und welL
enuernLes Þubllkum zu errelchen, sowle auch elne gr‹•ere ÞrodukLpaleue und ulensLe anzubleLen.
ule Lradluonelle WerLsch‹pfungskeue der LrsLellung und des verbrauchs wlrd lm 8ahmen dleser
verˆnderungen akuv neu gesLalLeL und ln vlelen lˆllen slnd es dle kMu der kulLurellen und
kreauven lndusLrle, dle dabel an vordersLer lronL sLehen. .
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 34
2.13 uas Lradluonelle konzepL der Þrodukuonskeue wlrd mlL der umgehung der Zwlschenhˆndler
ln lrage gesLellL. uadurch wlrd von dem unl-llnearen Þrodukuonsprozess AbsLand genommen und
vlelmehr dle ldee von ‰mehrwerLschañenden •kosysLemenŠ verfolgL. uabel handelL es slch um das
Zusammensplel von ßexlblen llrmen, zwlschen denen eln gegenseluger AusLausch von WerLen
besLehL und dle haupLsˆchllch ln neLzwerk-ClusLern arbelLen. . Pˆuñg sLehen kulLurelle und
kreauve unLernehmen lm dlrekLen konLakL mlL verbrauchern l. So mŒssen sle eng mlL der
Zlelgruppe zusammenarbelLen, um 1rends wahrzunehmen oder frŒhzelug auf 8eakuonen von
kˆufern lhrer elgenen ÞrodukLe reagleren zu k‹nnen.
2.14 ln AnbeLrachL der spezlñschen Llgenschaûen der kulLurellen und kreauven lndusLrle, unLer
8erŒckslchugung der Cr‹•e, ZusammenseLzung und ÞrodukLhersLellung, mŒssen slch dle kkl vlelen
Perausforderungen sLellen. Au•erdem bewegen sle slch ln elnem 8erelch, ln dem mlL 8lslken
behaûeLe Pandlungswelsen nlchL lmmer gefragL slnd, der dafŒr aber welLere kompllkauonen auf
den Weg zur nachhalugkelL und WachsLum bleLeL.
D|e w|chngsten Lrgebn|sse
3.0 unLer 8erŒckslchugung der spezlellen Llgenschaûen der kkl, wurde eln 8ahmenmodell
erschañen, welches neue Modelle der ZusammenarbelL und WeubewerbsvorLelle fŒr kkl bleLeL, so
dass dlese besLm‹gllch unLersLŒLzL werden. uleses Modell umfassL auch dle 8erelche der
lnnovauon, unLernehmerLum und der kulLurpolluk.
3.1 Anhand der fŒr dlese SLudle ausgefŒhrLen 8efragungen lnnerhalb Luropas deuLeLe slch schnell
eln grundsˆLzllches Þroblem hlnslchLllch der konslsLenLen uaLengewlnnung lm 8ezug auf dle kkl an.
So konnLen kelne nauonalen SLausuken zu verglelchszwecken genuLzL werden, da dlese keln
elnhelLllches uaLenmodell verwenden, was wlederum bedeuLeL, dass elgene uaLen gesammelL
werden mussLen.
E)#%()*+*F)#-2*D$3GD7)">.#)&#*
3.2. uas vlellelchL gr‹•Le Plndernls fŒr unLernehmern und unLernehmen der kkl lsL,
l‹rderungsm‹gllchkelLen fŒr lhre vorhaben zu ñnden. ulese fehlende ñnanzlelle unLersLŒLzung der
kulLurellen und kreauven lndusLrle wurde durch dle [ŒngsLe llnanzkrlse welLer verschˆrû.
3.3 ule melsLen befragLen kkl haben elnen llnanzplan, der slch nur Œber elne kurze ZelLspanne
ersLreckL. uer onllne lragebogen oñenbarLe, das 22° der kkl Œber gar kelnen llnanz- oder
WlrLschaûsplan verfŒgen, wohlngegen 33° lmmerhln elne !ahresprognose ersLellL haben. nur 4°
haben elnen llnanzplan fŒr dle kommenden 3 !ahre. uazu kommL, unLer 8erŒckslchugung der
noLwendlgkelL, admlnlsLrauve Aufgaben mlL der kreauven ArbelL verblnden zu k‹nnen, dass 73°
der befragLen unLernehmen dlese Þlˆne selbsL aufgesLellL und nur 20° elne professlonelle
8eraLung genuLzL haben.
3.4 Llne Llgenschaû, dle mehr oder wenlger auf alle kkl zuLrlñL, lsL der erschwerLe Zugang zu
llnanzlerungsmlueln, da man slch ln der 8ranche oû auf lmmaLerlelle WerLe beruû. uer kreauve
unLernehmer komblnlerL konkreLe lnformauonen mlL lmmaLerlellen ÞrodukLen, kulLurellen
lnhalLen oder MedlenlnhalLen. Allerdlngs k‹nnen lmmaLerlelle verm‹genswerLe wle neuhelL,
lnnovauon, urheberrechL und kreauvlLˆL oû nlchL ln 8erlchLen dargesLellL bzw. angefŒhrL werden:
llnanzlelle lnsuLuuonen wle 8anken erkennen dlese oû nlchL als WlrLschaûsgŒLer an.
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 33
3.3 Cbwohl es vlele ,unLersLŒLzungsmechanlsmen dleser ArL ln Luropa glbL, rlchLen slch dlese
AngeboLe haupLsˆchllch an andere Zlelgruppen und slnd fŒr dle kMu welLesLgehend ungeelgneL.
LauL umfrage lsL Llgenñnanzlerung nach wle vor dle gˆnglgsLe MeLhode, dle n‹ugen ñnanzlellen
Mluel zu slchern.. •ñenLllche und prlvaLe ZuschŒsse haben elne ergˆnzende lunkuon, wohlngegen
andere ‚uellen kaum lns CewlchL fallen. uarlehen blelben dle wlchugsLen lorm der kMu
llnanzlerung.
3.6 Auf Crund der llnanzkrlse unLersLŒLzen allerdlngs lmmer wenlger 8anken rlslkobehaûeLe
vorhaben, wle dle der kkl. lnvesuuonen ln dle kulLurelle und kreauve lndusLrle lohnen slch hˆuñg
ersL auf lange SlchL und Lragen eln h‹heres 8lslko als lnvesuuonen ln herk‹mmllche Þro[ekLe. . lŒr
dle mlkro-, kleln und sogar fŒr dle mluelgro•en unLernehmen lsL es deshalb grundsˆLzllch
schwlerlg, Zugang zu sLraLeglschen lnvesuuonen zu bekommen. Au•erdem sehen vlele kulLurelle
und kreauve unLernehmer ÞarLnerschaûen mlL lnvesLoren mlL Skepsls, da dle Cefahr drohL, dle
konLrolle Œber dle llrma zu verlleren oder bel der CewlnnausschŒuung spˆLer benachLelllgL zu
werden.
3.7 Auch wenn ‹ñenLllche ZuschŒsse dle CrŒndung von neuen kMu und deren ArbelL ln der
Anfangsphase unLersLŒLzen, slnd dlese LroLzdem eher fŒr dle Lradluonellen kernunLernehmen ln
der kulLurellen 8ranche ausgelegL, als fŒr dle der kkl lm Allgemelnen. Au•erdem deuLen LxperLen
an, dass ‹ñenLllche Ausschrelbungen nlchL den 8edŒrfnlssen von unLernehmern der kulLurellen
und kreauven lndusLrle angepassL slnd. Sle slnd oû zu kompllzlerL, nlchL auf den 8erelch elnes
unLernehmens zugeschnluen und es fehlL dle LangzelLperspekuve.
3.8 vlele LxperLen schlugen dle verwendung von SLeuerguLschrlûen, SLeuerbefrelungen und
SLeuerermˆ•lgungen vor, wobel 8ankdarlehen lnsgesamL das bellebLesLe Mluel zur ñnanzlellen
unLersLŒLzung war. Andere Mluel, wle lndlvlduelle lnvesLoren, 8lslkokaplLal und
lnnovauonsguLschelne wurden auch als eñekuve llnanzlerungsunLersLŒLzung genannL. Cr‹•ere
versLˆndnlsprobleme LauchLen bel konkreLen l‹rderungsmechanlsmen auf, wenn es um dle
Anerkennung der lmmaLerlellen WerLe glng. ules resuluerL daraus, dass dle 8eglon als vermluler
ñnanzleller unLersLŒLzung selbsL hˆuñg nlchL welL genug enLwlckelL lsL. 8eglonale lnsLrumenLe
hlngegen wurden allerdlngs als elne bessere varlanLe der l‹rderungen elngesLuû.
,+-.&F2D+*D
3.9 uer dlrekLe Zugang zum MarkL lsL elne noLwendlgkelL um eln unLernehmen zu grŒnden und
elne wesenLllche vorausseLzung fŒr WachsLum und nachhalugkelL der kreauven unLernehmen. ule
MˆrkLe der kulLurellen und kreauven ÞrodukLe und ulensLe zelchnen slch hˆuñg durch elne
unbesLˆndlge und unvorhersehbare nachfrageslLuauon aus . unLernehmen mŒssen unbesLˆndlge
und oû wechselnde Þrˆferenzen berŒckslchugen. ules bedeuLeL, das zu kelnem ZelLpunkL
lnnerhalb elner Þrodukuons- bzw. LnLwlcklungsphasen der elgenLllche WerL des LndprodukLes
elnes Þro[ekLes mlL SlcherhelL berechneL werden kann: Þroblemfˆlle k‹nnen unerwarLeLer Welse zu
PlLs werden und Lodslchere LrfolgsgaranLen zu llops.
3.10 ln dlesem konLexL muss dle Þosluon des Mlkro-kMu unLernehmers berŒckslchugL werden. ule
wesenLllchen PŒrden lm MarkLelnLrlusprozess begrŒnden slch gr‹•LenLells auf dle exkluslven
Abkommen mlL den PaupLverLrelbern und den begrenzLen Zugang zu markLrelevanLem Wlssen. ule
Þrˆsenz von zahlrelchen und oû unglelch gro•en konkurrenLen lsL eln welLerer PlnderungsfakLor.
ule gr‹•Le Sorge von Mlkro- kMu bezlehL slch allerdlngs auf das Wlssen Œber neue exLerne
vermarkLungsm‹gllchkelLen und dem weubewerbsorlenuerLem umfeld, welches Lyplsch fŒr den
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 36
kulLurellen und kreauven MarkL lsL. uas Wlssen Œber MarkLm‹gllchkelLen lsL also der SchlŒssel zu
elnem ßorlerenden Mlkro-unLernehmen.
3.11 ule hohe Anzahl der kMu ln der kreauven 8ranche verdeuLllchL dle noLwendlgkelL, dle Cr‹•e
von unLernehmen mlL ln dle Þolluk bezŒgllch der MarkLbedlngungen elnzubezlehen. uas gˆnzllche
lehlen von mluelgro•en unLernehmen vergr‹•erL dle LŒcke zwlschen den Mlkro-unLernehmen
und ‰den Cro•enŠ ln dlversen 8ranchen. ule AsymmeLrle ln der MarkLposluon zwlschen den belden
LxLremen lsL unverkennbar. ulese unglelchhelL kann durch unLersLŒLzung der MarkLerschlle•ung
fŒr sLarL-up kMus und deren WachsLums, abhˆnglg von der Cr‹•e elnes unLernehmens, behoben
werden. Auf dlese Welse wlrd auch dle kulLurelle vlelfalL ln der 8ranche garanuerL.
3.12 Llnlge akLuelle Weubewerbspolluken behlndern den MarkL fŒr elnzelne kŒnsLler. ule
wesenLllche Perausforderung llegL also darln, passende neue Ceschˆûsmodelle zu ñnden. uabel
erglbL slch fŒr dle lk1 (lnformauons- und kommunlkauonsLechnologle) elne zwlespˆluge SlLuauon:
Auf der elnen SelLe erm‹gllchen 1echnologlen neue M‹gllchkelLen fŒr kreauve, elnen gr‹•eren
AbsaLzmarkL unabhˆnglg von Lechnlschen oder geographlschen lakLoren fŒr lhre ArbelLen zu
ñnden. Auf der anderen SelLe spalLeL dle lk1 Lradluonelle lnhalLe. ule Cefahr besLehL, dass
kulLurelle lnhalLe ln der vlrLuellen WelL wle gew‹hnllche CŒLer angesehen und gehandelL werden,
wodurch sle lhren elgenLllchen WerL verlleren.
E)#%/01%H/*&#77#"&2+7%0-'@#-I%1)D>&$%J%1#">&%+3%K#)$5D#*%L)D#*&23M%N#-.F#2D#
3.13 Llne vlelzahl der befragLen kMu erhlelLen kelne 8eraLung bezŒgllch der lÞ8s vor der CrŒndung
lhres unLernehmens. Au•erdem nuLzen eln urluel der kMu kelnerlel Mechanlsmen zum SchuLz der
lÞ8s. lnformelle lÞ8s, ln der lorm von verLraullchen Žberelnkommen wurden nur von elnem
lŒnûel genuLzL.
3.14 ZukŒnûlge Ma•nahmen zur l‹rderung der LnLwlcklung der kulLur- und kreauvwlrLschaû
mŒssen das wechselnden lÞ-umfeld und dle slch verˆndernden Ceschˆûsmodelle berŒckslchugen,
genau wle dle 8edeuLung des gelsugen LlgenLums als eln Anrelz fŒr kulLurelle und kreauve
unLernehmer sowle dle 8elohnung fŒr deren Lrzeugnls. Au•erdem sollLe geklˆrL werden, wle sle
dlese M‹gllchkelL am besLen fŒr lhr unLernehmen nuLzen k‹nnen, da vlele kulLurelle und kreauve
kMu heuLzuLage kelne lÞ8s beslLzen.
3.13 ule relauv gerlnge nuLzung von SchuLzmechanlsmen verdeuLllchL dle noLwendlgkelL, auf dle
nuLzung von lÞ8s aufmerksam zu machen und den Zugang zu dlesen fŒr kulLurelle und kreauve
kMu zu erlelchLern, da dlese lmmer noch komplex slnd. uas ManagemenL von gelsugem LlgenLum
fŒr kulLurelle und kreauve lndusLrlen lsL eln ausschlaggebender lakLor fŒr deren
unLernehmensgrŒndung, da es dle M‹gllchkelL bleLeL, fŒr dle lnhalLe ausgezelchneL zu werden und
als der Lrschañer fŒr dlese AkuvlLˆL ausgewlesen zu werden. ule M‹gllchkelL elner lÞ8 8eraLung fŒr
kulLurelle und kreauve unLernehmen lsL wlchug und der MomenL, lndem dlese gegeben wlrd,
enLscheldend.
E)#%N#)&#-9)782*D%2*8%8+$%O-+)*)*D%CP-%Q*&#-*#>3#-
3.16 Ls besLehL eln allgemelner Mangel an unLernehmerlschen lˆhlgkelLen ln allen 8erelchen der
kkl. Abgesehen von der deuLllchen Zunahme von unLernehmensgrŒndungs- und Lernprogrammen
ln den vergangenen !ahren, exlsueren relauv wenlge Angaben und AuswerLungen Œber dle Lrfolge
dleser Þrogramme. uas begrenzLe Modell des Lradluonellen unLernehmerLums lsL hˆuñg auf den
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 37
kommerzlellen Lrfolg ausgerlchLeL und passL demnach nlchL zu der kulLurellen und kreauven
lndusLrle, fŒr dle dlese ArL von Lrfolg oû wenlger wlchug lsL als dle Lrgebnlsse auf der kreauven
und kulLurellen Lbene. Allerdlngs muss man dle unLernehmerlschen lerugkelLen schulen, um
WachsLum, MarkLorlenuerung, 8Œckgewlnnung von kreauvlLˆL, kommunlkauonsfˆhlgkelLen,
verneLzung und 1eamblldung lnnerhalb des unLernehmerlschen Lebenszyklus zu errelchen.
3.17 8esummLe lˆhlgkelLen, von der grundlegenden unLernehmensplanung Œber
ÞrˆsenLauonskompeLenzen bls hln zu ManagemenuˆhlgkelLen slnd ausschlaggebend fŒr den Lrfolg
der kulLurellen und kreauven unLernehmen. uer LxperLen-lragebogen haL ergeben, dass der
erschwerLe MarkLelnLrlu genau wle andere PŒrden auf dem Weg zum kommerzlellen Lrfolg ln
dlrekLem Zusammenhang zum fehlenden know-Pow bezŒgllch der unLernehmerlschen lˆhlgkelLen
sLehL.
3.18 ule unLerscheldung zwlschen der formalen und lnformalen Lbene ln der WelLerblldung des
unLernehmerlschen know-Pows lsL bel den kkl elne lmmer wlederkehrende uebaue. lŒr elnlge
8efragLe mangelL es an der lnLegrauon des wlrLschaûllchen AspekLs der kŒnsLlerlschen Ausblldung
ln nauonalen Lehrplˆnen. So wŒnschen slch elnlge, dass der Lrwerb von unLernehmerlschen
kompeLenzen so frŒh wle m‹gllch lm verlauf der Ausblldung unLersLŒLzL werden sollLe, genau so
wle dle klˆrung der lrage ob der Wunsch nach elner unLernehmensgrŒndung besLehL oder nlchL..
WelLere fordern, dass dle lˆcher llnanzwlrLschaû und verwalLungsmanagemenL mlL ln dle
Lehrplˆne elnbezogen werden sollen, um dleses ueñzlL ausglelchen zu k‹nnen.
3.19 lm CegensaLz dazu behaupLen elnlge LxperLen, dass dlese lndlvlduellen unLernehmerlschen
kompeLenzen ln dem Zusammenhang lrrelevanL slnd. um das ueñzlL zu beheben schlagen sle vor,
dle vorhandenen (sowohl dle sLaaLllchen als auch prlvaLen) l‹rderungen fŒr Mlkro-unLernehmen ln
l‹rderungen fŒr LangzelLvorhaben fŒr kMu umzusLrukLurleren. Sle berufen slch vor allem darauf,
dass gerade makro‹konomlsche Ma•nahmen wle 8esLeuerung und sLaaLllche 8eglemenuerung
das unLernehmerLum beelnßussen.
3.20 ulese Spannung zwlschen der Mlkro- und der Makro‹konlmlschen ulmenslon der
‰lnLervenuonlsuschenŠ lnluauve zelgL slch auch ln den unLersLŒLzungsprogrammen fŒr dle kkl.
ulese konzenLrleren slch eher auf mluelfrlsuge und unLersLŒLzende Ma•nahmen wle z.8. ‰learnlng
by dolngŠ und ‰peer Lo peerŠ. ln der 1aL k‹nnLe dles, ansLau slch auf Lehrplˆne zu fokussleren, elne
nachhalugkelL und WachsLums- unLersLŒLzende AlLernauve seln, um dle verblndungen zwlschen
den kulLurellen und kreauven unLernehmern und ÞrlvaLpersonen mlL Lrfahrung sLŒLzen.
Muludlszlpllnˆre Þro[ekLe zwlschen markLorlenuerLen und AusblldungsunLernehmen k‹nnLen
hllfrelch fŒr dle kommunlkauon zwlschen der ‰buslness-Š und ‰kreauvenŠ WelL seln.
3.21 uer kulLurelle und kreauve unLernehmer lsL selbsL fŒr selne elgenen Ceschˆûsmodelle und
llnanzlerungsmeLhoden wle 8ankdarlehen, garanuerLe kredlLe von sLaaLllchen oder
gemelnnŒLzlgen Crganlsauonen, Crowdsourclng, Supendlen oder Subvenuonen veranLworLllch. ule
Ceschˆûsmodelle slnd haupLsˆchllch auf dle LnLwlcklung von nachhalugem MehrwerL,
8ezlehungen zu kunden und 8esuchern, kosLensLrukLuren und dle WerLsch‹pfungskeuen
konzenLrlerL. ule Llnbezlehung von kulLurellen WerLen lsL eln wesenLllches LlemenL der
Ceschˆûsmodelle. lormale 8lldungssysLeme sLellen hlerfŒr kelne geelgneLen M‹gllchkelLen berelL.
ueswegen lsL elne frŒhzeluge lnLegrauon des kreauven unLernehmerLums ln dle Aus- und
WelLerblldungsprogramme wlchug. lm Anschluss daran k‹nnen Þrogramme des lebenslangen
Lernens enLsprechende unLersLŒLzung bleLen.
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 38
E#-%R2D+*D%F2%/**'4+5'*
3.22 ule Anerkennung des ÞoLenuals fŒr dle lnLegrauon von •versLeckLer• oder •welcher•
lnnovauon sowle ueslgn- oder Þrozessblldung als 1rlebkraû fŒr nuLzerorlenuerLe lnnovauon lsL eln
lndlkaLor fŒr den m‹gllchen Llnßuss, den dle kkl auf dle l‹rderung von lnnovauon ln Luropa haben
k‹nnLe. lnnovauon erm‹gllchL ln dem Slnne auch das neue Zusammensplel unLerschledllcher
MarkL-8ranchen. So k‹nnen neue MeLhoden und Wlssen zwlschen akademlschen, kulLurellen und
kreauven kMu verbrelLeL werden und dazu fŒhren, welLere 8uslnessberelche zu lnLegrleren.
3.23 ueslgn wlrd lmmer sLˆrker als eln wesenLllches LlemenL des europˆlschen
WeubewerbsvorLells angesehen. . uas ArbelLsdokumenL der Luropˆlschen kommlsslon zum 1hema
•ueslgn als MoLor fŒr nuLzerorlenuerLer lnnovauon• zelgLe, dass nlchL-LechnologlebaslerLe
lorschung und LnLwlcklung genauso erfolgrelch war wle dle 1echnologle-baslerLe lorschung und
LnLwlcklung. ules zelgL auch, dass das ueslgn als elne L‹sung fŒr wenlger 1echnologle-baslerLe
kMu lm MarkLweubewerb seln kann. 8esLˆugL wurde dles durch dle oñene konsulLauon Œber
•ueslgn als benuLzerorlenuerLe lnnovauon•, welche zukŒnûlg ln dle lnnovauonspolluk lnLegrlerL
wlrd. Wle auch lmmer, dle gr‹•Le PŒrde erglbL slch dadurch, dass LnLscheldungsLrˆger, sowle auch
dle kkl selbsL, das elgenLllche wlrLschaûllche und lnnovauve ÞoLenual von ueslgn noch nlchL
erkannL haben.
3.24 vlele kulLurelle und kreauve unLernehmen verfolgen nuLzungsorlenuerLe SLraLeglen.
Abgesehen davon, dass dle kkl hˆuñg mlL ‰ÞrodukLˆsLheukŠ ln verblndung gebrachL werden, slehL
dle Luropˆlsche kommlsslon das ÞoLenual von ueslgn als eln m‹gllches lnsLrumenL fŒr lnnovauve
L‹sungen und ÞrodukLe an. ule slch verˆndernde uynamlk zwlschen dem Þubllkum und den
Sch‹pfern, spezlell durch dle versLˆrkLe Zunahme von dlglLalen lnhalLen, lmpllzlerL welLrelchende
Auswlrkungen fŒr dle verLrlebs- und Ceschˆûsmodelle der kkl. ulese neuen M‹gllchkelLen sLellen
fŒr dle kkl welLere M‹gllchkelLen dar, lhre lnnovauonen auf welLere 8ranchen auswelLen zu
k‹nnen.
3.23 uer Zugang zu exLernem Wlssen lsL eln ebenfalls nlchL zu verachLender lakLor der dle
WeubewerbsfˆhlgkelL elnes unLernehmens ausmachL. Ls besLehL deswegen eln 8edarf,
Wl s s ensver ml ul ung, Wel L er bl l dungs ma•nahmen und 8ranchenŒber gr el f ende
ZusammenarbelLsm‹gllchkelLen zu unLersLŒLzen, um welLere Marken, ÞrodukLe und ulensLe
anbleLen zu k‹nnen. ules seLzL allerdlngs voraus, dass eln branchenŒbergrelfender WlssensLransfer
erlelchLerL wlrd. uer WlssensausLausch zwlschen unLerschledllchen 8erelchen wle Wlssenschaû,
WlrLschaû und kreauvwlrLschaû kann das lnnovauonspoLenual deuLllch sLelgern. Auf nauonaler
Lbene hlngegen sollLen alLernauve Ma•nahmen wle z.8. lnnovauonsguLschelne von der reglonalen
oder nauonalen 8eglerung ergrlñen werden. Lˆnder sollLen als vermluler fŒr ZusammenarbelLen
lnnerhalb der kkl fungleren und hlerfŒr dle n‹ugen SLrukLuren au‘auen.
3.26 ule SLˆrkung der lnnovauonskulLur durch nlchuechnologlebeLrelber wle unLernehmer
ben‹ugL welLere unLersLŒLzung. ules muss allerdlngs unLer 8erŒckslchugung der
‚uallñkauonslŒcke und der 8ezlehung zwlschen der angewandLen lorschung und den kMu
geschehen. uamlL kMu den besLm‹gllchen, WachsLumskurs elnschlagen k‹nnen, mŒssen dlesen
spezlellen lˆhlgkelLen verfŒgbar gemachL werden. uabel erglbL slch dle Þroblemauk, dass kMu slch
dleser Sache oû nlchL bewussL slnd bzw. sle k‹nnen dle 8edŒrfnlsse nlchL zusammenhˆngend
ausdrŒcken. Ls fehlL also elne ŽberbrŒckungsebene, um dle M‹gllchkelLen der Aus- und
WelLerblldung sowle der wlrLschaûllchen Þerspekuve zu vermlueln. Solch elne Pllfsform k‹nnLe auf
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 39
reglonaler Lbene elngeseLzL werden, um praxlsorlenuerLe WlrLschaûs-lnnovauonen lm klelnen
8ahmen zu erm‹gllchen.
672$&#-%2*8%R2$+33#*+-9#)&
3.27 um kulLurelle und kreauve unLernehmer mlL dem noLwendlgen Wlssen und den
llnanzlerungsm‹gllchkelLen versorgen, so dass fŒr dlese welLere Lxperlmenuer-, WachsLum- und
lnnovauonsm‹gllchkelLen enLsLehen, muss man eln Lragfˆhlges umfeld schañen, ln dem kulLurelle
und kreauve lndusLrlen mlL elner gewlssen SlcherhelL den Zugang zu lnformauonen und Wlssen
au‘auen k‹nnen. um al l dl ese 8erel che abdecken zu k‹nnen, bl eLen sl ch
kooperauonsma•nahmen und dle verneLzung mlL anderen ÞarLnern an.
3.28 ZusammenarbelLen und neLzwerke erm‹gllchen kulLurellen und kreauven kMu, Zugang zu
elnen ‰WlssenspoolŠ zu bekommen und verneLzung erlelchLerL elnen versLˆrkLen
WlssensausLausch, welcher eln grundlegender 8esLandLell von lnnovauven Þrozessen lsL. Allerdlngs
erm‹gllchL dle ZusammenarbelL auch den AusLausch von prakuschen lnformauonen, spezlell mlL
neuen unLernehmen, dle admlnlsLrauve, ñnanzlelle und lnnovauve 8eraLungsma•nahmen
ben‹ugen. Wenn slch kMu der kkl zusammenschlle•en, erm‹gllchL dles nlchL nur, von den
gemelnsamen 8essourcen zu proñueren, sondern es werden auch ben‹ugLe ArbelLen,
8eraLungsablˆufe und 8uchhalLungsaufwˆnde gebŒndelL.
3.29 PeuLzuLage verschmelzen Lrzeuger und verbraucher lmmer mehr aufgrund der angewandLen
lorschung. Allerdlngs lsL es merkllch schwlerlger, dle berelchsbezogenen Anllegen und Þrozesse an
dle wlssenschaûllchen AnsˆLze anzupassen. Wlssen kann zu Lrfahrung heranrelfen, allerdlngs kann
fŒr dle kulLurellen und kreauven Þrozesse Lrfahrung auch zu neuem Wlssen fŒhren, was slch
allerdlngs nur schwer emzlenL gesLalLen lˆssL.
3.30 ule ZusammenarbelL von mulu-dlszlpllnˆren umfeldern der kkl, Wlssenschaû und dem
prlvaLen SekLor ln elnem dynamlschen lramework, bel dem ÞrodukLe und Þrozesse konsLanL
evalulerL und von welLerer unLersLŒLzung (bezŒgllch der lorschung wle auch der llnanzlerung)
proñueren, sollLe unbedlngL gef‹rderL werden. ules hllû unLernehmern der kkl, von anderen
ÞarLnern zu lernen. ule kkl slnd hoch dynamlsch wenn es darum gehL, den kreauonsprozess, das
Wlssen und dle Lrfahrung bezŒgllch neuer Þrozesse und ÞrodukLe zu verelnlgen. ules geschlehL
durch dle CesLalLung, LnLwlcklung und AusarbelLung neuer, emzlenLer MeLhoden und lnsLrumenLe.
Wenn man 8lslkokaplLal mlL dleser ArL der ZusammenarbelL verblndeL, k‹nnen sowohl elne
kaplLalrendlLe fŒr dle lnvesLoren, als auch elne slchere llnanzlerung fŒr dle unLernehmen und kMu
der kkl geboLen werden.
3.31 ule SLausuk der 8efragung zelgL, dass der kulLurelle und kreauve unLernehmer am Anfang
elner unLernehmerlschen AkuvlLˆL melsLens von den lnformellen und pers‹nllchen neLzwerken und
ZusammenarbelLen abhˆngL, wohlngegen zu elnem spˆLeren ZelLpunkL, wle der Auf- und
Ausbauphase, dle kMu der kkl elne sLˆrkere nuLzung von ClusLer-lnluauven nuLzen. ules lˆssL
darauf schlle•en, dass pers‹nllche, auf verelnbarung baslerende unLersLŒLzung, wle dle Pllfe bel
der Zusammenñndung, ln der Anfangsphase n‹ug lsL. lormale ZusammenschlŒsse slnd dann ln
elner spˆLeren Þhase wlchuger, wenn es darum gehL, den allgemelnen MarkL vergr‹•ern zu wollen
und von den lnluauven der anderen ÞarLnern zu proñueren.
Genere||e Lmpfeh|ungen
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 40
4.0 Auf der 8asls dleser SLudle slnd elnlge generelle aber auch spezlñsche Lmpfehlungen
enLsLanden. ulese bezlehen slch sowohl auf den europˆlschen 8aum als auch auf generelle
AnslchLen, um unLernehmen als elnen nlchL-Lechnologlschen AnLrelber fŒr lnnovauon zu sehen.
4.1 um dle kulLurellen und kreauven lndusLrlen noch besser elnschˆLzen zu k‹nnen, slnd welLere
uaLenerhebungen und AuswerLungen n‹ug, spezlell fŒr [ede elnzelne 8ranche.
4.2 CezlelLe unLersLŒLzung muss auf dle elnzelnen Llgenschaûen der kkl abgesummL werden,
spezlell auch auf lhre lndlvlduellen SLrukLuren. um kMu und Mlkro-kMu lnnerhalb der
Cloballslerungspolluk Luropa 2020 gezlelL f‹rdern zu k‹nnen, mŒssen dle Ma•nahmen dlrekL auf
dle kMu und Mlkro-kMu ausgelegL werden.
4.3 vorrelLerlˆnder, dle forLgeschrluene unLersLŒLzungsmechanlsmen fŒr dle kkl beslLzen und
sLarke lnnovauonsresulLaLe aufwelsen, zelgen, dass durch dle koordlnauon von verschledenen
MlnlsLerlen, welche fŒr dle AusarbelLungen der kkl unLersLŒLzungsma•nahmen zusLˆndlg slnd,
LaLsˆchllch dle anvlslerLen Zlele errelcheL werden.
4.4 unLersLŒLzungsma•nahmen slnd auf reglonaler, nauonaler und europˆlscher Lbene noLwendlg,
um dle spezlñschen 8edŒrfnlsse der kkl anzusprechen. uafŒr mŒssen alle polluschen
LnLscheldungsˆmLer dle kkl als elne neue WlrLschaûsform anerkennen und lhnen elnen gewlssen
Splelraum zugesLehen. nauonale ’mLer bllden dabel den rechLllchen 8ahmen, ln denen slch dle kkl
bewegen. SLeuerbefrelungen fŒr dle ÞrodukLe und ulensLe der kkl k‹nnen deren Þrodukuon und
den verLrleb f‹rdern und somlL das WachsLum Œber verschledene 8ranchen erm‹gllchen. ’hnllche
Ma•nahmen fŒr grenzŒberschrelLende lnluauven k‹nnen kŒnsLler f‹rdern. ua dle kkl dlrekLe
AnsprechparLner ben‹ugen, k‹nnen hlerbel dle Cemelnden/Lˆnder als vermluler zwlschen der kkl
und den nauonalen und europˆlschen LnLscheldungsLrˆgern helfen. Auch k‹nnen dlese reglonale
ClusLer und sekLorŒbergrelfende neLzwerke durch verneLzungspla“ormen unLersLŒLzen.
4.3 ule Lu sollLe lhre zukŒnûlgen unLersLŒLzungsprogramme wle das lÞ7, lÞ8, das
‰Compeuuveness and lnnovauon ÞrogrammŠ (ClÞ) sowle dle kohˆslonspolluk mehr auf dle kkl
ausrlchLen, lndem unLer anderem nlchuechnologlsche lnnovauonspro[ekLe mlLelnbezogen und
dadurch dle kulLurellen und kreauven kMu besser lnLegrlerL werden. Auch sollLe dlese dle
reglonalen und nauonalen AkuvlLˆLen unLersLŒLzen und dle verneLzung f‹rdern.
ímpfeblooqeo zot llooozletooq
4.6 Þrobleme mlL der llnanzlerung lsL eln wlederkehrendes Þroblem der kkl, spezlell bel den Mlkro-
kMus. ueswegen sollLen ln den unLerschledllchen LnLwlcklungsphasen llnanzmluel fŒr eln
unLernehmen berelLsLehen. PlerfŒr sollLen dle Lˆnder elngeseLzL werden, um unLersLŒLzungsgelder
unLer 8erŒckslchugung der 8edŒrfnlsse der kMu der kkl zu verLellen.
4.7 ule gro•en l‹rderprogramme, dle berelLs exlsueren, slnd zu komplex fŒr dle kkl: Auf
europˆlscher Lbene sollLen dlese wenlger komplex und demnach fŒr dle kMu lelchLer zugˆngllch
gemachL werden. ule exlsuerenden Þrogramme (lÞ7, ClÞ) sollLen dlrekL auf dle kMu der kkl
ausgelegL werden. uas MLulA Þrogramm erm‹gllchL unLersLŒLzungsopuonen lnnerhalb der
unLerschledllchen LnLwlcklungsphasen. ’hnllche M‹gllchkelLen sollLen fŒr welLere
LnLwlcklungsphasen, dle fŒr dle kkl enLscheldend slnd, berelLgesLellL werden.
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 41
4.8 Auf europˆlscher Lbene sollLen dle Ll8 und Lll Celder, dle ebenfalls lnnovauon f‹rdern, fŒr
nlchuechnologlsche lnnovauonen als lremdñnanzlerung oder 8lslkokaplLal berelLgesLellL werden.
ulese k‹nnLen auch dle LnLwlcklung auf nauonaler oder reglonaler Lbene garanueren. Lln vorrelLer
hlerfŒr wlrd dle garanuerLe l‹rderung von audlovlsueller ulglLallslerung fŒr das klno lnnerhalb des
MLul A Þrogramms sel n. l n Absprache ml L den Ml Lgl l edsl ˆndern sol l Le dl e Lu
MehrwerLssLeuersenkungen oder sLeuerllche vergŒnsugungen sowohl fŒr lnLenslve onllne als auch
o”lne ArbelLen der kreauven ulensLe und ÞrodukLe erm‹gllchen.
4.9 MlLglledssLaaLen sollLen SLeuervergŒnsugungen fŒr welLere 8erelche wle (‹ñenLllches)
8lslkokaplLal, ÞrlvaunvesLoren und klelne kredlLe fŒr dle kkl erm‹gllchen. Auch sollLen auf
nauonaler Lbene garanuerLe 8ankdarlehen berelLgesLellL werden. Luropˆlsche SLrukLurfonds
sollLen erm‹gllchen, dass reglonale unLersLŒLzung sowle neLzwerklnluauven und Þla“ormen fŒr
dle kkl ersLellL werden k‹nnen.
ímpfeblooqeo zom Motktelottlu
4.10 ule Lu sollLe den MarkLelnLrlu durch dle vergabe von ‹ñenLllche Auûragsverfahren akuv
unLersLŒLzen und somlL ungenuLzLes ÞoLenual zur l‹rderung von lnnovauon frelseLzen. •ñenLllch
Auûrˆge sollLen spezlell an lnnovauve und nlchuechnologlsche Þrozesse, ÞrodukLe und ulensLe an
dle kkl, spezlell dle Mlkro-kMu, vergeben werden.
4.11 ule ‰Lead MarkeL lnluauveŠ (LMl) wurde 2008 von der Lu lns Leben berufen, um neue
8edŒrfnlsse und neue MˆrkLe fŒr lnnovauve ÞrodukLe und ulensLe zu ermlueln. ules kann als
experlmenLelles ‰SplelfeldŠ fŒr lnnovaLoren angesehen werden. um gesellschaûllche 8edŒrfnlsse
anzusprechen, sollLe dle Lu dle LMl fŒr nlchuechnologlsche lnnovauonen und lnnovauve ulensLe
erwelLern, um neue M‹gllchkelLen verfŒgbar zu machen.
4.12 ule MarkL-LlnLrlusphase gesLalLeL slch fŒr dle kMu der kkl als schwlerlg, spezlell wenn dleser
von elnlgen wenlgen gro•en llrmen beherrschL wlrd. ule Lu sollLe lhre Weubewerbspolluk an dle
dle 8edŒrfnlsse der kkl anpassen, um elne zu hohe MarkLkonzenLrauon zu vermelden. ules soll
erm‹gllchen, dass dle kulLurellen AkLeure zumlndesL mlnlmalen Zugang zu allen verLrlebswegen, d.
h. auch dem onllne MarkL, beslLzen, um kulLurelle vlelfalL zu erm‹gllchen und den kunden elne
gr‹•ere Auswahlm‹gllchkelL zu bleLen.
4.13 ule kkl und spezlell deren Mlkro-kMu beslLzen kelne ausrelchenden lnformauonen Œber
MarkLm‹gllchkelLen weder auf reglonaler, noch auf grenzŒberschrelLender Lbene. ule 8eglonen
sollLen deswegen 8erelchs- und grenzŒbergrelfende Markm‹gllchkelLen Œber eln reglonales
neLzwerk verbrelLen. SomlL k‹nnen dle 8eglonen auch als elne AusLauschpla“orm fŒr bewˆhrLe
MeLhoden fungleren. Auch k‹nnLen 8eglonen wenlgsLens elnen mlnlmalen MarkLzugang
erm‹gllchen, lndem sle dle ÞrodukLe und ulensLe der kkl auf elner spezlellen Þla“orm
prˆsenueren und somlL auf reglonaler Lbene anprelsen.
ímpfeblooqeo, om Jle Ooollfkouooslocke lm ootetoebmetlscbeo 8etelcb zo scblleßeo
4.14 Ls glbL elnen grundsˆLzllchen Mangel an unLernehmerlschen lˆhlgkelLen ln allen 8erelchen
der kkl, welcher slch aus der fehlenden Llnblndung ln dle Ausblldung -spezlell bel kŒnsLlern-
erglbL. MlL elnem 8udgeL von t7 Mllllarden fŒr dle !ahre 2007 - 2013 lsL das Llfe Long Learnlng
Þrogramm elnes der PaupLprogramme der Lu fŒr Ausblldungs- und 1ralnlngspro[ekLe. ln dlesem
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 42
sollLe der SchwerpunkL auf dle LnLwlcklung und unLersLŒLzung von kreauven ÞrodukLen und
ulensLen, sowle dle kaufmˆnnlsche WelLerblldung fŒr den kreauven SekLor angeboLen werden.
4.13 Luropˆlsche Sozlalfonds k‹nnen das ArbelLsverhˆlLnls unLersLŒLzen ln dem z.8. kreauve
LehrsLellen angeboLen werden, dle den Žbergang von der Ausblldung ln dle ArbelLswelL erlelchLern
und somlL das Lernen am ArbelLsplaLz f‹rdern. lk1 ‚uallñzlerungen sollLen ln den Lehrplˆne bel
lnsuLuLen angeboLen werden, so dass das lnnovauve ÞoLenual der kkl gesLˆrkL wlrd und welLere
Chancen lm 8ahmen des dlglLalen Wandels er‹ñneL.
4.16 kkl slnd durch angewandLe lorschungsprozesse auch WlssensproduzenLen. uurch dle
ZusammenarbelL von WlssenslnsuLuuonen und lokalen kMu, kann das lnnovauve
LelsLungsverm‹gen elner 8eglon gesLˆrkL werden. lachhochschulen k‹nnen elne enLscheldende
8olle bel dem Zusammensplel von reglonalen AkuvlLˆLen mlL anderen europˆlschen 8eglonen
sowle ln der verneLzung von kkl splelen. uurch deren verneLzung wŒrden ebenfalls dle
professlonellen lˆhlgkelLen der reglonalen kMu erwelLerL werden.
4.17 um das lnnovauve ÞoLenual der kkl zu verbessern, sollLe man dle ueñnluon des 8egrlñes
lnnovauon ln den folgenden lnnovauons- und forschungspolluschen LnLscheldungen auf alle
lormen der lnnovauon, d.h. dle des ‹ñenLllchen und prlvaLen SekLors, der welchen und versLeckLen
lnnovauon, erwelLern und ueslgn Þrozesse sowle 1alenLsuchen der kkl mlLelnbezlehen.
4.18 ule Lu sollLe den Zugang zu lnsLrumenLen des urheberrechLs erlelchLern, da der dlglLale
Wandel neue Perausforderungen an das lÞ8 sLellL. kreauve L‹sungen, dle dle urheber auszelchnen
aber glelchzelug llexlblllLˆL und lelchLere Anwendung erm‹gllchen, sollLen auf europˆlscher Lbene
angesLrebL werden.
4.19 kkl mŒssen slch durch den dlglLalen Wandel den neuen M‹gllchkelLen und Perausforderungen
sLellen, wofŒr sle angemessene unLersLŒLzung ben‹ugen, um daraus vorLelle zlehen zu k‹nnen.
ueswegen sollLen spezlelle londs elngerlchLeL werden, dle dle kkl und gerade deren kMu lm
8erelch MedlenkompeLenz unLersLŒLzen und dle WelLerenLwlcklung dlglLalen Werkzeuge ln
unLernehmen erm‹gllchen.
4.20 Llne der wesenLllchen LrkennLnlsse der 8efragung lsL, dass kulLurelle und kreauve
unLernehmer ln elner lnnovauven und rlslkorelchen umgebung sLark von der verneLzung
abhˆngen. ules splegelL slch ln der nachfrage der kMu der kkl wleder, dle nach m‹gllchen
kooperauonsm‹gllchkelLen ln lorm von Crganlsauonen, unLersLŒLzung des unLernehmens oder
der Þrodukuon suchen. Llne unLernehmerlsche AkuvlLˆL erforderL ln dlesem Zusammenhang eln
gewlsses Ma• an llexlblllLˆL, 8lslkoberelLschaû und branchenŒbergrelfende ‚uallñkauonen, was
leLzLendllch ln elner lnnovauonsf‹rderung fŒr dle resLllche WlrLschaû resulueren kann. um dle kkl
zu unLersLŒLzen, mŒssen ZusammenarbelLs- und verneLzungsm‹gllchkelLen aufgebauL bzw.
erwelLerL werden.
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 43
contents
chapter one: |ntroducnon
1.1. Cvervlew, ob[ecuves and sLrucLure of Lhe sLudy 46
1.2. Approach and meLhodology 49
1.3. 1he Creauve Lconomy 30
chapter two: creanve entrepreneursh|p
2.1. ueñnlng enLrepreneurshlp ln Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 34
2.2. CharacLerlsucs of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 63
2.3. leaLures of Lhe CCl secLors 76
2.4. Cross counLry analysls of regulaLory frameworks 93
2.3. Supporung culLural and creauve enLrepreneurshlp 103
2.6. Concludlng remarks 108
chapter three: ma|n themanc outcomes
3.1 Access Lo ñnance 112
3.2. Access Lo markeL 123
3.3. lÞ8 lnsLrumenLs and CCl SMLs 133
3.4. LnLrepreneurshlp educauon, skllls and Lralnlng 139
3.3. Access Lo lnnovauon 133
3.6. ClusLers and collaborauon 163
3.7. Concludlng remarks 176
chapter four: recommendanons
4.1. 1ransversal recommendauons 178
4.2. Accesslng ñnance 179
4.3. Accesslng Lhe markeL 180
4.4. 8rldglng Lhe enLrepreneurlal skllls gap 181
4.3. ueveloplng enLrepreneurshlp as non-Lechnologlcal drlver of lnnovauon 182
4.6. Supporung use of dlglLallsauon 183
best cases
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 44
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 43
chapLer one: lnLroducuon
chapLer one: lnLroducuon
1.1. Cverv|ew, ob[ecnves and structure of the study
Lurope ls wldely recognlsed as havlng a rlch dlverslLy ln lLs culLural herlLage and culLural
expresslons. Powever, ln recenL years Lurope has been confronLed wlLh several macro-economlc
challenges, such as Lhe ñnanclal crlsls and a sLronger global compeuuon, as well as lnLernal soclo-
economlc challenges. 1he Lurope 2020 SLraLegy hlghllghLed Lhe need for our conunenL Lo Lake an
lnnovauve paLh Lo respond Lo Lhese challenges by bulldlng upon one of Lurope's key sLrengLhs, lLs
LalenLed and dlverse creauve populauon:
1

´5mott qtowtb meoos stteoqtbeoloq koowleJqe ooJ looovouoo os Jtlvets of oot
fotote qtowtb. 1bls tepoltes lmptovloq tbe poollty of oot eJocouoo, stteoqtbeoloq
oot teseotcb petfotmooce, ptomouoq looovouoo ooJ koowleJqe ttoosfet
tbtooqboot tbe uoloo, mokloq foll ose of lofotmouoo ooJ commoolcouoo
tecbooloqles ooJ eosotloq tbot looovouve lJeos coo be totoeJ loto oew ptoJocts
ooJ setvlces tbot cteote qtowtb, poollty jobs ooJ belp oJJtess íotopeoo ooJ
qlobol socletol cbolleoqes. 8ot, to socceeJ, tbls most be combloeJ wltb
eottepteoeotsblp, foooce, ooJ o focos oo oset oeeJs ooJ motket oppottoolues´.
2
1he lmpacL of culLure and creauvlLy or 'culLure-based creauvlLy'
3
has auracLed much auenuon ln
fosLerlng and unlocklng Lhe poLenual of a Luropean 'creauve economy'. 1he lncreaslng focus on
Lhe culLural and Lhe creauve secLor has resulLed ln many sLudles, such as Lhe un 8eporL on Creauve
Lconomy ln 2008, whlch was collecuvely publlshed by ñve lnLernauonal organlsauons (unC1Au,
unuÞ, unLSCC, WlÞC and l1C):
´1be lotetfoce omooq cteouvlty, coltote, ecooomlcs ooJ tecbooloqy, os exptesseJ
lo tbe oblllty to cteote ooJ cltcolote lotellectool copltol, bos tbe poteouol to
qeoetote locome, jobs ooJ expott eotoloqs wblle ot tbe some ume ptomouoq
soclol loclosloo, coltotol Jlvetslty ooJ bomoo Jevelopmeot. 1bls ls wbot tbe
emetqloq cteouve ecooomy bos olteoJy beqoo to Jo os o leoJloq compooeot of
ecooomlc qtowtb, employmeot, ttoJe, looovouoo ooJ soclol cobesloo lo most
oJvooceJ ecooomles´.
4
ln recenL years, Lhe Lu Councll also followed Lhe move Lo recognlse Lhe poLenual of Lhe culLural
and creauve lndusLrles ln conLrlbuung Lo Lhe Llsbon ob[ecuves,
3
acung as caLalysers of Lurope's
lnnovauve poLenual. Slmllarly, ln Lhe MaasLrlchL 1reaLy (Lhe Lu Llsbon process for sLrengLhenlng Lhe
economlc growLh ln Lurope), as well as ln Lhe unLSCC Convenuon on Lhe ÞroLecuon and
Þromouon of Lhe ulverslLy of CulLural Lxpresslons (hereaûer named unLSCC Convenuon),
6
Lhe role
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 46
1
LC Communlcauon, (March 2010b), Lurope 2020: A SLraLegy for SmarL, SusLalnable and lncluslve CrowLh, CCM (2010) 2020, p. 7.
2
lbld., p. 10.
3
kLA, (2009), 1he lmpacL of culLure on creauvlLy, kLA Luropean Añalrs: 8russels
4
unC1Au, (2008), 1he Creauve Lconomy, unC1Au/ul1C/2008/2 , p. lll
3 Lu Councll Concluslons, (2007), ConLrlbuuon of Lhe CulLural and Creauve SecLors Lo Lhe AchlevemenL of Lhe Llsbon Cb[ecuves -
Adopuon of Lhe Councll concluslons, 9021/07, uCl-2A, uoc 8633/2/07 CuL1 23 8Lv 2
6
1he Luropean CommunlLy ls parLy Lo Lhls Convenuon.
of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles has galned greaLer auenuon.
7
ln parallel, several Luropean
lnluauves have been underLaken Lo promoLe Lhe ldea of Lhe creauve economy, for example, 2009
was deslgnaLed Lhe Luropean •ear of CreauvlLy and lnnovauon and Lhe recenL Creen Þaper on
'unlocklng Lhe poLenual of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles' (hereaûer referred Lo as Lhe CCls)
solldlñed Lhls recognluon.
8
1he abundance of sLudles on Lhe CCls, such as Lhose underLaken by kLA,
9
nLS1A,
10
Lhe Luropean
ClusLer CbservaLory, Lhe work on 'ueslgn as a drlver of user-cenLred lnnovauon',
11
Lhe reporLs
produced recenLly by Lhe Luropean Þlauorm, and Lhe LxperL Worklng Croup on CCls
12
(seL up as
parL of Lhe Luropean Agenda for CulLure), have hlghllghLed Lhe crlucal lmpacL of CCls on growLh
and employmenL,
13
and acknowledged Lhelr greaL economlc, soclal, culLural and lnnovauve
poLenual. CCl acuvlues acL as lmporLanL drlvers of 'economlc and soclal lnnovauon' wlLhln Lhe
secLor buL also ouLslde Lhe CCl secLor,
14
conLrlbuung Lo Lurope's sLrengLhs ln umes of challenges
and, as such, are ln llne wlLh Lhe Lu 2020 SLraLegy. WlLh lmaglnauve soluuons such as Lhe
lnLegrauon of user-cenLred approaches, Lhe developmenL and use of lC1, Lhe deslgn of new servlces
for lncreased soclal lncluslon, CCls conLrlbuLe Lo drlve dynamlc change ln Lhe economy as well as
conLrlbuung Lo broader culLural dlverslLy.
WlLh new processes, producLs and servlces, CCls may provlde lnnovauve lnpuL for oLher secLors of
Lhe economy.
13
As lnnovauon ls now acknowledged as encompasslng more Lhan [usL Lechnologlcal
and sclenuñc changes,
16
Lhe CCls oñer Lhe opporLunlLy Lo brlng essenual change ln non-
Lechnologlcal lnnovauon for producLs, servlces and processes, conLrlbuung Lo a more lnvenuve
Lurope. LxLernal facLors such as globallsauon and Lhe 'dlglLal shlû' have opened opporLunlues and
enabled greaLer culLural dlverslLy and are drlvers of furLher developmenL for Lhe CCls.
17
Addluonal
facLors have Lo be Laken lnLo conslderauon Lo examlne conduclve envlronmenLs for unlocklng Lhe
enLrepreneurlal dlmenslon of CCls. losLerlng enLrepreneurshlp ln Lhe CCls means sLrengLhenlng
Lurope's culLural and creauve dlverslLy by relnforclng Lhe ablllLy of culLural and creauve
enLrepreneurs Lo emclenLly carry ouL Lhelr acuvlues and propose new producLs and servlces, and
Lhls can acL as a ooo-tecbooloqlcol Jtlvet of looovouoo.
1hls sLudy responds Lo Lhe growlng lmporLance of Lhe creauve economy and more speclñcally Lo
Lhe role of Lhe CCls as a means Lo Lackle fuLure challenges ln Lhe conLexL of a globallsed economy.
18

Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 47
7
lesel 8., S‹ndermann, M., (2007), CulLure and Creauve lndusLrles ln Cermany, unLSCC 8onn
8
LC Creen Þaper, (Aprll 2010), unlocklng Lhe ÞoLenual of CulLural and Creauve lndusLrles, CCM (2010) 183
9
kLA (2006), 1he Lconomy of CulLure ln Lurope, 8russels: kLA Luropean Añalrs, kLA, (2009), 1he lmpacL of CulLure on CreauvlLy,
8russels: kLA Luropean Añalrs
10
See hup://www.nesLa.org.uk/publlcauons
11
LC SLañ Worklng uocumenL, (2009a), ueslgn as a drlver of user-cenLred lnnovauon, SLC (2009) 301
12
íotopeoo lloqotm oo tbe loteouol of tbe coltotol ooJ cteouve loJosttles and Lhe Opeo MetboJ of cootJloouoo íxpett wotkloq
Ctoop oo Moxlmlsloq tbe loteouol of coltotol ooJ cteouve loJosttles, ln parucular LhaL of SMLs. 8eporLs avallable aL hup://
ec.europa.eu/culLure/our-pollcy-developmenL/doc2240_en.hLm.
13
Luropean ClusLer CbservaLory, (March 2010), ÞrlorlLy SecLor 8eporL: CulLural and Creauve lndusLrles, SLockholm: Luropean ClusLer
CbservaLory, p. 13.
14
LC Creen Þaper, (Aprll 2010), op. clL., p. 3.
13
LCCL lnnovauon, (!uly 2009), Mapplng lnnovauon CpporLunlues SLemmlng lrom Collaborauon beLween Creauve lndusLrles and
CLher lndusLrles, SLuugarL: LCCL lnnovauon, p.11.
16
LC Communlcauon •Lurope 2020 llagshlp lnluauve lnnovauon unlon•, (CcLober 2010), CCM (2010) 346 ñnal
17
LC Creen Þaper, (Aprll 2010), op. clL., p. 3.
18
LC Communlcauon, (March 2010b), op. clL., p. 2.
1he focus on knowledge-lnLenslve producLs and servlces and Lhe need Lo creaLe a level playlng ñeld
for enLrepreneurs ln CCls was puL forward ln Lhe recenL Creen Þaper Lhrough a focus on creauvlLy
and lnnovauon.
19
1he sLudy alms Lo provlde a beuer undersLandlng of Lhe operauons and speclñc needs of Lhe CCls,
especlally small and medlum-slzed enLerprlses (hereaûer referred Lo as SMLs). lL wlll hlghllghL Lhe
Lransversal problems common Lo all Lhese culLural and creauve lndusLrles, and lndlcaLe speclñc
challenges LhaL could hamper lnnovauon and prevenL CCls from beneñung from Lhe lnLernal
markeL and new Lechnologles. 1hls reporL provldes an overvlew of Lhe maln characLerlsucs of Lhe
CCls and conslders nauonal envlronmenLal facLors LhaL lnßuence Lhe developmenL of Lhese
enLerprlses. Aûer Lhls overvlew, Lhe sLudy surveys Lhe key deLermlnanLs Lo sLrengLhenlng
enLrepreneurshlp for CCls such as access Lo ñnance, access Lo markeL, lnLellecLual properLy rlghLs,
educauon and Lralnlng, access Lo lnnovauon, and collaborauve processes.
uerlvlng from Lhese key challenges, Lhe sLudy suggesLs general approaches for developlng a
conduclve envlronmenL for CCls as well as speclñc recommendauons Lo provlde supporL for each
deLermlnanL, hlghllghung besL pracuces and Laklng lnLo conslderauon secLor dlñerences, Lhe
dlñerenL levels of auLhorlLy, and Lhe dlñerenL llfecycle developmenL phases ln whlch Lhe CCls ñnd
Lhemselves.
ChapLer 2 provldes some undersLandlng of Lhe common feaLures of all secLors of Lhe CCls and Lhe
dlñerences ln speclñc secLors, as well as descrlblng Lhe general envlronmenL ln whlch Lhey operaLe.
lL ñrsLly deñnes Lhe concepL of culLural and creauve enLrepreneurshlp as a dlsuncL feaLure from Lhe
general ldea of enLrepreneurshlp. 1hls bullds upon Lhe dlscusslon of Lhe common characLerlsucs
and problems of CCls compared Lo oLher lndusLrlal secLors. ln order Lo address Lhe common lssues,
Lhe deLermlnanLs of enLrepreneurshlp are consldered. Moreover, as CCls do noL operaLe ln a
vacuum, Lhe sLudy provldes an overvlew of Lhe clusLers of counLrles accordlng Lo Lhe general
regulaLory framework LhaL shapes Lhe conLexL ln whlch Lhe CCls operaLe. ln order Lo dlscuss
supporL for developlng enLrepreneurshlp ln Lhe CCls, a framework of analysls based on Lhe
enLrepreneurlal llfecycle was developed Lo examlne Lhe dlñerenL layers of supporL oñered by local,
reglonal, nauonal and Luropean auLhorlues.
ChapLer 3 looks aL Lhe slx core facLors for deLermlnlng enLrepreneurshlp ln Lhe CCls, namely, access
Lo ñnance, access Lo markeL, lnLellecLual properLy rlghLs (lÞ8), educauon and Lralnlng, access Lo
lnnovauon, and collaborauon, neLworks and clusLers. Speclñc auenuon ls glven Lo Lhe eñecL of
dlglLal convergence and lLs lnßuence on lnnovauon and Lhe CCls.
1he sLudy alms Lo provlde a package of recommendauons Lo Lake lnLo conslderauon when looklng
aL Lhe complex requlremenLs of CCls, wlLh a focus on mlcro-SMLs. 1hls ls noL lnLended Lo be a
comprehenslve overvlew buL raLher Lo oñer a snapshoL of Lhe currenL slLuauon, Lo shed some llghL
on Lhe area of creauve enLrepreneurshlp LhaL remalns relauvely unexplored, and ln ChapLer 4 Lo
provlde some pollcy suggesuons.
1hroughouL Lhls reporL, around 40 8esL Cases lllusLraLe key approaches and lnluauves. Slmllarly,
anonymlsed commenLs from Lhe many experLs lnLervlewed durlng Lhe sLudy are presenLed where
approprlaLe. A blbllography of sources can be found aL Lhe end of Lhe reporL.
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 48
19
LC Creen Þaper, (Aprll 2010), op. clL., p. 3.
1.2. Approach and methodo|ogy
1he general approach of Lhls sLudy has been Lo apply a blend of meLhods, llnklng secondary source
analysls wlLh prlmary quallLauve and quanuLauve ñeldwork. ulñerenL meLhods of daLa collecuon
have been used: blbllographlcal research, comprehenslve pollcy scans, quanuLauve sLausucal
analyses of CCls, experL onllne quesuonnalres, experL lnLervlews, onllne surveys, case sLudles and
valldauon semlnars.
ln Lerms of Lhe sLausucal analysls of Lhe CCl characLerlsucs, Lhe daLabase upon whlch our analyses
were conducLed ls based on daLa from nauonal Chambers of Commerce ln Lhe Lu-27 for 2007.
SLausucs for 2008 were noL avallable aL Lhe ume of Lhe sLausucal analyses ln 2009. 1he whole
daLabase of Lhe Luropean unlon conLalns 13 mllllon reglsLered companles ln Lurope. lrom Lhls,
companles reglsLered as acuve and resldlng ln one Lu counLry and under Lhe real economy (noL
ñnanclal) were selecLed, whlch leû a daLabase of 7.117.339 enLerprlses. lrom Lhls companles for
whlch Lhe prlmary acuvlLy (prlmary code) ls one of Lhe nACL codes appolnLed for Lhe CCls were
approached. 1he nACL code based on Lhe classlñcauon from Lhe kLA sLudy ln 2006
20
was used buL
wlLh some ad[usLmenLs.
ln Lhe ñrsL phase (durlng CcLober and november 2009), one onllne quesuonnalre LargeLed Lhe
secLoral assoclauons as well as experLs from academla, culLural organlsauons and research
lnsuLuLes. 1hls onllne experL quesuonnalre (referred Lo as experL quesuonnalre) gaLhered
responses from approxlmaLely 70 LxperLs from Lhe dlñerenL counLrles of Lhe Lu.
21

ln Lhe second phase, anoLher onllne quesuonnalre (referred Lo as onllne survey) was conducLed
and was open from mld-lebruary unul mld-Aprll 2010. 1hls quesuonnalre LargeLed CCls
Lhemselves. 670 respondenLs parually compleLed Lhe quesuonnalre and 310 fully compleLed Lhe
quesuonnalre.


ln order Lo recelve more exLenslve oplnlons on speclñc Lhemes, experL oplnlons were also gaLhered
Lhrough seml-sLrucLured lnLervlews (referred Lo as experL lnLervlews) wlLh respondenLs comlng
mosLly from MlnlsLrles of CulLure and llnance, as well as secLoral experLs from many dlñerenL
counLrles and reglons. 1hese experL lnLervlews Look place durlng Lhe second phase (lebruary and
March 2010) Lo galn a deeper undersLandlng of Lhe lssues and several anonymlsed quoLes are used
LhroughouL Lhls documenL. 1hese quoLes are referenced accordlng Lo Lhe Lype of organlsauon of
Lhe lnLervlewee as well as Lhe counLry clusLerlng ln whlch Lhe organlsauon operaLes.
1wo valldauon workshops Look place durlng Lhe research process. 1he ñrsL was held aL Lhe end of
Lhe ñrsL phase of Lhe research (!anuary 2010), aûer gaLherlng Lhe CCl sLausucal characLerlsucs and
examlnlng Lhe envlronmenLal facLors. 1he second was held aûer Lhe overall ñeld research was
compleLed (March 2010) ln order Lo recelve feedback from Lhe sLakeholders on Lhe lnlual
recommendauons. Þarallel Lo Lhe experL lnLervlews, LhroughouL Lhe sLudy conLexLual pollcy scans
of nauonal and Luropean reporLs and llLeraLure were underLaken.
ln Lerms of scope, Lhe performlng and vlsual arLs were lncluded as parL of Lhe CCls ln Lhls sLudy.
AlLhough lncluslon of Lhese Lwo secLors wlLhln Lhe CCls varles from counLry Lo counLry and Lhey are
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 49
20
kLA, (2006), op. clL., p. 36, p. 64, p. 308.
21
ln Lhls reporL, we have lncluded boLh ñgures from Lhe onllne experL quesuonnalre (secLoral and dlverse experLs) and Lhe onllne
survey (CCls). 1he ñgures referrlng Lo Lhe former are sourced as ŠLuroklels 2009–, whlle Lhe ñgures fromLhe onllne survey resulLs are
sourced as ŠLuroklels 2010–.
oûen regarded as parL of Lhe core arLs secLor buL noL Lhe creauve lndusLrles,
22
Lhls sLudy
lncorporaLes Lhe performlng and vlsual arLs, as Lhey were lncluded wlLhln Lhe scope of Lhe recenL
Creen Þaper.
23
1.3. 1he Creanve Lconomy
Cloballsauon processes, fasLer communlcauon channels, rapldly changlng Lechnologles and global
connecuvlLy have radlcally changed our envlronmenL and Lhe way we produce and consume
culLural producLs and servlces.
24
1hls convergence beLween Lechnologlcal, soclal, economlc and
culLural aspecLs has forged changes LhaL añecL our dally envlronmenL. CreauvlLy ls now
acknowledged as fosLerlng culLural, soclal as well as economlc galns.
23
ln Lhls conLexL, Lhe concepL
of Lhe 'creauve economy' ls now broadly accepLed and undersLood. 1he lnlual embryonlc sLage of
Lranslaung Lhe underlylng concepLs lnLo hlgh-level pollcy ls now almosL compleLe.
ulñerenL models exlsL Lo explaln Lhe creauve economy,
26
buL mosL are based upon Lhe recognluon
of Lhe lmporLance of servlces and Lhe dynamlc eñecLs of Lhe CCls. Lach model has a parucular
rauonale, dependlng on underlylng assumpuons abouL Lhe purpose and mode of operauon of Lhe
CCls. Þerhaps Lhe ñrsL usage of Lhe Lerm 'creauve lndusLrles' can be found ln Lhe uk's ueparLmenL
of CulLure, Medla and SporL (uCMS), whlch began developlng lLs culLural and creauve lndusLrles
sLraLegy as far back as 1997. ln Lhe uk approach, Lhe creauve lndusLrles are Lhose requlrlng
´...cteouvlty ooJ toleot, wltb poteouol fot weoltb ooJ job cteouoo tbtooqb exploltouoo of tbelt
lotellectool ptopetty.´
27

1he reporL 'Creauve Lconomy', publlshed ln 2008 by unC1Au, unLSCC, Lhe World lnLellecLual
ÞroperLy Crganlsauon (WlÞC), Lhe unlLed nauons uevelopmenL Þrogramme (unuÞ) and Lhe
lnLernauonal 1rade CenLre (l1C), was also a cornersLone ln enLrenchlng Lhe concepL.
28
ln Lhls reporL,
four dlñerenL models for Lhe creauve economy were consldered, hlghllghung dlñerenL classlñcauon
sysLems.
unC1Au makes a dlsuncuon beLween 'upsLream acuvlues' (Lradluonal culLural acuvlues such as
performlng arLs or vlsual arLs) and 'downsLream acuvlues' (Lhose closer Lo Lhe markeL, such as
adveruslng, publlshlng or medla relaLed acuvlues) and argues LhaL Lhe second group derlves lLs
commerclal value from low reproducuon cosLs and easy Lransfer Lo oLher economlc domalns. CLher
approaches have deñned Lhe CCls ln many ways, lncludlng Lhe 'core' arLs or even cullnary arLs, as
parL of Lhe creauve or experlence economy.
29
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 30
22
Some of Lhe deñnluons, such as Lhe one from Lhe ueparLmenL of CulLure, Medla and SporL ln Lhe uk, lncluded performlng arLs
wlLhln Lhe core arLs or culLural organlsauon, buL noL as parL of Lhe creauve lndusLrles.
23
LC Creen Þaper, (Aprll 2010), op. clL., p. 3.
24
unC1Au, (2008), 1he Creauve Lconomy, unC1Au/ul1C/2008/2 , p. lll
23
kLA, (2009), op. clL., p. 33. p. 44.
26
See Lhe WlÞC model, Lhe uk Classlñcauon, Lhe Šcooceottlc cltcles moJel– and Lhe dlñerenL nauonal approaches Lo Lackle Lhe
Creauve Lconomy, such as, SanLagaLa,W. , (2009), WhlLe paper on CreauvlLy : 1owards an lLallan model of developmenL, Mllan:
8occonl unlverslLy Ld, uCMS (2008), Creauve 8rlLaln- new 1alenLs for Lhe new Lconomy, London: uCMS, neLherlands MlnlsLry of
CulLure and MlnlsLry of Lconomlcs (2009), Creauve value- CulLure and Lconomy Þollcy Þaper, 1he Pague: neLherlands MlnlsLry of
CulLure and MlnlsLry of Lconomlcs
27
uCMS, (2001), Creauve lndusLrles Mapplng uocumenL 2001 (2 ed.), London: ueparLmenL of CulLure, Medla and SporL
28
unC1Au, (2008), op. clL., pp. 12-13.
29
SanLagaLa, W. , (2009), op. clL., p. 30.
1he sLudy '1he Lconomy of CulLure ln Lurope', commlssloned by Lhe Luropean Commlsslon ln 2006,
was Lhe sLarung polnL for a pollucal revaluauon of Lhe CCls ln Lurope and lLs member sLaLes.
30
lL
makes a dlsuncuon beLween 'culLure' and 'economy'' and argues LhaL alLhough Lhe Lu was formed
on Lhe basls of economlc and markeL forces, culLure and Luropean culLural dlverslLy ls an lmporLanL
facLor for Lhe Lu's pollucal, economlc and soclal sLrengLh. lL makes a dlsuncuon beLween Lhe
culLural secLor, subdlvlded lnLo an lndusLrlal and non-lndusLrlal secLor, and Lhe creauve secLor.
noLwlLhsLandlng Lhe dlverslLy of Lhese models of Lhe creauve economy, lL ls remarkable LhaL Lhe
varlous deñnluons lead Lo broadly Lhe same collecuon of lndusLrles maklng up Lhe creauve secLor.
ln Lhls sLudy, 'CulLural lndusLrles' are deñned as Lhose lndusLrles produclng and dlsLrlbuung goods
or servlces whlch aL Lhe ume Lhey are developed are consldered as a speclñc aurlbuLe, use or
purpose, whlch embody or convey culLural expresslons, lrrespecuve of Lhe commerclal value Lhey
may have.
31
1hese lnclude Lhe core arLs such as performlng arLs, vlsual arLs, as well as ñlm, uvu
and vldeo, 1v and radlo, games, new medla, muslc, books and press. 'Creauve lndusLrles' are Lhose
lndusLrles whlch use culLure as an lnpuL buL whose ouLpuLs are malnly funcuonal. 1hls classlñcauon
lncludes deslgn, fashlon, adveruslng and archlLecLure.
1he CCls have developed conslderably over Lhe pasL years, conLrlbuung Lo around 2.6° of Lhe Lu
CuÞ ln 2008 and creaung subsLanual employmenL. Moreover, CCls malnLaln and develop Lurope's
culLural dlverslLy, whlch ls also lmporLanL ln Lerms of soclal lncluslon. Looklng aL Lhe place of CCls ln
Member SLaLes' nauonal pollcles, Lhey play an ever-lncreaslng role ln Lerms of provldlng conLenL as
well as servlces and lnnovauve splllovers.
32
1he use of Lhls creauvlLy Lo fosLer ´...cteouve, eottepteoeotlol ooJ lotetcoltotol skllls tbot wlll belp
beuet tespooJ to oew ecooomlc ooJ soclol cbolleoqes´
33
requlres us Lo reach a deeper
undersLandlng of Lhe complexlLy of CCls and Lhe way Lhey are lnßuenced and alLered by Lhelr
envlronmenL. lor Lhese reasons, Lhls sLudy seeks Lo provlde a clear plcLure of Lhe maln
characLerlsucs of CCls and Lhe prlnclpal requlremenLs for supporung enLrepreneurshlp.
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 31
30 kLA, (2006), op. clL., p. 33.
31
LC Creen Þaper, (Aprll 2010), op. clL., p. 3.
32
8y way of lllusLrauon, Lhe role of CCls ls clearly recognlsed ln nauonal pollcles ln Lhe uk, neLherlands, uenmark, Sweden, llnland,
lrance and Cermany buL also ln lLaly, ÞorLugal, LlLhuanla, Czech 8epubllc, 8ulgarla, LsLonla and lreland.
33
LC Creen Þaper, (Aprll 2010), op. clL., p. 18.
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 32
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 33
chapLer Lwo: creauve enLrpreneurshlp
chapLer Lwo: creauve enLrepreneurshlp
ln Lhls chapLer Lhe dlmenslons of enLrepreneurshlp ln Lhe CCls are consldered. 1o Lhls end, lL ls
necessary Lo brleßy dlscuss Lhe concepL of enLrepreneurshlp, lLs deLermlnanLs and Lhe necesslLy for
a speclñc Lerm such as 'culLural and creauve enLrepreneurshlp'. 1hls lnvolves examlnlng Lhe
characLerlsucs of Lhe CCls ln general and Lhereaûer Lhe speclñc feaLures of CCl secLors. ln addluon,
Lhe way ln whlch envlronmenLal facLors lnßuence creauve enLrepreneurshlp and deLermlnanLs of
enLrepreneurshlp ls consldered. 8earlng ln mlnd Lhe challenglng conLexL of Lhe CCls, Lhe general
enLrepreneurlal llfecycle framework used for Lhls sLudy ls descrlbed for analyucal purposes.
2.1. Dehn|ng entrepreneursh|p |n the cu|tura| and creanve |ndustr|es
´íottepteoeotsblp lo tbese sectots meoos to bove cteouve lJeos ooJ to potsoe
tbem lo o commetclol woy, wltb tbe potpose to moke o ptoft. nowevet, tbe ptoft
olooe ls oot tbe Jtlvet, lt ls tbe cteouvlty ooJ tbe posslblllty to bollJ sometbloq,
tbe self-folflmeot ot beloq oble to potsoe yoot owo cteouve lotetests. 1bete ls o
mlx betweeo tbe eottepteoeotlol slJe ooJ tbe cteouve slJe´.
(SecLoral Crganlsauon, SLrucLurally SLrong 1radluonal Lconomy)
AlLhough Lhere ls a no general agreemenL on how Lo deñne enLrepreneurshlp, wheLher as rlsk-
bearlng, enLerprlse creauon or sumulauon of lnnovauon, Lhere ls even less agreemenL on how Lhls
can be deñned wlLhln Lhe culLural and creauve secLor.
3433
Powever, glven Lhe sLrong economlc
conLrlbuuon made by Lhe CCl secLor Lo CuÞ ln Member SLaLes,
36
deñnlng Lhe enLrepreneurlal
dlmenslon of Lhls secLor ls clearly lmporLanL. 1hls ls needed ln order Lo conslder how besL Lhese
aspecLs can be supporLed and Lo examlne Lhe varlous facLors bearlng upon Lhe culLural and creauve
enLrepreneur.
WlLh Lhe complex changes LhaL Lhe Lu ls experlenclng as a resulL of Lhe ongolng economlc crlsls
and Lhe dlglLal shlû and lLs consequences for emerglng lnnovauon pollcles, Lhere ls a need Lo
examlne how culLural and creauve enLrepreneurshlp can beuer be deslgned Lo supporL more
creauve Luropean lnnovauon and conLrlbuLe Lo Lurope's fuLure growLh.
37

2.1.1. Creanv|ty and entrepreneursh|p
1he concepL of 'culLural enLrepreneurshlp' has galned recognluon durlng Lhe lasL decade.
38

ulñerenL models have been puL forward as a means of provldlng a sysLemauc undersLandlng of Lhe
sLrucLural characLerlsucs of Lhe CCls and ln so dolng Lrylng Lo form a common deñnluon of culLural
and creauve enLrepreneurshlp. 1hls ls a dlmculL Lask as lL comblnes Lerms LhaL are seemlngly
dlvergenL and poses Lhe challenge of crosslng culLural and economlc dlscourse Lo deñne a dlsuncL
Lerm by Laklng componenLs from boLh worlds and undersLandlng Lhe speclñc supporL LhaL Lhls
enLalls.
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 34
34
PagoorL, C., (2007), CulLural LnLrepreneurshlp. Cn Lhe lreedom Lo CreaLe ArL and Lhe lreedom of LnLerprlse, lnaugural LecLure
!une 6, uLrechL 2007
33
kooyman, 8., (ed), (2009), Þrellmlnary LlLeraLure 8evlew, Pku
36
uk 1echnology SLraLegy 8oard, (2009), op. clL., p. 12.
37
LC Communlcauon, (March 2010b), op. clL., p. 9-10.
38
klamer, A., (2006), CulLural LnLrepreneurshlp, 8ouerdam: Lrasmus unlverslLy, Academla vlLae
Lven Lhough Lhe lmage of arusLs creaung solely for 'arL's sake' ls changlng, Lhere ls sull a sLrong
dlvlde beLween culLural and creauve aspecLs on one slde and Lhe enLrepreneurlal aspecLs on Lhe
oLher. 1he mouvauons of Lhe culLural and creauve enLrepreneur wlll llkely dlñer accordlng Lo Lhe
lndlvldual and Lo Lhe CCl secLor ln whlch Lhey are operaung. 1he Lenslon beLween Lhe creaLor of a
culLural work and Lhe enLrepreneur, Lyplcal of many CCl enLerprlses, ls oûen reßecLed ln Lhe deslre
Lo prlorluse Lhe culLural value of Lhe creauon wlLh llule mouvauon for generaung economlc value
(creauon-orlenLed), whlle Lhe enLrepreneur wlll prlorluse Lhe economlc explolLauon over lLs
culLural value (growLh-orlenLed). 1hese Lenslons suggesL LhaL dlñerenL klnds of supporL need Lo be
elaboraLed dependlng on Lhe naLure of Lhe organlsauon and Lhe sub-secLor ln whlch Lhey operaLe.
2.1.2. Lntrepreneursh|p
ln common parlance, belng an enLrepreneur ls assoclaLed wlLh sLarung a buslness, buL Lhls ls a very
loose appllcauon of a Lerm LhaL has a rlch hlsLory and a much more slgnlñcanL meanlng. 1he Lerm
'eottepteoeot´ orlglnaLed ln lrench economlcs as early as Lhe 17Lh cenLury Lo mean someone who
'underLakes' a slgnlñcanL pro[ecL or acuvlLy. More speclñcally, lL came Lo be used Lo ldenufy Lhe
venLures of some lndlvlduals who sumulaLed economlc progress by ñndlng new and beuer ways of
dolng Lhlngs. 1he lrench economlsL mosL commonly credlLed wlLh glvlng Lhe Lerm Lhls parucular
meanlng ls !ean-8apusLe Say. Wrlung around Lhe Lurn of Lhe 19Lh cenLury, Say puL lL Lhls way, Š1be
eottepteoeot sblfs ecooomlc tesootces oot of oo oteo of lowet ooJ loto oo oteo of blqbet
ptoJocuvlty ooJ qteotet ylelJ–.
39
ln oLher words, enLrepreneurs creaLe value.
ln Lhe 20Lh cenLury, Lhe economlsL mosL closely assoclaLed wlLh Lhe Lerm was !oseph SchumpeLer.
40

Pe descrlbed enLrepreneurs as Lhe lnnovaLors who drlve Lhe 'creauve-desLrucuve' process of
economlc socleues. ln hls words, Š1be foocuoo of eottepteoeots ls to tefotm ot tevolouoolse tbe
poueto of ptoJocuoo´. 1hey can do Lhls ln many ways:
´...by exploluoq oo loveouoo ot, mote qeoetolly, oo oottleJ tecbooloqlcol posslblllty
fot ptoJocloq o oew commoJlty ot ptoJocloq oo olJ ooe lo o oew woy, by opeoloq
op o oew sootce of sopply of motetlols ot o oew ootlet fot ptoJocts, by
teotqoolsloq oo loJostty ooJ so oo´.
SchumpeLer's enLrepreneurs are Lhe change agenLs ln Lhe economy. 8y servlng new markeLs or
creaung new ways of dolng Lhlngs by creauvely lnnovaung, Lhey creaLe value and move Lhe
economy forward. LnLrepreneurshlp ls lncreaslngly recognlsed as an lmporLanL drlver of economlc
growLh, producuvlLy, lnnovauon and employmenL, and lL ls wldely accepLed as a key aspecL of
economlc dynamlsm: Lhe blrLh and deaLh of ñrms and Lhelr growLh or downslzlng.
Accordlng Lo SchumpeLer, a number of facLors embody enLrepreneurlal behavlour:

ueveloplng new and lnnovauve producLs

Þroposlng new forms of organlsauon

Lxplorlng new markeLs

lnLroduclng new producuon meLhods

Searchlng for new sources of supplles and maLerlals
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 33
39
Say, !- 8., (1803), 1ralLe d'economle polluque, ou slmple exposluon de la manlere donL se formenL, se dlsLrlbuenL, eL se composenL
les rlchesses, Þarls
40
SchumpeLer, !.A. (1973). CaplLallsm, Soclallsm, and uemocracy, new •ork: Parper
Seen from an occupauonal perspecuve, culLural and creauve enLrepreneurs own and manage Lhelr
buslness enLerprlse llke a 'general' enLrepreneur. 1hey can be caLegorlsed as 'buslness owners',
Lhey creaLe value. ln essence, Lhe creauve enLrepreneur ls a creaLor of economlcal value.
41
1hey share wlLh Lhe general enLrepreneur Lhe wllllngness Lo assume rlsks ln Lhe face of uncerLalnLy.
lor example, rlsks such as a posslble loss of buslness caplLal or personal ñnanclal securlLy, or rlsks
assoclaLed wlLh Lhe uncerLaln ouLcome of an enLrepreneurlal underLaklng.
42

1hey also share Lhe alerLness of opporLunlLy, Lhe focus on Lhe deLecuon of enLrepreneurlal
opporLunlues elLher for ñnanclal proñL, or for sake of new conLenL. 1hls alerLness allows Lhe
enLrepreneur Lo explolL markeL opporLunlues LhaL have been overlooked or gone undlscovered by
oLhers.
43
Llke oLher enLrepreneurs Lhey share Lhe change perspecuve. 'íottepteoeots see cbooqe os
tbe ootm ooJ os beoltby´.
44

LnLrepreneurs are lnvolved ln neLworks of muluple and changlng cllenLs, compeuLors, colleagues,
eLc. ´wbot Jl[eteouotes eottepteoeots ftom ooo-eottepteoeots ls tbot eottepteoeots cteote
otqoolsouoos, wblle ooo-eottepteoeots Jo oot´.
43

8ased upon an exLenslve llLeraLure revlew, Lhe CLCu esLabllshed Lhe followlng serles of deñnluons
on Lhe 'general' enLrepreneur:
46

LnLrepreneurs are Lhose persons (buslness owners) who seek Lo generaLe value Lhrough
Lhe creauon or expanslon of economlc acuvlLy, by ldenufylng and explolung new
producLs, processes or markeLs.

LnLrepreneurlal acuvlLy ls enLerprlslng human acuon ln pursulL of Lhe generauon of
value Lhrough Lhe creauon or expanslon of economlc acuvlLy, by ldenufylng and
explolung new producLs, processes or markeLs.

LnLrepreneurshlp ls Lhe phenomenon assoclaLed wlLh enLrepreneurlal acuvlLy.
When analyslng Lhe lnßuences LhaL deLermlne Lhe performance of an enLerprlse, ln addluon Lo Lhe
naLure of enLrepreneurlal acuvlues, Lhree Loplcs arlse:

Crganlslng resources, whlch lncludes access Lo: (l) physlcal caplLal such as properLy or
planL and equlpmenL, (ll) ñnanclal caplLal such as debL ñnance or equlLy, and (lll)
lnLanglble resources such as lnLellecLual properLy or Lechnology. 1hese resources can
Lyplcally be boughL and sold by ñrms or lndlvlduals. Changes ln Lhese resources can
have dramauc lmpllcauons for ñrm performance, Lyplcally resulung from (l) creauve
lnvenuons or dlscovery, or (ll) unusual and unlque comblnauons of Lhese resources.

LnLrepreneurlal capablllues, whlch lncludes Lhe human and soclal experuse requlred Lo
leverage a ñrm's resources and brlng Lhem Lo markeL. ln an enLrepreneurlal conLexL,
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 36
41
SLernberg, 8. and Wennekers, S., (2003), ŠueLermlnanLs and eñecLs of new buslness creauon uslng global enLrepreneurshlp
monlLor daLa–, Small 8uslness Lconomlcs, volume 24, number 3, pp. 193-220.
42
knlghL, l. P., (1921), 8lsk, uncerLalnLy, and ÞroñL, 8osLon: ParL, Schañner & Marx
43
klrzner, l. M., (1973), Compeuuon and LnLrepreneurshlp, Chlcago, lL: unlverslLy of Chlcago Þress
44
urucker, Þ. l., (1983), lnnovauon & LnLrepreneurshlp, new •ork: Parper and 8ow
43
CarLner, W.8., (1988), Š'Who ls an enLrepreneur•' ls Lhe wrong quesuon–, Amerlcan !ournal of Small 8uslness, volume 12, number
4, pp. 11-32.
46
Ahmad, n., and Seymour, 8., (2008), ueñnlng LnLrepreneurlal AcuvlLy: ueñnlng Supporung lrameworks for uaLa Collecuon, Þarls:
CLCu SLausucs Worklng Þaper
Lhese lnnovauve capablllues lnclude Lhe percepuon and recognluon of a maLch
beLween creauve resources and markeL opporLunlues. 1hls may lnclude novel and
skllled capablllues as well as unlque or unusual soclal neLworks and connecuons.

MarkeLs and markeL condluons, whlch lnclude Lhe percepuon and dlscovery of markeL
opporLunlues as one of Lhe mosL lmporLanL ablllues of successful enLrepreneurs,
markeL enLry and markeL dlsLoruons.
47
1here are a number of 'deLermlnanLs of enLrepreneurshlp' LhaL can help or hlnder enLrepreneurs ln
Lhelr operauons,
48
and deLermlne Lhe landscape of enLrepreneurshlp.
49
Powever, Lhe dlñerences
beLween varlous sLudles on Lhese are oûen largely semanuc, mosL agree for example LhaL
enLrepreneurs and enLrepreneurshlp are creaLed by a comblnauon of Lhree facLors: opporLunlues,
skllled people and resources (caplLal belng Lhe mosL crlucal).
30
1hese Lhree facLors are all añecLed
by Lwo lmporLanL conLexLs: Lhe surroundlng regulaLory framework and culLure.
1he CLCu/Lu8CS1A1 LnLrepreneurshlp lndlcaLor Þro[ecL ldenuñed slx Lhemes (llg. 1.) LhaL descrlbe
Lhe deLermlnanLs añecung enLrepreneurlal performance ln order Lo encourage counLrles Lo use Lhe
same deñnluons, meLhodologles and classlñcauons when dlscusslng enLrepreneurlal acuvlues.
31

I|gure 1: 1he CLCD]LUkCS1A1 Iramework for Determ|nants of Lntrepreneursh|p
(5ootce. Oícu/íukO51A1, 2008)
1he maln characLerlsucs of Lhese Lhemes can be descrlbed as follows:

CaplLal and Access Lo ñnance: Covers all phases of buslness llfe, from access Lo early
seed funds Lo access Lo Lhe sLock markeLs.

1echnology and 8esearch & uevelopmenL: 8&u and Lechnology creaLes new lnvenuons
LhaL Lhe enLrepreneur and enLrepreneurlal buslnesses can Lurn lnLo new producLs or
processes. 1he 8&u ln Lhls conLexL should be undersLood as a resource LhaL can be
creaLed or purchased, wheLher dlrecLly or ln an embodled or dlñused form.

LnLrepreneurlal capablllues: 1he enLrepreneurlal capablllues lnclude Lhe human and
soclal caplLal of Lhe enLrepreneurs.
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 37
47
Ardlchvlll, A., Cardozo, 8. & Sourav, 8., (2003), ŠA 1heory of LnLrepreneurlal CpporLunlLy ldenuñcauon and uevelopmenL–, !ournal
of 8uslness venLurlng, volume 18, pp. 103-23.
48
kooyman, 8., (ed), (2009), ueLermlnanLs of LnLrepreneurshlp ln Lhe CCls, Pku
49
Schramm, C., (2006), 1he LnLrepreneurlal lmperauve, new •ork: ParperColllns Þubllshers
30
Luropean Commlsslon Creen Þaper, (2003), LnLrepreneurshlp ln Lurope, CCM (2003) 27 ñnal, avallable aL: hup://ec.europa.eu/
enLerprlse/enLrepreneurshlp/green_paper/green_paper_ñnal_en.pdf
31
CLCu/Lu8CS1A1, (2008), Measurlng LnLrepreneurshlp. A dlgesL of lndlcaLors, Ceneva/Þarls: LurosLaL/CLCu

MarkeL condluons: CpporLunlues are creaLed by Lhe markeL condluons ln Lhe counLry.
1hese markeL condluons lnclude publlc lnvolvemenL ln markeLs, compeuuon ln Lhe
markeLs, access Lo forelgn markeLs, procuremenL regulauon, and sLandardlsauon.

8egulaLory framework: LnLrepreneurshlp happens wlLhln a regulaLory framework,
whlch añecLs performance. A comblnauon of opporLunlLy, capablllues and resources
does noL necessarlly lead Lo enLrepreneurshlp lf opporLunlLy cosLs (e.g. forgone salary
and loss of healLh lnsurance) and sLarL-up cosLs ouLwelgh Lhe poLenual beneñLs. ln Lhls
framework, Lhe regulaLory framework ls deñned very broadly and lncludes all Laxes,
regulauons and oLher publlc rules and lnsuLuuons añecung enLrepreneurshlp.

CulLure: añecLs all parLs of Lhe model and ls lncluded as Lhe ñnal facLor ln Lhe
framework. CulLure lnßuences an enLrepreneur's behavlour, amLudes, and overall
eñecuveness and, moreover, ls oûen unnouced by Lhe enLrepreneur slnce lL ls Lhe
conduclve envlronmenL. ln Lhls framework, culLure comprlses each lndlvldual's
assumpuons, adapLauons, percepuons and learnlng.
32
Lach of Lhese Lhemes ls consldered ln ChapLer 3 and adapLed Lo Lhe speclñc conLexL of Lhe CCls.
8eLurnlng Lo SchumpeLer's deñnluon, whereas Lhe 'general' enLrepreneur comblnes lnnovauon and
creauvlLy, Lhe creauve alm of Lhe culLural and creauve enLrepreneur may have a dlñerenL focus.
Powklns (2001)
33
comblned Say's deñnluon wlLh Lhe Creauve Lconomy:
´íottepteoeots lo tbe cteouve ecooomy.opetote llke 5oy´s otlqlool moJel
eottepteoeot bot wltb oo lmpottoot Jl[eteoce.tbey ose cteouvlty to oolock tbe
weoltb tbot lles wltblo tbemselves. llke ttoe copltollsts, tbey belleve tbot tbls
cteouve weoltb, lf moooqeJ tlqbt, wlll eoqeoJet mote weoltb".
1hls Lype of creauvlLy ls whaL kLA named 'culLure-based creauvlLy' ln lLs recenL reporL on Lhe
lmpacL of CulLure on CreauvlLy,
34
whlch enLalls a nuance from general enLrepreneurlal creauvlLy.
WlLh Lhls baslc undersLandlng of enLrepreneurshlp, Lhe Lerm culLural and creauve enLrepreneur
may dlverge from Lhe general Lerm due Lo Lhe Lype of creauvlLy belng used and how lL relaLes Lo
enLrepreneurlal drlve. 1he use of 'culLure-based creauvlLy' can be llnked Lo Lhe culLural and creauve
enLrepreneur, allowlng for Lhe comblnauon of culLural and creauve drlves alongslde Lhe
enLrepreneurlal ones.
2.1.3. Cu|tura| and creanve entrepreneursh|p
CulLural and creauve enLrepreneurs have speclñc characLerlsucs: Lhey operaLe ln dlmculL markeL
condluons, produce goods LhaL are 'culLural' by naLure, work wlLh people LhaL are oûen more
conLenL-drlven Lhan commerclally orlenLed, and usually creaLe very small enLerprlses LhaL exlsL on
Lhe basls of more permanenL neLworks.
Arlslng from Lhe arLs managemenL arena, Lhe examlnauon of culLural enLrepreneurshlp as a dlsuncL
approach for derlvlng economlc and socleLal value has some conslderable merlL. CulLural
enLrepreneurshlp can be deñned as:
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 38
32
lvancevlch, !. M., konopaske, 8., and Maueson, M. 1., (1996), Crganlzauonal behavlour and managemenL. Chlcago: unlverslLy of
PousLon
33
Powklns, !., (2001), 1he Creauve Lconomy: Pow Þeople Make Money lrom ldeas, new •ork: Þenguln, p. 129.
34
kLA, (!une 2009), op. clL., p. 31.
´...tbe ptocess of loteqtouoq two fteeJoms. otusuc fteeJom os lmmotetlol cooteot
otleoteJ voloe, ooJ eottepteoeotlol fteeJom os motetlol voloe, soppotuve to
lmmotetlol (coltotol) voloes–.
33

WlLh Lhls foundauon ln mlnd, and accordlng Lo Lhe general socleLal responslblllLy of enLrepreneurs,
culLural enLrepreneurshlp can be descrlbed as Lhe concepL of runnlng a culLural or creauve
organlsauon, drlven by an expllclL sLraLeglc culLural mlsslon, Laklng rlsks ln balanclng creauve and
managemenL values, and conLrlbuung Lo a vlLal lnfrasLrucLure ln lLs dlrecL envlronmenL.
lor mosL of Lhe experLs lnLervlewed for Lhls sLudy, Lhe characLerlsucs of culLural and creauve
enLerprlses such as producL dlñerenuauon, Lhe labour markeL, markeL condluons, Lhe need for co-
operauon and neLworklng, and Lhe dlñerences ln producuon and dlsLrlbuuon, [usuñed Lhe need for
Lhls dlsuncuve Lerm. 1here ls cerLalnly a need Lo acknowledge Lhe dlñerenL envlronmenL ln whlch
Lhe CCls operaLe:
´Motkets ote totolly Jl[eteot. 1bls ls tbe wbole potpose of some speclfc pollcles,
tbot ote oJopteJ to tbe cteouve loJosttles, to tbe cbotoctetlsucs of tbe
eotetptlses, of tbe motket, of bosloess moJels, ooJ lobs...lt coo be osefol to bove
oJopteJ pollcles llokeJ to tbe tetm´.
(lnnovauon ClusLer, SLrucLurally SLrong 1radluonal Lconomy)
MosL respondenLs felL LhaL such a dlsuncuon was needed Lo provlde speclñc supporuve schemes
adapLed for Lhe CCl secLor, Lhough noL everyone agreed:
´´cteouve eottepteoeotsblp´ ls o teJooJoot Jlmeoslooloq. lo tbe tetm of
5cbompetet, eottepteoeotsblp ls olwoys cteouve. lo tbe ccls, wbeo we tolk oboot
cteouvlty, we speok oboot tbe cooteot´.
(8eglonal CC SML SupporL cenLre, SLrucLurally SLrong 1radluonal Lconomy)
ln Lhe lnLervlews conducLed across Lurope for Lhls sLudy, Lwo maln oplnlons emerged when
auempung Lo deñne Lhe Lerm. 1he ma[orlLy sLrongly supporLed Lhe usefulness of Lhe dlsuncL
concepL of culLural and creauve enLrepreneurshlp whlle on Lhe oLher slde, some preferred Lo blend
Lhe Lerm wlLhln oLher exlsung deñnluons of enLrepreneurshlp. 1here was, however, general
agreemenL LhaL Lhe Lerm usefully hlghllghLs Lhe poLency of Lhe comblnauon beLween creauve and
economlc lmpulses:
´cteouve eottepteoeot ls o osefol jtetm], l woolJ oJJ tbe tetm coltotol. coltotol
ooJ cteouve, becoose tbe eottepteoeots lo tbe coltotol sectot ote people tbot ote
focosloq oo tbe coltotol voloe of tbelt ptoJocts ooJ tbe coltotol sectots bove o lot
of speclfclues tbot ote Jl[eteot wltb tbe otbet sectots... becoose tbete ote coltotol
ptoJocts, becoose of wbot tbey coo spteoJ .l tblok tbe tetm ls lmpottoot to bove.
cteouve, o lot of people coolJ bove tbls, bot coltotol ooJ cteouve, ...tbot ls
lmpottoot´.
(Luropean SecLoral Crganlsauon)
ulsagreemenLs abouL Lhe Lerm were mosLly due Lo Lhe facL LhaL lL was a generallsauon and dld noL
dlñerenuaLe Lhe varlous secLors wlLhln CCls, lmplylng a lack of dlñerenuauon beLween Lhe
dlverglng mouves of culLural and creauve enLerprlses. 1he Lerm ls oûen noL well accepLed ln Lhe
culLural secLors as lL ls sull overly assoclaLed wlLh a ñnanclal dlmenslon whlle noL sumclenLly
recognlslng, or prlorluslng, Lhe culLural and soclal values behlnd Lhls. Cn Lhe oLher hand, Lhe cllche
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 39
33
PagoorL, C., (2007), op. clL.
of Lhe arusL who cannoL manage a buslness and lacks ñnanclal skllls ls sull commonly held among
economlc pollcy-makers and lnßuences Lhe ongolng dlsuncuon beLween enLrepreneurshlp pollcles
and culLural pollcles.
8egardless of Lhese dlñerenL perspecuves, Lhere ls a need for a speclñc dlsuncuon, a speclñc Lerm
Lo recognlse Lhe culLural basls of creauvlLy and of Lhls Lype of enLrepreneurshlp. AlLhough lL
encompassed a dlverse range of secLors, mosL respondenLs recognlsed Lhe need, aL Lhls ume, Lo
make a case ln general for culLural and creauve enLrepreneurshlp as Lhe value of culLural and
creauve lndusLrles has noL yeL been sumclenLly recognlsed and LranslaLed ln Lhe pollcy arena,
desplLe new lnluauves, such as Lhe recenL Lurope 2020 SLraLegy:
36
´1bot's o blq Jlscossloo. wbetbet ot oot tbete sboolJ be o commoo Jefoluoo fot
tbe ccls. Moybe oow lt ls osefol to Jlsuoqolsb jtbe ccls ftom tbe otbet loJosttles].
lo tbe fotote, wbeo we bove ptobobly evolveJ towotJ o mote cteouve ecooomy
ooJ cteouve soclety, tbls Jlsuocuoo woo´t be osefol ooymote. Now lt ls osefol to
be oble to ooJetstooJ tbe tblokloq, tbe ptocess ooJ bow to socceeJ. lt ls olso
osefol lo otJet to bove lt oo tbe pollucol oqeoJo´.
(8eglonal CulLure MlnlsLry, SLrucLurally SLrong 1radluonal Lconomy)
ln essence, a culLural and creauve enLrepreneur can be undersLood as someone who creaLes or
lnnovaLes a culLural or creauve producL or servlce and who uses enLrepreneurlal prlnclples Lo
organlse and manage hls/her creauve acuvlLy ln a commerclal manner. Powever, achlevlng a
balance beLween 'culLure-based creauvlLy' and enLrepreneurshlp ls noL sLralghuorward and as
noLed enLrepreneurs dlñer accordlng Lo Lhelr mouvauons and Lhe secLors ln whlch Lhey operaLe.
1he Lerm Lhus refers Lo Lhe facL LhaL Lhese enLerprlses have cerLaln characLerlsucs (see secuon 2.2
below) whlch wlll añecL Lhe managemenL of Lhelr enLrepreneurlal acuvlLy.
1he Lerm culLural and creauve enLrepreneurshlp Lhus auempLs Lo draw Lhese worlds LogeLher:
recognlslng Lhe laLenL enLrepreneurlal splrlL of an arusL, Lhe laLenL creauve splrlL of Lhe
enLrepreneur and Lhe parucular envlronmenLs ln whlch culLural and creauve enLerprlses operaLe.
Pavlng framed Lhe dlsuncL Lerm ln comparlson Lo Lhe general Lerm, Lhe enLrepreneurlal dlmenslon
of CCls can be beuer undersLood uslng Lhe deLermlnanLs of enLrepreneurshlp adapLed Lo Lhe
characLerlsucs of CCls (see ChapLer 3 below).
2.1.4. Comb|n|ng creanv|ty and entrepreneursh|p for |nnovanon
1he concepL of 'culLure-based creauvlLy' recognlses LhaL Lhe comblnauon of personal ablllues,
culLure, creauvlLy, Lechnlcal skllls and soclal envlronmenLs can have a subsLanual lmpacL on
sumulaung research, opumlslng human resources and lnsplrlng people.
37
1he economlc value of
Lhls 'culLure-based creauvlLy' has been lncreaslngly recognlsed,
38
as seen below ln 1able 1. whlch
lllusLraLes Lhe LoLal Lurnover of CCls ln several larger counLrles. Accordlng Lo Lhe kLA reporL of 2006,
Lhe creauve economy generaLed around 2.6° of Lhe Luropean CuÞ ln 2003 and employed over 3
mllllon people.
39
1he laLesL research by 1erraconsulL esumaLed LhaL ln 2008 lL generaLed 4.3° of
Lhe LoLal Luropean CuÞ. ln Lhe same sLudy, Lhey esumaLed LhaL ln lrance, Lhe core acuvlues of Lhe
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 60
36
Luropean Commlsslon Communlcauon, (March 2010b), op. clL.
37
kLA, (!une 2009), op. clL., p. 80.
38
lbld., p. 42.
39
kLA, (2006), op.clL., p. 6, and Luropean Commlsslon Creen Þaper (2010), op.clL., p. 2.
CCls (noL lncludlng Lhe supporL enLerprlses such as lawyers) generaLed 4.9° of Lhe CuÞ, ln Cermany
4.2° , 3.8° ln lLaly , and 3.6° ln Spaln.
60
1ab|e 1: Þercentage of econom|c turnover of the CCI per country
|n severa| Luropean countr|es
61
(5ootce. 1ettocoosolt 2010)
1he lnLervlews for Lhls sLudy showed LhaL culLural and creauve enLrepreneurs are an essenual parL
of a posL-lndusLrlal economy whlch ls lncreaslngly demand-drlven, user-cenLred and whlch ls more
focused on Lhe experlence Laken ouL of producLs and servlces.
62
Cne of Lhe key argumenLs ls Lhe
need Lo focus on lncenuves for culLure and 'culLure-based creauvlLy' as resource for creauvlLy,
enLrepreneurshlp and lnnovauon, raLher Lhan solely focuslng on Lechnologlcal lnnovauon.
1applng lnLo Lhe poLenual of culLural and creauve enLrepreneurs, and recognlslng Lhelr 'culLure-
based creauvlLy' alongslde Lhelr enLrepreneurlal drlve, can allow enLerprlses Lo unleash lnnovauve
soluuons LhaL are noL necessarlly Lechnology-based. LnLrepreneurshlp ln Lhe CCls can Lhus be
llnked Lo advances ln non-Lechnologlcal lnnovauon. 8ecognlslng Lhe llnk beLween 'culLure-based
creauvlLy', Lhe deLermlnanLs of enLrepreneurshlp and new forms of lnnovauon ls Lhus cruclal for
unlocklng CCls' poLenual.
Powever, slnce mosL of Lhe Lu based ñnanclal supporL for lnnovauon remalns largely focused on
funcuonal and Lechnologlcal lnnovauon, Lhe kLA reporL underllned LhaL Lu eñorLs have noL been
sumclenLly LargeLed Lo culLure and Lo non-Lechnologlcal and non-sclenuñc lnnovauon.
63
ArLs and
culLure are Lhus seen as essenual ln developlng and fosLerlng a creauve envlronmenL oñerlng a rlch
culLural dlverslLy, as well as provldlng lnnovauve processes essenual for a changlng economlc and
soclal envlronmenL by developlng experlence.
64
1he recenL pollcy changes aL Lu level are
acknowledglng Lhls need wlLh Lhe plans Lo revlew lnnovauon pollcy ln a changlng economy LhaL ls
lncreaslngly deñned by experlence, non-Lechnologlcal lnnovauon and quallLy of llfe concerns.
Chapter 1 / The Contribution of the Creative Industries to the European Economy – 17
Table 5 – Weight of the creative industries in UK, France, Germany, Italy and Spain (2008)
UK FRANCE GERMANY ITALY SPAIN
Creative Industries VA Jobs VA Jobs VA Jobs VA Jobs VA Jobs
Core 6.2% 5.4% 4.9% 3.7% 4.2% 4.1% 3.8% 3.6% 3.6% 3.5%
Interdependant & support 3.4% 3.8% 2.6% 2.6% 2.3% 2.8% 2.1% 2.5% 2.0% 2.4%
TOTAL creative industries 9.6% 9.2% 7.5% 6.2% 6.5% 6.9% 5.9% 6.1% 5.6% 5.9%
Creative GDP (billion €) 175 142 162 93 62
Creative employment
(million)
2.7 1.7 2.7 1.4 1.2
Source — TERA Consultants analysis
We have estimated the economic contributions
of the creative industries at a national level for
the five main European countries (the UK, France,
Germany, Italy and Spain), representing three-
fourths of European GDP contributions. The core
creative industries can be assessed with the same
methodology as at the European level.
Regarding the non-core creative industries, there is
a technical difficulty in determining the weight of
the non-core industries on a country level because
of gaps in the Eurostat data, which form the basis
of the calculation. To overcome this limitation we
1.3. !CONCLUSION
Our analysis of the weight of the creative industries based on the KEA findings and the WIPO Guidelines provides
a more complete assessment of the true scope of these industries in Europe, exceeding previously reported
results. We estimate that the creative industries represent a major European economic force, corresponding to
6.9% of European GDP, and 6.5% of the European workforce. This translates into €860 billion revenues and
14 million jobs, reinforcing the importance of these sectors to Europe’s economy. The creative industries’ economic
contribution is comparable to other key traditional industries, like automotive, and with greater weight than
utilities or chemical industries. This major European economic area is being challenged by the threat of piracy.
calculated the “core/non-core” ratio observed at the
European level, resulting in the non-core industries
representing 54% of the value added of the core
creative industries and 70% of the employment of
the core creative industries. We then applied this
ratio at a national level.
Given this procedure, these results shall be
considered with caution. However, our assumptions
remain valid since the objective is to provide orders
of magnitude of the weight of creative industries
in order to portray the economic ecosystem at risk
from widespread piracy.
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 61
60
1eraconsulLanL, (March 2010), 8ulldlng a ulglLal Lconomy: 1he lmporLance of Savlng !obs ln Lhe Lu's Creauve lndusLrles, p. 17, see
hup://www.lccwbo.org/uploadedllles/8ASCAÞ/Þages/8ulldlngaulglLalLconomy-1L8A(1).pdf
61
lndependenL & SupporL lnclude acuvlues relaLed Lo faclllLaung broadcasL, communlcauon, sales of work. 1hey lnclude a fracuon of
general wholesale and reLalllng, general LransporLauon, Lelephony and Lhe lnLerneL.
62
lbld., p. 40.
63
lbld., p. 123.
64
Luropean Councll Concluslons, (May 2009), Concluslons for ŠCulLure as a CaLalysL for CreauvlLy–, 2941sL Lducauon, •ouLh and
CulLure Councll meeung
ln Lhls respecL, CCls have a speclñc role Lo play ln lnnovauon by fosLerlng creauvlLy and produclng
ouLpuLs LhaL can serve as lnpuL Lo Lhe lnnovauon process.
63
1here ls a need for greaLer focus on Lhe
process of lnnovauon as an experlence Lo whlch Lhe CCls can meanlngfully conLrlbuLe.
Powever, ln pracucal Lerms, Lhe Lenslon beLween Lhe process of creauon and Lhe necesslLy of
deallng wlLh Lhe admlnlsLrauon and managemenL of an enLrepreneurlal acuvlLy ls parucularly
dlmculL for Lhe CCl enLrepreneur. 1he arusL or creaLor may noL have all Lhe skllls and knowledge Lo
deal wlLh Lhe complexlLy of a buslness. CerLaln organlsauons, such as llanders ulsLrlcL of CreauvlLy
(see 8esL Case 1), have caLalysed Lhe need Lo maLch Lhe culLural and creauve enLrepreneur wlLh a
professlonal manager Lo mlugaLe Lhelr llmlLed enLrepreneurlal skllls.
Creauve l ndl vl dual s wl l l
lncreaslngly requlre enhanced
ablllues and skllls Lo blend
dlsclpllnes, meLhods and
l nsLrumenLs l n order Lo
generaLe and explolL Lhese
hlghly dynamlc markeLs. 1he
c u l L u r a l a n d c r e a u v e
enLrepreneur has Lo be able
L o d r a w u p o n e x p e r L
knowledge from several areas
and dlsclpllnes and Lo move
emclenLly beLween Lhem ln
order Lo deal wlLh boLh Lhe
arusuc creauon and Lhe
requlremenLs llnked wlLh an
enLrepreneurlal acuvlLy. lor
example, ArLeconomy brlngs
LogeLher Lhe arusuc and
b u s l n e s s w o r l d s b y
sumulaung collaborauon (see
8esL Case 2). Supporung
c u l L u r a l a n d c r e a u v e
enLrepreneurshlp means noL
only developlng a conduclve envlronmenL for a general enLrepreneur buL also supporung an
envlronmenL LhaL recognlses 'culLure-based creauvlLy', encompasslng boLh aspecLs of Lhe culLural
and creauve enLrepreneur.
A more favourable creauve cllmaLe wlll, ln Lurn, resulL ln more ldeas, and greaLer creauvlLy ls
assumed Lo lncrease 8&u and lnnovauve acuvlues, and conLrlbuLe Lo fosLerlng lnnovauve soluuons.
ulumaLely, creauvlLy can be found ln our culLures, ln our surroundlng LerrlLory, ln Lhe quallLy of our
everyday llfe and our producLs. lL ls noL an end ln lLself, buL a process, an exLraordlnary means Lo
produclng new ldeas.
66
ln Lhls sense, creauvlLy and culLure are Lhe plllars of soclal quallLy, seen ln Lhe conLexL of a free,
economlcally developed, falr and culLurally llvely communlues en[oylng a hlgh quallLy of llfe.
I|anders DC
I|anders DC |s a I|em|sh governmenta| organ|sanon that
promotes entrepreneur|a| creanv|ty |n the reg|on |n order
to boost I|anders creanv|ty and |nnovanon. 1hey oñer
patronage serv|ces for the fash|on sector and match|ng
w|th bus|ness managers.
(See 8esL Case 1)
Arteconomy
Arteconomy connects art and the economy through
var|ous forms of co||aboranon such as |ong term pro[ects
w|th arnsts |n compan|es, workshops for arnsts and
entrepreneurs and ate||ers where arnsts and
entrepreneurs can meet. Arteconomy wants to snmu|ate a
broad range of peop|e to th|nk about the convergence
between art and the economy.
(See 8esL Case 2)
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 62
63
Þous, !., (2009a), ŠCreauve lndusLrles and lnnovauon Þollcy– ln lnnovauon: ManagemenL, Þollcy and Þracuce, volume 11, no 2,
pp. 138-147.
66
SanLagaLa,W. , (2009), op. clL., p. 17.
CreauvlLy and culLure are lnexLrlcably bound. 1hey are a successful comblnauon, whlch can
sLrengLhen Luropean lnnovauon aL a ume of sLraLeglc Lransluon ln Lhe lnLernauonal process of
globallsauon.
2.2. Character|sncs of the cu|tura| and creanve |ndustr|es
1he CCls have a parucular characLer LhaL ls markedly dlñerenL from oLher lndusLrles. When
conslderlng Lhese characLerlsucs several lssues were consldered
67
lncludlng:

Slze of CCl enLerprlses

CharacLerlsucs of Lhe CCl labour markeL

CharacLerlsucs of CCl enLerprlse processes

MarkeL condluons and shlûlng buslness models
8egardlng Lhe selecuon of Lhe nACL codes,
68
several llmlLauons have Lo be clarlñed. Clven Lhe
lmposslblllLy of accuraLely esumaung Lhe companles relaLed Lo CCls wlLhln Lhe 17 nACL codes (ln
Lerms of Lhe LoLal number of ñrms, employees and Lurnover), cerLaln secLoral blases are lncluded ln
Lhe sLausucal analyses.
2.2.1. 1he s|ze of CCI enterpr|ses
1he dlverslLy of CCls ls reßecLed ln lLs range of buslnesses. 1hls lncludes every Lype of enLerprlse
from mulu-nauonal corporauons Lo secLors characLerlsed by a hlgh proporuon of SMLs (for
example, archlLecLure, fashlon, craûs), and oLhers LhaL lnclude a broader specLrum of large and
small buslnesses (noLably soûware, publlshlng and Lelevlslon).
69

Powever, Lhe ma[orlLy of CCls are very small enLerprlses.
70
Around 80° of enLerprlses ln Lhe CCls
conslsL of SMLs wlLh many sole Lraders or mlcro-SMLs employlng only a handful of people. ln facL,
CCl workers are more Lhan Lwlce as llkely Lo be self-employed as Lhe whole economy average.
71

Powever, alLhough Lhe vasL ma[orlLy of CCl buslnesses are mlcro-enLerprlses (employlng fewer Lhan
10 people), Lhey are responslble for only a modesL percenLage of Lhe LoLal Lurnover of Lhe CCls (18
°).
As seen ln 1able 2. below, wlLhln Lhls ma[orlLy of 'mlcro-enLerprlses', almosL 60° are very small
buslnesses wlLh only 1 Lo 3 employees.
72
1he sLausucal analysls underLaken durlng Lhls sLudy
conñrms LhaL Lhe overwhelmlng ma[orlLy of CCl enLerprlses are very small mlcro-SMLs. 1he
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 63
67
kooyman, 8., (ed), (2009), LnvlronmenLal facLors ln Lhe CCls, Pku
68
lrom Lhe lrench 'nomenclaLure sLausuque des AcuvlLes economlques dans la CommunauLe Luropeenne'-SLausucal classlñcauon
of economlc acuvlues ln Lhe Luropean CommunlLy
69
Þroporuon of employmenL accounLed for by uk-owned SMLs: ueslgner fashlon 96°, ArchlLecLure 92°, Soûware and compuLer
games 37°, 1v and radlo 28°, Þubllshlng 28°. uCMS, (Aug 2007b), Creauve lndusLry Þerformance: A SLausucal Analysls for uCMS,
lronuer Lconomlcs , London: ueparLmenL of CulLure, Medla and SporL
70
8eldl S., SLeyer, l. (2006), Zwlschen unabhˆnglgkelL und ZukunûsangsL ‚uanuLauve Lrgeb- nlsse zur ArbelL ln den Wlener Creauve
lndusLrles, vlenna : lorba
71
See: uCMS, (Aug 2007a), An AssessmenL of ÞroducuvlLy lndlcaLors for Lhe Creauve lndusLrles London: ueparLmenL of CulLure,
Medla and SporL, and Sondermann, M. (leb 2009), CulLure and Creauve lndusLrles ln Cermany, 8erlln: 8MWl
72
Llchmann P. and 8eldl, S., (2006), LrwerbsLˆugkelL ln der ArchlLekLur - eln harLes ÞßasLer, 8aukulLur 8eporL 2006. 8eLrleved 23
AugusL 2009: hup://www.baukulLurreporL.aL/lndex.php•ldcaL˜48
number of large-scale enLerprlses ls marglnal, aL less Lhan one percenL, buL Lhey are responslble for
more Lhan 40 ° of Lhe annual Lurnover.
C|ass of enterpr|se (# of emp|oyees) C|ass of enterpr|se (# of emp|oyees) C|ass of enterpr|se (# of emp|oyees) C|ass of enterpr|se (# of emp|oyees) C|ass of enterpr|se (# of emp|oyees)
Sector 1 - 3 4 - 9 10 - 49 S0 - 249 2S0 +
Adverns|ng 60.74 ° 24.28 ° 13.60 ° 1.19 ° 0.19 °
Arch|tecture 62.71 ° 22.86 ° 12.39 ° 1.63 ° 0.22 °
8ook & Þress 38.74 ° 23.93 ° 14.37 ° 2.38 ° 0.36 °
Des|gn 43.17 ° 29.49 ° 21.30 ° 3.36 ° 0.47 °
Iash|on 31.39 ° 23.30 ° 18.93 ° 3.37 ° 0.38 °
I||m & V|deo 39.73 ° 23.69 ° 12.73 ° 1.60 ° 0.24 °
Mus|c 69.18 ° 18.33 ° 10.20 ° 1.83 ° 0.44 °
Þerform|ng Arts 63.01 ° 21.93 ° 12.32 ° 2.23 ° 0.30 °
kad|o & 1e|ev|s|on 47.40 ° 26.86 ° 20.94 ° 3.96 ° 0.84 °
Sohware Þub. 62.34 ° 20.60 ° 13.91 ° 2.64 ° 0.31 °
V|sua| Arts 61.62 ° 21.97 ° 12.86 ° 2.96 ° 0.39 °
Average S8.38 ¼ 23.7S ¼ 14.93 ¼ 2.49 ¼ 0.4S ¼
1ab|e 2: D|str|bunon of Lnterpr|se among Industr|es per s|ze c|ass
(5ootce. íotoklels 2009)
1hese sLausucs conñrm an lmporLanL baslc characLerlsuc of Lhe CCls: namely LhaL whlle Lhe vasL
ma[orlLy of enLerprlses are SMLs and mlcro-enLerprlses, Lhe larger enLerprlses (wlLh more Lhan 30
employees) conLrlbuLe a subsLanual parL of Lhe overall revenues. noL surprlslngly, Lhls characLerlsuc
has lmporLanL lmpllcauons for pollcy-makers. llg. 2. below lllusLraLes Lhe slze of enLerprlses across
Lhe CCls by secLor.
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 64
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.3
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
A
d
v
e
r
u
s
l
n
g

A
r
c
h
l
L
e
c
L
u
r
e

8
o
o
k
&
Þ
r
e
s
s


u
e
s
l
g
n


l
a
s
h
l
o
n

l
l
l
m
&
v
l
d
e
o


M
u
s
l
c


Þ
e
r
f
o
r
m
l
n
g

A
r
L
s


8
a
d
l
o
&
1
e
l
e
v
l
s
l
o
n

S
o
û
w
a
r
e

Þ
u
b
.

v
l
s
u
a
l

A
r
L
s

230 +
30 - 249
10 - 49
4 - 9
1 - 3
I|gure 2: S|ze of enterpr|ses by sector across CCIs
(5ootce. íotoklels 2009)
7J
1hls characLerlsuc of CCls ls oûen called Lhe 'mlsslng mlddle': medlum slzed enLerprlses seem Lo be
almosL absenL. ln vlew of Lhe sLausucal observauons and Lhe lnLervlewees conducLed, Lhere ls a
subsLanual dlmculLy for small enLerprlses Lo grow lnLo medlum-slzed ñrms. 1he gap beLween Lhe
'blgger players' and Lhe mlcro-SMLs renders Lhe growLh of mlcro-SMLs dlmculL and lncreases Lhe
dlmculLy ln accesslng markeLs for Lhe 'smaller players'. As can be seen ln llg. 3. and llg. 4. below,
Lhere are exLreme dlñerences ln Lurnover and asseL dlsLrlbuuon.
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.3
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
A
d
v
e
r
u
s
l
n
g

A
r
c
h
l
L
e
c
L
u
r
e

8
o
o
k
&
Þ
r
e
s
s


u
e
s
l
g
n


l
a
s
h
l
o
n

l
l
l
m
&
v
l
d
e
o


M
u
s
l
c


Þ
e
r
f
o
r
m
l
n
g

A
r
L
s


8
a
d
l
o
&
1
e
l
e
v
l
s
l
o
n

S
o
û
w
a
r
e

Þ
u
b
.

v
l
s
u
a
l

A
r
L
s

230 +
30 - 249
10 - 49
4 - 9
1 - 3
I|gure 3: D|str|bunon of 1ota| 1urnover among Industr|es per s|ze c|ass of enterpr|se
(5ootce. íotoklels 2009)
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 63
73
AL Lhe ume of Lhe sLausucal analysls, Lhe deñnluon of new medla was noL speclñc and Lhe caLegory 'soûware publlshers' ln Lhls
case comblnes boLh new medla and vldeo games.
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.3
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
A
d
v
e
r
u
s
l
n
g

A
r
c
h
l
L
e
c
L
u
r
e

8
o
o
k
&
Þ
r
e
s
s


u
e
s
l
g
n


l
a
s
h
l
o
n

l
l
l
m
&
v
l
d
e
o


M
u
s
l
c


Þ
e
r
f
o
r
m
l
n
g

A
r
L
s


8
a
d
l
o
&
1
e
l
e
v
l
s
l
o
n

S
o
û
w
a
r
e

Þ
u
b
.

v
l
s
u
a
l

A
r
L
s

230 +
30 - 249
10 - 49
4 - 9
1 - 3
I|gure 4: D|str|bunon of tota| Assets among Industr|es per s|ze of enterpr|se
(5ootce. íotoklels 2009)
A very small number of large
scale enLerprlses domlnaLe
Lhe secLoral markeLs and have
l o n g - e s L a b l l s h e d
lnfrasLrucLures for research
and developmenL acuvlues
whlle, on Lhe oLher hand,
mlcro-SMLs do noL have
access Lo slmllar paLhs Lo
growLh as Lhey do noL have
Lhe same lnfrasLrucLures and
are Lherefore forced Lo adopL
a hlghly ßexlble amLude and ñnd oJ boc soluuons Lo speclñc problems ln order Lo susLaln Lhelr
exlsLence. noneLheless, Lhere are some examples of good lnluauves, such as LhaL of AlL ln lLaly (see
8esL Case 3) who acuvely seek Lo enhance and supporL lndependenL SMLs.
1he sLraLegles used by Lhese mlcro-SMLs are necessarlly small-scale, hlghly dynamlc and requlre
rlsk-Laklng Lo compeLe wlLh more esLabllshed enLerprlses LhaL do noL requlre such ßexlblllLy. 1he
sLrucLural characLerlsucs of Lhese mlcro-SMLs lmpose a requlremenL Lo malnLaln a hlgh level of
dynamlc enLrepreneurlal skllls Lo remaln compeuuve. Powever, Lhese skllls are usually learnL 'on
Lhe spoL' and do noL seem Lo be sumclenL Lo provlde clear paLhs Lo enLerprlse growLh for CCl SMLs.
2.2.2. Character|sncs of the CCI |abour market
As menuoned above, many CCl enLerprlses have Lo lnLegraLe boLh arusuc freedom as an lmmaLerlal
value and enLrepreneurlal freedom as a maLerlal value, supporuve Lo lmmaLerlal (culLural) values.
ln many ways Lhey are a comblnauon of Pomo Lconomlcus and Pomo Ludens.
74

AIL: Ita||an Þub||shers Assoc|anon
AIL |s a sectora| organ|sanon suppornng the pub||sh|ng
|ndustry. AIL has acnve|y estab||shed a number of core
acnv|nes wh|ch are espec|a||y focused on suppornng SMLs
|n the Ita||an pub||sh|ng |ndustry. 1he book fa|r 0)S%7)9#-) |s
an |ndependent pub||shers book fa|r a|m|ng at |ncreas|ng
the v|s|b|||ty of |ndependent SMLs.
(See 8esL Case 3)
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 66
74
Mokre M., (2006), My CreauvlLy: Convenuon on lnLernauonal Creauve lndusLrles 8esearch, AmsLerdam. 8eLrleved 23 AugusL 2009
hup://Lransform.elpcp.neL/correspondence/1166104888
Some enLrepreneurs wlll be more 'growLh orlenLed' whlle oLhers wlll be more drlven by Lhe culLural
and arusuc value of Lhelr producLs or servlces, LhaL ls, more 'creauon-orlenLed'. Speclñc pauerns of
employmenL wlll be malnLalned by cerLaln CCls ln order Lo comblne Lhe ßexlble approach of CCl
SMLs. 1hls lnherenL Lenslon beLween Lhe Lwo 'Lypes' of enLrepreneur ls oûen reßecLed ln
organlsauonal sLrucLures.
2.2.2.1. SMLs and free|ancers
CulLural and creauve enLrepreneurs are far more llkely Lo hold non-convenuonal forms of
employmenL, such as parL-ume work, Lemporary conLracLs and freelanclng, Lhan Lhe workforce ln
general.
73
ln mosL CCl secLors, full-ume workers recelvlng regular pay are ln Lhe mlnorlLy.
76
Muluple
[ob-holdlng ls a common formula as Lhe culLural workers need a mlnlmum lncome for survlval and
some degree of ñnanclal securlLy. MosL CCl secLors show Lhe speclñc dynamlcs of frequenL [ob
changes and worklng on shorL Lerm conLracLs ls normal.
77
uue Lo Lhe low recognluon of Lhelr
lnLanglble creauons, some culLural and creauve enLrepreneurs wlll comblne boLh Lhelr freelanclng
acuvlues wlLh oLher professlons LhaL oñer sumclenL ñnanclal sLablllLy Lo susLaln Lhese creauve
acuvlues. 1hls leads Lo a slLuauon ln whlch Lhe dlsuncuon beLween 'employed' or 'unemployed' ls
obscured, blurred and problemauc:
´1be coltotol sectot ls cbotoctetlseJ by o blqb sbote of fteeloocets ooJ vety smoll
compooles. A oew type of employet ls emetqloq lo tbe fotm of tbe ´eottepteoeotlol
loJlvlJool´ ot ´eottepteoeotlol coltotol wotket´, wbo oo looqet fts loto ptevloosly
typlcol pouetos of foll-ume ptofessloos´.
78
Many of Lhe performlng arusLs, wrlLers, dlrecLors, vlsual arusLs, craûspeople, composers, deslgners
and oLhers can be consldered self-employed freelancers. Cn average, creaLors accepL below
average pecunlary earnlngs. 1hls can be parually explalned elLher by rlsk-seeklng behavlour,
79
or a
preference for creauve work over oLher Lypes of employmenL.
80
lL emerged from Lhe onllne survey LhaL 34° of Lhe CCl enLerprlses had less Lhan Len full ume
employees ln Lhelr company (see llg. 3. below). As noLed above, Lhls fragmenLauon of CCls lnLo
small enLerprlses has consequences for Lhelr sLrucLures. 1o compeLe wlLh larger companles wlLh
sLrucLural advanLages ln Lerms of admlnlsLrauon and research, Lhe smaller enLerprlses Lend Lo
adopL a more ßexlble and dynamlc amLude when respondlng Lo markeL opporLunlues. 1hls may
lnvolve ouLsourclng, Laklng up muluple pro[ecLs or clusLerlng wlLh dlñerenL organlsauons Lo beneñL
from a larger collecuve sLrucLure. 1o mlugaLe agalnsL Lhls lack of guaranLee of success, CCls oûen
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 67
73
8enhamou, l. (2003), L'Lconomle de la culLure, Þarls: La uecouverLe, 4Lh ed.
76
1hrosby, u., (2001), op. clL., pp. 126-28.
77
1owse, 8., (2004), op. clL., p. 8.
78
MkW WlrLschaûsforschung CmbP, (2001), LxplolLauon and developmenL of Lhe [ob poLenual ln Lhe culLural secLor ln Lhe age of
dlglLallzauon, Þaper commlssloned for Luropean Commlsslon, uC LmploymenL and Soclal Añalrs, Munlch
79
1owse, 8., (2004), Š1owards an economy of creauvlLy•– ln lCkuS, (2004), Creauve lndusLrles: A measure for urban developmenL•
vlenna: lCkuS p. 8.
80
1hrosby, u., (2001), op. clL., and Caves, 8., (2000), Creauve lndusLrles: ConLracLs 8eLween ArL and Commerce, Cambrldge: Parvard
unlv. Þress
work on muluple pro[ecLs Lo spread Lhe rlsk
81
and oûen focus on pro[ecL-based lnvesLmenL raLher
Lhan company ñnance.
82
Ooesuoo. now mooy foll-ume employees JlJ yoot eotetptlse bove oo J1st uecembet 2008?
!"# $"# %!"# %$"# &!"# &$"# '!"# '$"#
(#&$!#
$!#)(#&*+#
%#)#&#
%!#)(#*+#
'#)(#+#
I|gure S: Þercentage of fu|| nme emp|oyees per s|ze c|ass enterpr|se |n Dec. 2008
(5ootce. íotoklels 2009- Oolloe 5otvey)
Moreover, CCls requlre skllled employees and are consequenLly manual labour lnLenslve. 1he
creauve producLs and servlces relaLed Lo Lhese lndusLrles usually requlre noL only sLrlcLly creauve
employees buL many general or commerclal employees LhaL conLrlbuLe Lo Lhe overall producuon
and supply chaln. 1radluonally, culLural and creauve enLrepreneurs are lnLeresLed malnly ln Lhe
developmenL of Lhelr producLs and servlces raLher Lhan focused on Lhelr dlsLrlbuuon: ln oLher
words, 'k&u ls tbe molo ocuvlty, wblle ptoJocuoo ls secooJoty'.
83
1he company wlll generally reLaln
a small core of full ume employees whlle calllng on addluonal employees as requlred, accordlng Lo
Lhe company's needs.
84
2.2.2.2 D|vers|ty |n sk|||s acqu|s|non
uue Lo Lhe abundance of pracuuoners wlLh very dlverse backgrounds (ceruñcauon by degree,
acqulrlng experlence Lhrough lnLernshlp, vocauonal degree, eLc.), Lhere are oûen dlmculues when
recognlslng or cerufylng Lhe quallLy and repuLauon of culLural and creauve enLrepreneurs. 1hls
makes Lhe posluon of Lhe poLenual employer ln Lhe ArLs (as compared Lo oLher labour markeLs)
especlally dlmculL because of a lack of lnformauon and quallLy crlLerla.
83

Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 68
81
uk 1echnology SLraLegy 8oard, (2009), op. clL., p. 17.
82
kLA, (May 2010), Þromoung lnvesLmenL ln Lhe CulLural and Creauve SecLor: llnanclng needs, 1rends and CpporLunlues, 8eporL
prepared for LCCL lnnovauon- nanLes MeLropole, p. 24.
83
Lash, S. and urry, !., (1994), Lconomles of Slgns and Space, London: Sage Þubllcauons, as clLed ln: Pandke C., (2006), Surveylng
lnnovauon ln Lhe Creauve lndusLrles, 8erlln/8ouerdam 2006
84
uk 1echnology SLraLegy 8oard, (2009), op. clL., p. 18.
83
1owse, 8., (ed) (2003) A Pandbook of CulLural Lconomlcs, ChelLenham, Ldward Llgar.
Awards can acL as lnLermedlaLe sLandards on Lhe quallLy of Lhe culLural and creauve
enLrepreneur.
86
Commlssloners ln Lhe ArLs place llule rellance on ceruñcauon based on formal
schoollng and oûen use Lhelr own screenlng devlces (arL compeuuons, referees, peer-revlews,
eLc.). Learnlng 'on Lhe ßy' ls common for culLural and creauve enLrepreneurs. ln our onllne
quesuonnalre, 78° of Lhe respondenLs valued Lhelr on Lhe [ob Lralnlng as much as Lhelr
professlonal Lralnlng.
Cn one hand, Lhe ma[orlLy of enLerprlses achleve very low rewards, slgnlñcanLly below workforces
ln oLher lndusLrles wlLh slmllar human caplLal aurlbuLes. Cn Lhe oLher hand, Lhere are a relauvely
small number of 'sLars' wlLh very hlgh Lurnover.
87
2.2.2.3. CCI emp|oyment by sectors
lrom Lhe aggregaLed daLa ln Lhe sLausucal analysls, Lhe largesL lndusLrles per number of workers
employed are: lashlon (31.41°, of LoLal employees), ueslgn (20.12°), ArchlLecLure (10.74°) and
8ook & Þress (9.89°). 1he lncluslon of Lhe reLall secLor wlLhln Lhe fashlon secLor may explaln Lhe
unexpecLedly hlgh number of workers ln Lhls secLor (See llg. 6.).
1hese numbers cover Lhe LoLal number of employees ln dlñerenL secLors of Lhe CCls. As noLed
above, culLural and creauve enLrepreneurs are also employed ln many oLher secLors of Lhe
economy, conLrlbuung Lo Lhe developmenL of Lhe 'creauve capaclLy' of non CCl companles. lor
example, Lhe uk 1echnology SLraLegy 8oard esumaLes LhaL from Lhe 1.1 mllllon people dlrecLly
employed ln Lhe creauve lndusLrles ln Lhe uk, Lhere are anoLher 800,000 lndlvlduals worklng
ouLslde Lhe culLural and creauve secLor.
88
I|gure 6: Þercentage of Lmp|oyees per Sector
(5ootce. íotoklels 2009)
89
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 69
86
See Wl[nberg (2003) for a dlscusslon of Lhe role of awards ln Lhe arLs. Wl[nberg, n. (2003) 'Awards' ln: 1owse, 8. (ed) A Pandbook
of CulLural Lconomlcs, ChelLenham, Ldward Llgar: pp. 81-84.
87
unC1Au eL al (2008), 1he Creauve Lconomy, unC1Au/ul1C/2008/2, Ceneva
88
uk 1echnology SLraLegy 8oard, (2009), op. clL., p. 12.
89
1he sLausucal analysls on ñrm characLerlsucs was Laken from Lhe Chambers of Commerce as explalned ln secuon 1.2
ln anoLher example, Lhe recenL LC Worklng Þaper on 'ueslgn as a drlver of user-led lnnovauon'
conñrmed Lhls Lrend ln Lhe deslgn secLor, demonsLraung LhaL many deslgners worked ln non-deslgn
lndusLrles as ln-house deslgners.
90
1hls suggesLs LhaL Lhe culLural and creauve enLrepreneur and Lhe
CCls have a greaLer lmpacL on Lhe economy as a whole Lhan accounLed for ln Lhe sLausucs.
2.2.3. Character|sncs of CCI enterpr|se processes and outputs
ln addluon Lo Lhe speclñc characLerlsucs of CCls boLh ln Lerms of sLrucLure and labour, Lhe
processes of producL and servlce creauon ln whlch Lhe CCls engage are hlghly dlsuncuve, especlally
due Lo Lhelr small slze. CCl SMLs oûen engage ln neLwork based processes. Some of Lhese value
and knowledge creauon processes are oûen noL recognlsed as Lradluonal research approaches and
CCl SMLs may Lherefore be unable Lo access research fundlng resources.
CCls oûen supply conLenL LhaL requlres 'culLure-based creauvlLy' as knowledge-based and labour-
lnLenslve lnpuL LhaL ls hard Lo measure ln Lerms of economlc value. 1hls compllcaLes Lhe provlslon
of ñnanclal supporL Lo CCls, as Lhey cannoL always demonsLraLe Lhe economlc vlablllLy of Lhelr
producLs and servlces. CulLural and creauve producLs and servlces oûen have speclñc economlc
characLerlsucs: for example, Lhey can be produced 'on Lhe spoL' and cannoL be consumed ln any
oLher conLexL (LheaLre performances, dance, llve concerLs). 1hese producLs/servlces are an exLreme
example of producL dlñerenuauon.
91

1he facL LhaL many producLs and servlces are lnLanglble asseLs, sub[ecuve ln value and oûen
pro[ecL-based,
92
dlsungulshes Lhem from oLher manufacLured producLs. uue Lo Lhe hlgh degree of
uncerLalnLy surroundlng Lhe success of Lhese lnLanglble asseLs, Lhe conLenL-based lndusLrles ln
parucular wlll Lend Lo work on several pro[ecLs aL Lhe same ume ln order Lo balance Lhe rlsk
assoclaLed wlLh less successful producLs or servlces. Powever, Lhls also lmplles LhaL Lhe culLural and
creauve enLrepreneurs may recelve only parual ñnanclal advances for cerLaln producLs or servlces
LhaL wlll noL be successful and Lhls may lead Lo slgnlñcanL ñnanclal llmlLauons for Lhe
enLrepreneurs.
naLurally, lnLanglble lnnovauon ls hard Lo quanufy and ls noL easlly recognlsed by Lhose ouLslde Lhe
CCls. CurrenLly, Lhe soû lnnovaLors are noL labelled as conLrlbuung Lo 8&u and cannoL recelve
fundlng or equal recognluon from elLher sclenuñc or applled research lnluauves. Sclenuñc research
lnsuLuLes sull recelve mosL of Lhe 8&u fundlng as opposed Lo applled research lnsuLuLes or oLher
emerglng communlues. ln a recenL sLudy on lnnovauon ln Swedlsh servlce companles, lL was shown
LhaL 30° of Lhe lnnovauon came dlrecLly from cusLomers, 33° from employees and only 3° from
exLernal 8&u.
93

2.2.3.1 Þroducnon processes
Þroducuon Lakes place elLher ln small-scale dlrecL conLacL beLween producer and consumer, or wlLh
reproduclble, mass medla producLs, ln neLworks of lnLermedlarles. 1hese lnLermedlarles such as
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 70
90
LC SLañ Worklng uocumenL, (2009a), op. clL., p. 27.
91
1he unLSCC conslders local culLural lndusLrles relevanL Lo counLerbalance Lhe sLandardlsauon of culLure as a resulL of Lhe ongolng
process of globallsauon ln Lhe lnformauon socleLy (unLSCC, 2001: 13, unLSCC, 19/11/2001: 1-3, unLSCC, 21-22/09/2000, unLSCC,
14-13/06/1999).
92
Lspeclally secLors such as ñlm, 1v, muslc, games. uk 1echnology SLraLegy 8oard (2009), op. clL., p. 18.
93
ALMLCA (2008), Survey on lnnovauon ln Swedlsh servlce companles, Laken from koefoed ‚ulnn, M, 1he Lu perspecuve on lC1
and Creauve lndusLry, C8eA1L lnLernauonal Conference, 1urln november 2009, hup://www.leLs-creaLe.eu/ñleadmln/_creaLe/
downloads/presenLauon_conference/02_20091104_C8eA1L_-_Meue_k_‚ulnn.pdf
publlshers, ñlm producuon companles or record companles, brlng culLural producLs and servlces
and an audlence LogeLher. 1hey explolL economles of scale and scope LhaL apply ln parucular Lo
caplLal-lnLenslve aspecLs of producuon and promouon raLher Lhan ln Lhe labour and knowledge-
lnLenslve process of creauon. Powever, Lhe lncreaslng dlglusauon of conLenL and servlces has
opened new producuon and dlsLrlbuuon posslblllues.
94

1he lmporLance of dlglLal
conLenL for Lhe CCls has led Lo
Lhe developmenL of new
a p p l l c a u o n s a n d L h e
l n L e g r a u o n a n d r e -
aggregauon of exlsung medla.
Crossover Labs ls an example
of an organl sauon LhaL
supporLs lnLegrauon ln Lhe
producuon process (see 8esL
Case 4). Much llke Crossover
Labs, L he CA1L pro[ ecL
lnLegraLes dlñerenL acLors Lo
apply new Lechnology for Lhe
game secLor (see 8esL Case 3).
1he creauve conLenL lndusLry
ls growlng ln lmporLance and
ls well developed LhroughouL
Lhe value chaln. 1he lnLerneL
and changl ng consumer
preferences are addlng Lo Lhe
complexlLy of Lhe ßow of
funds beLween Lhe dlñerenL players ln Lhese value chalns. Consumer spendlng ls Lhe slngle mosL
lmporLanL source of funds. Þhyslcal medla sull represenL a subsLanual parL of Lhe markeL, buL Lhls ls
mosL exposed Lo onllne subsuLuuon.
93
1he Lradluonal ldea of Lhe producuon chaln ls now evolvlng, and ln many cases lnLermedlarles can
be bypassed.
96
1aklng lLs dlsLance from Lhe llnear producuon process lmplled ln Lhe concepL of a
value chaln, Lhe Lerm 'value creaung ecologles' encompasses Lhe ldea of a 'consLellauon of ñrms
LhaL are dynamlc, wlLh value ßow belng mulu-dlrecuonal and worklng Lhrough clusLers of
neLworks'.
97

1hls ldea can beuer represenL Lhe shlû experlenced by many CCls, from consumers Lo co-creaLors
of value, from producL Lo neLwork value
98
and from slmple compeuuon Lo complex co-
Crossover Labs
Crossover Labs |n the Uk organ|ses workshops w|th mu|n-
d|sc|p||nary parnc|pants a|med at exchang|ng |nformanon
|n order to create |nnovanve pro[ects w|th the use of new
med|a too|s.
(See 8esL Case 4)
GA1L
Game kesearch for 1ra|n|ng and Lnterta|nment (GA1L) |n
the Nether|ands |s a sectora| pro[ect for games a|m|ng at
|mprov|ng |earn|ng systems and advanc|ng new techno|ogy
to SMLs |n order to advance the sector and deve|op|ng
know|edge from app||ed research w|th SMLs.
(See 8esL Case 3)
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 71
94
uk 1echnology SLraLegy 8oard, (2009), op. clL., p. 18.
93
Analysls Mason, (May 2009), losLerlng creauve ambluon ln Lhe uk ulglLal Lconomy, London: Analysls Mason, London
96
Pearn, C. n. and 8oodhouse, S. C. and 8lackey, !. M. (2007), Šlrom value chaln Lo value creaung ecology: lmpllcauons for creauve
lndusLrles developmenL pollcy–, lnLernauonal !ournal of CulLural Þollcy, volume 13, number 4, pp. 419-436.
97
lbld., p. 6.
98
lbld, p. 10. neLwork value ls Lhus creaLed and exLracLed ln a neLwork of relauonshlps and value can besL be undersLood hollsucally
as a funcuon of Lhe enure neLwork.
ompeuuon.
99
1he culLural and creauve enLrepreneur oûen has Lo creaLe dlrecL user-producer
lnLeracuon. 1hey have Lo lnLeracL closely wlLh Lhelr LargeL audlence so LhaL Lhey can monlLor Lrends
or lnlual reacuons by early consumers of Lhelr own producLs.
1echnologlcal advances, such as mulu-plauorm capablllues, make lL posslble Lo have greaLer
connecuvlLy wlLh Lhe user and can provlde a feedback ln Lhe loop Lo producuon, allowlng a user Lo
lnLeracL dlrecLly and allowlng Lhe producer Lo adapL Lo changlng demand. 1he lncreaslng lncluslon
of Lhe user/consumer as co-producer coupled wlLh emclenL communlcauon channels, has led Lo a
convergence beLween Lhe consumpuon and Lhe producuon sLages.
1he lncrease ln Lhe number of
knowl edge sources and
knowl edge l nf or mauon
sharlng also has Lhe lndlrecL
consequence of blurrlng Lhe
boundarl es beLween Lhe
secLors
100
and leads Lo a rlse
ln muludlsclpllnary Leams. lor
exampl e, b.1WLLn l s a
plauorm LhaL alms Lo lncrease
Lhe exchange of ldeas uslng
dlglLal medla meLhods ln order Lo lncrease Lhe creauon of orlglnal ldeas (see 8esL Case 6).
1he acuvlues LhaL dlrecLly conLrlbuLe Lo Lhe creauon of an orlglnal culLural producL/servlce are
embedded ln a landscape of admlnlsLrauve, organlsauonal or manufacLurlng acuvlues. 1hese
neLworks of lawyers, buslness-managers or accounLanLs conLrlbuLe Lo Lhe speclñcauon of
conLracLual arrangemenLs ln Lhe CCls and are an lnLegral parL of Lhe lndusLrles' sLrucLure.
2.2.3.2 Cutsourc|ng
Many CCls are 'creauon-orlenLed' and many of Lhem choose Lo remaln small ln order Lo keep Lhls
ßexlblllLy and adapLablllLy LhaL larger CCl enLerprlses do noL necessarlly possess. As noLed above,
larger companles have a sLrucLural advanLage ln Lerms of research, developmenL, admlnlsLrauve
managemenL and deslgn acuvlues Lo whlch Lhe mlcro-SMLs have llule access. Lqually, Lhe
reproducuon, dlsLrlbuuon and promouon of creauve producLs and Lhe admlnlsLrauon of rlghLs are
complex procedures where larger companles have an advanLage compared Lo Lhe smaller ones.
Powever, Lhe larger enLerprlses do noL Lake Lhe same rlsks as mlcro-SMLs.
101
Mlcro-SMLs oûen
adopL a ßexlble amLude wlLh new dynamlc and small-scale Lools and processes Lo provlde soluuons
Lo speclñc problems ln order for Lhem Lo compeLe wlLh larger organlsauons LhaL are noL capable of
belng as versaule. 1hls allows Lhe CCl SML enLrepreneur Lo malnLaln a rlsk-Laklng amLude. 1hls
amLude ls noL necessarlly easy Lo susLaln ln a larger company, as expressed by one lnLervlewee:
´1be cteouve loJosttles coo be o moJel fot bow tbe koowleJqe ecooomy lo
qeoetol ls Jeveloploq. 5o smollet compooles ote fexlble, tbey bove mote
collobotouoo, mote ftee-loocets, ooJ tbetefote tbey coo be o test beJ fot ttyloq
b.1WLLN
b.1WLLN |s a cross p|auorm deve|opment |ab |n the Uk
that fosters the exchange of |deas between d|ñerent
d|sc|p||nes as we|| as oñer|ng adv|ce and methods for
b|end|ng d|g|ta| med|a methods w|th|n the CCI enterpr|se.
(See 8esL Case 6)
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 72
99
lbld., p. 7. : 1he comblnauon of compeuuve and cooperauve processes ls Lermed co-ompeuuon. ln a value creaung ecology, Lhe
CCls models follow Lhe ldeas of slmulLaneous co-operauon and compeuuon beLween members of an eco-sysLem, lbld, p. 14
100
uk 1echnology SLraLegy 8oard, (2009) , op. clL., p. 11.
101
LC Creen Þaper, (2010), op. clL., p. 7.
oot oew soppott mecboolsms tbot coo eveotoolly be tolleJ oot to tbe wlJet
ecooomy´.
(Luropean 1hlnk 1ank)
1he sLrucLure of Lhe CCl SML enLerprlse ls more adapuve, preferrlng ouLsourclng soluuons for oJ
boc servlces whlle malnLalnlng a small core Leam of employees. 1he soluuon favoured by many
organlsauons ln Lhe CCls ls Lo vary Lhe degree of lnLegrauon and conLrol over varlous aspecLs of
producuon and Lo ouLsource Lhls Lo smaller, rlsk-Laklng, dynamlc enLerprlses.
Lven Lhe largesL lnLermedlary enLerprlses regularly organlse Lhe producuon of new medla conLenL
ln relauvely small, seml-auLonomous Leams. CuLsourclng also resulLs ln Lhe need for mlcro-SMLs Lo
be able Lo comblne boLh Lhe creauon as well as Lhe admlnlsLrauon llnked Lo Lhelr freelance
acuvlues. As noLed by a reglonal lnsuLuLe:
´1be blq compooles lo tbe ccls bove teJoceJ tbelt employees lo tbe post 50
yeots...tbey ootsootce. 1be Jeqtee of ootsootcloq ls vety blqb. 1bls olso meoos
tbot people Joo't Jo wbot tbey ote qooJ ot (tbey oeeJ to ocpolte tbe job, bove to
moke tbelt owo toxes, bove to Jo evetytbloq, motkeuoq). AoJ lo tbe post tbls
wos Jeolt wltb tbtooqb tbe Jlvlsloo of loboot. 5o cteouve people lose o lot of ume
Joloq tbloqs tbey ote oot qooJ ot ooJ tbot sboolJo't be tbelt job!´.
(8eglonal lnsuLuLe for CCl, SLrucLurally SLrong 1radluonal Lconomy)
1he facL LhaL CCls have consequenL dlsparlues ln slze and growLh sLrengLhens Lhe Lendency Lo
ouLsource, especlally ln secLors ln whlch auLomauon of producuon enables ouLsourclng, such as
Lhe reLall work ln Lhe fashlon secLor or ln cerLaln compuLer games. lurLher, Lo deal wlLh Lhe
monopollsuc Lendencles of some CCls, a hlgh percenLage of freelancers and mlcro-SMLs rely on
neLworks and personal conLacLs ln order Lo acL as a group.
2.2.3.3. CharacLerlsucs of CCl ouLpuL
lnLernauonal bodles, such as unLSCC wlLh lLs Convenuon on Lhe ÞroLecuon of CulLural ulverslLy,
102

noLe LhaL culLural goods have Lo be seL aparL from sLandardlsed mass consumpuon or even
excluded from lnLernauonal Lrade agreemenLs and compeuuon regulauons.
103
CulLural producLs
are noL 'slmply merchandlse', buL express culLural unlqueness and fosLer culLural dlverslLy.
104
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 73
102
ln CcLober 2003, 148 counLrles supporLed Lhe unLSCC Convenuon on Lhe ÞroLecuon and Þromouon of Lhe ulverslLy of CulLural
ConLenLs and Arusuc Lxpresslons, expresslng Lhe posluon, LhaL mechanlsms Lo malnLaln and develop domesuc producuon are
necessary because Lhe dlverse goods produced around Lhe world are noL slmply merchandlse, buL expresslons of rlch lndlvldual
unlqueness and culLural ldenuues.
103
un/unLSCC Caus AgreemenL, unesco's Clobal Alllance on CulLural ulverslLy, Lu excepuons on compeuuon law, exempuons on
sLaLe ald and Lhe sLaLe ald procedure. SLaLe ald ls usually consldered as lncompauble wlLh Lhe common markeL when lL dlsLorLs
compeuuon by favourlng cerLaln underLaklngs or Lhe producuon of cerLaln goods. llnanclal supporL Lo SML's ln Lhe secLor of Lhe
culLural and creauve lndusLrles can be [usuñed when lL ls (1) promoung economlc developmenL of areas wlLh an abnormally
sLandard of llvlng of serlous underemploymenL, (2) lL ls faclllLaung Lhe developmenL of cerLaln economlc acuvlues of cerLaln
economlc areas, (3) lL ls promoung culLure and herlLage conservauon. 8eLrleved aL 14 uec. 2009 from: hup://
www.europa.eu.lnL.scadplus/leg
104
lor a dlscusslon on Lhe Lenslons beLween commerclallsauon on Lhe one hand and culLural merlL on Lhe oLher, see: SLedman C.,
(2006), Šlrom CenLlemanly Þubllshlng Lo ConglomeraLes: 1he ConLemporary LlLerary lleld ln Lhe uk– ln Llsenberg, C., Cerlach, 8.
and Pandke, C., (eds.), (2006), CulLural lndusLrles: 1he 8rlush Lxperlence ln lnLernauonal Þerspecuve, 8erlln: PumboldL unlverslLy
1helr uullLy and quallLy for any lndlvldual cannoL oûen be deLermlned wlLh any cerLalnLy prlor Lo
consumpuon and someumes LasLe changes as a resulL of repeaLed consumpuon. ln general,
demand wlll lncrease wlLh exposure, ln a process of 'rauonale addlcuon'.
103

CulLural and creauve producLs and servlces are also experlence goods.
106
CulLural producLs and
servlces sLage an experlence LhaL ls dlrecLly relaLed Lo Lhe user. ln order Lo sLage Lhls experlence,
Lhe user's demands wlll be Laken lnLo conslderauon ln Lhe deslgn of Lhe producLs and servlces
conunuously, Lhrough 'feedback loops'. 1hese processes of lnLeracuon form lndlrecL ouLpuLs of Lhe
producLs/servlces.
1hese feedback loops lmprove Lhe deslgn of Lhe producL or Lhe servlce oñered by Lhe CCl
enLerprlse and users are acuvely Laklng parL ln Lhe remouldlng of Lhe producL. 1he end resulL of
Lhese feedback loops may provlde lnslghL lnLo deslgn processes LhaL can be re-used ln Lhe fuLure.
As such, Lhe CCl enLerprlse ouLpuL ls noL merely a producL or a servlce buL also lncludes a deslgn
process. 1he beneñLs of belng able Lo repllcaLe Lhese deslgn processes are obvlous ln a commerclal
sense. An addluonal beneñL ls also avallable for Lhe deslgner, who can examlne and reßecL upon hls
own workßows and Lhls may lead Lo new ouLpuLs ln Lerms of lmproved producLs or paLhs LhaL
appear Lo lead ln a promlslng dlrecuon.
Powever, Lhe deslgn process of formlng a producL or a servlce ls noL always expllclL. 1hose worklng
ln Lhe cross-medla secLor are famlllar wlLh Lhe arLefacLs from parucular creauve domalns buL are
rarely able Lo access Lhe deslgn processes LhaL creaLed Lhese arLefacLs. 8y provldlng an lnLuluve
level of access Lo Lhese deslgn processes, SMLs worklng ln Lhe creauve lndusLrles (such as
adveruslng, mash-up, curaLors eLc.) are far beuer able Lo lmaglne, explore, analyse and predlcL Lhe
mosL favourable dlrecuons ln whlch Lhelr asseLs can Lhen be deployed.
Creaung an experlence ls, however, hlghly sub[ecuve and Lhe economlc value cannoL be preclsely
deLermlned ln advance and Lhls sub[ecuve componenL means LhaL Lhe culLural and creauve
enLrepreneur ls consLanLly Laklng rlsks. ln vlew of Lhe slze characLerlsucs of Lhe ma[orlLy of CCls and
Lhe hlgh compeuuon, Lhe CCl enLrepreneur ls consLanLly looklng for lnnovauve soluuons, new
Lrends, producLs and servlces LhaL are more ln llne wlLh user and consumer demand.
107
As one
lnLervlewee noLed:
´5ometbloq tbot people oeeJ ls to look ot wbot tbey coo Jlstopt, tbey oeeJ to qo
bock to Jlstopuoo. coo tbey Jlstopt teollsouoo? coo tbey Jlstopt Jlsttlbouoo? coo
tbey Jlstopt tbe woy tbey cteote lJeos?´.
(8esearch lnsuLuLe for CCl, knowledge Lconomy)
CulLure has noL excluslvely been seen from Lhe Lradluonal polnL of vlew of conservlng culLural
herlLage buL more as a means Lo pursulng a quallLauvely hlgher level of developmenL. 1hls ßexlble
concepL has had Lhe merlL of llnklng Lhe ldea of culLure Lo a serles of acuvlues - from fashlon, Lo
deslgn and Lhe englneerlng of compuLer games - prevlously consldered ouLslde Lhe sphere of
culLural pollcles.
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 74
103
1hrosby, u., (2001), op. clL., p. 113.
106
kLA (2009), op. clL., p. 39.
107
LC Creen Þaper, (2010), op. clL., p. 7.
2.2.4. Uncerta|n va|ue and chang|ng bus|ness mode|s
As noLed above, Lhe markeL for culLural goods ls boLh volaule and unpredlcLable, promoung
buslness sLraLegles LhaL are 'emergenL', provlslonal, hlghly responslve Lo user-demand and based
on 'lnLuluve' and 'emouonal' knowledge as much as sLandard markeL research.
Consumers are oûen noL aware of Lhelr LasLes ln culLural markeLs. 8aLher Lhey dlscover Lhem
Lhrough repeaLed experlences ln a sequenual process of largely unsysLemauc 'learnlng by
consumlng'. As Lhere ls an lnñnlLe varleLy of creauve oñerlngs, Lhls dlscovery process may be never-
endlng. 1o Lhe exLenL LhaL lndlvlduals are unsure of Lhelr preferences, lL ls noL surprlslng LhaL
producers of goods of expresslve value sLruggle Lo anuclpaLe markeL value.
108
Moreover, ln addluon Lo faclng uncerLalnLy, hlgh compeuuon and exLreme lmbalances beLween Lhe
mlcro and larger enLerprlses, dlglLal convergence has also modlñed Lhe dlsLrlbuuon process of CCl
producLs and servlces. 1he broadenlng usage of Lhe lnLerneL and conLenL lnLerface plauorms has
slgnlñcanLly changed Lhe value chaln and dlsLrlbuuon process, enabllng a 'democrausauon' of
access Lo dlsLrlbuuon and a hlgher paruclpauon of producers and conLenL orlglnaLors.
109

ConsequenLly, Lhls shapes new markeL sLraLegles and new buslness models Lo whlch CCls musL
adapL. As noLed above, Lhe lnLeracuon wlLh Lhe user and consumer ls more dlrecL Lhan ln Lhe
physlcal world and much more dynamlc and self-feedlng:
´1be potely lloeot bosloess moJel ls qlvloq woy to o mocb mote lotet-woveo
eovltoomeot, wbete ctoss-fetullsouoo of sumolos ooJ tespoose, Joto-Jtlveo sopply
ooJ JemooJ, ooJ speeJ of commoolcouoo eooble o mocb mote toplJ evolouoo of
ptoJoct Jevelopmeot ooJ coosompuoo´.
110

1hls shlû has also Lrlggered an exchange of conLenL and servlces and faclllLaLed peer Lo peer
sharlng, endangerlng legal proLecuon surroundlng Lhe conLenL/servlces. Creauve processes are
Lherefore much less llnear and wlLh Lhe lncrease ln ñle-sharlng wlLhln neLworks, Lhe ablllLy of
producers or dlsLrlbuLors Lo conLrol and charge for conLenL has become a ma[or concern. 1haL Lhe
rlghLs holders and Lhe creaLors are noL belng rewarded wlLh Lhls broadened access Lo conLenL ls a
real challenge Lo commerclal success. 1here are presenLly lmporLanL Lenslons beLween dlñerenL
phllosophles as a resulL of Lhe 'democrausauon' of conLenL and Lhls ls addressed ln secuon 3.3
below. WhaL ls lmporLanL ls Lhe manner ln whlch Lhls has añecLed Lhe buslness models of Lhe
companles LhaL have Lo adapL Lo Lhls changlng envlronmenL and aL Lhe same ume be sumclenLly
ßexlble Lo remaln updaLed abouL Lhe newesL changes and opporLunlues.
Conslderlng Lhe speclñc characLerlsucs of Lhe CCls wlLh regard Lo Lhelr slze and composluon, Lhelr
producL creauon processes, Lhelr lnLanglble asseLs and hldden lnnovauon, Lhe shlûlng ouLpuL
consumpuon, Lhe changlng value chaln ecologles, Lhe shlûlng dlglLal envlronmenL and Lhe lmpacL lL
has on buslness models and lnLeracuon wlLh user, lL ls clear LhaL Lhe CCls have many complex
challenges Lo face. 1hey are also worklng ln an envlronmenL LhaL ls noL always prone Lo rewardlng
rlsk Laklng behavlour and Lhls puLs furLher compllcauons on Lhelr paLhs Lo susLalnablllLy and
growLh.
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 73
108
Carboua L L., MonLmarqueue, C., (1996), 'A mlcro economeLrlc sLudy of LheaLre demand', !ournal of CulLural Lconomlcs, vol. 20,
number 1
109
uk 1echnology SLraLegy 8oard, (2009), op. clL., p. 18.
110
lbld., p. 19.
2.3. Ieatures of the CCI sectors
uesplLe all Lhe slmllarlues beLween Lhe dlñerenL secLors of Lhe CCls, lL ls helpful Lo look aL each
speclñc secLor of Lhe CCls ln order Lo hlghllghL Lhe dlñerenL processes LhaL mlghL lnßuence Lhe
supporL of enLrepreneurshlp. Cne of Lhe mosL common lssues observed durlng Lhls sLudy was Lhe
dlvlslon beLween Lhe subsldlsed secLors and Lhe non-subsldlsed ones. 1hls dlvlslon ls also a
reßecuon of Lhe phllosophles of each Member SLaLe when addresslng Lhe culLural secLors and
openlng up Lhe creauve economy:
´lo my oploloo tbete ls o Jl[eteoce betweeo tbe cteouve ooJ tbe closslcol pott. 1be
cteouve loJosttles ote mote eottepteoeotlol tboo tbe mote closslcol pott. 1bls olso
bos to Jo wltb tbe wbole sobslJy system, wbete tbe mote closslcol pott of tbe
loJostty ls beuet oble to tecelve fooJloq ftom tbe qovetomeot´.
(nauonal MlnlsLry of CulLure, knowledge Lconomy)
ulscusslon abouL Lhe emclency of dlñerenL subsldy sysLems ls beyond Lhe scope of Lhls sLudy.
Powever, when Lalklng abouL supporung Lhe enLrepreneurlal dlmenslon of CCls, Lhere was a
growlng reallsauon LhaL subsldy sysLems have shaped Lhe exlsung enLrepreneurlal dlmenslon of
cerLaln secLors. Accordlng Lo Lhe lnLervlewees, heavlly subsldlsed secLors Lend Lo be less drlven by
Lhe commerclal slde of underLaklng an enLrepreneurlal acuvlLy. 1hese secLors are prlmarlly seen as
wllllng Lo creaLe and experlence, raLher Lhan commerclallse, Lhelr producLs and servlces:
´1be otust´s moJel totely wotks wltb tbe omtoJe ot oploloo tbot
commetclollsouoo stteoqtbeos tbe cteouve ootpot. Most foe otusts ooJ
cboteoqtopbets ote eoqoqeJ lo tbe ptocess totbet tboo tbe ootcome. Ooce tbe
opeoloq olqbt bos stotteJ tbey´ve olmost lost lotetest lo lt. l tblok yoo oeeJ to foJ
people wbo ote lotetesteJ lo tbe ptocess ooJ look beyooJ tbe opeoloq olqbt´.
(Plgher Lducauon lnsuLuLe for CCl, knowledge Lconomy)
Moreover, recelvlng publlc fundlng can also lmply a cerLaln degree of pollucal lnßuence on Lhe
producL or servlces. Cverall, mosL respondenLs agreed LhaL subsldles were necessary Lo enable Lhe
experlmenLauon and Lhe developmenL of cerLaln secLors. Powever, Lhe sysLem was consldered
lnemclenL for enabllng susLalnable growLh. Þarallel Lo Lhe blurrlng of fronuers beLween Lhe
dlñerenL secLors, Lhls secLoral dlñerenuauon may gradually dlsappear.
Movlng beyond Lhls duallLy, Lhe uk 1echnology SLraLegy 8oard elaboraLed a model of Lhe CCls
based on how commerclal value was creaLed.
111
1he model ls noL lnLended Lo dlñerenuaLe ln a way
LhaL dlscrlmlnaLes ln favour of a parucular segmenL or group of secLors. lnsLead lL ls almed aL
shaplng pollcy Lo dlrecL changes and enhance Lhe developmenL of CCls by Largeung advlce, supporL
and lnvesLmenL Lallored Lo Lhe pauerns of acuvlLy and Lhelr poLenual for growLh and developmenL.
1he boundarles beLween Lhe clusLers are noL ñxed and some of Lhe secLors may be ln more Lhan
one clusLer or cross over beLween several secLors (for example muslc and games).
1he uk 1echnology SLraLegy 8oard model sLrucLures Lhe CCls along Lhree groups, based on Lhe
physlcal versus dlglLal lnpuL, as well as manual versus Lechnology-alded ouLpuL:
!
Creauve servlce provlders - Lradluonally non subsldlsed
!
Creauve conLenL provlders - mosLly non subsldlsed
!
Creauve experlences/orlglnal provlders - mosLly subsldlsed
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 76
111
uk 1echnology SLraLegy 8oard, (2009), op. clL., p. 21.
lor Lhls sLudy, Lhe creauve experlence and orlglnal provlders have been merged lnLo one clusLer as
Lhey represenL mosLly Lhe core arLs (performlng arLs and vlsual arLs).
1ype of C|uster Sectors Ma|n Character|sncs
Creanve serv|ce
prov|ders
Des|gn, arch|tecture, new
med|a, adverns|ng
- ulrecL lnLeracuon wlLh user's
demand
- Lxchange of ume for lÞ producLs
- Plghly lnßuenced by Lechnology
and dlglusauon
- MosLly pro[ecL-based
- MosLly prlvaLe or self-ñnanclng
Creanve content
prov|ders
1v and kad|o, Iash|on,
Games, Mus|c, I||m, 8ooks
- Þroducers of lÞ producL
- Plghly lnßuenced by dlglusauon,
mosLly for Šcreauon– and user-
lnLeracuon
- MosLly pro[ecL-based
- Mlx of self-ñnanced and
subsldlsed secLors (audlovlsual
and games, books)
- Lxperlence LhreaLs of plracy from
dlglLal markeL and peer Lo peer
exchange
Creanve
exper|ence
prov|ders
Creanve or|g|na|
prov|ders
Þerform|ng arts, v|sua| arts,
(mus|c, games)
- no lnlual ownershlp of work and
usually pay for oLher's copyrlghL
- MosLly subsldlsed and concerned
by Lhe culLural value of Lhelr work
- ArLs are mosLly on conLracL basls
- ulglusauon ls mosLly for
dlssemlnauon and as
communlcauon Lools
- usually one oñ producLs and
servlces
1ab|e 3: C|usters |n the CCIs
(5ootce. 8oseJ oo tbe closslfcouoo of tbe uk 1ecbooloqy 5ttoteqy 8ootJ)
1he use of such clusLerlng was largely agreed upon by Lhe paruclpanLs of Lhe workshops held
durlng Lhe sLudy Lo valldaLe Lhe meLhodology and Lhe resulLs. 1hls clusLerlng enables us Lo see
general Lrends ln Lerms of value chalns, ñnanclal schemes and subsldlsauon.
8efore deLalllng Lhe feaLures of each secLor, lL ls lnLeresung Lo look aL Lhe overall Lurnover of each
secLor as lllusLraLed ln llg. 7. below whlch shows LhaL Lhe secLors LhaL generaLed mosL Lurnover
were malnly Lhe servlce provlders and conLenL provlders.
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 77
I|gure 7: 1ota| 1urnover per Industry
(5ootce. íotoklels 2009, stousucol ooolysls)
1he largesL LoLal Lurnovers per lndusLry are: lashlon (247.189.494 1P t), ueslgn (137.113.932 1P t)
and 8adlo & 1elevlslon (133.192.331 1P t). 1hese lndusLrles, mosLly Lhe conLenL provlders and
creauve servlce provlders, have beneñLed from Lhe rlse of Lhe dlglusauon of socleLy and Lhe
ensulng dlglLal markeL.
lndusLrles LhaL requlre greaLer compeuuon and lnvesLmenL ln Lechnology and/or economles of
scale (l.e. 8adlo & 1elevlslon, Soûware Þub. & Cames, ueslgn, 8ook & Þress and vlsual ArLs) show
more employees ln 'large companles' (l.e. more Lhan 230 workers) as seen ln 1able 2. above.
As can be seen ln llg. 6., Lhe lndusLrles LhaL employ more workers are: lashlon (2.230.334), ueslgn
(1.428.643), ArchlLecLure (762.714) and 8ook & Þress (702.363). Clarlfylng Lhe dlvlslon beLween Lhe
enLrepreneur and Lhe enLerprlse, Lhe lndusLrles LhaL had Lhe largesL number of enLerprlses ln
Lurope were lashlon (142.212), ueslgn (101.233), ArchlLecLure (76.236) and Adveruslng (37.244).
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 78
I|gure 8: Þercentage of Lnterpr|ses per Sector
(5ootce. íotoklels 2009, stousucol ooolysls)
Cverall, Lhere ls a predomlnance of Lhe secLors LhaL requlre greaLer lnvesLmenL ln Lechnology, wlLh
Lhe excepuon of fashlon (whlch ls due Lo Lhe lncluslon of Lhe reLall lndusLry ln Lhe fashlon sLausucs).
lrom Lhe sLudy's sLausucs, for Lhe lndusLrles uslng mosL Lechnology (largely conLenL and servlce
provlders), Lhe LoLal Lurnover ls generaLed predomlnanLly by Lhe large companles whlle ln Lhe oLher
lndusLrles Lhe SMLs play a larger role.
2.3.1. Creanve serv|ce prov|ders
1hls clusLer conslsLs of ueslgn, ArchlLecLure, Adveruslng and new Medla. Creauve servlce
enLerprlses are based around earnlng revenues ln exchange for devoung Lhelr ume and lnLellecLual
properLy (lÞ) Lo oLher buslnesses and organlsauons. 1he creauve acuvlues are embedded ln a
landscape of admlnlsLrauve, organlsauonal or manufacLurlng acuvlues LhaL form an lnLegral parL of
Lhe lndusLrles' sLrucLure.
1he creauve servlce provlders are usually self-ñnanced and conslsL mosLly of mlcro-SMLs. 1he
creauve process ls heavlly supporLed by Lechnology as Lhe creauve process ls hlghly lnvolved ln
user-lnLeracuon, lncreaslngly so wlLh Lhe use of web-based plauorms.
2.3.1.1. Arch|tecture
ArchlLecLure ls more Lhan an arL or a represenLauon of a culLural herlLage buL forms an essenual
parL of our llves by shaplng our envlronmenL and by provldlng servlces lnvolvlng dlrecL lnLeracuon
wlLh our dally llves. ln Lurope, archlLecLure conLrlbuLes Lo Lhe Lhlrd hlghesL number of employees
per secLor ln Lhe CCls, employlng 762.714 workers ln 2007, or 10,7 ° of Lhe LoLal employmenL of
CCls ln Lurope.
112
1he LoLal Lurnover of Lhe secLor amounLs Lo 8.19° of Lhe LoLal Lurnover of Lhe
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 79
112
All sLausucal daLa, unless oLherwlse lndlcaLed, come from Lhe sLausucal sLudy underLaken by Luroklels.
CCls. 1he secLor's overall composluon ln Lurope conslsLed ln 2007 of 62° mlcro-SMLs (1-3
employees) and 23° of small SMLs (4-9 employees). 1hls means LhaL 83° of Lhe archlLecLure
enLerprlses conslsL of companles wlLh fewer Lhan 10 people.
ln Lerms of ñnance, Lhe secLor Lyplcally operaLes wlLh prlvaLe ñnanclng wlLhouL speclñc
governmenLal schemes. Þubllc procuremenL and prlzes are oûen seen as more approprlaLe for Lhe
secLor Lhan subsldles. 1he general professlon ls governed by Lhe general regulauons of Lhe lnLernal
markeL of Lhe Lu (freedom of esLabllshmenL, freedom of movemenL, publlc conLracLs). ln Lhe Lu
Councll 8esoluuon of !anuary 2007, Lhe Lu amended lLs dlrecuve Lo supporL Lhe archlLecLural
secLor Lo encourage moblllLy Lhrough Lhe muLual recognluon of quallñcauons ln archlLecLure across
Lurope.
113
ln Lhe pasL, Lhe Lu has also supporLed Lhe secLor by promoung Lhe co-operauon and Lhe
neLworklng beLween lnsuLuuons dedlcaLed Lo culLural herlLage and archlLecLure.
114
ln addluon Lo supporung
collaborauon and a greaLer
freedom of movemenL, Lhe
access Lo Lhe markeL ls
lndlrecLly supporLed Lhrough
leglslauve means. lndeed, ln
counLrles where lL ls noL
mandaLory Lo hlre archlLecLs,
archlLecLure ls promoLed by
pol nung Lo Lhe cul Lural
slgnlñcance of archlLecLural
deslgn and programmes for
subsldlsed consulLauon by
archl LecLs. l n Lhe oLher
counLrles, supporL ls lnherenL where archlLecLural deslgns are mandaLory for Lhe consLrucuon of
bulldlngs. Some organlsauons, such as ArchlLecLuur Lokaal, seek Lo lnvolve users Lo ensure quallLy
of servlces (see 8esL Case 7).
lC1 Lools are wldely used ln Lhe secLor for deslgn, vlsuallsauon, lnformauon exchange abouL
processes, and lC1 ls wldely used Lo lncrease emclency ln assembllng and reassembllng, as well as
brlnglng Lhe varlous branches of Lhe dlsclpllnes LogeLher.
113
WlLh such lC1 Lools, Lhe producuon
phase has shorLened, buL Lhe secLor ls sull very labour lnLenslve.
2.3.1.2. Adverns|ng
1he Luropean Assoclauon of Communlcauon Agencles names 6 secLors where adveruslng ls wldely
used, namely: 1elevlslon, newspapers, Magazlnes, CuLdoor, 8adlo and Clnema.
116
ln Lhe mosL
recenL ñgures provlded (2007), Lhe healLhcare lndusLry spenL t1.3 bllllon on adverusemenL, Lhe
non-alcohollc drlnks lndusLrles t 1.3 bllllon, Lhe alcohollc drlnks lndusLrles t1.3 bllllon, Lhe food
Arch|tectuur Lokaa|
Arch|tectuur Lokaa| |n 1he Nether|ands |s d|rect|y app|y|ng
user]consumer's parnc|panon w|th arch|tectura| po||cy
ensur|ng a qua||ty of serv|ces. 1he ma|n p|n the
Nether|ands |s a sectora| pro[ect for games that advances
new techno|ogy to SMLs a|m|ng at |mprov|ng |earn|ng
systems and advanced new techno|ogy to SMLs |n order to
advance the sector and deve|op know|edge from app||ed
research w|th SMLs.
(See 8esL Case 7)
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 80
113
Luropean ÞarllamenL ulrecuve 2006/100/LC, 8egulauons by Lhe LC no 1137/2008
114
See for example –ArchlLecLure normande, une AvenLure Luropeenne– ln 2000
113
Sarlylldlz, S., Czsarlylldlz, S., (1998) Š1he luLure of ArchlLecLural ueslgn Þracuce wlLhln lC1 uevelopmenLs–, unpubllshed, hup://
reposlLory.Ludelû.nl
116
lor Lhe use of adveruslng ln Lhe Clnema and 8adlo secLor, adverusemenL sales ñgures are belng glven only ln a parL of Lhe Lu
(8elglum, lrance, Cermany, lLaly, neLherlands, Spaln, Sweden, and Lhe uk).
lndusLrles t6 bllllon and Lhe auLomouve lndusLrles t6 bllllon.
117

ln Lhe sLudy's sLausucs, adveruslng ls responslble for 4.31° of Lhe LoLal revenue of Lhe CCls ln 2007,
and employs 6.33° of Lhe LoLal CCl employees. ln Lerms of lLs composluon, 61° of Lhe secLor
conslsLs of 1-3 people enLerprlses, whlle 24° of Lhe CCls have beLween 4-9 employees. Comblned,
Lhe companles under 10 employees are responslble for 28° of Lhe LoLal Lurnover for Lhe secLor.
1he rlse of lC1 has led LASA (Luropean Adveruslng SLandard Agency - see 8esL Case 8) members Lo
reach a consensus on lncludlng dlglLal markeung communlcauons ln Lhe remlL of adveruslng self-
regulaLory organlsauons. Cnllne adveruslng spendlng per user has rlsen dramaucally ln Lhe lasL four
years, wlLh uk leadlng Lhe way. 1he onllne adveruslng markeL ln Lhe uk wenL from C8Þ 122 per
user ln 2006 Lo C8Þ 217 ln 2010. lrance's onllne adveruslng ls now reachlng ™133 per user, from
™89 per user four years ago. As Lhe sLudy by Lhe uk 1echnology SLraLegy 8oard conñrms, 70° of Lhe
value and growLh poLenual comes from conLenL and adveruslng space.
118
1he eMarkeLer esumaLes
LhaL adverusers wlll spend ™7.3 bllllon Lo reach all WesLern Luropeans, an lncrease of 23° from lasL
year.
119
2.3.1.3. Des|gn
´ueslqo ls sull oboot looovouoq wltblo tbe some potometets ooJ Jtlveo by tbe
some ombluoo, bot opplleJ to o mocb btooJet spectte of cbolleoqes, wbete tbe
Jeslqoet ls pott of o voloe cbolo wbete looovouoo - tbot teocbes fot beyooJ
motetlol ootcomes - ls oJJtesseJ by molu-Jlsclpllooty teoms - lo tbe wotJ´s most
locloslve seose. ueslqo coo be opplleJ to oo ottefoct ot o speclfc solouoo to o
speclfc cbolleoqe, bot lt coo olso be opplleJ to o cootext - be lt o pbyslcol spoce ot
eovltoomeot ot o coofqotouoo´.
120
Cradually dlsLanclng lLself from Lhe earller assoclauon wlLh aesLheucs, deslgn lncludes, noL
excluslvely, servlce deslgn, envlronmenLal deslgn, deslgn for all, deslgn for proñL, user-deslgn, and
experlence deslgn. 1he secLor ls now undersLood as an lmporLanL drlver of |nnovanon.
121
WlLhln
Lhe worklng documenL ´ueslqo os o Jtlvet of oset-ceotteJ looovouoo´, Lhe Lu hlghllghLs deslgn as a
poLenual sLraLegy for lnnovauve soluuon and producL LhaL seeks Lo undersLand user needs,
asplrauons and ablllues aL a lower cosL Lhan Lradluonal 8&u research acuvlues.
122
ueslgn ls
lncreaslngly recognlsed as a secLor LhaL can have many crossovers and uses wlLh sLrong spln oñ
eñecLs on oLher secLors and companles of Lhe economy.
123
1hls was also seen ln Lhe number of
deslgners worklng ouLslde Lhe deslgn secLor,
124
suggesung Lhe exLernal added value of deslgn for
oLher lndusLrles.
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 81
117
Luropean Assoclauon of Communlcauon Agencles, www.eaca.be, vlewed March 2010
118
uk 1echnology SLraLegy 8oard, (2009), op. clL., p. 8.
119
See hup://www.emarkeLer.com/8eporLs/All/Lm_euro_ad_[an07.aspx
120
uanlsh ueslgner, (2010), Š1he role of deslgn ln Lhe 21
sL
CenLury: uanlsh ueslgners' ManlfesLo–, Copenhagen: uanlsh ueslgner,
hup://www.danlshdeslgners.com/medla/678.pdf, p. 3.
121
Luropean Commlsslon SLañ Worklng uocumenL, (2009a), op. clL., p. 14 .
122
lbld., pp. 13-16.
123
Þro lnno Crlps Clobal 8evlew of lnnovauon lnLelllgence and Þollcy Audlences, (2003), ueslgn as a Lool for lnnovauon, Mlnl-sLudy
prepared for Lhe Luropean Commlsslon (uC LnLerprlse and lndusLry)
124
Luropean Commlsslon SLañ Worklng uocumenL, (2009a), op. clL., p. 27, and also ln uk ueparLmenL of lndusLry and 1rade (u1l)
(2003), CreauvlLy, ueslgn and 8uslness Þerformance, Lconomlcs Þaper no 13, London: u1l
Powever, deslgn processes
are noL yeL fully undersLood
as 8&u and are usually
consl dered f rom a soû
l nnovauon per s pecuve.
Crganlsauons such as ulsseny
Pub seek Lo sumulaLe Lhls
undersLandlng wlLhln non-CCl
secLors (see 8esL Case 9).
lL emerged from Lhe sLausucal
analysls LhaL deslgn represenLs 13.49° of Lhe LoLal revenue of Lhe CCls. lL ls Lhe second mosL
lmporLanL amongsL Lhe secLors.
ln Lerms of Lhe secLor's composluon, as ln Lhe oLher secLors, Lhe bulk of Lhe companles conslsL of
mlcro-SMLs: approxlmaLely 73° of Lhe deslgn companles have fewer Lhan 10 workers (43° havlng
under 4 employees, 30° beLween 4-9 employees). Companles under 10 employees (73°) are
generaung 20° of Lhe LoLal revenue whlle 10 - 49 employees companles (20° of Lhe secLor) are
generaung 31° of Lhe LoLal revenue of Lhe secLor. Clearly, dlscrepancles ln slze and Lurnover can be
observed.
ueslgn ls hlghly sLrucLured ln cross-dlsclpllnary Leams and cross- secLoral collaborauons.
123
lL works
heavlly ln neLworks wlLh muludlsclpllnary Leams for greaLer lnLegrauon of muluple lnLeresLs,
faclllLaung ecologles for open lnnovauon.
126

1he deslgn secLor ls usually self ñnanced, however cerLaln counLrles, noLably Lhe Scandlnavlan
counLrles buL also Spaln, lrance, Lhe uk and Lhe neLherlands have esLabllshed governmenLal
supporL Lo lncrease Lhe use of deslgn by companles.
127
ueslgn ls hlghly lnßuenced by recenL
developmenLs ln lC1 for Lhe creauon processes buL lC1 also faclllLaLes Lhe neLworklng and
lnLeracuon wlLh users.
2.3.1.4. new (Cross) Medla
new Medla ls Lhe newesL subgroup among Lhe creauve lndusLrles. lL has emerged as a resulL of
rapld advances ln lC1 almed aL developlng Lhe global lnformauon lnfrasLrucLure, glvlng rlse Lo Lhe
so-called lnformauon SocleLy.
128

new medla ls boLh a producL (soûware, carLoon, game eLc.) as well as a servlce, a communlcauon
Lool for markeung and dlsLrlbuung oLher producLs. 1he secLor covers a broad range of acuvlues
deallng wlLh dlglLal deslgn, buL more speclñcally servlce deslgn: lL deals wlLh processes llnked Lo
servlces beLween people and Lhelr envlronmenL. 1hls deñnluon makes Lhe acuvlues ln Lhls secLor
lnherenLly cross-secLoral. 1he supporung organlsauons glve supporL ln Lhls ñeld ln Lhe form of
lnnovauon and 8&u pro[ecLs. ln Lerms of lC1 use, accordlng Lo Lhe sLudy's secLoral experL
D|sseny nub
D|sseny nub 8arce|ona prov|des a network of des|gners as
we|| as targets an aud|ence from d|verse sector,
snmu|anng co||aboranon between bus|nesses and CCIs. It
a|so serves as a research and reference po|nt and
educanona| centre.
(See 8esL Case 9)
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 82
123
uanlsh ueslgner, (2010), op. clL., p. 4, hup://www.danlshdeslgners.com/medla/678.pdf, p.4, LC SLañ Worklng uocumenL (2009a),
op. clL., p. 18.
126
Cpen lnnovauon was deñned as Lhe use of purposlve lnßows and ouulows of knowledge Lo acceleraLe lnLernal lnnovauon, and
expand Lhe markeLs for exLernal use of lnnovauon, respecuvely. Chesbrough, P.W., (2003), Cpen lnnovauon: 1he new lmperauve for
creaung and proñung from Lechnology, 8osLon: Parvard 8uslness School Þress
127
LC SLañ Worklng uocumenL, (2009a), op. clL., p. 31.
128
unC1Au,(2008), op. clL., p. 132.
quesuonnalres, Lhe mosL lmporLanL use of lC1 Lechnologles for CCl SMLs are communlcauon Lools
(91°) and knowledge/goods producuon Lools (76°).
1he secLor has 61° of companles wlLh fewer Lhan 4 employees, buL lL ls responslble for 20.12° of
Lhe employmenL ln Lhe CCls. 1he Lurnover ls, however, mosLly generaLed by Lhe blgger enLerprlses
(80° of Lhe LoLal revenue ls generaLed by companles wlLh 30š employees ouL of whlch 48° ls
generaLed from enLerprlses wlLh 30-249 employees conslsung of 3.14° of Lhe secLor). lC1 accounLs
for half of Lhe rlse ln Lu producuvlLy
129
and ls essenual Lo buslnesses, publlc servlces and Lo maklng
a modern economy work and a cruclal componenL of Lhe Lu recovery plan. Such economlc eñecLs
can be seen ln several Member SLaLes.
130

ln Lerms of ñnanclal supporL, Lhe secLor ls noL subsldlsed buL exLernal supporL exlsLs, alLhough Lhe
paLhs Lo obLaln lL are oûen far Loo complex for lndlvldual SMLs. ln Lerms of growLh poLenual, Lhe
companles have faclllues Lo sLarL up due Lo Lhe shorL ume-spans of 8&u and producL llfecycles buL
Lhe companles have dlmculLy ln growlng. 1he lssue of markeL fragmenLauon ls noLable for Lhls
secLor. Lurope ls very fragmenLed ln Lerms of language and regulauons abouL lÞ8, lnformauon
access, eLc. 1hls sysLem dlscourages Lhe companles from growlng across nauonal borders as lL
usually creaLes only locally operaung SMLs, alLhough Lhe markeL ls global.
131
1he new Medla and
lC1 Lechnologles have also Lhe poLenual Lo añecL Lhe overall envlronmenL for CCls due Lo Lhe
lncreaslng lmporLance of dlglusauon.
l n L er ms of l nnovauon
p o L e n u a l , n e w me d l a
lnLroduces new forms of
expresslon and plauorms,
such as user- generaLed
conLenL. l L changes Lhe
bac kgr ound as s mal l er
companl es can compeLe
añordably ln blgger markeLs
and adveruse Lhelr producLs
o n l l n e a l L h o u g h L h e
compeuuon ls ñerce. 1he LulMA WhlLe Þaper on lC1 sLandardlsauon demonsLraLes Lhe wllllngness
Lo pay lncreaslng auenuon Lo new Lechnologles as a drlver of lnnovauon (see 8esL Case 10).
2.3.2. Creanve content producers
1hls clusLer lncludes ñlm, 1v, fashlon, games, muslc, books and publlshlng. Creauve conLenL
enLerprlses produce lÞ, usually maklng use of Lechnlcal proLecuon measures. 1hese enLerprlses
earn revenues Lhrough a varleLy of relaLed buslness models such as onllne and oñ llne sales,
adveruslng or subscrlpuon. 1hese enLerprlses lnvesL caplLal upfronL ln order Lo develop creauve
pro[ecLs prlor Lo any revenues. uependlng on Lhe secLor, Lhls upfronL lnvesLmenL can be subsLanual,
and as a resulL Lhe lnvesLmenL oûen Lakes place on a pro[ecL-by-pro[ecL basls raLher Lhan ln Lhe
conLexL of an ongolng and susLalnable buslness. WlLhln Lhls group, a loose buL lmporLanL dlsuncuon
can be made beLween Lhose enLerprlses LhaL focus on Lhe nexL lndlvldual creauve pro[ecL and
LDIMA
LDIMA |s the LU network that a|ms at creanng an open
and |ega| framework for new d|g|ta| products throughout
the LU so as to avo|d the |ega| barr|ers b|ock|ng a s|ng|e
Luropean d|g|ta| market.
(See 8esL Case 10)
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 83
129
Luropean ulglLal Medla Assoclauon (LulMA), (2009), WhlLe Þaper on Þollcy SLraLegy for Lhe uevelopmenL of new Medla Servlces
2009-2014, see hup://ec.europa.eu/lnformauon_socleLy/eeurope/l2010/docs/posL_l2010/addluonal_conLrlbuuons/edlma.pdf
130
ln uk, Lhe dlglLal markeL and dlglLal conLenL ls responslble for approx. 70° of Lhe Lurnover of Lhe creauve lndusLrles ln Lhe uk: see
uk 1echnology SLraLegy 8oard, (2009), op. clL., p. 12.
131
Luropean ulglLal Medla Assoclauon (LulMA), (2009), op. clL., p. 2.
Lhose LhaL are sLrucLured Lo develop a susLalnable 'producuon llne' of creauve producLs and an
lncreaslng body of lÞ for renewed explolLauon.
ln Lerms of Lhe creauve process, Lhe clusLer ls hlghly lnßuenced by dlglLal convergence: Lhe
processes are usually hlghly Lechnologlcally alded, havlng an lmporLanL user-lnLeracuon componenL
wlLhln Lhe creauve process, and Lhe producLs and servlces are also lncreaslngly dlglLal, wlLh Lhe e-
book belng an lllusLrauon of Lhls. Þlracy and peer-Lo-peer exchange are LhreaLenlng Lhe loss of
value of some of Lhe conLenL producL and servlces. 1he creauve conLenL producers have slgnlñcanL
crossovers wlLh oLher secLors of Lhe economy ouLslde Lhe CCls, such as moblle phone neLwork
oper aL or s , hands eL
manufacLurers for muslc
dlsLrlbuuon, whlch have
conslderable lnßuence
on Lhe buslness models
deployed.
132
2.3.2.1. I||m
lllm ls Lhe secLor LhaL recelves, generally speaklng, sLrong supporL from Lhe sLaLe across Luropean
counLrles Lhrough varlous measures (Lax shelLer, subsldles eLc). 1ax shelLers of varylng Lypes ln
Pungary, neLherlands, lreland, Lhe uk, Luxembourg, lrance, Spaln and 8elglum are meanL Lo
encourage lnvesLmenLs and conslderably enhance Lhe fundlng opporLunlues for ñlm producuon.
1he secLor ls also hlghly subsldlsed ln oLher Luropean counLrles, Lhough Lhe recenL ñnanclal crlsls
means LhaL Lhls subsldy ls llkely Lo decrease.
1he speclal programme for
Lhe audlovlsual secLor aL Lhe
Luropean level, MLulA,
133

also Lackles Lhe needs of Lhe
secLor. MLulA co-ñnances
L r a l nl ng l nl ua uv es f or
a u d l o v l s u a l l n d u s L r y
p r o f e s s l o n a l s , L h e
developmenL of producuon
p r o [ e c L s , L r a l n l n g o f
professlonals, and generally
dlsLrlbuLes and promoLes ñlms and audlovlsual ouLpuL (see 8esL Case 11). Cn Lop of Lhls, Lhe Lu
Medla programme wlll launch aL Lhe end of 2010 a Medla Þroducuon CuaranLee lund LhaL wlll be
almed aL supporung and faclllLaung Lhe access of publlc audlovlsual companles Lo bank credlLs.
134
ln Lerms of Lhe secLor's composluon, Lhe secLor ls hlghly fragmenLed. 60° of Lhe companles have
MLDIA
MLDIA |s the LU support programme for the aud|ov|sua|
sector. It co-hnances pro[ects , promotes, tra|ns h|m
profess|ona| and support the sector to face the d|g|ta|
sh|h.
(See 8esL Case 11)
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 84
132
uk 1echnology SLraLegy 8oard, (2009), op. clL., p. 22.
133
See hup://ec.europa.eu/lnformauon_socleLy/medla/lndex_en.hLm
134
See hup://ec.europa.eu/culLure/medla/programme/overvlew/fundlng/lndex_en.hLm
Luropean Adverns|ng Standard A|||ance
Luropean Adverns|ng Standard A|||ance |s the s|ng|e vo|ce
on adverns|ng se|f regu|anon |ssues and adv|ses the sector
on such |ssues and others such as d|g|ta| markenng
commun|canons.
(See 8esL Case 8)
under 4 employees (see llg. 2) buL Lhese companles produce only 12° of Lhe secLoral Lurnover. 1he
companles LhaL have 4-9 employees represenL 26° of Lhe secLor's enLerprlses and Lhey generaLe
16° of Lhe LoLal revenue of Lhe secLor (see llg. 3.). Companles LhaL have more Lhan 30 employees
represenL a blL less Lhan 2° of Lhe LoLal of enLerprlses ln Lhe secLor buL generaLe 49° of Lhe LoLal
revenue. 1he LoLal Lurnover of Lhe secLor ls 6.10° of Lhe CCls Lurnover and lL holds 4.84° of Lhe
employees of Lhe LoLal CCls. 1he markeL reached a LoLal spendlng value of uSu39 bllllon ln 2009.
1he dlglLal markeL has also been changlng Lhe perspecuve for Lhls secLor. 1here ls a growlng
emergence of onllne renLal subscrlpuon servlces and a consequenL rapld upLake of vCu and pay-
per-vlew (ÞÞv). 1he vCu markeL [usL sLarLed ln 2004 buL was expecLed Lo grow more Lhan Lenfold
from uSu 163 mllllon ln 2004 Lo uSu 1.7 bllllon ln 2009.
133

2003 2004 200S 2006 2007 2008
D|g|ta| Screens 30 33 204 327 897 1329
D|g|ta| s|tes 27 43 148 338 330 813
1ab|e 4: D|g|ta| C|nema s|tes and screen |n Lurope (2003-2008)
(5ootce. MeJlo 5oles)
1J6
An lnablllLy Lo susLaln growLh ls one of Lhe maln lssues for Lhe ñlm secLor. Llnked Lo Lhe dlmculLy Lo
enLer Lhe markeL, Lhe ñlm secLor suñers from Lhe lnaccesslblllLy of growLh ñnance aûer Lhe lnlual
company seL-up. lndeed, Lhe reporL on Lhe evaluauon of Lhe MLulA programme lndlcaLed LhaL Lu
audlovlsual secLor suñered from sLrucLural weaknesses such as markeL fragmenLauon and Lhe low
clrculauon of Luropean works ouLslde Lhelr counLry of orlgln.
137
ln Lerms of value chaln processes,
Lhe producuon ume ls generally long, alLhough Lhe producL can be muluplled and dlsLrlbuLed.
2.3.2.2. 8ooks and Þub||sh|ng
Þubllshlng and prlnL medla
consuLuLe an l mporLanL
subgroup of Lhe creauve
lndusLrles from boLh Lhe
culLural and Lhe economlc
polnL of vlew. 1echnologlcally,
however, Lhe publlshlng and
medla lndusLrles are faclng
new challenges due Lo Lhe
gr owl ng L r end L owar ds
e l e c L r o n l c p u b l l s h l n g .
Accordlng Lo Lhe lederauon of Luropean Þubllshers (see 8esL Case 12), Lhe LoLal annual sales
Iederanon of Luropean Þub||shers
ILÞ |s Luropean sectora| support organ|sanon for book
pub||shers assoc|anon |n the LU. It ma|n|y dea|s w|th
|eg|s|anve support at the LU |eve| and adv|ses on copyr|ght
|ssues.
(See 8esL Case 12)
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 83
133
kLA, (2006), op. clL., p. 114.
136
Luropean Audlovlsual CbservaLory, (2009a), Þress 8elease, Lmbargo ulglLal Screen 8ase grows 70° ln 2008, SLrasbourg/Mllan:
see hup://www.obs.coe.lnL/abouL/oea/pr/dlglLal_clnema2008.hLml
137
Lu8LvAL Medla Consulung group, (november 2007), llnal reporL of MLulA programme Þlus and Medla lormauon, hup://
ec.europa.eu/culLure/medla/programme/docs/overvlew/evaluauon/reporLs/medla°20plus/execuuve_sum_en.pdf
revenue of book publlshers of Lhe Lu and Lhe LLA ln 2008 was approxlmaLely t 23.73 bllllon.
138
1he
secLor comprlses mosLly of enLerprlses wlLh 1-3 employees (39°) generaung 12° of Lhe LoLal
Lurnover of Lhe secLor, whlle mosL revenue (72°) ls generaLed by companles wlLh 30š employees
(2.38° of Lhe secLor).
Compeuuon ln boLh Lhe physlcal and Lhe dlglLal markeL lnßuences Lhe sLrucLure of Lhe secLor buL
lnluauves such as vA1 reducuon greaLly supporL Lhe growLh of Lhe secLor. ln 23 of Lhe 27 Member
SLaLes of Lhe Luropean unlon, prlnLed books beneñL from reduced raLes of vA1. lreland, Þoland and
Lhe unlLed klngdom provlde for a zero vA1 raLe for books, whlle ñve more counLrles have exLended
reduced raLes Lo books on all physlcal supporL: lrance, Spaln, Slovenla, norway and Lhe
neLherlands. Sweden and lceland allow reduced vA1 for audlo books.
139
A reduced raLe of vA1 for
all klnds of elecLronlc books could asslsL Lhe secLor Lo supporL Lhe developmenL of a dlglLal markeL.
1he prlnclple of cross-subsldlsauon ls a fundamenLal and dlsuncuve characLerlsuc of Lhe publlshlng
secLor,
140
and as such conLrlbuLes greaLly Lo culLural dlverslLy ln Lhe secLor. lunds from one markeL
can supporL enLranLs ln new markeLs and as such can supporL SMLs ln Lhelr secLor. 1hls can acL as a
supporL for Lhe access Lo Lhe markeL.
CrowLh raLes pro[ecLed for Lhe publlshlng secLor are slgnlñcanLly lower Lhan for oLher culLural
lndusLrles and Lhls ls malnly due Lo Lhe facL LhaL publlshlng ls consldered as a maLure markeL
(especlally book publlshlng) and a markeL where Lhe lmpacL of lC1 developmenLs may be less
slgnlñcanL Lhan for oLher lndusLry secLors. Powever, Lhe lnßuence of lC1 and dlglusauon ls greaLly
añecung Lhe secLor: spendlng on elecLronlc books was expecLed Lo grow exponenually from uSu 42
mllllon ln 2004 Lo uSu 1.7 bllllon ln 2009 (110° CAC8), when e-books wlll represenL 3.2° of LoLal
book spendlng ln Lurope.
As a consequence, companles have Lo comblne boLh Lhe prlnLed publlshlng formaL as well as Lhe
dlglLal one: one publlshlng SML can be ln an advanced sLaLe ln Lerms of prlnLed publlshlng buL aL an
early sLage ln Lerms of e-publlshlng. 1he enLry of Lhe lÞad, Lhe e8ook and Lhe lncreaslng dlglLal
markeL wlLh players such as Coogle or Amazon are only slgns of Lhe poLenual of Lhe dlglLal markeL
as well as Lhe LhreaLs Lo Lhe mlcro-SMLs LhaL do noL possess slmllar access Lo Lhls dlglLal markeL.
llg. 9. below demonsLraLes Lhe lncrease ln Lhe wholesale of elecLronlc book sales ln Lhe lasL elghL
years ln Lhe unlLed SLaLes. 1he uS ñgures were used ln Lhls reporL as an lndlcauon as whaL Lhe
fuLure Lrends for daLa for Lhe Luropean markeL could be as lL ls Loo early Lo draw ñgures.
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 86
138
See hup://www.fep-fee.eu
139
See hup://www.fep-fee.eu/2.3.hLml
140
CommenLs from Luropean SecLoral Crganlsauon
I|gure 9: US 1rade Who|esa|e L|ectron|c 8ook Sa|es, 2002-2010 (1st quadr|mestre)
(5ootce. www.lJpf.otq)
141

AnoLher consequence of Lhe rlse of Lhe dlglLal markeL and Lhe subsequenL rlse of plracy ls LhaL of
copyrlghL regulauons. As Lhey are one of Lhe maln rewards Lo Lhe secLor, lÞ8 regulauons are
lmporLanL and Lhey conLrlbuLe Lo Lhe susLalnablllLy of Lhe culLural dlverslLy. CopyrlghL ls cruclal ln
allowlng Lhe publlshlng secLor Lo ßourlsh, lL ls Lhe legal framework LhaL enables buslness models ln
Lhls secLor.
Many SMLs noL only lack Lechnologlcal Lralnlng, buL also secLor speclñc Lralnlng (managemenL
skllls, publlshlng skllls, eLc.). CurrenLly, secLoral assoclauons provlde baslc Lralnlng LhaL
predomlnanLly focuses on producuon. 1he secLor works heavlly ln cross-secLoral neLworks, for
example wlLh audlovlsual and muslc.
142

2.3.2.3. Games
ln addluon Lo open deslgn games, lnLeracuve envlronmenLs, smarL movle games and serlous games
are lncreaslngly acknowledged as sulLable for a broader use wlLhln socleLy and economlcs.
Þedagoglcal games LhaL slmulaLe surgery, open space lnLeracuve envlronmenLs used for clLy
plannlng, or games developed for people wlLh dlsablllues are all examples of Lhe rlse of mulu-
funcuonallLy ln Lhls secLor.
Powever, on a hlgher level, Lhe secLor ls noL sumclenLly recognlsed and ls noL separaLed from
soûware ln mosL sLausucs. 1he secLor ls also only parually recognlsed as an lnnovauve new medla
ln Lhe creauve conLenL secLor
143
. ln Lerms of LoLal revenue, Lhe game secLor ls responslble for 6.47°
of Lhe LoLal revenue generaLed by Lhe CCls.
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 87
141
See hup://www.ldpf.org
142
lnLervlew wlLh nauonal SecLoral Crganlsauon
143
Luropean Cames ueveloper lederauon, (2009), CommenLs fromLhe Luropean Cames ueveloper lederauon on ŠCreauve ConLenL
ln a Luropean ulglLal Slngle MarkeL: Challenges for Lhe luLure A 8eßecuon uocumenL– from Lhe uC lnlSC and uC MA8k1, Avallable
onllne aL: hup://ec.europa.eu/lnLernal_markeL/consulLauons/docs/2009/conLenL_onllne/reßecuon_paper°20web_en.pdf
Large dlsparlues exlsL beLween Lhe few numbers of large companles (0.31° of companles have over
230 employees) LhaL are responslble for 31° of Lhe LoLal revenue, and Lhe mlcro-SMLs (1-3
employees) conslsung ln 62° of Lhe enLerprlses and LhaL generaLe 3° of Lhe LoLal Lurnover. Arlslng
from Lhls lmbalance ln Lhe markeL posluon, accesslng Lhe markeL ls dlmculL for small buslnesses
due Lo Lhe monopollsauon of large game plauorms owners.
144
1he secLor's access Lo markeL ls also
lnßuenced by Lhe exLernal leglslauve facLors such as Lhe raung sysLem.
1here are lmporLanL dlñerences ln Lhe esumauons for Lhe dlñerenL segmenLs of Lhe vldeo games
markeL:
!
Console games: Lhey are heavlly dependenL on Lhe nexL generauon of consoles and Lhe
prlces wlll follow Lhe launch of new hardware. Cverall, Lhe compound annual growLh
should lncrease aL a moderaLe raLe of 6.4°.
!
Cnllne games: Lhey wlll boom as a consequence of Lhe lncreaslng speed of broadband
connecuons. 1he average spendlng on onllne games lncreased from uSu 303 mllllon ln
2004 Lo uSu 4.2 bllllon ln 2009 (33° CAC8). Cnllne games wlll represenL 30° of LoLal
vldeo games spendlng ln 2009 (up from 7.6° ln 2004).
!
Wlreless games: Lhey wlll also expand followlng Lhe growLh of 3C moblle peneLrauon.
Wlreless games subscrlbers were expecLed Lo lncrease from 8.3 mllllon ln 2004 Lo 96
mllllon ln 2009 (63.2° CAC8). 1he spendlng on wlreless games ralsed up Lo uSu 3.7
bllllon ln 2009 (32° CAC8).
!
ÞC games: Lhey wlll conunue decllnlng, as mlgrauon Lo oLher plauorms wlll consolldaLe.
uecrease ls esumaLed aL a compound annual raLe of 3.2° ln Lhe years leadlng up Lo
2009.
AnoLher consequence of Lhe rlse ln lC1 ls LhaL value chalns are shorLened, and Lhls enables
enLerprlses Lo sklp mlddle-men and lncreases Lhe lnvolvemenL of users ln Lhe producuon of a game.
Powever, Lhe secLor suñers from plracy and gameplay ls noL yeL proLecLed from plaglarlsm ln
copyrlghL leglslauon.
143
ln Lerms of fundlng, as mosL of Lhe companles are mlcro-SMLs, Lhelr ume ls mosLly geared Lowards
creaung value and malnLalnlng Lhelr neLworks, leavlng very llule ume Lo concenLraLe on looklng for
fundlng opporLunlues. 1hey are usually self ñnanced buL Lhey mlghL recelve governmenLal supporL,
as seen ln lrance Lhrough Lhe Lax shelLer or Lhrough a Lax rellef for game developers ln Lhe uk.
146
neLworks are an lmporLanL
source of supporL ln order Lo
share Lhe knowledge, ln
parucular abouL Lhe rapld
changes ln Lhe envlronmenL
ln Lerms of Lechnologles (see
for example lmaglnov ln
lrance, 8esL Case 13). 1he
l ncreasl ng l nLegrauon of
muluple acLors such as moblle
Imag|nov
Imag|nov |s the game c|uster |n Irance wh|ch |s spec|hca||y
supported by the reg|on of khone A|pes. It has auracted
severa| bus|nesses and has snmu|ated mu|n-d|sc|p||nary
pro[ects as we|| to boost commerce |n the reg|on.
(See 8esL Case 13)
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 88
144
Luropean Cames ueveloper lederauon, (2009), op. clL., p. 2.
143
Luropean Cames ueveloper lederauon, (2009), op. clL., p. 11.
146
See hup://blznewz.co.uk/buslness_news/2010/391/uk-budgeL-2010-measures-for-supporung-buslness-and-growLh
operaLors, lnLerneL provlders, soclal neLworks, onllne shops, onllne rlghLs aggregaLors and
broadband Lechnology companles, ralses Lhe rlsk of ollgopolles developlng.
uesplLe Lhe hlghly collaborauve process, Lhe secLor has dlmculLy organlslng lLself malnly due Lo lLs
slze, novelLy, and dlverslLy. As a resulL, Lhe capaclLy for self-reßecuon on enLrepreneurlal hablLs ls
llmlLed, oûen leadlng Lo dlmculues ln organlslng Lhe secLor ln represenLauve organlsauons.
2.3.2.4. 8roadcasnng (1V and kad|o)
Accordlng Lo Lhe Luropean Audlovlsual CbservaLory, Lhe Luropean audlovlsual markeL was
evaluaLed aL approxlmaLely t 120 bllllon ln 2009. uue Lo Lhe rlse of Lhe lnLerneL, Lhe change ln Lhe
secLor wlll furLher lncrease Lhe markeL and oñer many posslblllues as well as challenges for Lhe
secLor. 1he blggesL companles have a markeL posluon LhaL allows Lhem Lo conLrol some parLs of Lhe
markeL, buL Lhe smaller ones also need Lo have access Lo plauorms or Lo develop vCu plauorms
and access Lhem. ln some
counLrles, such as wlLh Lhe
uuLch Medla Pub, Lhls need
for lnLeroperablllLy ls belng
addressed (see 8esL Case 14).
Ac c or dl ng L o S L r a L e g y
Analyucs, Lhe global rlse of
vCu ls expecLed Lo go from
™11,3 bllllon ln 2010 Lo ™17
bllllon ln 2012.
147
under such
clrcumsLances, Lurope wlll
experlence growLh ln mulu-channel Lelevlslon, spurred by dlglLal LerresLrlal 1v (u11) rollouL. u11
has already been launched ln several Lu counLrles and mlgrauon Lo dlglLal ls expecLed Lo be
compleLe across all of Lurope by 2010- 2012.
148
SaLelllLe subscrlpuons have been growlng fasL ln
recenL years buL ln Lhe fuLure Lhelr growLh raLe wlll slow down, challenged by Lhe emergence of
u11 and new dlglLal plauorms such as 1v over uSL (lÞ-1v). Looklng aL Lhe poLenual evoluuon of Lhe
secLor ln Lhe elecLronlc markeL, one of Lhe pre-condluons ls access Lo hlgh speed lnLerneL as Lhe
growLh of vCu ls Lyplcally dependenL on lnLerneL provlders.
149

As ln oLher secLors, Lhe broadcasung secLor ls shaped by ñerce compeuuon. ln Lerms of Lhe
secLor's conLrlbuuon, 49° of Lhe companles conslsL of less Lhan 4 employees, whlle 33° of Lhe
companles are beLween 4 - 9 employees. 1he mlcro and small SMLs LogeLher form Lhe bulk of Lhe
secLor. Powever, slmllar Lo oLher secLors, Lhls laLer branch ls responslble for a small share (9°) of
Lhe LoLal revenue. 1he sLudy sLausucs show LhaL Lhe secLor as a whole ls responslble for 13.30° of
Lhe LoLal Lurnover of Lhe CCl ln Lurope, comlng ln Lhlrd aûer fashlon and deslgn.
2.3.2.S. Mus|c
´Moslc ls o toleot-boseJ cteouoo ooJ ooe of tbe ceottol cteouve loJosttles, wltb
Dutch Med|a nub
Dutch Med|a nub gathers mu|np|e partners such as |oca|
and reg|ona| author|nes as we|| as CCIs |n the sector and
prov|des support for content producnon, d|str|bunon or
serv|ce deve|opment. It a|so parnc|pates |n |eg|s|anve
|obby|ng for standard|sanon or |nteroperab|||ty.
(See 8esL Case 14)
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 89
147
SLraLegy Analyucs, (2008) quoLed ln Luropean Audlovlsual CbservaLory, (2009c), vldeo on demand and CaLch up 1v ln Lurope,
SLockholm: LAC, hup://www.obs.coe.lnL/onllne_publlcauon/reporLs/vod_2009.pdf
148
Luropean Audlovlsual CbservaLory Þress release, (2010), CrowLh of Lhe number of Lelevlslon channels and mulu-channel
plauorms ln Lurope conunues desplLe Lhe crlsls, hup://www.obs.coe.lnL/abouL/oea/pr/mavlse_end2009.hLml
149
Luropean Audlovlsual CbservaLory, (2009b), 1he Þubllc Servlce remlL and Lhe new Medla, SLockholm: LAC, see hup://
www.obs.coe.lnL/oea_publ/lrls/lrls_plus/lplus6_2009.pdf.en
qteot coltotol ooJ ecooomlc voloe lo oll socleues´.
150

1he muslc secLor ls a vlslble Luropean culLural producL and llke oLher secLors lL carrles greaL
lmporLance ln Lerms of susLalnlng Luropean culLural dlverslLy. Many bands or arusLs are sLarL-ups
buL cannoL easlly reach an lnLernauonal markeL.
1he secLor has a very large base of mlcro lnluauves wlLh 88° of Lhe CCls belng under 10 people
(70° belng mlcro-SMLs wlLh less Lhan 4 employees) confronLed Lo a few ma[or companles
conLrolllng mosL parL of Lhe markeL
131
. 88° of Lhe companles generaLe 30° of Lhe muslc LoLal
revenue, whlle companles of 30š employees, formlng 2.27° of Lhe secLor, generaLe approxlmaLely
40°.
ln Lerms of lnnovauon poLenual, Lhe lndependenLs and small companles are Lhe lnnovaLors and
early adopLers, dlscoverlng new LalenL and produclng nearly 80° of all new releases.
132

Crganlsauons such as 8andpool supporL Lhese acuvlues (see 8esL Case 13).
Llke broadcasung, ñlm, deslgn, new medla or archlLecLure, dlglusauon ls greaLly añecung Lhe
markeL of Lhe muslc secLor. Lurope generaLes over half Lhe world's muslc publlshlng revenues and
one Lhlrd of global recordlng sales, buL only 17° of Lhe world's dlglLal markeL. uue Lo an expandlng
dlglLal markeL, opporLunlues arlse for SMLs Lo reach a wlder publlc buL Lhe problem of accesslng
Lhe markeL ls even more problemauc ln Lhe dlglLal markeLplace. Large companles such as Coogle
and Apple conLrol mosL of Lhe dlglLal muslc llbrarles and are consequenLly hlnderlng Lhe enLrance
Lo Lhe markeL of smaller lndependenL labels.
133
Moreover, barrlers Lo markeL enLry are also
complemenLed by Lhe fragmenLauon of Lhe copyrlghL and lÞ8 rules ln Lurope.
134

1he sLudy on Š8ulldlng a ulglLal Lconomy: 1he lmporLance of Savlng !obs ln Lhe Lu's Creauve
lndusLrles– deLermlned LhaL ln 2008 some of Lhe Luropean unlon's creauve lndusLrles (ñlm, 1v
serles, recorded muslc and soûware) experlenced reLall revenue losses of t10 bllllon and losses of
more Lhan 183,000 [obs due Lo plracy, largely dlglLal plracy.
133
8ased on currenL pro[ecuons and
assumlng no slgnlñcanL pollcy changes, Lhe Lu's creauve lndusLrles could expecL Lo see cumulauve
reLall revenue losses of as much as t240 bllllon by 2013, resulung ln 1.2 mllllon [obs losL by 2013.
ln Lerms of growLh poLenual,
Lhe muslc secLor has some
dlmculLy semng up ñnanclal
ßow models and mechanlsms
LhaL ald ln Lhe susLalnablllLy
and growLh of acuvlues.
SupporL for growLh ñnance ls
essenual for allowlng Lhe
developmenL of Lhe mlddle-
slzed muslc companles.
8andpoo|
8andpoo| |s operated by the Þop Academy |n Germany acts
as a coach|ng too| for bands, g|v|ng workshops as we|| as
network|ng opportun|nes to arnsts. It a|so snmu|ates cross
overs w|th bus|nesses as we|| as w|th the po||nca| scene to
|ncrease the awareness of the sector.
(See 8esL Case 13)
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 90
130
unC1Au,(2008), op. clL., p. 119.
131
lnLervlew wlLh Luropean SecLoral Crganlsauon
132
See hup://www.lmpalamuslc.org/lnfo_03_lndfacL.php, reLrleved Aprll 2010
133
lnLervlew wlLh Luropean SecLoral Crganlsauon
134
8edlng, v., (CcLober 2009), Speech on Lhe ulglLal Slngle MarkeL: a key Lo unlock Lhe poLenual of Lhe knowledge base economy,
Avallable aL hup://www.lccwbo.org/bascap/ld33360/lndex.hLml
133
Avallable aL hup://www.lccwbo.org/bascap/ld33360/lndex.hLml
ln Lerms of ñnance, LhroughouL Lhe Lu, classlcal muslc ls heavlly supporLed by subsldles from
cenLral, reglonal and local governmenLs and by prlvaLe sponsorshlp. ln mosL counLrles, Lhere ls also
furLher ñnanclal supporL glven by muslc lndusLry organlsauons (such as auLhors socleues). under
Lhelr rules, auLhors socleues are permlued Lo spend up Lo 10° of Lhelr revenues for •soclal and
culLural purposes–.
136
2.3.2.6. Iash|on
8ecognlsed LhroughouL Lhe world, Luropean fashlon goes furLher Lhan lLs glluerlng lmage.
Accordlng Lo Lhe sLudy sLausucs, fashlon, lncludlng fashlon reLall, ls responslble for Lhe blggesL
share on Lhe LoLal revenue of CCls: 247.189.494 1P t or 24° of Lhe LoLal revenue. 1he secLor has
Lhe hlghesL LoLal percenLage of employees ln Lhe CCl (Lhe fashlon secLor employs 31° as opposed
Lo Lhe publlshlng employlng 9.84° of Lhe LoLal employmenL force ln Lhe CCls.)
As seen ln 1able 2, llgs. 2. and 3., Lhe composluon of Lhe secLor ls slmllar Lo oLher CC secLor. 31° of
Lhe companles conslsL of less Lhan 4 employees, and Lhey are responslble for 9° of Lhe LoLal
revenue. 27° of Lhe companles are beLween 4- 10 employees. Companles over 30 -249 employees
(3°) are responslble for 30° of Lhe LoLal revenue of Lhe secLor.
Large companles oûen conLrol access Lo markeL. Powever Lhls number has Lo be LreaLed carefully
from Lhe way Lhe sLausucs and nACL codes were used and wlLh Lhe lncluslon of ñgures for fashlon
reLall.
Cenerally speaklng, Lhe fashlon secLor ls noL pet se a subsldlsed secLor. Powever, some counLrles
may have cerLaln faclllues from Lhe governmenL and some encouragemenL.
ln Lerms of lnnovauon, Lhere
are auempLs Lo modernlse
L he secL or l n order L o
Lransform lL lnLo a demand-
drlven, knowledge-based and
hlgh-Lech lndusLry.
137
Cne
example ls Lhe uÞ1L› clusLer
whlch promoLes lnnovauon
(see 8esL Case 16). 1he rlse of
user- orl enLed sLraLegl es
common Lo all CCl secLors has
had an eñecL on Lhe lnnovauve drlve of Lhe secLor. Advanced Lexules, percepuon of maLerlals
Lhrough Lhe senses and Lhelr wlder appllcauon for dlñerenL secLors ls becomlng more lmporLanL
and allowlng for dlverse cross-overs wlLh oLher secLors such as LransporL (aerospace), healLh, sporL,
consLrucuon eLc. 1he value chaln ls composed of Lhe followlng sLeps: maLerlals producuon and
processlng, producL deslgn, manufacLure of made-up arucles, Lradlng ln apparel, fooLwear and
Lexule lLems, servlclng of apparel, fooLwear and Lexule lLems.
138
UÞ1Lk
UÞ1Lk |s an |nnovanon c|uster that a|ms at |nnovanng
texn|e and fash|on sector by |nvo|v|ng research |nsntutes,
h|gher educanon |abs, fash|on CCIs and Chamber of
Commerce. It prov|des fund|ng and |ega| serv|ces and
|nformanon exchange.
(See 8esL Case 16)
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 91
136
Lalng, u., (1999), Š1he Lconomlc lmporLance of muslc ln Lhe Luropean unlon–, Soundscapes, vol.2, Chap.7, hup://
www.lcce.rug.nl/œsoundscapes/uA1A8ASLS/MlL/ÞarL1_chapLer07.shLml•noLeref31
137
See hup://www.aedL.org/pro[ecLs.hLml
138
See hup://www.sklllseL.org
2.3.3. Creanve exper|ence ]or|g|na| prov|ders
1hls clusLer lncludes Þerformlng ArLs and Lhe vlsual ArLs as well as llve muslc organlsers and
promoLers. Clearly Lhere may be a relauonshlp here beLween experlence provlders and conLenL
producers. lor example, a muslclan may be lnvolved ln produclng a recordlng, and Lhen perform
parLs of Lhls recordlng ln fronL of an audlence. Maln lssues for Lhls secLor relaLe Lo paruclpauon and
consumer access, Lhe adapLauon Lo Lechnologlcal advances, Lhe moblllLy or LerrlLorlallLy
regulauons
139
found boLh ln Lhe physlcal as well as Lhe dlglLal world and Lhe proLecuon of rlghLs-
holders, as well as Lhe change ln consumers and Lhe shlû ln fundlng mechanlsms.
1hese creauve experlence provlders are Lyplcally subsldlsed and Lhey have lmporLanL noL-for proñL
ob[ecuves, lncludlng broadenlng access Lo culLure for soclal purpose and oLher muluple
ob[ecuves.
160
1he value of Lhe creauon Lakes lLs meanlng from Lhe audlence and Lhelr value ls
Šreallsed as a soclal process–.
161
llg. 10. ls nLS1A's lllusLrauon of Lhe presenL value chaln for culLural
organlsauons.
I|gure 10: 1he Va|ue cha|n for cu|tura| |nsntunons
(5ootce. Ní51A Iooe 2010)
162
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 92
139
8egulauons based on Lhe LerrlLory, such as labour regulauons or ñscal regulauons, have a dlrecL eñecL for arusLs' moblllLy as Lhey
have Lo face Lhe complexlues of muluple regulaLory frames.
160
8akhshl, P. 1hrosby, u. (!une 2010), CulLure of lnnovauon: An economlc analysls of lnnovauon ln arLs and culLural organlsauons,
London: nLS1A, p. 12.
161
lbld., p. 13.
162
lbld., p. 12.
1he creauve experlence provlders and Lhe orlglnal producers have a number of aspecLs ln common.
Many of Lhe performlng arusLs (wrlLers, dlrecLors, composers eLc) as well as vlsual arusLs
(craûspeople, deslgners and oLhers) can be consldered self-employed freelancers. ln Lhe
performlng and vlsual arLs Lhere are exLreme dlñerences ln lncome dlsLrlbuuons and creaLors oûen
accepL below average pecunlary earnlngs. 1hls ls explalned elLher by rlsk-seeklng or a preference
for creauve work over oLher Lypes of work.
2.3.3.1. Þerform|ng Arts
Accordlng Lo a Luropean secLoral organlsauon, Lhls secLor deals far more wlLh creauve persons Lhan
wlLh enLerprlses, and Lhe concepL of enLrepreneurshlp ls falrly new ln Lhls ñeld.
1he composluon of Lhe secLor ls as follows: 63° of Lhe performlng arLs secLors companles conslsL
of companles under 4 people, and 22° have beLween 4 and 10 people. ln LoLal, companles under
10 employees form 83° of Lhe secLor and are responslble for 39° of Lhe revenue generauon of Lhe
secLor. Companles wlLh 10-49 employees represenL 12.3° of Lhe companles ln Lhe secLor and ls
responslble for ls 31°. 1he LoLal revenue of Lhe secLor amounLs Lo 1.31° of Lhe LoLal revenue
generaLed by Lhe CCls.
1yplcally, Lhe secLor ls hlghly subsldlsed and Lhere ls usually mlnlmal prlvaLe fundlng due Lo Lhe
dlmculLy ln valulng Lhe lnLanglble asseLs by Lhe ñnanclal lnLermedlarles as well as due Lo problem
of access Lo mlxed ñnance. 1he subsldles sysLem has been crluclsed by some as hlnderlng Lhe
access Lo cerLaln prlvaLe fundlng such as sponsorshlp, funds or oLher sumull.
163
Powever Lhls
sysLem may ensure Lhe dlverslLy of culLural producLs/servlces LhaL would noL oLherwlse be
supporLed by banks or oLher prlvaLe lnLermedlarles. WlLh Lhe ñnanclal crlsls, governmenLal funds
are under ughLened budgeung whlch forces Lhe creauve experlence provlders Lo look for prlvaLe
funds and oLher revenue sources.
164

1he secLor works Lhrough cross-secLoral neLworklng havlng close collaborauon wlLh ñlm and Lhe
muslc secLor. ln Lerms of markeL access, mlcro-SMLs ln performlng arLs have dlmculues ln reachlng
a greaLer markeL and Lo Lurn ldeas and creauve lnluauves lnLo producuon. 1he producL llfecycle ls
pecullar Lo Lhe secLor wlLh long developmenL sLages (2-3 years) and a shorL dellvery of Lhe producL
(such as one-oñ sLage performances).
163
CrowLh ls llnked Lo susLalnablllLy and ls llnked Lo long-Lerm developmenL. CrowLh ls percelved as a
slow process where markeLs adapL and recognlse creauve persons (more or less over 10 years).
1ralnlng ln enLrepreneurlal skllls ls mosLly absenL ln Lhe performlng arLs (buslness skllls
managemenL, markeL slLuauon) alLhough lL ls seen as essenual for a secLor LhaL works hlsLorlcally
Lhrough publlc supporL.
1he Lechnology of creauve conLenL onllne ls of growlng lmporLance ln Lhe llve performance secLor.
lL helps develop new forms of performance and lL faclllLaLes Lhelr dlssemlnauon, Lhereby reachlng
larger groups of audlences and consumers Lhan ever before.
166
1he ma[or use of Lechnology for Lhls
secLor lles ln Lhe advanLage lL glves Lo Lhe dlssemlnauon of producuons, as new communlcauon
Lools wlLh Lhe audlence and as posslblllues for Lhe developmenL of new buslness models.
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 93
163
Luropean SecLoral Crganlsauon
164
8akhshl, P. 1hrosby, u. (!une 2010), op. clL., p. 13.
163
Luropean SecLoral Crganlsauon lnLervlew
166
Þearle, (!anuary 2010), Creauve ConLenL ln a Luropean ulglLal Slngle MarkeL: reßecuons documenL of uC lnlSC and uC MA8k1,
p. 2.
ln Lerms of lÞ8, Lhe llve performance secLor prlmarlly pays for oLhers' copyrlghL buL has no lnlual
ownershlp Lo a rlghL on lLs producuons, whereas oLher culLural lndusLrles such as publlshlng,
recordlng companles, even broadcasLers, have an lnlual ownershlp on copyrlghL or nelghborlng
rlghLs.
167
1he recognluon of Lhe exlsLence of creauvlLy and LalenL ln oLher ways Lhan copyrlghL and
ln uslng approprlaLe culLural and arusuc crlLerla ls essenual for Lhe secLor's recognluon of lLs
culLural and creauve added value.
168
1hls relaLes Lo Lhe need for recognluon of LalenL as soû
lnnovauon as ln oLher secLors such as muslc. lÞ8 ls also challenged wlLh Lhe lncreased use of onllne
conLenL and experlence LhaL Lhe secLor provldes.
AnoLher lmpedlng regulaLory facLor, boLh ln Lhe onllne and oñ-llne world, ls LhaL Lhe secLor of
performlng arLs ls hlghly dependenL on leglslauon on moblllLy and on LerrlLorlal agreemenLs
concernlng Lhe moblllLy of arusLs (wlLh lssues such as double Laxauon). 1hls hampers Lhe moblllLy
of arusLs and producuons, and makes web-sLreamlng of performances across borders dlmculL,
hlghly llmlung Lhe secLor's ablllLy Lo enLer new markeL opporLunlues.
2.3.3.2. V|sua| Arts
As wlLh oLher secLors, Lhe vlsual arLs are hlghly fragmenLed. 60° of Lhe secLor conslsLs of 1-3
people enLerprlses and 21° of Lhe companles have beLween 4-9 employees. 81° of Lhe companles
are Lhus under 10 employees and Lhey are responslble for 3° of Lhe LoLal Lurnover, whlle
companles of 30š employees are responslble for 89° of Lhe LoLal secLor's revenue and represenL
approxlmaLely 1° of Lhe secLor. Cverall, Lhe secLor conLrlbuLes Lo 9.71° of Lhe LoLal Lurnover of Lhe
CCls.
1he maln characLerlsuc of Lhe markeL for vlsual arLs ls Lhe focus on Lhe excluslvlLy and orlglnallLy of
an arLwork.
169
ln Lhls sense, Lhe rlghLs Lo Lhe arLwork are essenual for Lhe arusLs Lo be rewarded.
More speclñcally, Lhe resale rlghL or Jtolt Je solte ls Lhe mosL lmporLanL copyrlghL for auLhors of
ñne arL. vlsual and ñne arLs arusLs depend prlmarlly on Lhe sale of Lhelr orlglnal work and Lhus, on
Lhe resale rlghL. WlLhouL Lhe lauer, Lhe arusL wlll noL beneñL from ensulng lncrease of value of Lhelr
works. unllke wrlLers and composers who have a regular lncome from royalues LhaL are due
whenever Lhelr works are performed or publlshed, arusLs depend on Lhe orlglnal work and Lhe
ensulng value galned over ume.
Lven Lhough vlsual arLs are
usually represenLed as Lhe
leasL Lechnologlcally alded
and requlrlng less dlglLal
l n p u L , L h e s e c L o r l s
lncreaslngly lnßuenced by
Lechnologlcal advances and
dlglusauon. 1he lmporLance
of phoLography, and more
s p e c l ñ c a l l y d l g l L a l
phoLography, l s a good
exampl e. Þrl vaLe dl gl Lal
copylng ls also LhreaLenlng Lhe rlghLs holders. lor secondary uses of Lhe arLwork, Lhere ls no
Cn||ne Art
Cn||ne Art |s the Cne-stop-shop for wor|dw|de ||censes on
works of hne art for use on the Wor|d W|de Web - be |t
commerc|a| or non-commerc|a|. Cn||ne Art ensures that
authors are rewarded when the|r works are exp|o|ted by
others. It |s a co||ecnng soc|ety created by v|sua| arnsts or
non-for-proht organ|sanons.
(See 8esL Case 17)
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 94
167
Þearle, (!anuary 2010), op. clL., p. 3.
168
1owse, 8., (2004), op. clL., p. 13.
169
unC1Au, (2008), op. clL., p. 122.
monlLorlng and Lracklng sysLem aL Lhe momenL Lo conLrol and reward Lhe use of Lhe arLwork.
8emunerauon schemes are noL applled Lo Lhe same exLenL as ulglLal 8lghLs ManagemenL.
170

lnluauves such as Cnllne ArL seek Lo close Lhls gap (see 8esL Case 17).
Pavlng looked aL each secLor ln Lurn, one can clearly see Lhe sLrlklng slmllarlues ln Lhe hlgh
fragmenLauon beLween Lhe mlcro-SMLs and Lhe larger enLerprlses, as well as Lhe lncreaslng lmpacL
of dlglusauon.
2.4. Cross country ana|ys|s of regu|atory frameworks
Luropean Member SLaLes have very dlñerenL soclo-economlc and culLural backgrounds and culLural
expresslons. Some wlll have speclñc programmes and measures for cerLaln secLors of Lhe CCls,
whlle oLher Member SLaLes wlll conslder CCls [usL as any oLher economlc secLor. ln Lhe experL
quesuonnalre, lL emerged LhaL lÞ8 and Lax regulauons were Lhe mosL lmporLanL regulaLory
measures (see 1able 3. below) for CCls.
Ooesuoo. ´5elect tbe tbtee most lmpottoot teqolototy meosotes tbot ccl 5Mís foce´.
kegu|atory Measure Þercent °
Inte||ectua| Þroperty kegu|anon 73.91°
1ax kegu|anon 60.87°
8us|ness Start up kegu|anon 36.32°
Labour regu|anons 47.83°
Soc|a| We|fare kegu|anon 30.43°
Anntrust Laws 8.70°
8ankruptcy Laws 4.33°
Cther 17.4°
1ab|e S: Most |mportant regu|atory measures faced by CCIs
(5ootce. íotoklels 2009, loo íotopeoo íxpett Ooesuoooolte)
1o examlne Lhe regulaLory cllmaLe surroundlng CCls ln Lurope, an lnvenLory of Lhe envlronmenLal
facLors was prepared, ln parucular on Lhe regulaLory lssues whlch lnßuence Lhe developmenL of
SMLs. 1hese lncluded ñscal measures, labour sLaLus, soclal securlLy, dlrecL measures such as
governmenLal CCl programmes, Lhe way creauvlLy and CCl are valued as well as lnnovauon and
culLural pollcles. 1he analysls of Lhe envlronmenLal facLors for CCls was noL exhausuve buL provldes
a framework Lo undersLand Lhe dlñerenL approaches Lowards CCls. lollowlng Lhls, a counLry by
counLry analysls on Lhe dlñerenL culLural pollcles, SML and lnnovauon pollcles, a clusLerlng of
counLrles was proposed. Cn Lhe basls of Lhe research on envlronmenLal facLors, some
conslderauons can be made. 1he ñrsL seL of conslderauons relaLes Lo Lhe way culLure and creauvlLy
ls valued as a drlver of lnnovauon, and how Member SLaLes are respondlng Lo Lu Councllžs
recommendauons Lowards recognlslng Lhe sLaLus of creauvlLy and culLure as secLors of Lhe
economy, ln parucular by lmplemenung measures ln supporL of CC enLrepreneurshlp and SMLs.
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 93
170
Luropean vlsual ArusLs, see hup://www.evarusLs.org
Pavlng consldered Lhe Member SLaLes' culLural and lnnovauon pollcles, lL emerged LhaL Lhe speclñc
counLry's approaches Lo CCls followed LhaL counLry's lnnovauon readlness and economlc
performance. ln oLher words, Lhose counLrles LhaL are already performlng well ln lnnovauon and
have solld economlc capablllues show a readlness Lo organlse and lnvesL ln speclñc pollcles for CCls
and CCl SMLs ln parucular. lL ls lmporLanL Lo underllne LhaL Lhose counLrles LhaL have sysLemauc
measures for CCls are only a subseL of Lhe besL lnnovauon performers. Þosluve slgns Lowards
speclñc recognluon of CCls as drlvers of lnnovauon are also comlng from counLrles LhaL are sull
lagglng behlnd ln Lerms of lnnovauon performance, mosLly Lhe new member SLaLes. 1hls ls posslbly
due Lo facL LhaL Lhey are sull engaged ln a process of promoung growLh LhaL ls subsLanually based
on favourable ñscal pollcles for enLerprlses. CulLure, economlc sLrucLure, lnnovauon readlness and
demographlc facLors deñne Lhe level and proñle of enLrepreneurlal acuvlLy for each counLry and
Lherefore Lhe proñle of CC lndusLry.
Cn Lhe basls of Lhe research and based on Lhe Lurope lnnovauon scoreboard of 2008, Lhere ls noL a
homogeneous, buL raLher a hybrld Luropean model of lnnovauon. 1hls ls a model LhaL comblnes
sLewardshlp and enLrepreneurshlp, experlence and lnnovauon, soclal coheslon and rewards for
rlsk-Laklng. 1hough all Lhese LralLs are presenL, Lhey are noL equally dlsLrlbuLed across Lhe
conunenL. Lach counLry, or macro reglon, presenLs lLself wlLh speclñc characLerlsucs LhaL respond
Lo Lhe Lradluonal geo-economlc proñle.
1he second seL of conslderauons relaLes Lo Lhe facL LhaL dlñerenL lnnovauon performances and
CCls' recognluon are noL only due Lo dlñerenL lnnovauon pollcles framework, buL also due Lo
dlñerenL approaches Lo enforclng lnnovauon. CerLaln approaches respond Lo Lhe necesslLy elLher Lo
malnLaln (and posslbly Lo lmprove) compeuuveness, whlle oLhers alm aL provldlng Lhe nauonal
economy wlLh compeuuve Lechnologlcal and organlsauonal lnfrasLrucLures. 1herefore, lnnovauon
pollcles ln cerLaln counLrles are more orlenLed Lowards addresslng human facLors and engage ln
recognlslng creauvlLy as drlver of lnnovauon (usually ln Lhe rlcher and more lnnovauve counLrles).
ln oLher counLrles lnnovauon pollcles and measures are focused on Lechnology and producuon, an
approach more common ln Lhe 'caLchlng up' nauons.
1he Lhlrd aspecL of Lhe conslderauons, whlch derlves dlrecLly from Lhe above observauons, reßecLs
how counLrles have organlsed Lhemselves Lo respond Lo boLh Lhe challenges and opporLunlues
shaped by Lhe CCls. Pere, Lhe seL of counLrles LhaL are proposlng a comblned approach, LhaL ls a
programme shaped Lhrough a collaborauon beLween several MlnlsLrles acknowledglng Lhe soclal,
economlc and culLural aspecL of CCls, represenL a small subseL of Lhe counLrles.
1o esLabllsh a nauonal clusLerlng LhaL ls slgnlñcanL wlLh cross nauonal common pauerns of pracuce,
each lndlvldual nauonal proñle was consldered and classlñed accordlng Lo Lhe level of evoluuon
wlLh regards Lo global economlc paradlgms. Such a classlñcauon allows us Lo frame CCls wlLhln Lhe
broad plcLure of nauonal economlc and soclal performance and maLch lL agalnsL lLs acLual capaclLy
Lo dlsclose lLs poLenual wlLhln Lhe dynamlcs of global compeuuon. Cverall, lL seems LhaL Lhere are
only a few counLrles LhaL have fully engaged ln recognlslng CCls as drlvers of growLh and lnnovauon
ln Lurope. AlLhough Lhe recommendauons made by Lhe Lu Councll concluslon
171
hlghllghL Lhe need
Lo channel nauonal and Luropean ñnanclal resources Lowards new alms LhaL are more auuned Lo
fosLerlng arusuc LalenLs, and recognlse Lhe parucular role of culLural and creauve SMLs as drlvers of
growLh and lnnovauon ln Lurope, Lhe number of counLrles followlng Lhese recommendauons ls noL
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 96
171
Luropean Councll, (May 2009), Concluslons for ŠCulLure as a CaLalysL for CreauvlLy–, 2941sL Lducauon, •ouLh and CulLure, Councll
meeung
excesslve
172
. Cverall, Lhe mosL general approach Lo supporung Creauve and CulLural
enLrepreneurshlp ls Lax deducuon and favourable ñscal pollcles. ln Lurope, CCl SMLs are largely
LreaLed llke all oLher SMLs and Lherefore sub[ecL Lo Lhe prlorlues and sLraLegles seL by lnnovauon
pollcles as ouLllned above.
2.4.1. Country c|uster|ng
ln 1able 6 below, Lhree broad clusLers of counLrles are ldenuñed, whlch presenL some LralLs
suggesuve of speclñc economlc pauerns.
C|uster Character|sncs
know|edge
Lconomy
-
8ellanL on knowledge based producLs
and servlces
-
Sound enforcemenL of lÞ8
-
SupporL enLrepreneurshlp and
lnnovauon
-
CCls speclñc programmes
-
lnnovauve
1rad|nona|
Lconomy
T&-2"&2-+77I%$&-'*D -
Sound and sLrong use of knowledge
based producLs and servlces buL no
slgnlñcanL reward for culLural and
creauve enLrepreneurshlp and rlsk Laklng
-
SLaLe ald sull slgnlñcanLly presenL
-
CovernmenL supporL on sLraLeglc secLor
CCls are appreclaLed
1rad|nona|
Lconomy
T&-2"&2-+77I%N#+. -
SLrengLhs ln Lradluonal secLors and SML
clusLers
-
8elow average lnnovauon measures and
sLraLegles
-
CCls acknowledged buL no coordlnaLed
sLraLegles
Lmerg|ng
Lconom|es
U)-&2'2$ -
Cood lnnovauon performance and
someumes lncepuve phase for
coordlnaLed acuon for CCls
-
Lack of robusL lnvesLmenL ln 8&u and
lnfrasLrucLure
Lmerg|ng
Lconom|es
:+DD)*D%V#>)*8 -
SLarLed caLchlng up process Lo be
compeuuve
-
8ecognluon of CCls buL no sLraLegles
lmplemenLed
1ab|e 6: C|uster|ng by country character|sncs
(5ootce. k2M 2010)
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 97
172
AusLrla, llnland, uenmark, 8elglum, LsLonla, LaLvla, lrance, Lhe neLherlands, Spaln and Lhe uk are counLrles LhaL lmplemenL
speclñc measures ln supporL Lo Creauve and CulLural lndusLrles
2.4.1.1. know|edge econom|es
1hese are economles, whlch can already be consldered sLrucLurally rellanL on knowledge-based
producLs and servlces. All aspecLs of Lhe sysLem (educauon, producuon and regulauons) have
already made Lhe Lransluon from Lradluonal economy Lo knowledge-based economy. All Lhese
counLrles rely on sound enforcemenL of lÞ8, a good balance beLween ßexlblllLy and soclal
proLecuon, good lnfrasLrucLures and supporL for enLrepreneurshlp and lnnovauon. CovernmenLs
have already puL ln place co-ordlnaLed and synerglsuc measures Lo supporL Lhe economy ln general
and CCls ln parucular. 1hese economles are also predlsposed Lo accepL a cerLaln level of uncerLalnLy
and new models of producuon and consumpuon.
1hose counLrles LhaL already have a consolldaLed lnnovauon poLenual Lend Lo lnvesL ln Lhose
secLors and processes LhaL wlll enable Lhem Lo malnLaln compeuuve edge and furLher shlû Lowards
a full reallsauon of a knowledge economy. ln parucular Lhey Lend Lo lnvesL ln educauon and human
resources, buL also Lo promoLe knowledge Lransfer beLween academlc lnsuLuuons and commerclal
organlsauons, especlally SMLs. A relevanL role ls played by lncubaLors and unlverslLy spln-oñs,
whlch are supporLed by pollcles almed aL neLworklng and synerglsuc collaborauons as well as
admlnlsLrauve slmpllñcauon.
8y way of lllusLrauon, llnland adopLed a comblned governmenLal sLraLegy beLween Lhe MlnlsLry of
Lducauon and Lhe MlnlsLry of Lconomlcs. 1he measures developed ln Lhe SLraLegy for
enLrepreneurshlp ln Lhe Creauve lndusLrles secLor for 2013
173
are summarlsed ln 13 measures ln 4
areas
174
and ls co-ordlnaLed by Lhe Academy for Creauve lndusLrles. 1he MlnlsLry of Lducauon
produced Lhe SLraLegy for CulLural Þollcy 2020 wlLh Lhe acuon plan of 2007-2013 (publlcauon of
MlnlsLry of Lducauon 2009:12).
173
1hls documenL hlghllghLs Lhe lmporLance of culLure and
creauvlLy ln Lhe llnnlsh socleLy as well as underllnes Lhe conLrlbuuon ln Lhe economy. 1he followlng
lLems wlll be on Lhe agenda for 2010:

SecLor speclñc documenLs such as new programmes lnclude a museum pollcy
programme, a copyrlghL pollcy documenL, and an archlLecLure and culLural envlronmenL
programme Lo be prepared ln co-operauon wlLh Lhe MlnlsLry of Lhe LnvlronmenL

8eframe Lhe framework acL on Lhe developmenL of culLure Lo clarlfy Lhe leglslauon

ConsolldaLe Lhe fundlng and ñnanclng sysLem by also lnLegraung ways ln whlch Lhe
prlvaLe fundlng and sponsorshlp could be encouraged

ConsolldaLe Lhe knowledge economy, by monlLorlng and lmplemenung lnLegraLed
pollcles, secLor speclñc calllng for a beuer lnLeracuon beLween MlnlsLrles and local
acLors
AparL from cerLaln ñscal leverages and reducuons on CCl's fees and lncome and Lax deducuons for
companles lnvesung ln CCls, Lhe llnnlsh governmenL lnLroduced speclñc programmes (for secLors
such as 1heaLre, Muslc, vlsual ArLs, Audlovlsual and 1ourlsm) provldlng advlce for markeung,
servlce developmenL as well as lL oñers menLorlng supporL. 1he CovernmenL also emphaslsed
educauon and Lralnlng for CCls as one of Lhe prlorlLy Lhrough Lhe programme ŠCreauve llnland–.
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 98
173
llnland MlnlsLry of 1rade and lndusLry, (2007), uevelopmenL SLraLegy for enLrepreneurshlp ln Lhe Creauve lndusLrles secLor for
2013, hup://ec.europa.eu/culLure/our-pollcy-developmenL/doc/ñ_devpmL_sLraLegy_enLrepr_crea_lndusLrles2013.pdf
174
uevelopmenL of operaung envlronmenL,, CrowLh and lnLernauonallzauon, ÞroducL developmenL (lncludlng Lhe fund for demos
and proLoLypes), and 8elnforcemenL of experuse (lncludlng a degree ln enLrepreneurshlp).
173
See hup://www.mlnedu.ñ/exporL/slLes/defaulL/CÞM/!ulkalsuL/2009/lllueeL/opm43.pdf•lang˜en
Slmllar comblned approaches can be found ln uenmark. Slnce 2007, Lhe counLry esLabllshed Lhe
CenLre for CulLure and Lxperlence Lconomy LhaL ls funded boLh by Lhe MlnlsLry of CulLure and Lhe
MlnlsLry of 1rade and 8uslness Añalrs. 1he cenLre acLs as a llnk beLween Lhe culLural and Lhe
buslness secLors ln order Lo bulld a more compeuuve economy. 1he cenLre does noL alm aL dlrecLly
supporung CCls buL raLher aL maklng Lhe connecuons beLween Lhe CCl secLor and Lhe oLher secLors
of Lhe economy, and ln so dolng supporung Lhe growLh of Lhe creauve economy.
2.4.1.2. 1rad|nona| econom|es
1hese are economles LhaL are sull heavlly rellanL on Lradluonal producuve, economlc and soclal
paradlgms. 1hey elLher have noL compleLed Lhe Lransluon Lo Lhe knowledge economy, or are sull ln
Lhe process of compleung such a Lransluon. 1radluonal Lconomles can be furLher classlñed as:
5ttoctotolly 5ttooq. 1hese nauons rely on solld sLrucLural fundamenLals across all
observed facLors, buL cannoL be consldered knowledge economles as Lhey fall Lo reward
culLural and creauve enLrepreneurshlp and rlsk-Laklng amLudes. Lducauonal sysLems
are felL as lnadequaLe Lo prepare Lo embrace enLrepreneurshlp and face global
compeuuon. ln Lhese counLrles, Lhe ñnanclal supporL Lo CCls appears Lo be mosLly
sLaLe alds and granLs raLher Lhan prlvaLe lnvesLmenLs. 1he soclal securlLy sysLem
prlvlleges securlLy over ßexlblllLy and Lhls ls also reßecLed on producuon and
consumpuon pauerns. CovernmenLs Lend Lo supporL Lhe esLabllshed sLraLeglc secLors
such as auLomoblle, as a way Lo malnLaln Lradluonal compeuuve advanLage. CCls are
appreclaLed and culLural and creauve enLrepreneurs can beneñL from some speclñc
measures, buL Lhese are noL necessarlly seen ln a comblned approach beLween
MlnlsLrles.
lor example, ln AusLrla Lhere
ls a wlde array of pollcy
lnsLrumenLs supporung sLarL-
ups aL boLh nauonal and
reglonal levels, ranglng from
fundlng Lo consulLancy, wlLh a
focus LhaL has shlûed from
supporung slngle enLerprlses
Lo esLabllshlng neLworks and
usl ng synergl es beLween
publlc lnsuLuuons, enLerprlses
and educauon. noLeworLhy
are Lhe lnluauves almed aL provldlng comprehenslve supporL Lo enLrepreneurshlp. Cne example ls
ueparLure whlch promoLes knowledge exchange (see 8esL Case 18) 1he lmpulse programme
'Creauve economy' ls an lnluauve LhaL oñers Lralnlng, educauon, ñnanclal supporL and awareness
programmes. 1hemaucally, Lhe programme ls spllL up lnLo deslgn, mulumedla and muslc.
lnLellecLual properLy rlghLs are sLrongly enforced ln AusLrla. Comparlng AusLrla's LlS score Lo Lhe Lu
average, shows LhaL Lhe counLry performs well aL knowledge creauon and lnLellecLual properLy,
whlch reßecLs Lhe raLher hlgh 8&u expendlLures as well as Lhe use of Lhe legal sysLem Lo proLecL
lnnovauon.
Departure
Departure |s a mun|c|pa| organ|sanon that a|ms at
hnanc|a||y suppornng CCIs |nterested |n grow|ng by
emphas|s|ng know|edge exchange and co-operanon
between CCIs and bus|nesses and prov|d|ng an extens|ve
network as we|| as research resources.
(See 8esL Case 18)
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 99
ln lrance, Lhe governmenL
has long recognlsed Lhe
lmporLance of CCls and Lhe
role of CCl SMLs. Cn Lop of
Lhe subsldles provlded by
reglonal and local auLhorlues
for Lhe developmenL of CCls,
Lhe MlnlsLry of CulLure and
Lhe MlnlsLry of Lconomy and
llnance creaLed Lhe llClC (See
8esL Case 19), a ñnanclal
lnsLrumenL Lo faclllLaLe access
Lo ñnance for CCls. ln Lerms of
s o c l a l s e c u r l L y , C C
enLrepreneurs have Lhe rlghL
Lo penslon supporL buL noL Lo
unemploymenL beneñL ln Lhe
ñrsL year. 1hls means LhaL Lhe
sLarL-up condluons are low.
Powever, aûer havlng done a
cerLaln amounL of work, CC
enLrepreneurs have Lhe rlghL Lo soclal securlLy beneñLs. lor freelancers, Lhe unemploymenL
beneñLs are avallable from Lhe second year. 1here are speclñc penslon schemes for Lhe arusLs as
well. lrance subsldlses culLural organlsauons and oñers granLs and scholarshlps for culLural pro[ecLs
and dlrecL supporL Lo Lhe arusLs. ln Spaln, lCC provldes a good example of how supporL can be
glven for SMLs Lo lnLernauonallse (see 8esL Case 20).
AnoLher successful example of supporL Lo CCls ln Lhe sLrucLurally sLrong Lradluonal economles can
be found ln 8elglum's secLor speclñc Lax shelLer for Lhe ñlm secLor
176
. 1he mechanlsm allows a
company provldlng ñnanclal backlng for audlovlsual producuons Lo beneñL from exempuon of any
reLalned Laxable proñLs worLh up Lo 130° of Lhe sums acLually pald. 1he upper llmlL on lnvesLmenL
ls 30° of a company's reLalned proñLs, up Lo a celllng of t300,000. 1hls way, Lhe leglslaLor ensures
llmlLed ñnanclal rlsks for Lhe lnvesLors whlle supporung a speclñc secLor of Lhe CCls. 1he 8elglum
MlnlsLry of llnance esumaLes LhaL from 2003 Lo 2008 Lhe sysLem channelled over t220 mllllon lnLo
ñlms and oLher audlovlsual works, provldlng more Lhan t60 mllllon ln 2008 alone.
5ttoctotolly weok. 1hese counLrles presenL some sLrengLh ln Lradluonal secLors and
SML clusLers, buL show average or below average performance ln enforclng sLrucLural
lnnovauon measures and sLraLegles. CCls, even when acknowledged, appear noL Lo be
addressed coherenLly and sysLemaucally wlLhouL speclñc co-ordlnaLed acuons beLween
nauonal, local and academlc auLhorlues. CC enLrepreneurs can rely on Lhe already
esLabllshed measures Largeung SMLs, buL can also suñer from Lhe lnemclencles of
economlc and soclal sysLems.
lor example, ln Spaln, CCls are now gemng recognluon ln Lhe nauonal sLausucs and are
lncorporaLed ln Lhe plan for Lhe CovernmenL (2008-2012) Lhrough Lhe creauon of a ulrecLoraLe
Ceneral for CulLural lndusLrles and Þollcles whlch lnLroduces several measures such as:
IICIC
IICIC |s a state-supported |nsntunon a|med at fac|||tanng
bank hnanc|ng for the CCIs. It guarantees the bank |oan
|nvested |n CCIs as we|| as acnng as a market ana|yst and
CC consu|tant to the banks.
(See 8esL Case 19)
ICC
ICC |s a pub||c cred|t |nsntunon that hnances CCIs serv|ng
hnanc|a| needs that the pr|vate sector does not cover. It
a|so supports the |nternanona||sanon of Span|sh
compan|es.
(See 8esL Case 20)
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 100
176
See hup://www.locauonßanders.be

1he launch of a new llne of credlL for Lhe culLural lndusLrles, ln collaborauon wlLh Lhe
Cmclal CredlL lnsuLuLe (lCC - See 8esL Case 20), wlLh subsldlsed raLes Lo supporL Lhe
creauon of new buslnesses

A comblned approach Lo be deslgned by Lhe MlnlsLry of CulLure, MlnlsLry of lorelgn
Añalrs and MlnlsLry of Lconomy and llnance

Alds Lo subsldlse Lhe cosL of guaranLees LhaL CCls need ln order Lo access exLernal
fundlng

CaplLal granLs Lo promoLe Lhe modernlsauon, lnnovauon and Lechnologlcal adapLauon
of CClS and

8elmbursable alds Lo ñnance Lhe lmprovemenL of managerlal capaclues Lhrough
Lralnlng and lnLernauonallsauon of culLural companles
As parL of Lhe soclal securlLy sysLem, Lhe CCl and freelancers do noL have speclñc provlslons and
have Lhe same rlghLs and obllgauons of SMLs ln general, alLhough Lhere are speclñc beneñLs for
low-lncome arusLs. ln Lerms of penslon schemes, Lhere ls a speclñc early reuremenL for dancers. ln
addluon Lo Lhls, copyrlghL socleues have Lo seL up a welfare and supporL servlce sysLem for auLhors,
performlng arusLs and culLural workers. 1hls sysLem has Lo be funded by 20° from Lhe lÞ8
revenues.
2.4.1.3. Lmerg|ng econom|es
1hese economles have underLaken subsLanual eñorLs Lo become knowledge-based economles.
1hey are almosL enurely focused on provldlng Lhemselves wlLh emclenL lnfrasLrucLures and
caLchlng up ln Lerms of lnnovauon and 8&u. 8y and large, Lhey all perform well ln Lerms of
educauon, ßexlblllLy and favourable Laxauon reglmes for enLrepreneurs. Lmerglng Lconomles can
also be furLher classlñed as:
vlttooos. Some of Lhese counLrles perform as well, lf noL beuer Lhan some of Lhe
Lradluonal economles ln Lerms of lnnovauon performances and measures. 1he mosL
vlrLuous have already speclñc measures for CCls and co-ordlnaLed acuons beLween
lnsuLuuons, buL Lhese eñorLs remaln more Lheoreucal Lhan pracucal, as Lhe lack of
robusL 8&u explolLauon and lnfrasLrucLure for lnnovauon ls hlnderlng developmenL.
8y way of example, Lston|a ls Lhe counLry wlLh Lhe hlghesL raLe of lmprovemenL ln lnnovauon of
any counLry ln Lurope as a resulL of sLrong lmprovemenLs ln buslness 8&u expendlLures and non-
8&u lnnovauon expendlLures
177
. ln LsLonla, Lhe word ŠculLural and creauve lndusLrles– came Lo Lhe
forefronL ln 2004, and ln 2006, Lhe MlnlsLry of CulLure seL up a new ueparLmenL of uevelopmenL.
1he SLaLe oñers some Soclal SecurlLy provlslons for CCls: Lhe LsLonlan CovernmenL lnLroduced
unemploymenL for arusLs wlLh dlmculues ln earnlng Lhelr lncome, alLhough Lhere are no speclñc
penslon supplemenL for arusLs ln Lhe culLural and creauve secLor.
loqqloq 8ebloJ. 1hese counLrles have [usL sLarLed Lhe caLchlng up process of generaung
Lhe condluons whereby Lhey can be compeuuve.
1hese nauonal clusLers musL noL be seen as walled gardens. 1here are conunenLal LralLs LhaL are
presenL ln all counLrles and each counLry presenLs a comblnauon of all Lhese characLerlsucs. ÞolnLs
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 101
177
Luropean lnnovauon Scoreboard, (!an 2009), Luropean lnnovauon Scoreboard 2008: Comparauve analysls of lnnovauon
performance, Þro lnno MeLrlcs
of excellence can be ldenuñed ln each counLry, and Lhe ouLllned proñles cannoL unequlvocally
ldenufy each counLry of Lhe clusLer, buL should raLher be lnLended as a sum of Lhe LralLs and Lrends
expressed by each lndlvldual counLry. 1he presenLed clusLerlng should allow for conslderauons Lo
emerge and open new perspecuves for furLher research. Moreover, Lhese clusLers do noL lnLegraLe
Lhe dlñerenL reglonal and munlclpal lnluauves LhaL someumes do noL correspond Lo Lhe blgger
nauonal programmes. 1able 7. below glves an overvlew on Lhe mosL lmporLanL reglons for culLural
and creauve employmenL clusLers whlch do noL necessarlly maLch Lhe clusLerlng.
1ab|e 7: Lurope's top reg|ons for CCI emp|oyment c|usters.
178

(5ootce. íotopeoo clostet Obsetvototy)
179

Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 102
178
L‚ ls an lndlcaLor of CCl employmenL relauve Lo Lhe LoLal employmenL of Lhe reglon, where L‚Ÿ1 lndlcaLesan over-represenLauon
of CCl employmenL
179
Luropean ClusLer CbservaLory, (March 2010), ÞrlorlLy SecLor 8eporL: CulLural and Creauve lndusLrles, SLockholm: Luropean
ClusLer CbservaLory, p. 3.
Moreover, Lhe range of employmenL does noL equal an even growLh raLe on Lhe reglonal basls, as
some of Lhe reglons experlenclng Lhe hlghesL growLh ln Lhe CCls do noL equaLe Lo blg reglons buL
more small and mlddle-slzed reglons. A reglonal perspecuve on CCls and CCl pollcy ls Lhus needed,
as Šreglonallsed pauerns of growLh and change seem Lo be a sLrong feaLure of Lhe culLural and
creauve lndusLrles.–
180
1hls ls also reßecLed ln Lhe dlñerenL reglonal concenLrauon of CCl by secLor.
2.S. Suppornng cu|tura| and creanve entrepreneursh|p
2.S.1. Lntrepreneur|a| ||fecyc|e framework
ln order Lo besL supporL Lhe CCls, a slmple llfecycle framework (llg. 11.) was developed for Lhls
sLudy almlng aL provldlng polnLers for blendlng new models of collaborauve and compeuuve
advanLage for CCl SMLs. ln vlew of Lhe characLerlsucs noLed earller and Lhe dlmculLy ln ñndlng
paLhs Lo growLh, Lhe framework soughL Lo deLermlne Lhe polnLs where dlñerenL Lypes of supporL
mlghL be mosL eñecuvely employed aL Lhe dlñerenL levels and phases of Lhe enLrepreneurlal
acuvlLy, and ln Lhls way, Lo examlne how Lhe mosL eñecuve paLhs Lo growLh for CCl SMLs can be
embedded wlLhln lnnovauon, SML, LnLrepreneurshlp and CulLural Þollcles.
1he framework lnLroduced a separauon beLween supporung Lhe enLrepreneur and supporung Lhe
enLerprlse. Cûen, boLh enuues are confused ln pollcy and llLeraLure and Lhls leads Lo an
underesumauon of Lhe complex dlñerenL lnLeracuons enLalled ln each one. 1he enLrepreneur ls a
person wlLh cerLaln mouvauons and needs, whlle an enLerprlse ls noL. A dlsuncuon beLween Lhe
Lwo means LhaL supporL for boLh Lhe lndlvldual and Lhe enLerprlse can be deslgned and
lmplemenLed wlLh approprlaLe pollcy lnluauves. Pow can we besL supporL Lhe person so LhaL Lhey
can develop Lhelr creauve LalenL LhaL can ln Lurn be a drlver for Lhelr enLrepreneurlal developmenL
and for Lhe developmenL of Lhelr economlc acuvlLy•
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 103
180
Luropean ClusLer CbservaLory, (March 2010), op. clL., p. 12.
Suppornng the Lntrepreneur|a| L|fecyc|e Suppornng the Lntrepreneur|a| L|fecyc|e Suppornng the Lntrepreneur|a| L|fecyc|e Suppornng the Lntrepreneur|a| L|fecyc|e Suppornng the Lntrepreneur|a| L|fecyc|e Suppornng the Lntrepreneur|a| L|fecyc|e
Þhase 1
Þrepar|ng
the ground
Þhase 2
Start-Up
Þhase 3
8u||d-Up
Þhase 4
8u||d-Cut
Þhase 4
8u||d-Cut
Þhase S
Connecnng
Lntrepreneur support Lntrepreneur support Lntrepreneur support Lntrepreneur support Lntrepreneur support Lntrepreneur support
Lnterpr|se support Lnterpr|se support Lnterpr|se support Lnterpr|se support Lnterpr|se support
Mun|c|pa| support Mun|c|pa| support Mun|c|pa| support
keg|ona| support keg|ona| support keg|ona| support keg|ona| support keg|ona| support keg|ona| support
Nanona| support Nanona| support Nanona| support Nanona| support Nanona| support
Sectora| support Sectora| support Sectora| support Sectora| support Sectora| support
Luropean support Luropean support
I|gure 11: S|mp|e ||fecyc|e framework for suppornng the CC entrepreneur and enterpr|se
1hls separauon beLween Lhe enLerprlse and Lhe enLrepreneur was consldered useful for mosL of
Lhe respondenLs as Lhe paLh Lo becomlng an enLrepreneur ls blended wlLh Lhe growLh of Lhe
enLerprlse, whlle Lhey are Lwo dlsuncL unlLs LhaL boLh need supporL. 1hls separauon was also useful
for pollcy makers as lL made expllclL Lhe posslble ways Lo brldge beLween Lhe creauve persons and
Lhe buslness and enLerprlse, and clarlñed beLween Lhe advanLages and dlsadvanLages ln Lhe Lypes
of supporL.
ln vlew of supporung enLrepreneurshlp ln Lhe culLural and creauve secLors, mosL of Lhe
respondenLs agreed LhaL Lhe supporL Lo Lhe enLrepreneur was mosLly needed ln Lhe ñrsL phases of
Lhe llfecycle, whlle from phase 3 onLo phase 3, Lhe enLerprlse was Lhe maln LargeL for Lhe supporL.
1he respondenLs agreed LhaL Lhere could be some overlap and lnLer-comblnauon of supporL ln
some of Lhe llfecycle for Lhe enLrepreneur and Lhe enLerprlse.
2.S.2. Þhases
Cne can ldenufy ñve phases wlLhln Lhe enLrepreneurlal llfecycle:
lbose Ooe. ltepotloq tbe qtoooJ
ln Lhls phase, Lhe lnlual undersLandlng of learnlng and preparlng for Lhe enLrepreneurlal
pracuce Lakes place. Cûen Lhls ls done durlng Lhe professlonal and educauon Lralnlng,
when creauve people prepare for a professlonal exlsLence aûer graduauon.
lbose 1wo. 5tott up
ln Lhls phase, Lhe ñrsL lnLegrauon of pracucal experlence and lnLegrauon of learnlng and
enLrepreneurlal pracuce Lakes place. 1here ls a comblnauon of novel experlences and
adapLable behavlour needed ln order Lo geL Lhe enLerprlse sLarLed.
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 104
lbose 1btee. 8ollJ up
ln Lhe bulld-up phase, Lhe lnlual enLerprlse moves Lo lLs ñrsL level of sLable, susLalnable
exlsLence. 1he novelLy of Lhe beglnnlng ls changed lnLo adapLable behavlour, based on
pracucal crlLerla and usablllLy. LxLra sLrengLhenlng of compeLencles Lo Lransform
'dlscovery' lnLo 'explolLauon' ls cruclal ln Lhls phase.
lbose loot. 8ollJ Oot
ln Lhls phase, Lhe enLerprlse ls maLurlng lnLo a more sLable, sLrucLural exlsLence. lL ls
deepenlng lLs sLrucLural susLalnablllLy and lmprovlng lLs markeL posluon.
lbose llve. coooecuoq oetwotks
1he lasL phase ldenuñed ls deallng wlLh maLure growLh wlLhln a sLrongly neLworked
envlronmenL. SusLalnable paLhs Lo a conunuous enLerprlse growLh have been ldenuñed
and lmplemenLed.
1hls slmple framework was lnLended Lo provlde lndlcauons, raLher Lhan sLauc recommendauons,
for supporung growLh of CCls Lhrough an lncreased undersLandlng of Lhe muluple componenLs aL
sLake by dlvldlng Lhe processes and Lhe layers of exlsung levels of supporL, and maklng a dlñerence
beLween Lhe person and Lhe organlsauon. 1he apprenuce enLrepreneurs wlll mosLly need supporL
as lndlvlduals ln order Lo be able Lo Lry ouL Lhelr enLrepreneurlal acuvlLy ln an organlsed way. 1he
dlsuncuon also lmpllclLly allows one Lo lnLegraLe Lhe dlñerenL mouvauons of Lhe enLrepreneur:
whaL Lype of enLrepreneur or enLerprlse Lhey wanL Lo develop, as Lhe supporL ls noL solely orlenLed
Lowards growlng Lhe organlsauon.
2.S.2.1. L|near|ty, monvanon and growth
1he llnearlLy and Lhe Lop-down approach adopLed ln Lhls framework, alLhough lndlcauve of a
process, does noL of course correspond Lo Lhe dynamlsm and reallLy of Lhe culLural and creauve
secLor. 8elng hlghly heLerogeneous, several paLhs for successful CCl growLh or susLalnable exlsLence
can be lmaglned, represenung for example a concenLrlc framework. Powever, for Lhe purpose of
clarlLy, Lhe dlñerenL componenLs were placed ln a llnear framework, alLhough Lhe ldeal shape
would be a Lhree dlmenslonal form wlLh overlapplng layers whlch mlghL also lnclude deslgn phases
(novelLy, adapLablllLy, usablllLy, repllcablllLy and scalablllLy) and Lechnology lmplemenLauon phases
(creaLe, caLalyse, connecL). lndeed, Lhe Lerm 'enLrepreneurlal llfecycle' can only parually reßecL Lhe
ways ln whlch CCl SMLs are consLanLly adapung Lo Lhelr envlronmenL and emerglng demands:
´lo tbe cteouve loJosttles yoo bove Jevelopmeots typlcolly toooloq lo potollel.
wblle o compooy ls stotuoq op ooJ qtowloq, lt oot ooly leotos lotetoolly ot
expooJs lts botlzoo ot sees oew tbloqs by expetleoce lotetoolly, bot olso extetoolly.
At tbe some ume tbey´te oo o steep leotoloq cotve os fot os tbelt ptofessloool
eottepteoeotlol llfe ls coocetoeJ ooJ tbey qtow lo slze ooJ bosloess typlcolly. •oo
bove o oombet of tbloqs qoloq potollel´.
(CC nauonal SupporL, SLrucLurally sLrong Lradluonal economles)
Looklng aL Lhe llnearlLy of Lhls approach, one crluclsm of Lhe framework was Lhe underlylng
assumpuon of Lhe CCl enLrepreneur's deslre Lo grow. Powever, as explalned earller, a CCl
enLrepreneur oûen comblnes boLh Lhe culLural-creauve drlve and Lhe economlc-enLrepreneurlal
drlve. Accordlng Lo PuberL eL al, by comblnlng boLh a culLural/creauve and an enLrepreneurlal
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 103
posluonlng, one can ñnd four dlñerenL approaches ln Lhe personal orlenLauon of Lhe CC
enLrepreneur
181
as lllusLraLed ln 1able 8. below.
CulLural and creauve enLrepreneurs posluon Lhemselves ln four dlñerenL seLs of ldeals:
enLrepreneurlal success, professlonal achlevemenL, arL creauon and pursulng a professlonal career.
1hese four personal preferenual mouvauons can be ldenuñed, based upon ñve dlmenslons:
personal asplrauons, ldenuñcauon focus, Lhe dlvlslon beLween work and personal llfe, Lype of
occupauon (employer, manager, freelancer), Lhe dlñerenL lndusLrles, and addluonal Lyplcal
characLerlsucs.
Ma|n
monvanon:
Lntrepreneur|a|
success
Þrofess|ona|
ach|evement
Art creanon Þrofess|ona|
career
Dom|nanng
occupanona|
asp|ranon
5occess ftst, tboo
ootooomy
8olooce betweeo
soccess, ootooomy
ooJ secotlty
Aotooomy ooJ
Atusuc kecoqoluoo,
Aestbeuc ctltetlo
5ecotlty. keclptoclty.
A€llouoo of
ootooomy ooJ
soccess
Dom|nanng
|dennhcanon
focus
letsoool eotetptlse ltofessloool 5totos
mote lmpottoot tboo
occopouoo stotos
Att commoolues, tbe
Att 5ceoe
ímployee
Work and ||ve
ltofessloool ocuvlues
lo tbe ceotte, ptlvote
ocuvlues motqlool
ltofessloool
ocuvlues mote
lmpottoot tboo
ptlvote llfe, bot
JepeoJloq oo octool
toplcs
ltofessloool ocuvlues
os pott of petsoool
cbolces. kefosol to
moke Jlsuocuoo
betweeo ptofessloool
ooJ ptlvote llfe
ltofessloool ocuvlues
ooJ ptlvote llfe
epoolly lmpottoot.
5epotouoo of
ltofessloool ooJ
ltlvote ocuvlues
1ype of
occupanon
ímployet, moooqet lteeloocet,
ímployee, kotely
ímployet
lteeloocet. kotely
employee ot
employet
ímployee ot
lteeloocet
Industr|es and
profess|on
All sectots, lo tbe
cteouve ícooomy
obseot
1ecbolcol
ptofessloos,
Atcbltectote, 5oooJ
tecbolcloo, cometo
moo, etc
Att ptofessloos.
ueslqo, lllm,
Atcbltectote, vlsool
Atts
l1, AJvetusloq, 5oles
ltofessloos
Add|nona|
typ|ca|
character|sncs
lteJomloootly meo Mostly petsoos wltb
looq ptofessloool
expetleoce
5epotouoo of ´bteoJ-
eotoloq ocuvlues´
ooJ otusuc Jtlve
Mojotlty of yoooq
people
1ab|e 8: Þersona| monvanon |n entrepreneursh|p
(5ootce. ílcbmooo, n et ol, 2007)
182
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 106
181
lbld.
182
Llchmann P., llecker, !. 8eldl, S., (2007), Ls lsL [a elne freles Cewerbe.' ArbelLen ln der Wlener kreauvwlrLschaû, vlenna: lC88A -
lorschungs- und 8eraLungssLelle ArbelLswelL
uependlng on Lhe CCl enLrepreneur's personal mouvauons, any supporL wlll have Lo be adapLed so
LhaL, for example, local supporL wlll be avallable for a CC enLrepreneur who ls more drlven by Lhe
culLural/creauve conLenL of lLs producLs/servlces, whlle Lhe Lu and reglonal levels could be more
supporuve of CCls wlshlng Lo lnLernauonallse Lhelr markeL.
Many respondenLs hlghllghLed Lhe need Lo dlñerenuaLe beLween Lhe subsldlsed and non-
subsldlsed secLors of Lhe CCls. 1he dlñerenL secLor characLerlsucs have been elaboraLed above ln
secuon 2.3. 1he framework deals wlLh CCls ln general, Lhough Lhe characLerlsucs prevlously sLaLed
should be Laken lnLo accounL accordlng Lo Lhe general sLrucLure of Lhe secLor.
2.S.3. Approaches to suppornng entrepreneursh|p |n CCI
1he horlzonLal layers of Lhe framework represenL Lhe dlñerenL levels of supporL as Lhe muluple
pollcles for each level may noL necessarlly be known or vlslble Lo one anoLher. 1here ls lndeed oûen
a lack of clarlLy beLween Lhe dlñerenL layers of supporL, maklng Lhe supporL more complex for each
LargeL group. 1he Lype of supporL provlded may, for example, be a comblnauon of munlclpal Lax
breaks and funds as well as larger LC funded pro[ecLs or nauonal secLoral funds. 1hls ls oûen very
dlmculL for Lhe CCl enLrepreneur Lo undersLand.
Moreover, Lhere ls a mlsundersLandlng on boLh sldes: ñnanclal lnLermedlarles and fundlng agencles
usually have rlgld and rlsk-free procedures LhaL are almosL lncompauble wlLh CCls LhaL are, as
noLed, based on Lhe reward of Lhelr lnLanglble asseLs. Cn Lhe oLher hand, CCls may have a cerLaln
mlsLrusL Lowards Lhose programmes for fear of belng overLaken by commerclal lnLeresLs and Lhey
may noL necessarlly look for Lhe fundlng and supporL, elLher ouL of sLubbornness or lack of
lnformauon or compeLencles Lo deal wlLh Lhe procedures. uue Lo Lhe comblned requlremenL of
enLrepreneurlal acuvlLy and Lhe culLural/creauve one, Lhe CCl enLrepreneur may lack Lhe ume, and
may be unwllllng Lo look for lnformauon amongsL Lhe muluLude of supporL provlded. 1here ls Lhus
a mlsmaLch beLween Lhe real needs of Lhe CC enLrepreneur and Lhe supporL provlded.
1he necesslLy Lo brlng boLh sldes closer by maklng Lhe supporL more LargeLed Lo Lhe needs of Lhe
CC enLrepreneur ls essenual. 1here ls a debaLe beLween Lhe need Lo LargeL Lhe supporL Lo CCls or Lo
malnsLream CCls wlLhln exlsung schemes. 1he quesuon of lncludlng Lhe speclñclues of CCls
(lnLanglble asseLs, slze, producuon processes) wlLhln exlsung deñnluons may help Lo broaden Lhe
Lype of supporL LhaL Lhe CCls can geL. lor example, openlng Lhe deñnluon of lnnovauon Lo soû
lnnovauon, Lo lnLanglble asseLs, brlnglng LalenL scouung as parL of 8&u, may lncrease Lhe
posslblllues of supporL and fundlng ln Lhese areas.
Powever, looklng aL Lhe exlsung supporL ln Lhe Chamber of Commerce or ln slmllar unlL, Lhe CCls
do noL Lake advanLage of Lhe supporL avallable, compared Lo when Lhere ls a speclñc LargeLed
supporL. lor example ln 8elglum, CulLuurlnvesL ls a lnvesLmenL fund for CCls and Lhey are more well
known Lhan Lhe oLher programmes reachlng all SMLs. 1he CCls do noL know or do noL deal wlLh
Lhese overall sLrucLures such as 8uslness SMLs CenLres for lack of knowledge, sLubbornness,
dlsLrusL and lack of ume.
´we bove lotqe ottoy of soppott ptoqtomme fot tbe 5Mís lo qeoetol, bot mooy
of tbe ccls Joo´t opply fot tbese ptoqtommes, ot Joo´t bove occess to ot Joo´t
foJ tbe occess to tbose ptoqtommes tbot ote fot oll 5Mís. 1bese soppotts ote
fot tbe momeot tbe leost e[ecuve. AoJ yoo coo see o Jl[eteoce betweeo tbe
ose by ccls of tbe ´qeoetol 5Mís´ soppott ooJ tbe ooes tbot ote tollot moJe to
tbe oeeJs of tbe ccls´.
(8eglonal CulLural MlnlsLry, SLrucLurally SLrong 1radluonal Lconomy)
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 107
1hls pushes for Lhe elaborauon of LargeLed pollcles for Lhe CCls, ln order Lo overcome such dlsparlLy
ln supporL provlslon. More demand-led programmes and programmes LhaL ñL Lhe speclñclues of
Lhe CCls need Lo be elaboraLed. 1he dlñerenL layers of supporL provlslon wlll be furLher elaboraLed
ln Lhe followlng chapLers accordlng Lo Lhe varled lssues faced by CCl enLerprlses.
2.6. Conc|ud|ng remarks
Pavlng consldered Lhe characLerlsucs of Lhe CCls, Lhe secLoral characLerlsucs and Lhe facLors LhaL
shape Lhe conLexL surroundlng Lhe CCls (deLermlnanLs and envlronmenLal facLors), Lhls chapLer has
descrlbed Lhe general framework used ln order Lo beuer undersLand Lhe LargeLed lssues LhaL need
furLher auenuon for pollcy makers Lo develop supporung schemes for enLrepreneurshlp LhaL ñL Lhe
needs of CCls. ln addluon Lo Lhe facLors already ouLllned ln Lhls chapLer, lL ls worLh relLeraung Lhe
core compeLencles needed wlLhln Lhe enLrepreneurlal llfecycle:
1. vlslon developmenL
1o operaLe ln a complex, hlgh Lurbulence envlronmenL ln Lhe creauve economy, and Lo
reallse a sLraLeglc posluon for Lhe long run, lL ls necessary LhaL culLural and creauve
enLrepreneurs are able Lo develop a vlslon on Lhelr own creauve ñrm. MosL of Lhe
enLrepreneurs have a one-year scope on Lhelr culLural and creauve buslness. lor a
susLalnable growLh and developmenL reasons lL would be advlsable Lo creaLe a more
longlLudlnal perspecuve.
2. MarkeL posluonlng
WlLhln each phase, markeL posluons are cruclal for Lhe exlsLence of culLural and creauve
ñrms. ln Lhe beglnnlng one can sLarL oñ by a posluonlng based on one producL or servlce,
and ln Lhe perlod aûer Lhe ploneerlng phase Lhere wlll come a dlñerenuauon wlLh a
varleLy of producL-markeL comblnauons ln Lhe maLurlng sLage. 1hls core-compeLence -
scannlng one's markeL posluon - ls needed ln all phases of Lhe enLrepreneurlal
developmenL.
3. 8eLurn on creauvlLy compeLencles
Access Lo ñnance and Lhe skllls Lo deal wlLh Lhe ñnanclal slde of CCl SMLs ls a generlc
problem.
183
lrom slmple Lo complex ñnanclal supporL, Lhe culLural and creauve
enLrepreneur ls responslble for hls or her own buslness model and Lhe ñnanclal sources:
bank loans, guaranLeed loans by governmenLal or non-proñL agencles, crowd-sourclng,
granLs and subsldles. 8uslness models are focused malnly on componenLs of value
proposluons, relauonshlps wlLh vlslLors and cllenLs, Lhe cosL sLrucLure and lncome/
proñL.
184
uue Lo Lhe lnvolvemenL of culLural values, buslness modelllng based on CCls ls an
essenual parL of Lhe compeLencles.
4. Communlcauon skllls
CulLural and creauve enLrepreneurs communlcaLe wlLh colleagues, vlslLors, cllenLs,
experLs, ñnanclers, governmenLal represenLauves, granL omcers and Lralners. 1o opumlse
Lhe quallLy of Lhelr communlcauon wlLhln a sLrong normauve ñeld - of cruclal lmporLance
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 108
183
PagoorL, C & kulper C: 8eLurn on CreauvlLy: ln search for a formula. ln: PagoorL C & kooyman, 8 (Ld): Creauve lndusLrles,
Colourful labrlc ln muluple dlmenslons. uLrechL 2009
184
CsLerwalder, Alexander: Cn 8uslness Model lnnovauon. As reLrleved 12 Aprll 2010 from hup://alexosLerwalder.com
wlLhln Lhe CCls - Lhese enLrepreneurs have Lo have good communlcauon skllls, boLh oral
and wrluen, appllcable wlLhln a conLexL of dlverslLy.
3. neLworklng and Leamwork
neLworklng ls almosL a 'second naLure' wlLhln Lhe CCls. lor many creauve people
neLworklng beglns durlng Lhelr educauon and Lakes on a more professlonal sLrucLure ln
Lhe workplace. neLworklng (on a personal, funcuonal and mulu-layered lnLeracuon levels)
ls a quallLy LhaL forms Lhe ralson-d'eLre of a creauve ñrm. 1eamwork ls a quallLy LhaL ls
sLrongly connecLed wlLh Lhe CCls. Core lssues ln Lhe culLural exlsLence are Lhe role of Lhe
leadershlp-ñgure, Leam developmenL wlLhln pro[ecLs and pro[ecL responslblllues.
183
1he nexL chapLer looks aL Lhe 'deLermlnanLs of culLural and creauve enLrepreneurshlp', based on
Lhe slx Lhemes of deLermlnanLs of enLrepreneurshlp elaboraLed above buL adapLed Lo encompass
Lhe needs of Lhe CCls. 1hese Lhemes are access Lo ñnance, access Lo markeL, regulaLory measures
focuslng on lÞ8, enLrepreneurshlp Lralnlng and educauon, access Lo lnnovauon (8&u) and
collaborauon and clusLers.
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 109
183
Maarse, u., (2009), ŠÞro[ecL 8ased Learnlng: Lhe LemperaLure of our baLhwaLer– ln PagoorL C. and kooyman, 8., (Ld.), (2009),
Creauve lndusLrles, Colourful labrlc ln Muluple ulmenslons, uLrechL: Pogeschool voor de kunsLen uLrechL
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 110
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 111
chapLer Lhree: maln Lhemauc ouLcomes
chapLer Lhree: maln Lhemauc ouLcomes
lL ls clear LhaL CCls have speclñc characLerlsucs LhaL need Lo be Laken lnLo accounL when looklng aL
culLural and creauve enLrepreneurshlp. Moreover, CCls do noL work ln closed envlronmenLs, raLher
Lhey are sLrongly lnßuenced by Lhelr reglonal and nauonal envlronmenLs, as well as Lhe changes
due Lo dlglLal convergence. Pavlng looked aL Lhe deLermlnanLs of enLrepreneurshlp, Lhls secuon
examlnes Lhe key Lhemes LhaL dlrecLly lnßuence Lhe developmenL of enLrepreneurshlp ln CCls ln
Lurope. 1hese key Lhemauc ouLcomes from Lhe sLudy provlde an analysls and overvlew of Lhe area
and form Lhe basls for Lhe recommendauons ln ChapLer 4.
lrom Lhe lnLervlews conducLed for Lhls sLudy across Lurope, one of Lhe general ñndlngs LhaL qulckly
emerged was Lhe overrldlng need Lo gaLher more conslsLenL daLa regardlng CCls on a Luropean
level. nauonal sLausucs are noL homogenlsed and Lhls means LhaL any comparlson ls ßawed. AL
Luropean level, LurosLaL, Lhe sLausucal omce of Lhe Luropean unlon, ls currenLly worklng wlLh a
group of Member SLaLes on an updaLe of Lhe framework for culLural sLausucs seL up ln 2000 as well
as on deñnlng Lhe scope of CCls. AL a more modesL level, Lhe Creauve CrowLh pro[ecL ls a good
example of an eñorL Lo rebalance Lhls buL lL remalns llmlLed Lo cerLaln clues.
186

1hls chapLer wlll look aL Lhe maln Lhemes LhaL emerged from Lhe research underLaken
correspondlng Lo Lhe deLermlnanLs of enLrepreneurshlp, namely: access Lo ñnance, access Lo
markeL, lÞ8, educauon and Lralnlng, lnnovauon and connecuve collaborauon and clusLerlng.
3.1 Access to hnance
´1be key lssoe ls oot tbe ovolloblllty of foooce ot bosloess Jevelopmeot setvlces,
totbet lt ls tbe occess ooJ ose moJe of tbls fooJloq ooJ soppott by cteouve
bosloesses. 5peclfcolly, lt ls tbe low ptopeoslty ooJ oblllty of mooy cteouve
bosloesses to moke foll ose of tbe ovolloble foooce, oJvlce ooJ expetuse tbot
loblblts locteoseJ ptoJocuvlty ooJ qtowtb lo tbe cteouve loJosttles´.
187
Þerhaps Lhe greaLesL obsLacle faced by enLrepreneurs and enLerprlses ln Lhe CCls ls how Lo locaLe
Lhe funds Lo ñnance Lhelr endeavours. ln Lhe sLudy's onllne survey, access Lo ñnance was deemed
by 33.8° of Lhe respondenLs Lo be Lhe mosL lmporLanL buslness-relaLed challenge when sLarung a
company. 1hls observauon was conñrmed by Lhe secLoral experLs who, when asked abouL Lhe mosL
lmporLanL Lransversal lssues faced ln Lhelr own secLors, prlorlused access Lo ñnance (37.9°).
lndeed, many sLudles on enLrepreneurshlp hlghllghL caplLal as one of Lhe mosL crlucal facLors for
success.
188
1he percelved lack of ñnance for Lhe CCls was furLher exacerbaLed by Lhe eñecL of Lhe
recenL ñnanclal crlsls, from whlch 39° of Lhe CCls expecLed a decrease from 3 Lo 10° ln Lhelr
Lurnover, as opposed Lo 18° bellevlng ln a sLable Lurnover (- or š 2.3°) as can be seen ln llg. 12.
below.
A recenL survey by SlCA conñrmed Lhls Lrend as also añecung publlc funds for culLural acuvlues. lor
example, ÞorLugal's culLural secLor ls heavlly under pressure as Lhe MlnlsLry of CulLure ls even
conslderlng cumng funds on lnLernauonal represenLauon and Lhe many pro[ecLs funded from bank
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 112
186
See hup://www.creauve-growLh.eu
187
uCMS/Creauve Lconomy Þrogramme (2006), 8uslness SupporL and Access Lo llnance Croup, London: ueparLmenL of CulLure,
Medla and SporL
188
LC Creen Þaper, (2003), op. clL., p.18.
loans are no longer avallable. LaLvla ls Lhe counLry LhaL has experlenced Lhe mosL cuLs ln lLs
nauonal governmenL budgeL wlLh a decrease of 67° ln Lhe ñlm secLor's budgeL and 40° ln Lhe arLs
and llLeraLure secLor. 'Þrecursors' ln Lhe creauve economy are noL spared elLher, wlLh Sweden
shlûlng lLs fundlng Lo reglonal governmenL, leadlng Lo a dlsparlLy beLween smaller and blgger clues.
1he uk has wlLnessed severe cuLs for Lhe ArLs Councll (20 mllllon Luros) LhaL wlll be malnLalned
slnce funds for culLure are mosLly reserved for Lhe Clymplcs ln 2012.
189
Ooesuoo. wbot wos tbe e[ect of tbe teceot ctlsls oo yoot totoovet fot 2009?
0¼ S¼ 10¼ 1S¼ 20¼ 2S¼ 30¼ 3S¼ 40¼ 4S¼
Increase |n turnover (+2,S¼ up to +S¼)
Strong |ncrease |n turnover (+S¼ up to +10¼)
Don't know
Decrease |n turnover (-S¼ up to -2,S¼)
Stab|e turnover (-2,S¼ up to +2,S¼)
Strong decrease |n turnover (-10¼ up to -S¼)
I|gure 12: Lñect of the recent hnanc|a| cr|s|s on 2009 turnover
(5ootce. íotoklels 2010, oolloe sotvey)
CaplLal and access Lo ñnance play an lmporLanL role durlng all phases of Lhe enLrepreneurlal
llfecycle and can dlrecLly añecL how well a buslness performs. lndeed, ln Lhe sLudy's onllne survey,
32.2° of Lhe CCls hlghllghLed Lhe sLarung up phase as Lhe mosL lmporLanL phase for ñnanclal
supporL. lrom Lhe onllne survey (llg. 13.), 36° of Lhe CCls (78° of whlch conslsLed of proñL
organlsauons) relled on self-ñnance as Lhelr maln ñnanclal source, as opposed Lo 20° whlch were
malnly supporLed Lhrough publlc granLs.
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 113
189
SlCA, uuLch CenLer for lnLernauonal CulLural Acuvlues, (!une 2010), 1he Lconomlc Crlsls and Lhe ÞrospecLs for ArLs and CulLure ln
Lurope, p. 4.
Ooesuoo. lo tbe lost foooclol yeot (2008), wblcb wos
tbe most lmpottoot fooocloq sootce?
!"# $!"# %!"# &!"# '!"# (!"# )!"#
*+,-./0102304#
567,32#8910:;#
<10=#>?10#
593@1:+#8910:;#
AB#
C3;=#D1E3:1,#
F+0:69+#D1E3:1,#
G?01H?0#
I1J#302+0H@+#
*++K#L30102304#
*:?2=#M19=+:;#
I|gure 13: Most |mportant hnance source 2007-2008
(5ootce. íotoklels 2010 oolloe sotvey)
lL ls also clear LhaL CCl SMLs have a shorL Lerm span for ñnanclal plannlng. 1he onllne quesuonnalre
revealed LhaL 22° of Lhe CCls had no ñnanclal and economlc plannlng whlle 33° had a one year
forecasL, as can be seen ln llg. 14. Cnly 4° had a ñnanclal forecasL of up Lo 3 years.
Moreover, comlng back Lo Lhe characLerlsucs of ouLsourclng mechanlsms and Lhe necesslLy Lo
comblne Lhe admlnlsLrauve Lasks wlLh Lhe creauve process, Lhe onllne survey showed LhaL 73° of
Lhese companles elaboraLed Lhe forecasL Lhemselves as opposed Lo 20° LhaL used a professlonal
consulLancy servlce.
Ooesuoo. uoes yoot otqoolsouoo moke ooy foooclol ooJ ecooomlc ploooloq (boJqet ooJ opJoteJ
bosloess ploo)?
!"# $!"# %!"# &!"# '!"# (!"# )!"#
*+,-#./0+#1234#(#5+30,#6/0+73,1#
*+,-#89#1/#(#5+30,#6/0+73,1#
*+,-#89#1/#&#5+30,#6/0+73,1#
:/#
*+,-#$#5+30#6/0+73,1#
I|gure 14: I|nanc|a| and Lconom|c p|ann|ng (8udget and bus|ness p|an) for CCIs
(5ootce. íotoklels 2010, oolloe sotvey)
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 114
3.1.1. S|ze re|ated constra|nts for hnance
ln vlew of Lhe Lu Small 8uslness AcL of 2008, small and medlum slzed enLerprlses and freelancers
play a cenLral role ln Lhe Luropean economy, especlally ln Lhelr role as lnnovaLors.
190
Powever, Lhe
exlsLence of an equlLy gap - Lhe lnablllLy of small ñrms Lo access Lhe ñnance Lhey need Lo grow -
has been a long-Lerm challenge for governmenLs and ls a ma[or conslderauon ln Lurope's sLraLegy
for lLs lnnovauve fuLure.
191
Successlve admlnlsLrauons have acknowledged Lhe lmporLance of Lhe
venLure caplLal lndusLry and lmplemenLed varlous lnluauves ln supporL of early-sLage venLure
caplLal lnvesLmenL, lncludlng seed and sLarL-up fundlng, Lo supporL SMLs, and especlally CCl
SMLs.
192
Cne characLerlsuc LhaL seLs aparL Lhe CCls and, ln many ways lmpedes Lhelr access Lo ñnance, ls Lhe
dependency on lnLanglble asseLs. 1he creauve enLrepreneur Lradluonally comblnes Langlble
lnformauon and communlcauon Lechnology wlLh lnLanglble lnformauon producLs: culLural quallues
and 'medla conLenL'. Powever, lnLanglble asseLs such as novelLy, soû lnnovauon, copyrlghL and
creauvlLy are oûen noL reßecLed ln accounLs, alLhough Lhls ls slowly changlng.
193
llnanclal
lnsuLuuons such as banks oûen fall Lo sumclenLly recognlse Lhelr economlc value.
194
llg. 13. below
lllusLraLes Lhe maln obsLacles for CCls Lo access ñnance, where Lhe share of rlsk averslon from
ñnanclal lnsuLuuons and Lhe dlmculLy ln gemng granLs accounLs for approxlmaLely 30° of Lhe
responses.
lor Lhls reason, a loan supporung CCl acuvlues ls consldered rlsky and ls noL always endorsed.
Whlle guaranLee funds such as Lhose elaboraLed ln Lhe neLherlands (kunsL en Zaken) or ln llanders
(CulLuurlnvesL), faclllLaLe Lhe auracuon of such funds, Lhere remalns a sLrong need for greaLer
knowledge exchange beLween Lhe ñnanclal secLor and sLakeholders ln Lhe CCls, as secLoral experLs
have lndlcaLed.
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 113
190
Luropean Councll Concluslons, (uecember 2008), 1hlnk Small llrsL- A Small 8uslness AcL for Lurope, doc 16788/08
191
Luropean Councll Concluslons, (May 2010), Concluslons on Creaung an lnnovauve Lurope, 3016Lh Compeuuveness Councll
Meeung, 26Lh May 2010
192
Plggs, Þ. and Cunnlngham, S., (2007) AusLralla's Creauve Lconomy: Mapplng MeLhodologles. 1echnlcal 8eporL.' 8rlsbane: CenLre
of Lxcellence ln Creauve lndusLrles and lnnovauon.
193
CLCu ls developlng an lnnovauon sLraLegy Lo provlde pollcy makers wlLh Lools Lo lmprove Lhelr own lnnovauon sLraLegles based
on new lnnovauon measuremenLs whlch would Lake lnLo conslderauon soû lnnovauon and ls also expecLed Lo lnLegraLe Lhe value of
user-lnnovauon. See nauonal LndowmenL for Sclence, 1echnology and Lhe ArLs, (Aprll 2010a), Measurlng user lnnovauon ln Lhe uk-
1he lmporLance of producL creauon by users, London: nLS1A
194
Luropean Commlsslon Creen Þaper, (2003), op. clL., p. 12.
Ooesuoo. wbot ls tbe molo obstocle fot yoot otqoolsouoo to occess foooce?
!"# $"# %"# &"# '"# (!"# ($"# (%"# (&"# ('"#
)*#+,-#.*#/0012#3*4#54/6.7896:-6+;-7#
<9,-#70-6.#=-3*4-#/004*;/1#*3#>6/6:9/1#7?00*4.#
@95A#96.-4-7.#4/.-7#
B.A-4#
C?=19:#3?6D#7A*4./5-#
)*#=/6E#1*/6#5?/4/6.--#
<9,-#:*67?,965#04*:-D?4-7#3*4#0?=19:#96:-6+;-7#
F9G:?1.2#96#5-H65#54/6.7#
I97E#/;-479*6#34*,#>6/6:9/1#967+.?+*67#
I|gure 1S: Ma|n obstac|es for CCIs to access hnance
(5ootce. íotoklels 2010, oolloe sotvey)
3.1.2. Subs|dy versus market compan|es
As seen already, Lhe CCls can be broadly dlvlded lnLo Lwo caLegorles: Lhose LhaL are more
commerclally orlenLed and Lhose LhaL are publlcly funded. Whlle Lhls dlsuncuon ls ldenuñed, Lhe
reallLy ls oûen noL as expllclL because Š1he publlc and Lhe prlvaLe secLors are lnLegraLed vla Lhe CCl
Lhrough sponsorshlp and donauons, as well as eñecuve cross-subsldles–.
193
ln any case, Lhe maln
dlñerences lllusLraLe Lhe ways ln whlch buslnesses are ñnanclally supporLed. Whlle commerclal
buslnesses wlLhln Lhe CCls are sub[ecL Lo varlauons ln consumer demand, SMLs LhaL are publlcly
funded, conversely, wlll oûen be sLeered by Lhe consLanLly shlûlng prlorlues of publlc resources.
1he Lypes of ñnanclal supporL made avallable Lo CCl SMLs correspond Lo Lhe dlvlslon made
beLween Lhe culLural and Lhe creauve secLors. Many culLural servlces, as parL of Lhe CCls, are also
publlc servlces and are supporLed as such. 1axauon measures, ln parucular, play an lmporLanL role
for Lhese acuvlues. 1hough pollcy makers lncreaslngly Lurn Lhelr auenuon Lo new meLhods of
fundlng, such as publlc-prlvaLe parLnershlps, culLural servlces conunue Lo be prlmarlly funded by
Lhe SLaLe.
196
1hese servlces, such as acuvlues ln Lhe performlng arLs and Lhe audlovlsual secLors are
more readlly granLed fundlng from nauonal governmenLs whlle Lhe creauve lndusLrles, such as
deslgn and gamlng, are expecLed Lo be more commerclal ln naLure, recelvlng fundlng Lhrough
enLrepreneurlal acuvlues and prlvaLe equlLy ñnance raLher Lhan subsldles. 1hls conLrasL was
sLrongly conñrmed by respondenLs from Lhe MlnlsLrles of CulLure ln sLrucLurally sLrong and
Lradluonal economles ln Lhe sLudy research.
An addluonal dlsuncuon should be made beLween dlñerenL Luropean counLrles. ln mosL Lradluonal
and knowledge economles, Lhe performlng arLs beneñL from governmenL granLs or subsldles. ln
emerglng or sLrucLurally weak economles, however, Lhe funds avallable are, by comparlson, very
llmlLed as Lhey are hampered by a producL developmenL focus as experLs have lndlcaLed. Whlle
subsldles from Lhe publlc secLor may asslsL ln Lhe sLarL-up and fundlng of SMLs, Lhey are oûen
more accesslble Lo Lhe culLural secLors (e.g. Lhe performlng arLs) Lhan Lo Lhe CCls as a whole. ln
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 116
193
Þrau, A. C., (2009),Š1he creauve and culLural economy and Lhe recesslon–, Ceoforum, volume 40, pp. 493-496.
196
kLA, (2009), op. clL., p. 6.
addluon, responses from experLs suggesL LhaL publlc lnluauves seem unable Lo meeL Lhe
expecLauons and needs of CC enLrepreneurs because Lhey are compllcaLed Lo undersLand and oûen
deLached from Lhe LerrlLory ln whlch Lhe company operaLes.
LxperLs frequenLly expressed cauuon aL relylng on subsldles sysLems and broughL up lssues such as
SML susLalnablllLy, ñnanclal self-sumclency as well as pollucal lnßuence on culLural producLs and
servlces. noneLheless, mosL members of Lhe CCls have ln some way been helped Lo develop Lhelr
franchlse Lhrough publlc supporL and lnvesLmenL.
Among respondenLs, supporL from publlc granLs ls sLrongly expecLed. 8earlng ln mlnd Lhe shorL-
Lerm, pro[ecL-based characLerlsucs of many CCls, granLs can be sLraLeglcally organlsed Lo maxlmlse
Lhelr creauve and culLural lmpacL, and encourage sLrong splllover eñecLs and connecuvlLy beLween
Lhe core, Lhe creauve lndusLrles and Lhe wlder economy. lndeed, Lhough many enLrepreneurs rely
on prlvaLe funds, Lhe ma[orlLy of respondenLs consldered publlc granLs Lo be Lhe besL Lool Lo
lncrease ñnanclal opporLunlues.
1he need for more publlc fundlng from Lu fundlng programmes or nauonal MlnlsLrles of llnance
was hlghllghLed (e.g. for workspaces). AlLernauvely, a new Luropean fund speclñc Lo CCl SMLs was
suggesLed as anoLher Lype of ñnanclal supporL.
3.1.3. 1ypes of hnanc|a| support
Whlle many slmllar Lypes of supporL are oñered LhroughouL Lurope, Lhe level aL whlch Lhey are
oñered and Lhe secLors Lo whlch Lhey are made avallable may dlñer conslderably. As dlscussed
above, Lhe mosL lmporLanL ñnanclng source ls undoubLedly self-ñnanclng. Þubllc granLs, bank loans
and prlvaLe granLs have a resldual role, whlle Lhe oLhers sources are marglnal.
3.1.3.1. Access to debt hnanc|ng
1he supply of debL caplLal vla more Lradluonal credlL markeLs ls vlLal Lo all enLrepreneurlal acuvlLy.
WlLhouL a large and emclenL credlL markeL Lo supply ñrms wlLh emclenL debL caplLal, some
enLrepreneurs wlll face a ñnanclal barrler maklng lL lmposslble Lo selze opporLunlues. ln general,
debL ñnanclng covers bank loan schemes and lnsurance schemes. 1hey are, ln prlnclple, easler Lo
secure because Lhese ñnanclal sources are avallable Lo all enLrepreneurs.
Powever, Lhe regular ñnanclal lnsuLuuons oñer llule developmenL asslsLance or experuse wlLh
regards Lo Lhe CCls.
197
ln addluon, Lhe naLure of CCls makes lL harder Lo access ñnance: buslnesses'
asseLs are oûen lnLanglble wlLh copyrlghL dlmculL Lo proLecL for new producLs and deslgns, reLurns
are uncerLaln, and producL lnnovauon does noL easlly LranslaLe lnLo formal buslness sLrucLures. ln
order Lo develop Lhelr company, a mld Lo long Lerm loan can provlde secured lnvesLmenL whlch ls
more adapLed Lo Lhe usual long lnvesLmenL cycle LhaL characLerlses Lhe CCls.
198
lurLhermore, due Lo Lhe ñnanclal recesslon, many banks have become more rlsk-averse and, as a
resulL, are lncreaslngly less llkely Lo supporL buslnesses ln Lhe CCls due Lo Lhelr hlgh-rlsk quallues. ln
llg. 16., Lhe Lhree mosL lmporLanL lnsLrumenLs Lo lncrease ñnanclal opporLunlues were seen as
publlc granLs, an lncrease ln self-ñnanclng and bank loans.
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 117
197
karra, n., (2008), 1he uk ueslgner lashlon Lconomy, London: nLS1A
198
kLA, (May 2010), op.clL., p. 30.
1he reLurn on lnvesLmenL ls
consldered low and rlsky for
l nves L or s . Ac c or dl ngl y,
ñndlngs from Lhe onllne
survey lndlcaLe LhaL Lhe
g r e a L e s L o b s L a c l e f o r
organl sauons Lo access
ñnance was rlsk averslon from
ñnanclal lnsuLuuons, followed
by dlmculLy ln obLalnlng
granLs (see llg. 13. above).
1hus, a bank loan guaranLee
for lnnovauve SMLs and CCls could help ln provldlng more LargeLed supporL. As bank guaranLees do
noL sumclenLly LargeL CCls, speclallsed ñnanclal lnLermedlarles for CCls could medlaLe beLween
Lhem and Lhe banks. 1he examples of CulLuurlnvesL, kunsL en Zaken and llClC (see 8esL Cases) are
hlghly regarded ln Lhls case.
Ooesuoo. wbot ls tbe most oJepoote tool to locteose foooclol oppottoolues
fot yoot compooy?
!"# $"# %!"# %$"# &!"# &$"#
'()*+,#-./012#
34*5670/0,+0-#
8/09#*:/0#
;/<#+0,40=>4#
?+29#,/@+1/*#
AB;#.4C(,=:0##
D:0/=:0#E#3@:02:.+0-#
F+,.:#,.4C+1#5(0C#
344C#70/0,+0-#
'.+>/14#-./012#
G00:>/=:0#>:(,H4.2#
I1H4.#
31:,9#J/.9412#
I|gure 16: Most adequate too| to |ncrease hnanc|a| opportun|nes for CCIs
(5ootce. íotoklels 2010, oolloe sotvey)
3.1.3.2. Access to Venture Cap|ta|
venLure caplLal ls an lmporLanL source of fundlng for poLenual hlgh-growLh venLures LhaL requlre
slgnlñcanL caplLal for developmenL, growLh and expanslon. 1he Lurope 2020 SLraLegy recognlses
Lhelr beneñL for sLarL- up companles and lnnovauve companles.
199
ln a recenL sLudy by kLA on Lhe ñnanclal opporLunlues Lo fund CCls, lL was found LhaL even Lhough
Lhere are few venLure caplLal funds compared Lo Lhe uS, Lhere are sull 62 speclñc equlLy ñnance
schemes across Lurope whlch are parLly dedlcaLed Lo CCls, mosL of Lhem (approxlmaLely half) are
Cu|tuur Invest
Cu|tuur Invest |s an |ndependent |nvestment fund co-
hnanced by the reg|on of I|anders a|ong w|th seven
strateg|c partners. 1he fund |s a|med at entrepreneurs |n
the cu|tura| |ndustr|es, who have products or serv|ces w|th
a cu|tura| content, creanon and markenng . It |s pr|mar||y
short term |oans.
(See 8esL Case 21)
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 118
199
Luropean Commlsslon Communlcauon, (March 2010b), op. clL., p. 20.
dedlcaLed Lo audlovlsual buslnesses secLors llnked Lo Lhe lC1 secLor.
200
lnvesLmenL ln Lhe CCl oûen needs Lo be longer-Lerm Lhan oLher venLure caplLal lnvesLmenLs.
1yplcally lnvesLors wanL a reLurn on Lhelr lnvesLmenL ln as llule as Lhree years. uesplLe lLs hlgh
proñle, lnvesLmenL ln Lhe CCls can Lake much longer Lo become proñLable. lor Lhe mlcro, small and
even medlum slzed buslnesses lL ls excepuonally dlmculL Lo auracL sLraLeglc lnvesLmenL. Powever,
Lhere are examples of successful equlLy funds such as Walllmage, a 8elglan lnvesLmenL fund Lo Lhe
audlovlsual secLor LhaL co-ñnanced ñlm pro[ecLs for t 30 mllllon and generaLed abouL t100 mllllon
revenue ln Wallonlan and 8russels reglons.
201
Cn Lhe oLher hand, many creauve enLrepreneurs are generally nervous abouL parLnershlps wlLh
lnvesLors, fearlng loss of conLrol of Lhelr company, and are relucLanL Lo share proñLs ln reLurn.
ln order Lo enlarge Lhe domesuc supply of venLure caplLal, governmenLs can elLher Lake lnluauves
Lo develop nauonal venLure funds or lmprove venLure markeL regulauon Lo grow exlsung venLure
markeLs. 1he former lncludes dlrecL lnvesLmenLs and Lhe lauer lncludes relaxlng leglslauon, maklng
lL more auracuve (or slmply posslble) for enuues, such as penslon and lnsurance funds, Lo make
venLure lnvesLmenLs.
3.1.3.3. Intermed|ary bod|es
lnLermedlary bodles (such as kunsL en Zaken ln Lhe neLherlands, or CulLuurlnvesL (8esL Cases 27
and 21)), provlde alLernauve sources of ñnanclal supporL Lhrough venLure caplLal, mlcro-credlL
schemes for sLarL-up SMLs and culLural and creauve enLrepreneurs, and by faclllLaung loan
guaranLees LhaL mlnlmlse rlsk. 1he llClC (8esL Case 19) ls a credlL lnsuLuLe ln lrance LhaL makes lL
easler for companles wlLhln Lhe CCls Lo obLaln bank ñnanclng. 1he llClC provldes loan guaranLees
Lo SMLs LhaL cover mosL of Lhelr needs aL all sLages of Lhelr developmenL.
3.1.3.4. 8us|ness Ange|s
8uslness angels are Lyplcally wealLhy lndlvlduals who make dlrecL equlLy lnvesLmenLs ln Lhe seed
sLage of companles, and Lhey Lend Lo provlde more managerlal and buslness advlce Lhrough Lhelr
greaLer personal lnvolvemenL Lhan lnsuLuuonal lnvesLors. 1he mouves for buslness angels Lo lnvesL
ln new, rlsky ldeas and pro[ecLs are varled: from expecLauons of blg proñLs, a sense of soclal
responslblllLy, helplng young enLrepreneurs Lo seL up Lhelr companles, Lo lnvesLmenL slmply for Lhe
reasons of fun and pleasure.
202
CovernmenLs ln many counLrles Lry Lo culuvaLe buslness angels by organlslng neLworks and glvlng
speclal lnvesLmenL Lax lncenuves. Several counLrles have also Lrled Lo lmprove lnformauon ßows
beLween angels and poLenual enLrepreneurs LhaL oLherwlse Lend Lo be lnformal.
203
lor example,
Lhe uuLch governmenL planned ln lLs recenL pollcy programme Lo exLend Lhe 8uslness Angels
Þrogramme Lo lnclude CCls,
204
as CCls sull make relauvely llule use of such 8uslness Angel sysLems.
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 119
200
kLA, (May 2010b), Þromoung lnvesLmenL ln Lhe CulLural and Creauve SecLor: llnanclng needs, 1rends and CpporLunlues, 8eporL
prepared for LCCL lnnovauon- nanLes MeLropole, p. 37.
201
Š1apls 8ouge Cannols pour les sysLemes belges d'aldes au clnema–, L'Lcho, 11 May 2010
2028amadanl, v., (2008), 8uslness Angels, who Lhey really are, SouLh LasL Luropean unlverslLy of 1eLovo, Macedonla
203
kLA, (May 2010b), op. clL., p. 43.
204
neLherlands MlnlsLry of CulLure and MlnlsLry of Lconomlcs (2009), Creauve value- CulLure and Lconomy pollcy Þaper, 1he Pague:
MlnlsLry of CulLure and MlnlsLry Lconomlcs, p. 46.
3.1.3.S. 1axanon |ncennves
AparL from AusLrla, llnland, Lhe neLherlands, Spaln and Lhe uk, whlch lmplemenL speclñc
measures Lo supporL CCls (alLhough deñnluons are noL always homogeneous for dlñerenL pollcy
frameworks), Lhe mosL general approaches Lo supporung culLural and creauve enLrepreneurshlp
are Lax deducuon and favourable ñscal pollcles.
1ax lncenuves can elLher enhance or lmpalr compeuuveness and Lhe creauon of a prosperous
enLrepreneurlal envlronmenL, dependlng on Lhe level and Lype of lncenuve. 1he overall Lax burden,
whlch conslsLs of all Laxes, dlrecL and lndlrecL, and compulsory soclal conLrlbuuons, can be used as
an lnsLrumenL for Lhe CCls.
203
LxperLs aL dlñerenL levels frequenLly broughL up Lhe lssue of Lax
credlLs and ñscal exempuons. 1ogeLher wlLh bank loan guaranLees, Lax exempuons were consldered
by Luropean experLs Lo be Lhe besL way Lo provlde ñnanclal supporL.
When asked abouL Lhe mosL relevanL way Lo access ñnance for CCl SMLs, Lax exempuons for CCls
were selecLed as Lhe mosL lmporLanL lnluauves by secLoral experLs (38°), followed by a CCl SML
frlendly growLh loan (27°), as lllusLraLed ln llg. 17. MosL of Lhe 'oLher' alLernauves (7.4°)
suggesLed Lhe lmplemenLauon of a mulu-layered approach encompasslng frlendly growLh loans, Lax
exempuon, guaranLee faclllues, rlsk caplLal, and vA1 reducuon. Some only underllned Lhe need Lo
have a loan or bank guaranLee. Cn Lhe oLher hand, for general Luropean experLs, seed ñnanclng
was consldered Lhe mosL relevanL way Lo supporL CCl SMLs (22°) as well as an lncrease ln publlc
granLs.
Cne of Lhe mosL frequenLly used lnsLrumenLs Lo sumulaLe Lhe CCls ls Lhe creauon of speclñc Lax
reglmes for culLural and creauve enLrepreneurs. 1he LC recenLly consldered Lhe lmplemenLauon of
a low vA1 raLe Lo labour lnLenslve creauve servlces and producLs, lncludlng arL herlLage, muslc,
press onllne, works of arL, admlsslon Lo shows, LheaLres, clrcuses, concerLs, museums, eLc.
206
1he
argumenL ls slmple: demand can be boosLed for any producL by lowerlng vA1 raLes. 1he mouvauon
can be Lo make culLural goods more wldely avallable for low-lncome households or Lo sumulaLe Lhe
consumpuon of goods wlLh posluve lncenuves. Lxamples of Lhe former would be books, muslc and
culLural evenLs.
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 120
203
1he LC has consldered Lhe lmplemenLauon of a low vaL 8aLe Lo creauve servlces and producLs, lncludlng all arusLs and Lhe
royalues due Lo Lhem. Luropean Commlsslon, (2008), ConsulLauon Þaper of 8evlew of Lxlsung leglslauon on vA1 8educed raLes,
h u p : / / e c . e u r o p a . e u / L a x a u o n _ c u s L o m s / r e s o u r c e s / d o c u m e n L s / c o m m o n / c o n s u l L a u o n s / L a x /
vaL_raLes_publlc_consulLauon_documenL_en.pdf
206
LC ConsulLauon Þaper of 8evlew of Lxlsung leglslauon on vA1 8educed raLes, (2008), see hup://ec.europa.eu/Laxauon_cusLoms/
resources/documenLs/common/consulLauons/Lax/vaL_raLes_publlc_consulLauon_documenL_en.pdf
Ooesuoo. 5elect tbe most televoot loluouve to occess foooce fot ccl 5Mís
!"# $"# %!"# %$"# &!"# &$"# '!"# '$"# (!"# ($"#
)*+,-#
./0102/13#456/2,#
78-9:,10#;;<#=10>#
;;<#?@7#A-/,053B#C-9D*+#3910#
E1F#,F,G:H90#A9-#;;<#
I|gure 17: Most re|evant |n|nanve to access hnance for CCI SMLs
(5ootce. íotoklels 2010, 5ectotol expett poesuoooolte)
llg. 18. below shows Lhe mosL lmporLanL klnds of ñnanclal lnluauves LhaL could besL be used for
asslsung CCl SMLs.
Ooesuoo. 5elect tbe tbtee most lmpottoot sootces of extetool copltol lo yoot sectot
!"# $"# %!"# %$"# &!"# &$"#
'(()#*+,-,.+,/#
0123+.#45-,67#
8-9#(9(:;<=,#>=5#??@#'AB7#
??@#'AB#>5+(,)3C#/5=D6E#F=-,#
*+,-,.+-3#G)H+.(7#
I(,615(#?-;+6-3#
B15=;(-,#??@#J-,K#
05+H-6(#45-,67#
L6E(5#
I|gure 18: Most |mportant k|nd of hnanc|a| |n|nanves best ass|snng CCI SMLs
(5ootce. íotoklels 2009, 5ectotol íxpett poesuoooolte)
3.1.3.6. Þub||c-Þr|vate Þartnersh|ps
1he dlverse and dynamlc naLure of CCl SMLs means LhaL Lhe quesuon of access Lo ñnance depends
on numerous facLors. Muluple and blended forms of ñnanclal supporL are needed dependlng on
Lhe glven secLor and phase of a speclñc pro[ecL aL whlch an SML ñnds lLself.
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 121
1he Councll Concluslons of May 2010 on cteouoq oo looovouve íotope sLressed Lhe need Lo
lnclude publlc prlvaLe parLnershlps Lo ñnance more eñecuve banklng llnes for 8esearch,
uevelopmenL and lnnovauon lnvolvlng acLors such as Lhe Luropean lnvesLmenL 8ank.
207
1he experL
lnLervlewees of Lhls sLudy slmllarly sLressed Lhe poLenual of Lhese acLors Lo Lap lnLo Lhe CCls.
3.1.2. Þhases
1he lmporLance of access Lo ñnance varles greaLly beLween SMLs and may be of greaLer need
durlng Lhe beglnnlng or laLer sLages of growLh. Accordlng Lo respondenLs (llg. 19.) an
overwhelmlng ma[orlLy, boLh from Lhe survey and quallLauve lnLervlews, lndlcaLe Lhe slgnlñcance of
ñnanclal supporL parucularly ln phases Lwo and Lhree of Lhe llfecycle model. 1he amounL and Lype
of fundlng, however, dlñers beLween phases. lor lnsLance, sLarL up cosLs (e.g. reglsLrauons cosLs)
wlll be greaLesL ln phase Lwo. 1herefore, lowerlng Lhe sLarL up and reglsLrauon cosLs, Lhereby
dlmlnlshlng Lhe ñnanclal Lhresholds Lo sLarL, wlll posluvely lnßuence Lhe number of sLarLers ln Lhe
secLor. Slmllarly, provldlng lnnovauon funds durlng phase Lhree, when Lhey are of greaLer use and
value, can beuer LargeL lnnovauon.
1he dlvlslon beLween supporung Lhe enLrepreneur and Lhe enLerprlse becomes apparenL when
regardlng ñnanclal supporL. 1he Lransluon from a one-person enLerprlse Lo a mulu-person
enLerprlse greaLly añecLs Lhe Lype and amounL of ñnances requlred, parucularly lf addluonal
workers are employed. Slmllarly, Lhe emclency of publlc funds changes beLween Lhese Lwo levels,
wlLh dlrecL subsldles belng very emclenL aL Lhe beglnnlng Lo supporL Lhe enLrepreneur, buL less so
aL Lhe enLerprlse level.
Ooesuoo. At wbot stoqe of tbe eottepteoeotlol llfecycle ls foooclol soppott most oeeJeJ?
!"# $!"# %!"# &!"# '!"# (!"# )!"#
*+,-.#(/#0122.3425#
*+,-.#$/#*6.7,6825#9+.#561:2;#
*+,-.#'/#<:8=;#1:9#
*+,-.#&/#<:8=;>:7#
*+,-.#%/#?9,69>:7#
I|gure 19: Most |mportant phase for hnanc|a| support
(5ootce. íotoklels 2010, oolloe sotvey)
Slnce access Lo ñnance ls lmporLanL durlng Lhe early phases of Lhe enLrepreneurlal llfecycle,
knowledge and lnformauon on Lhe Lypes of ñnanclal supporL avallable ls of correspondlng
slgnlñcance. 1here are many Lypes of exlsung ñnanclal supporL avallable, such as mulu-secLoral
supporL schemes. Powever, CCls generally do noL access Lhem due Lo Lhelr lack of knowledge abouL
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 122
207
Luropean Councll Concluslons, (May 2010), op. clL., p.3.
funds LhaL are noL speclñcally LargeLed aL CCls.
208
CulLural and creauve enLrepreneurs need Lo be
aware of, and comforLable wlLh, ñnanclal opuons. Cn Lhe oLher hand, Loo much fundlng durlng Lhe
early phases can also lnhlblL growLh. As several experLs expressed, Loo much fundlng can make
enLrepreneurs rlsk-averse and sLop Lhem brlnglng Lhelr ldeas Lo Lhe markeL.
uurlng Lhe laLer sLages of Lhe cycle, namely durlng phase four and ñve, Lhere are addluonal
obsLacles Lo overcome. lor growLh-orlenLed SMLs parucularly, speclñc sLrucLural ñnance and
worklng caplLal are needed ln order Lo expand growLh and access Lo Lhe markeL (bulld ouL).
llnanclal supporL musL be accesslble durlng all phases of Lhe enLrepreneurlal llfe cycle, buL Lhe
Lypes of supporL musL concur wlLh Lhe evolvlng needs of each phase.
3.1.3. Leve|s
llnanclal supporL provlded aL local, reglonal and nauonal levels were clearly emphaslsed by Lhe
survey's respondenLs as mosL adequaLe for supporung CCls. As seen ln llg. 20. below, 32° of
respondenLs consldered Lhe reglonal level of auLhorlLy as mosL sulLable for supporung access Lo
ñnance, followed by Lhe nauonal level (29°) and Lhe local/clLy level (22°). 1he Lu level was
deemed Lo be less adequaLe for dlrecL supporL Lo Lhe CCls malnly due Lo Lhe bureaucracy and
complexlLy lnvolved ln Lhe procedures.
Ooesuoo. wbot level of ootbotlty ls most soltoble fot soppotuoq
occess to foooce fot yoot otqoolsouoo?
!"# $"# %!"# %$"# &!"# &$"# '!"# '$"#
()*+,-./#0)1)/#
2.3,-./#0)1)/#
0,4./56+78#/)1)/#
9:;,<).-#0)1)/#
=-7);-.3,-./#/)1)/##
I|gure 20: Most Su|tab|e Author|ty to support access to hnance
(5ootce. íotoklels 2010, oolloe sotvey)
A ñrm undersLandlng of Lhe parucular characLerlsucs and needs of Lhe CCls was consldered cruclal
Lo provldlng Lhe correcL fundlng mechanlsms. lor Lhls reason, Lhe reglon, as an lnLermedlary level
provlder of ñnanclal supporL, ls oûen preferred, accordlng Lo respondenLs. 8eglonal lnsLrumenLs
were reporLedly a beuer opuon Lo adequaLely lmplemenL fundlng. As such, Lhey acL as a ñlLer Lo
focus supporL. Pence, Lhe reglonal level ls preferred due Lo lLs poLenual Lo brldge Lhe gap beLween
Lhe local and nauonal level. Addluonally, ñnances oñered and lnvesLed aL Lhe reglonal level allow
for Lhe developmenL of a culLural ldenuLy wlLhln Lhe reglon.
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 123
208
kLA, (2010), op.clL., p. 26.
AL reglonal and local levels,
and oûen ln collaborauon
w l L h L h e n a u o n a l
governmenL, caplLal ln[ecuon
l s a ua l n a b l e L h r o u g h
lnvesLmenL funds. Cne such
fund ls AdvanLage Creauve
lund (see 8esL Case 22) ln Lhe
unlLed klngdom, dedlcaLed Lo
lnvesung ln Lhe CCls.
SLudy ñndlngs lndlcaLe LhaL Lhe nauonal level ls consldered mosL adequaLe regardlng Lhe creauon
of a conduclve ñscal envlronmenL. Also lmporLanL aL Lhls level ls Lhe approved deñnluon of CCls,
whlch wlll dlrecLly añecL whlch ñnanclal lnsLrumenLs are made avallable and Lo whom.
AL Lu and nauonal levels, lnluauves are malnly LargeLed aL lnnovauon and promoung lnvesLmenL ln
lnnovauon. AL Lhe Lu level, Lhe SevenLh lramework Þrogramme (lÞ7)
209
was puL ln place Lo
sLrengLhen Lhe sclenuñc and Lechnologlcal compeLence of Luropean lndusLry and Lhus lncrease
compeuuveness. lL alms Lo lncrease co-operauon, noLably Lhrough 13° of Lhe budgeL LargeLed aL
Lhe relnforcemenL of SMLs paruclpauon ln research pro[ecLs, as well as supporung Lhe
developmenL of a knowledge economy. uesplLe Lhls focus on SMLs, Lhe pro[ecLs sull largely address
Lechnologlcal and sclenuñc performance, noL pumng forward more space for Lhe lnnovauve roles
of Lhe CCls Lhrough non-Lechnologlcal lnnovauon and servlce lnnovauon. 1he need for funds for
lnnovauon and research for CCls were clearly expressed ln Lhe onllne survey, wlLh 84.6° of
respondenLs agreelng LhaL Lhere was a need for sLronger supporL ln research and lnnovauon for Lhe
CCls.
Addluonal lnluauves Largeung Lhe early sLage ñnanclng of SMLs lnclude Lhe Coheslon lund and
!L8LMlL (sLrucLural funds allocaLed for SMLs, 2007-2013). Whlle Lhe lmporLance of SMLs for Lhe
Luropean economy has been recognlsed ln Lhe Small 8uslness AcL, CCls remaln under-represenLed
ln Lu lnluauves.
AlLhough aL Lhe Lu level funds have been developed Lhrough, for example, Lhe Lu lnvesLmenL
8ank, such lnvesLmenLs are commlssloned Lo speclñc lnLermedlarles aL Lhe nauonal level, such as
banks and lnvesLmenL companles LhaL may noL have experuse ln Lhe CCls and Lherefore may noL
provlde Lhem wlLh loans. Addluonally, Lhe bureaucracy lnvolved ln obLalnlng Lu fundlng was
consldered a barrler, boLh ln Lerms of ume and money: many CCl SMLs slmply do noL have Lhe
resources Lo apply for Lhls Lype of fundlng.
ln any case, access Lo ñnance can be sumulaLed aL Lhe Lu level. As CCl SMLs are oûen consldered
Loo rlsky for bank loans, Lhe Luropean Commlsslon and Lhe Luropean lnvesLmenL 8ank have [olned
forces Lo seL up Lhe 8lsk Sharlng llnance laclllLy Lo provlde rlsk caplLal and venLure caplLal for
lnnovauve rlsk Lakers.
210
Lu Coheslon and SLrucLural lunds could funcuon as parL of Lhe resources allocaLed Lo CCls aL a
Luropean level lf lndlvldual Member SLaLes creaLe speclñc supporL programmes wlLhln Lhe
SLrucLural lunds, as can already be observed ln cerLaln counLrles.
lL ls lmporLanL Lo remember LhaL fundlng mechanlsms are noL always llmlLed Lo one level, buL may
Advantage Creanve Iund
Advantage Creanve Iund |s an examp|e of a venture cap|ta|
ded|cated to CCIs a|med at hnanc|ng CCIs throughout the
West M|d|ands reg|on |n the Uk.
(See 8esL Case 22)
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 124
209
See hup://cordls.europa.eu/fp7/
210
See hup://www.elb.org/producLs/loans/speclal/rsñ/lndex.hLm
overlap beLween levels. lor lnsLance, funds LhaL are oñered locally may ln facL be managed aL Lhe
nauonal level or come from Lu SLrucLural lunds. 1he source and exLenL of fundlng depends greaLly
on Lhe LargeLs and scale of a pro[ecL, ldea, or buslness.
Whlle Lhe funds Lhemselves are requlred, experLs also ralsed Lhe lssue of on-demand supporL
Lhrough menLorshlp and coachlng ln Lhe area of ñnances. LnLrepreneurs may oûen be unaware of
Lhelr ñnanclal opuons and Lhe sources of ñnanclal supporL LhaL Lhey could approach, wheLher
Lhrough publlc funds, venLure caplLal or bank loans.
211
1he lack of lnformauon on avallable ñnanclal
sources, and Lhe ume and eñorL needed Lo acqulre Lhe lnformauon, ls an addluonal cosL requlred
of SMLs ln Lhe CCls ln order Lo succeed.
As Lhe need for ñnances
cannoL always be anuclpaLed,
ñnanclal supporL avallable on
demand can be sumulaLed
Lhrough reglonal and local
levels. CulLural and creauve
enLrepreneurs wlll Lhen have
Lhe posslblllLy of procurlng
f unds f r om vl abl e and
approachable sources wlLhln
Lhelr neLwork. A good lllusLrauon ls Lhe work of CreaLe 8erlln (see 8esL Case 23).
3.2. Access to market
Accordlng Lo secLoral experLs, Lhe mosL lmporLanL knowledge facLors lnßuenclng an organlsauon's
growLh were llnked Lo lnformauon abouL markeL opporLunlues. 1he respondenLs noLed LhaL
dlmculLy ln ldenufylng new markeLs (19°) and Lhe lack of knowledge of exLernal markeLs (13°)
212

were Lwo of Lhe mosL lmporLanL knowledge facLors obsLrucung an organlsauon's growLh (llg. 21.).
CkLA1L 8er||n
CkLA1L 8LkLIN br|ngs together energ|es and |deas and
prov|des creanve ta|ents w|th opportun|nes to rea||se the|r
v|s|ons by strong|y be||ev|ng |n the |mportance of the
creanve |ndustr|es |n the c|ty's econom|c deve|opment.
(See 8esL Case 23)
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 123
211
LxperL lnLervlews and besL cases
212
LxperL ‚uesuonnalre
Ooesuoo. select tbe tbtee most lmpottoot koowleJqe foctots
obsttocuoq oo otqoolsouoo´s qtowtb
!"# $"# %!"# %$"# &!"#
'()*#+,#())-..#/+#/-)01+2+34#
'()*#+,#())-..#/+#*1+52-63-#
789+:-(1#1(;+1(2#9-382(;+1#
</0-9#
'()*#+,#=8(2>?-6#:-9.+11-2#
'()*#+,#@8.>1-..#(6A>)-#
'()*#+,#1-/5+9*#
B6-1;,4>13#-C/-91(2#D(9*-/.#
B6-1;,4>13#1-5#D(9*-/.#
I|gure 21: Most |mportant know|edge factor |mped|ng CCIs
(5ootce. íotoklels 2009, 5ectotol expetts)
1he markeLs for culLural and creauve producLs and servlces are oûen characLerlsed by
unpredlcLable demand condluons. LnLrepreneurs have Lo Lake heLerogeneous, changlng LasLes lnLo
accounL. ln addluon, creauve producLs serve funcuons LhaL oûen escape 'ob[ecuve', quanuLauve
measuremenL. As noLed above, Lhe uncerLalnLy of demand ls furLher sLrengLhened by Lhe
lnLanglble naLure of Lhe producLs and servlces as well as Lhe facL LhaL Lhey are oûen pro[ecL-based.
1hls properLy means LhaL aL vlrLually no sLage ln Lhe producuon sequence can Lhe pro[ecL's
ouLcome be predlcLed wlLh any degree of assurance: sleepers lnexpllcably Lurn lnLo smash hlLs, and
sure-ñre successes ßop.
1he posluon of Lhe CC enLrepreneur has Lo be Laken lnLo accounL ln Lhls general conLexL. lor mlcro-
SMLs, Lhe quesuonnalre revealed LhaL Lhe maln barrlers Lo enLer Lhe markeL are ln greaL parL due
Lo Lhe excluslve agreemenLs wlLh key dlsLrlbuLors (37°) and access Lo knowledge on markeL
opporLunlues. 1he presence of large and muluple compeuLors was also a complemenLary lmpedlng
facLor.
Llnklng Lhls observauon wlLh Lhe facL LhaL many counLrles and Lhe Lu are promoung mlcro-SMLs as
conLrlbuLors for Lhe revlLallsauon of Lhe economy,
213
one can only sLress Lhe lmporLance of access
Lo markeL and knowledge as key Lo enabllng mlcro enLerprlses Lo ßourlsh and encourage
lnnovauon.
1he lack of knowledge abouL markeL opporLunlues can lmpede Lhe CCls Lo beneñL from Lhese
opporLunlues. Accordlng Lo nLS1A, knowledge sourclng, especlally lnLernauonal sources as well as
havlng a neLwork, ls essenual Lo undersLand Lhe global markeL.
214
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 126
213
See for example, Luropean Councll Concluslons, (uecember 2008), 1hlnk Small llrsL- A Small 8uslness AcL for Lurope, doc
16788/08, 8año eL al. (2000), Š1eachlng and learnlng enLrepreneurshlp for mlcro and small buslnesses ln Lhe culLural lndusLrles
secLor–, Lducauon and 1ralnlng, vol. 42, no 6, p. 336.
214
nLS1A, (May 2010c), Sourclng knowledge for lnnovauon: Lhe lnLernauonal dlmenslon, London: nLS1A , p. 6.
CovernmenLs could encourage and provlde SMLs wlLh approprlaLe supporL Lo enable Lhem Lo
access knowledge ln order for Lhem Lo beuer access opporLunlues on Lhe markeL. WlLh exlsung
supporL ln lncubaLors and oLher supporL such as seed ñnance, sLarung up a CCl SMLs ls noL Lhe
hardesL parL: bulldlng up and galnlng a markeL posluon ls more dlmculL.
1he decrease of Lrade barrlers and Lhe lnLegrauon of world markeLs have made lL posslble for all
Lypes of companles, lncludlng new ones, Lo explolL global opporLunlues. 1he globallsauon
processes encourage an exLernallsauon sLraLegy ln Lhe same way as lL confronLs Lwo opposlLe
exLremes: Lhe mlcro-SMLs and Lhe large corporauon. 1he hlgh compeuuon, Lhe hold on Lhe markeL
by a few large corporauons and Lhe llmlLed knowledge abouL exLernal opporLunlues form Lhe
envlronmenL LhaL confronLs Lhe CC enLrepreneur aL Lhe sLarL of Lhelr acuvlLy and LhroughouL Lhe
enLrepreneurlal llfecycle.
3.2.1. 1he 'M|ss|ng M|dd|e': Asymmetry and S|ze-ke|ated Constra|nts |n the Market
As noLed earller (2.2.4), Lhe maln characLerlsuc of Lhe creauve economy ls, ln organlsauonal Lerms,
lLs 'mlsslng mlddle'. 1hls refers Lo Lhe facL LhaL Lhere ls a predomlnance of a small number of very
large ñrms worklng lnLernauonally, counLerbalanced by a very large number of essenually local,
mlcro enLerprlses. 1here ls very llule classlcal verucal lnLegrauon of Lhe klnd mosL commonly
assoclaLed wlLh Lrans-nauonal ñrms ln oLher secLors. lnsLead, Lhere ls a sLrong horlzonLal and
verucal lnLegrauon of parLs of Lhe creauve economy. 1hls does noL exLend Lo Lhe mlcro enLerprlses
and lndlvldual creauve enLrepreneurs.
213

1he prevalence of SMLs ln Lhe creauve secLor hlghllghLs Lhe need for pollcy-makers Lo address slze-
relaLed consLralnLs ln Lhe markeL.
216
1he absence of medlum slzed enLerprlses lncreases Lhe lmpacL
of Lhe markeL gap beLween Lhe mlcro-SMLs and Lhe blg ma[ors ln cerLaln secLors. Cenerally
speaklng, Lhe blgger enLerprlses own Lhe organlsauonal and knowledge skllls needed Lo deal wlLh
regulaLory facLors, Lhey make a sLronger use of Lhe supporL for lÞ8, and Lhey have long-esLabllshed
lnfrasLrucLures for underLaklng research, deslgn and developmenL acuvlues whlch ease Lhelr enLry
and posluon on Lhe markeL. Cn Lhe oLher hand, mlcro-SMLs Lend noL Lo have access Lo Lhese
advanLages and have llmlLed knowledge abouL markeL opporLunlues.
1he asymmeLry ln Lhe markeL posluon beLween Lhe Lwo exLremes ls sLrlklng. Lnabllng access Lo Lhe
markeL for sLarung CCls and, aL Lhe same ume, worklng on poLenual paLhs Lo growLh and
susLalnablllLy for CCls ls a precondluon for culLural dlverslLy ln Lurope. 1hls can enable greaLer
compeuuon beLween fasL growlng CCls, alLhough noL all of Lhe CCls wanL Lo grow and exLend Lhelr
markeL.
AlLernauve supporL mechanlsms such as a 'solldarlLy scheme' were advanced by lMÞALA, whlch,
uslng Lhe analogy of Lransfer fees from fooLball, almed aL reduclng Lhe lmbalances beLween Lhe
share of Lhe markeL beLween blg and smaller companles. 1hls scheme proposed LhaL small
companles, such as small muslc producuons LhaL had slgned arusLs who laLer on made a break
Lhrough and conLracLed ouL wlLh larger producuon companles, recelve a ñnanclal compensauon
reward from Lhese blgger companles.
217
MosL respondenLs durlng Lhe experL lnLervlews, as well as by Lhe Luropean Þlauorm and Lhe CMC
LxperL Worklng Croup on CCls, hlghllghLed Lhe general lmporLance of mapplng ouL Lhe landscape of
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 127
213
unC1Au, (2008), op. clL., p. 62.
216
Luropean Commlsslon Creen Þaper, (Aprll 2010), op. clL., p. 7.
217
lmpala (www.lmpala.be) and lnLervlew wlLh secLoral organlsauon
each CCl secLor ln each counLry.
218
CerLaln counLrles such as Sweden, AusLrla, Lhe unlLed klngdom,
Cermany, llnland and Lhe neLherlands, have sLarLed examlnlng and mapplng Lhe secLors Lo obLaln
raw daLa Lo esLabllsh areas where Lhe lndusLry ls ln need of supporL Lo quanufy Lhe currenL and
fuLure economlc beneñLs of Lhe CCls.
3.2.2. 1he D|g|ta| Market
1he move Lowards dlglLal convergence has drasucally expanded Lhe means of produclng,
clrculaung, dlsLrlbuung and exchanglng culLural expresslon ln all domalns. ln Lurn, Lhe range of
human, maLerlal and Lechnlcal resources ln each of Lhe arusuc ñelds ls lncreaslng, conLrlbuung
slgnlñcanLly Lo lncome and employmenL
219
. 1he Lransluon from Lradluonal means Lo new medla ls
noL Lhe only challenge for CCls, as Lhe sLrucLure of Lhe markeL has alLered slgnlñcanLly. new
developmenLs represenL new markeL opporLunlues for producers of conLenL, and generaLe
lmporLanL growLh prospecLs for Lhe culLural and creauve secLor. nouclng an lncrease ln Lhe
paruclpauon of people ln Lhe arLs Lhrough elecLronlc and dlglLal medla demonsLraLes Lhe poLenual
LhaL dlglLal medla can oñer ln Lerms of new markeL opporLunlues
220
.
new Lechnology muluplles and dlverslñes Lhe channels Lhrough whlch culLural works reach Lhe
publlc. AL ñrsL Lhere ls an lncremenLal eñecL, followed by eplsodes of 'cannlballsauon' beLween old
and new channels. •eL aL Lhe end, Lhere ls a greaLer cholce for Lhe consumer amongsL Lhe dlñerenL
ways of accesslng culLure, whlch resulLs ln lncreased culLural consumpuon.
ln Lhls radlcally changlng envlronmenL, a key challenge ls Lo ñnd approprlaLe new buslness models.
1he overall consequences of lC1 on culLure are lndeed amblvalenL. Cn Lhe one hand, and as
hlghllghLed above, Lechnology opens up new opporLunlues for creaLors Lo produce and dlsLrlbuLe
Lhelr works Lo a wlder publlc, lndependenLly of physlcal and geographlcal consLralnLs, poLenually
lncreaslng cholce and accesslblllLy for all. Cn Lhe oLher hand lC1 dlsrupLs Lradluonal conLenL. Whlle
new models sLruggle Lo emerge, Lhe rlsk ls LhaL culLural conLenL may be consldered as any oLher
commodlLy Lraded ln Lhe vlrLual world and may be devalued.
ulglLal medla can poLenually enable SMLs Lo añordably compeLe ln blgger markeLs by allowlng for
example, smaller companles Lo adveruse Lhelr producLs onllne, by lncreaslng Lhelr compeuuveness
Lhrough a greaLer usage of user-generaLed conLenL or by accesslng lnLernauonal neLworks. 1he
seemlng democrausauon of markeL opporLunlues on Lhe lnLerneL and Lhe enhanced role of Lhe
user ln shaplng Lhe producLs and servlces has fundamenLally alLered buslness models ln cerLaln
secLors, such as ln Lhe medla lndusLry.
Powever, Lurope ls currenLly falllng Lo Lake full advanLage of Lhe dlglLal markeL and new
Lechnologles. 1he dlglLal markeL remalns fragmenLed and regulauons hlnder Lhe full developmenL
of a Slngle ulglLal MarkeL ln Lurope. 8ecenL lnluauves are lmporLanL slgns of changlng
opporLunlues.
221
1he Agenda for a ulglLal Lurope, a ßagshlp lnluauve ln Lhe Lurope 2020 sLraLegy,
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 128
218
Þlauorm on Lhe ÞoLenual of Creauve and CulLural lndusLrles, (2009), llnal 8ecommendauons of Lhe Þlauorm on Lhe ÞoLenual of
Creauve and CulLural lndusLrles
219
uk 1echnology SLraLegy 8oard, (2009), op. clL., p. 12.
220
uS nauonal LndowmenL for Lhe ArLs, (2010), Audlence 20: Pow 1echnology lnßuences ArLs Þaruclpauon, WashlngLon: uS
nauonal LndowmenL for Lhe ArLs, p. 10. 1hls reporL found LhaL 33° uS adulLs paruclpaLe ln Lhe arLs Lhrough elecLronlc and dlglLal
medla Lhrough 1v, radlo, cv/dvd, compuLer and lnLerneL Lo vlew arL performance, arL works, museums. A Lhlrd of Lhe uS adulLs
paruclpaLe ln 'benchmark' arLs acuvlues such as [azz, classlcal muslc, opera and all forms of dance, Lhrough elecLronlc medla. lor
every Lype of arLs performance, adulLs were more llkely Lo vlew or llsLen Lhrough elecLronlc medla Lhan auend llve performances.
221
LC Communlcauon, (2010b), op. clL., p. 3.
alms aL correcung Lhese lmbalances and ls Lrylng Lo adapL Lo Lhese changes Lo develop a Slngle
ulglLal MarkeL
222
, lncreaslng Lhe lnLeroperablllLy and Lhe convergence of sLandards, as well as
lncreaslng Lhe supporL for neLworks.
1he Lu funded LulMA pro[ecL (Luropean ulglLal Medla Assoclauon) ls an alllance of new medla
companles LhaL alms aL creaung an open and legal framework for Þan-Luropean L-commerce and
enabllng greaLer consumer cholce ln dlverslLy and enhanced compeuuveness LhroughouL Lhe Lu. lL
addresses legal barrlers blocklng a slngle Luropean ulglLal MarkeL. lor example, LulMA alms aL
lncreaslng Lhe co-ordlnauon of pollcy formauon by esLabllshlng a new Luropean ÞarllamenL group
on Lhe new medla secLor Lo ensure a beuer ñL wlLh regards Lo Lhe copyrlghL llcenslng reglme for
Lhe dlglLal age.
223
Moreover, lL provldes new medla plauorms ln order Lo lmprove consumer
conñdence and provldes onllne servlces Lo lmprove Lhe use of medla and L-commerce ln Lurope.
1he ex-Commlssloner for lnformauon SocleLy and Medla, vlvlane 8edlng, acknowledged slmllar
needs ln compleung a Slngle ulglLal MarkeL
224
, seelng Lhe poLenual LhaL Lhe dlglLal world has Lo
oñer.
3.2.3. 1ypes of support to market access
Consclous of Lhe lnnovauve poLenual of CCl SMLs, Lhe Lu Councll concluslons of May 2010
acknowledge Lhe need Lo supporL 'culLure-based creauvlLy' SMLs ln Lhelr access Lo markeL as a way
Lo encourage lnnovauon.
223
Þubllc procuremenL, Lead MarkeL lnluauve, sLandardlsauon, alLhough
hlghly promlslng, remaln unLapped resources for lnnovauon and for Lhe encouragemenL Lo access
Lhe markeL.
226

1he Luropean plauorm on Lhe poLenual of culLural and creauve lndusLrles has emphaslsed Lhe
lmporLance of creaung an envlronmenL LhaL fosLers Lhe creauon and developmenL of culLural SMLs.
1hey sLaLe LhaL Lhese should be granLed speclñc supporL and beneñL from posluve dlscrlmlnauon
measures. 1he Þlauorm noLed LhaL:
´Motket occess most be eosoteJ fot oll coltotol ooJ cteouve octots teqotJless of
tbelt slze to qootootee plotollsm ooJ o teol ecooomy of Jlvetslty ooJ tbe
lotetoouoool ptomouoo ooJ excbooqe sboolJ be JevelopeJ (...) tbe pteseoce of
otusts ooJ coltotol ptofessloools lo key lotetoouoool motkets most be molotoloeJ
tbtooqb tbe estobllsbmeot of speclfc scbemes ooJ tbe focllltouoo of excbooqe wltb
tbltJ cooottles.´
227
ln Lerms of supporL for CCl SMLs Lo beneñL from Lhe Luropean dlglLal slngle markeL, mosL
respondenLs polnLed aL Lhe need for ñnanclal supporL Lo face Lhe dlglLal shlû (34°) and secondly,
Lhe need for Lhe harmonlsauon of access condluons (31°) (1able 9. below). 1he 'oLher' Lypes of
SML supporL Lo enLer Lhe Luropean slngle dlglLal markeL were Largeung Lhe capaclLy bulldlng on
access posslblllues and knowledge supporL.
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 129
222
LC Communlcauon, (May 2010a), ulglLal Agenda for Lurope, CCM (2010) 243
223
Luropean ulglLal Medla Assoclauon (LulMA), (2009), op. clL.
224
8edlng, v., (CcLober 2009), Speech on Lhe ulglLal Slngle MarkeL: a key Lo unlock Lhe poLenual of Lhe knowledge base economy,
Avallable aL hup://www.lccwbo.org/bascap/ld33360/lndex.hLml
223
Luropean Councll, (May 2010), op. clL., p. 2.
226
Luropean Councll, (May 2010), op. clL., p. 2.
227
Þlauorm on Lhe ÞoLenual of Creauve and CulLural lndusLrles, (2009), llnal 8ecommendauons of Lhe Þlauorm on Lhe ÞoLenual of
Creauve and CulLural lndusLrles, op. clL., p. 4., and CMC LxperL Worklng Croup on maxlmlslng Lhe poLenual of culLural and creauve
lndusLrles, ln parucular LhaL of SMLs, (2010), llnal 8eporL, op. clL., pp. 6-11.
Ooesuoo. now Jo yoo tblok ccl 5Mís sboolJ be soppotteJ to beoeft
ftom tbe íotopeoo ulqltol 5loqle Motket?
Item Þercent ¼
no speclñc supporL 3.43°
Parmonlzauon of access
condluons
31.03°
Legal SupporL 20.69°
llnanclal SupporL 34.48°
CLher 10.33°
CapaclLy bulldlng on access
posslblllues
3.43°
uon'L know 3.43°
knowledge supporL 3.43°
1ab|e 9: CCI SMLs support for the d|g|ta| market
(5ootce. íotoklels 2009, 5ectotol expetts)
AlLhough dlrecL measures for supporung access Lo markeL for CCls are noL yeL ln place aL Lhe Lu
level, Lhe Lu has cerLaln exlsung pro[ecLs LhaL show slgns of posslble exLenslon of supporL Lo CCls.
lor example, Lhe Lead MarkeL lnluauve launched by Lhe Lu ln 2008 was seL Lo ldenufy Lhe new
needs and new markeL for lnnovauve producLs or servlces. lor now, Lhls lnluauve ls LargeLed
Lowards 6 LMls,
228
whlch are nelLher servlce nor non-Lechnologlcal lnnovauon orlenLed. Powever,
exLendlng a LMl Lo CC producL and servlces and Largeung CCl SMLs, could be a way Lo supporL
access Lo markeL for CCls. Slmllarly, ln Lhe communlcauon Assesslng CommunlLy lnnovauon Þollcles
ln Lhe perlod 2003-2009, Lhe Lu suggesLed LhaL publlc procuremenL be parL of lnnovauon pollcy as
lL can help fosLer Lhe markeL upLake of lnnovauve producLs.
229
Þubllc ÞrocuremenL procedures
could be used Lo lncrease Lhe demand for speclñc lnnovauve producLs and servlces comlng from
CCls and ln so dolng can encourage Lhe access Lo markeL for lnnovauve CCl SMLs. 1he Lu Councll
recommended ln lLs Concluslons ln May 2010 LhaL Lhe publlc procuremenL budgeL ls lncreased and
devoLed Lo lnnovauve producLs, processes and servlces
230
. 1hls shows Lhe poLenual Lo exLend
exlsung lnluauves Lo supporL CCls ln Lhelr access Lo markeL.
SLandardlsauon also sumulaLes Lhe markeL for lnnovauve producLs by semng up a playlng ñeld for
lnnovaLors, accompanylng Lhe emergence of new markeLs and faclllLaung Lhe spread of Lechnology.
Powever, ln lLs communlcauon ln 2008, Lhe Lu acknowledged Lhe llmlLed number of sLandards for
servlces (malnly due Lo Lhe heLerogeneous naLure of servlces).
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 130
228
LC Worklng uocumenL, (SepLember 2009c), Lead MarkeL lnluauves for Lurope: Mld 1erm progress reporL, SLC (2009) 1198: blo-
based producLs, ePealLh, susLalnable consLrucuon, proLecuve Lexules, recycllng and renewable energy
229
uS nauonal LndowmenL for Lhe ArLs, (2010), Assesslng CommunlLy lnnovauon Þollcles ln Lhe perlod 2003-2009, SLC (2009) 1194
230
Luropean Councll Concluslons, (26Lh May 2010), op. clL., p. 4.
1he example of ‚uebec's posluve measures Lo ensure markeL access Lo CCls ls lllusLrauve of Lhe
success LhaL speclñc measures for CCl SMLs can have Lo access Lhe markeL and promoLe Lhe CCls.
231
3.2.3.1. Þhases of market access
WlLh regards Lo Lhe enLrepreneurlal llfe cycle, a ma[orlLy of experLs lnLervlewed sLaLed LhaL access
Lo markeL ls paramounL ln phase 2 and 3 of Lhe llfecycle, as llg. 22. demonsLraLes. lndeed, 43° of
Lhe respondenLs found LhaL supporL Lo access Lhe markeL was mosL needed ln Lhe sLarL-up phase of
Lhe llfe cycle.
ln Lhe bulld-up and bulld-ouL phases of Lhe enLrepreneurlal llfe cycle, enLrepreneurs need Lo do
several Lhlngs slmulLaneously: creaLe sLrucLural susLalnablllLy by bulldlng sLrong neLworks, develop
a meLhodologlcal way of sLaylng creauve Lo succeed, have a fuLure-orlenLed growLh plan Lo exporL
lnLo new markeLs and brandlng for growLh, be scalable and repllcable.
Ooesuoo. lo wblcb pbose of tbe llfe cycle Jo yoo see tbe most oeeJ
to soppott occess to motket?
!"# $"# %!"# %$"# &!"# &$"# '!"# '$"# (!"# ($"# $!"#
)*+,-#$.#/011-2314#
)*+,-#(.#56789#06:#
)*+,-#%.#);-<+;714#:*-#4;0619#
)*+,-#'.#56789=6<#
)*+,-#&.#>:+;:=6<#
I|gure 22: Þreferred phase |n the ||fe cyc|e for support to access the market
(5ootce. íotoklels 2010, oolloe sotvey)
Some respondenLs hlghllghLed Lhe need Lo focus on Lhe lauer sLages of Lhe llfe cycle for markeL
supporL ln parallel Lo accesslng lnLernauonal markeLs. Powever, wlLh Lhe globallsauon of markeLs,
such sLraLegles are now more focused on Lhe earller sLages. CCl ñrms are confronLed from phase
one wlLh sLrong lnLernauonal compeuuon. Lurope's regulaLory envlronmenL ls ln Lhls case noL
helpful.
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 131
231
Þlauorm on Lhe ÞoLenual of Creauve and CulLural lndusLrles, (2009), llnal 8ecommendauons of Lhe Þlauorm on Lhe ÞoLenual of
Creauve and CulLural lndusLrles
Wl L h regard Lo forel gn
markeLs, respondenLs found
LhaL Lhe supporL Lo access
cross-border markeLs was
mosL needed ln Lhe bulld-up
and bulld-ouL phases of Lhe
llfecycle, once Lhe CCls have
acqulred some regular cllenLs
and can l ook aL oL her
opporLunlues. (see llg. 23.).
1he besL case example of llnpro ls a useful lllusLrauon of Lhls (See 8esL Case 24).
Ooesuoo. lo wblcb pbose of tbe llfe cycle Jo yoo see tbe most oeeJ to soppott fot ctoss-botJet
qtowtb ooJ ctoss-botJet motkets?
!"# $"# %!"# %$"# &!"# &$"# '!"# '$"# (!"#
)*+,-#%.#)/-0+/123#4*-#3/5627#
)*+,-#&.#84+/4960#
)*+,-#$.#:522-;<23#
)*+,-#'.#=61>7960#
)*+,-#(.#=61>7#564#
I|gure 23: Most appropr|ate phase for cross border market support
(5ootce. íotoklels 2010, oolloe sotvey)
3.2.3.2. Leve|s of support
nauonal and reglonal levels were clearly emphaslsed ln Lhe onllne survey for supporung access Lo
Lhe markeL (see llg. 24. below). 31.3° of Lhe respondenLs lndlcaLed LhaL Lhe nauonal level was
mosL sulLed Lo respond Lo Lhe needs of Lhe CCl SMLs ln Lerms of Lhe markeL whlle 26° found LhaL
Lhe reglonal level was mosL approprlaLe.
8esulLs from quallLauve lnLervlews suggesLed LhaL speclñc and Lallor-made lnformauon on a
reglonal level ls essenual for enhanclng Lhe moblllLy of arusLs.
1he role of Lhe nauonal governmenL can be Lo provlde slgnlñcanL encouragemenL for Lhe CCls Lo
exporL Lhelr producL and servlces, as seen ln Lhe ‚uebec example, or by agreelng on double
Laxauon schemes.
1he Luropean level was also emphaslsed by Lhe lnLervlewees for faclllLaung access Lo boLh physlcal
and dlglLal markeLs and ensurlng pan-Luropean access. LxperLs emphaslsed LhaL a hollsuc approach
for Lhe creauon of pollcy was necessary.
IINÞkC
I|npro dea|s w|th I|nn|sh compan|es at d|ñerent stages of
|nternanona||sanon and a|ms at guarantee|ng that I|nn|sh
compan|es and espec|a||y CCI SMLs access an |nternanona|
market. It a|so g|ves opportun|nes to network.
(See 8esL Case 24)
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 132
Ooesuoo. At wbot level sboolJ tbls soppott fot oew motket oppottoolues
fot yoot otqoolsouoo be ptovlJeJ?
!"# $"# %!"# %$"# &!"# &$"# '!"# '$"#
()*+,#
-+.)/,01#022/.304/5#1+6+1#
75)+,504/501#1+6+1#
8/.019:3);#1+6+1#
<=,/>+05#8+6+1#
?+@3/501#8+6+1#
A04/501#8+6+1#
I|gure 24: Most appropr|ate |eve| for suppornng access to market
(5ootce. íotoklels 2010, oolloe sotvey)
3.3. IÞk |nstruments and CCI SMLs
CCl SMLs oûen have llmlLed knowledge of Lhe use of lnLellecLual properLy (lÞ) and rlghLs
managemenL.
232
Powever, Lhese formal and lnformal rlghLs consuLuLe an lmporLanL source for
creauve companles, and are a falr rewardlng for creauvlLy.
lrom our onllne survey, 32° of SMLs dld noL recelve lÞ8 advlce before Lhe sLarL of Lhelr
enLrepreneurlal acuvlLy, as opposed Lo 40° who dld. Cf Lhose LhaL dld recelve advlce, Lhls was
mosLly aL a nauonal level (38.3°) or from Lhelr secLoral organlsauon (20.3°) and 11° aL Lhe
Luropean level.
ln Lhe experL quesuonnalre, Lhe lmporLance of lÞ8 regulauons was seen as Lhe second mosL
lmporLanL regulaLory lssue (21°) aûer Lax regulauon (29°) as can be seen ln Lhe llg. 23. below.
Ooesuoo. 5elect tbe tbtee most lmpottoot teqolototy lssoes foceJ by 5Mís lo yoot sectot
!"# $"# %!"# %$"# &!"# &$"# '!"# '$"#
()*+,-.+#/01.#
2-.3)4..#5+0,+#-6#748-90*:)#
;+<4,#
5:=309#>49?0,4#748-90*:)#
/0@:-,#748-90*:).#
A)+4994=+-09#B,:64,+C#748-90*:)#
D0E#748-90*:)#
I|gure 2S: Most |mportant regu|atory |ssues faced by CCI SMLs
(5ootce. íotoklels 2009, 5ectotol expett poesuoooolte)
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 133
232
kLA, (lebruary 2010a), 8uslness lnnovauon SupporL Servlces for Creauve lndusLrles, ShorL sLudy prepared for Lhe Luropean
Commlsslon (uC LnLreprlse and lndusLry), hup://www.keaneL.eu/reporL/8lSScreauvelndusLrles.pdf. March 3, 2010, p. 7.
Some of Lhe CCls have placed cerLaln hopes on Lechnologles Lo regulaLe and proLecL conLenL wlLh
Lechnologlcal proLecuon measures such as dlglLal rlghLs managemenL (u8Ms). Powever, such
Lechnologles have so far noL prevenLed peer-Lo-peer plracy and remaln conLroverslal for consumer-
frlendllness.
233
1here remalns a Lenslon beLween access and explolLauon.
3.3.1. Access versus Lxp|o|tanon
Lxlsung Lenslons over conLenL proLecuon and open access phllosophles are oûen seen ln Lerms of
access versus explolLauon. Whlle Lhe ñrsL approach wlll hlghllghL Lhe lmporLance of lnLellecLual
ÞroperLy 8lghLs as a Lool LhaL can reward lnLanglble asseLs and ensure conLrol of conLenL and how
lÞ ls used, Lhe oLher approach wlll favour free access Lo conLenL Lo use for Lhe developmenL of new
servlces or producLs.
WlLh Lhe dlglLal markeL, Lhe explolLauon of conLenL has become harder Lo conLrol and plracy and
peer-Lo-peer exchange have fed Lhe developmenL of a 'geL-lL-for-free' culLure whlch may prevenL
creaLors from explolung Lhelr creauon.
234
1he lllegal dlsLrlbuuon of coples erodes Lhe posslblllLy of
producers Lo beneñL and Lhus reduces Lhe lncenuve Lo lnvesL ln Lhe creauon of new works. 8lghLs
holders hlghllghL Lhe need Lo legally clrcumvenL Lhls developmenL Lhrough laws and servlces ln
order Lo curb Lhe llleglumaLe reuse of somebody else's work. u8Ms represenL a Lechnology LhaL
can prevenL Lhe free access of some of Lhe conLenL onllne and enable CCl SMLs Lo be rewarded for
Lhelr creauon. Powever, such Lechnology has noL reduced plracy as lllegal ñle sharlng may be
responslble for approxlmaLely 96° of audlovlsual downloads avallable on sLreamlng or blL LorrenL
neLworks.
233
Cn Lhe oLher slde, some have hlghllghLed Lhe need Lo ease Lhe proLecuon of creauve conLenL and
are pushlng Lo allow greaLer accesslblllLy Lo copyrlghLed conLenL ln order Lo be able Lo share and
access freely exlsung conLenL as a way Lo unlock Lhe poLenual advanLages LhaL Lhls can oñer. 1he
rlghLs of Lhe consumers Lo share onllne conLenL are Lhus promoLed by Lhls sLrand of LhoughL.
Powever, Lhe Lwo sLrands of LhoughL are noL so clearly dlsuncL and dlchoLomous. CopyrlghL
proLecLs lnvesLmenL ln Lhe arusLs' work and allows new creauon, and Lherefore allows access Lo Lhe
work, alLhough lL does noL allow free and llleglumaLe reuse of Lhe work.
1hls debaLe revolves around how Lo comblne legal excepuons and excluslve rlghLs, Lhe rlghLs and
lnLeresLs of consumers, as well as Lhe reward of creaLors. Moreover, as seen ln ChapLer 2,
lncreaslng dlglusauon modlñes Lhe shape of Lhe creauve 'value chaln' Lo LhaL of a cycle of creauon
LhaL bypasses mlddlemen. 1he llnk beLween rlghLs holders and Lhe consumers shorLens, lncreaslng
Lhe conLacL beLween consumers and creaLors, lncreaslng Lhe poLenual of plauorms for free
exchange. 1he example of •ou1ube ls an lllusLrauon of Lhe lncreaslng accesslblllLy of onllne conLenL
and Lhe evolvlng lssue of lÞ ln dlglLal envlronmenLs.
1he dlscusslon and fuLure pollcles Lo supporL Lhe developmenL of CCls wlll have Lo Lake lnLo
accounL Lhe changlng lÞ envlronmenL and changlng buslness models, whlle keeplng ln mlnd Lhe
lmporLance of lÞ8 as an lncenuve for CC enLrepreneurs and as a reward for Lhelr ouLpuL. Moreover,
as many CCl SMLs do noL presenLly make use of lÞ8, Lhe quesuon arlses of how besL Lo encourage
CC enLrepreneurs Lo reallse and make use of lÞ8 as Lools ln Lhelr enLrepreneurlal acuvlLy. lndeed,
Lhe lssue of lÞ managemenL for Lhe CCls ls a cenLral deLermlnanL Lo Lhelr enLrepreneurlal drlve as lL
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 134
233
Cabrera 8lazquez, l.!, (2007), ŠulglLal 8lghLs ManagemenLs' sysLems (u8Ms): 8ecenL developmenLs ln Lurope–, Luropean
Audlovlsual CbservaLory, see hup://www.obs.coe.lnL/oea_publ/lrls/lrls_plus/lplus1_2007.pdf.en
234
lbld., p.2
233
uk 1echnology SLraLegy 8oard, (2009), op. clL., p. 23.
glves Lhe CCl enLrepreneur Lhe opporLunlLy Lo be rewarded and can acL as an enabler for Lhelr
acuvlLy.
3.3.2. Iorms of IÞk and d|ñerent use
ln llne wlLh Lhe debaLe on access and explolLauon, Lhe Lypes of lÞ8 musL be dlñerenuaLed Lo
undersLand Lhelr use by CCl SMLS. lormal lÞ8 mechanlsms lnclude Lhe followlng: deslgn
proLecuon,
236
Lrademarks, paLenLs, uullLy models and copyrlghL.
lnformal lÞ8 varles ln lLs
naLure and purpose buL are
also lmporLanL for SMLs.
237

1he mosL lmporLanL lnformal
proLecuon meLhods are:
secrecy, resLrlcLed access Lo
lnformauon, daLabase and
n e L w o r k p r o L e c u o n ,
conñdenual l Ly, Lechnl cal
proLecuon, dlvlslon of duues
a n d s u b c o n L r a c u n g ,
clrculauon of sLañ beLween
Lasks, loyalLy bulldlng among personnel, cllenL relauonshlp managemenL, membershlp of
professlonal organlsauons, and publlshlng.
238
1he Creauve uepoL ls a good example of Lackllng
lssues relaLed Lo lnformal lÞ8 (see 8esL Case 23).
ln Lhe onllne quesuonnalre, a hlgh percenLage of respondenLs (33°) dld noL use any speclñc
lnsLrumenL of proLecuon. As shown ln llg. 26. below, for Lhose respondenLs proLecung Lhelr
creauve lnpuL, copyrlghL ls by far (89.66 °) Lhe mosL commonly used lnsLrumenL . lnformal lÞ8 ln
Lhe form of conñdenuallLy agreemenLs were used by 62° of respondenLs resorung Lo proLecung
measures, as agalnsL 21° for paLenung. Creauve commons and open access sysLems counLed for
38° of Lhe lnsLrumenLs Lo proLecL creauve ouLpuLs whlle Lrademarks were used by 33°.
1hese ñndlngs colnclde wlLh Lhe resulLs of a nLS1A survey on Lhe user lnnovauon ln Lhe uk. ln Lhe
sLudy on soû lnnovauon and on Lhe role of user lnnovauon,
239
Lhey observed LhaL ln Lhe uk, 39° of
Lhe user lnnovaLor CCls dld noL proLecL Lhelr lnnovauon and shared Lhem freely wlLh oLher
companles wlLh only 20° recelvlng royalues as compensauon.
Creanve Depot
Creanve Depot |s an e|ectron|c serv|ce that prov|des secure
reg|stranon of authorsh|p of creanve work|ngs. 1he
concepts can e|ther be revea|ed or h|dden. It |s a too| to
secure and prove one's property |n an area |n an |nforma|
way.
(See 8esL Case 23)
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 133
236
A new reglsLered CommunlLy ueslgn 8lghL has been recenLly lnLroduced.
237
Þro lnnC Lurope, (2007), A Memorandum on 8emovlng 8arrlers for a beuer use of lÞ8 by SMLs, 8eporL for Lhe Luropean
Commlsslon, (uC for LnLerprlses and lndusLry) and lÞ8 LxperL Croup
238
lbld., pp. 17-23.
239
nauonal LndowmenL for Sclence, 1echnology and Lhe ArLs, (Aprll 2010a), Measurlng user lnnovauon ln Lhe uk- 1he lmporLance of
producL creauon by users, London: nLS1A
Ooesuoo. wbot ls tbe most commooly oseJ losttomeot fot tbe ptotecuoo of cteouve ootpots (llk)
fot yoot otqoolsouoo?
Items Þercentage
ÞaLenL
20.69°
8eglsLrauon of ueslgn
34.48°
1rademarks
34.48°
CopyrlghL
89.66¼
ConñdenuallLy
62.07¼
Cpen Access Llcenslng (eg: Creauve Common)
37.93°
Cther
20.7¼
I|gure 26: Most common|y used |nstruments for the
protecnon of creanve outputs |n CCIs
(5ootce. íotoklels 2009, 5ectotol Ooesuoooolte)
1he relauvely low use of proLecuon measures demonsLraLes Lhe need Lo lncrease awareness on Lhe
use of lÞ8 reglmes and faclllLaLes access Lo lÞ8 for CCl SMLs.
knowledge lnLenslve buslnesses have adopLed a varleLy of formal and lnformal meLhods Lo
decrease Lhe mlsuse or loss of lÞ. 8oLh meLhods can be seen as complemenLary lnsLead of
compeuuve ways Lo manage and proLecL lÞ. 1hls relLeraLes Lhe need Lo undersLand Lhe sysLemauc
use of boLh lnformal and formal meLhods.
240

3.3.3. Lx|snng Luropean In|nanves
ln Lhe Luropean conLexL, nauonal LerrlLorlal laws Lend Lo predomlnaLe. ln Lerms of proLecuon, mosL
auenuon has been pald Lo paLenLs for Lechnologlcal advancemenL whlle many companles are
based on non-Lechnologlcal lnnovauon LhaL ls percelved as lncreaslngly lmporLanL for Lurope
241
.
1he need Lo reduce Lhe cosL of paLenLs and Lo move Lowards a slngle Lu paLenL sysLem was made
clear by lndusLry lLself Lo encourage lnnovauon.
242

ln vlew of Lhe commoolcouoo oo Assessloq commoolty looovouoo lollcles lo tbe letloJ
2005-2009,
243
Lhe Lu also acknowledged Lhe mlsñL ln currenL lÞ8 regulauons for soû lnnovauon.
1he decrease ln Lhe cosL of Lhe Lu wlde Lrademark (40° lower), whlch ls one of Lhe mosL used
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 136
240
Þro lnnC Lurope, (2007), op. clL., p. 24.
241
Arge CreauvwlrLschaû AusLrla, (2010), Lxecuuve Summary of Lhe 1hlrd AusLrlan 8eporL on Creauve lndusLrles ln lnnovauon,
vlenna: Arge CreauvwlrLschaû, AusLrla, hup://www.creauvwlrLschaû.aL/documenL/kW8_kurzfassung_Ln_web.pdf
242
lÞ8LC, (2007), Memorandum on 8emovlng 8arrlers for a beuer use of lÞ8 by SMLs, 8eporL for Lhe uC for enLerprlses and
lndusLry and lÞ8 LxperL Croup
243
LC Communlcauon, (Aprll 2009a), op. clL., p. 11.
formal Lools Lo proLecL CCls creauve ouLpuLs aûer copyrlghL,
244
was lnLended Lo provlde lncenuves
for non-Lechnologlcal lnnovauon.
243

AparL from Lrylng Lo have a CommunlLy paLenL, oLher lnluauves were suggesLed aL Lhe Lu level as a
way Lo help proLecL conLenL. A 'ÞroLecLed ueslgnauon of Crlgln', slmllar Lo Lhe ones seen ln
collecuve properLy rlghLs, was suggesLed as a way Lo help reduce Lhe number of unauLhorlsed
coples.
1he recenL Lu ulglLal Agenda
246
also hlghllghLs Lhe need Lo homogenlse Lhe rlghLs managemenL
sysLems LhaL SMLs have Lo lmplemenL ln order Lo proLecL Lhelr creauons ln dlñerenL counLrles.
247

1hls documenL ooteJ ´coosomets coo boy cus lo evety sbop bot ote ofeo oooble to boy moslc ftom
oolloe ploqotms octoss tbe íu becoose tlqbts ote llceoseJ oo o oouoool bosls.´ 1he ex-
Commlssloner for lnformauon SocleLy and Medla, vlvlanne 8edlng, suggesLed a Luropean-wlde,
consumer-frlendly llcenslng sysLem Lo overcome Lhe fragmenLauon of Lhe sysLem and Lo come up
wlLh new lÞ8 models and some of Lhls work ls currenLly underLaken by Lhe Cmce for Lhe
Parmonlsauon of Lhe lnLernal MarkeL and Lhe Luropean ÞaLenL Crganlsauon.
ln lLs laLesL communlcauon, Lhe LC suggesLed Lhe need for lmproved processes of governance and
Lransparency of collecuve rlghLs managemenL ln order Lo enable a falr access Lo conLenL, balanclng
beLween Lhe lnLeresLs of rlghLs holders and Lhe general access Lo conLenL and knowledge.
248

3.3.4. Leve|s and Þhases of support for IÞk
1he way ln whlch lÞ servlces are provlded Lo Lhe CCls can have a huge lmpacL on Lhe ouLcome and
Lhe use of such servlces by Lhe CCls
249
. ln a Þro lnno SLudy on lÞ8, Lhe key success facLors for lÞ
usage were lssues such as Lhe avallablllLy of sumclenLly quallñed sLañ ln Lhe company, Lhe level of
lnLegrauon of lÞ servlces, and Lhe level of neLworklng wlLh oLher servlces.
230
8ecelvlng wrong or
lnapproprlaLe advlce on lÞ8 for SMLs, for example paLenung when lL ls noL advlsable could also be
deLrlmenLal Lo Lhem. ln Lhls regard, Lhe avallablllLy of lÞ8 advlce Lo culLural and creauve
enLrepreneurs ls crlucal and Lhe momenL when lL ls glven ls lmporLanL. A buslness model LhaL
lnLegraLes lÞ as parL of Lhe enLerprlse llfe cycle was seen as lmporLanL.
231
ln Lhls regard, Lhe number of overlapplng lnnovauon supporL schemes aL boLh nauonal and
Luropean levels compllcaLe Lhe plcLure as presenLed Lo SMLs. As recenLly noLed, ŠnoL only do
Member SLaLes oûen have several fundlng schemes and a varleLy of compeung sources of advlce,
Lhe Lu provldes lLs own schemes and sources (8elay CenLres, lÞ8 Pelpdesk) and several fundlng
reglmes.–
232

1he resulLs from Lhe onllne quesuonnalre showed LhaL ln mosL cases, Lhe ñrsL phases of Lhe llfe
cycle were mosL cruclal for advlce on lÞ8 for CCl SMLs (see llg. 27.).
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 137
244
LC Communlcauon, (SepLember 2009c), 8evlewlng CommunlLy lnnovauon Þollcy ln a Changlng World, CCM (2009) 442
243
lbld., p. 11.
246
LC Communlcauon, (May 2010a), op. clL., p. 8.
247
lbld., p. 13.
248
lbld., p. 8.
249
lbld., p. 34.
230
lbld., p. 30-33.
231
lbld., p. 14.
232
loord, !. (2008), ŠSLraLegles for creauve lndusLrles: an lnLernauonal revlew–, Creauve lndusLrles !ournal, volume 1, number 2., p.
96.
Ooesuoo. lo wblcb pbose of tbe llfe cycle Jo yoo see o oeeJ fot llk oJvlce?
!"# $!"# %!"# &!"# '!"# (!"#
)*+,-#(.#/011-2314#
)*+,-#'.#56789#06:#
)*+,-#&.#56789;6<#
)*+,-#%.#=:+>:;6<#
)*+,-#$.#)>-<+>714#:*-#4>0619#
I|gure 27: 8est phase for the prov|s|on of IÞk adv|ce
(5ootce. íotoklels 2010, oolloe sotvey)
1he nauonal (39°) and Lhe secLoral (20.3°) levels were consldered mosL sulLable for provldlng lÞ8
advlce for Lhe respondenLs. Cnly 20° ln LoLal used local and reglonal lnsuLuuons for slmllar advlce.
uesplLe Lhe facL LhaL mosL of Lhe experL lnLervlewees hlghllghLed Lhe vlLal role LhaL Lurope could
play ln shaplng a harmonlsed legal conLexL for lÞ8, very few respondenLs (7°) recelved dlrecL
advlce aL a Luropean level.
ln order Lo lncrease Lhe number of lnnovauve plauorms, and Lo be able Lo compeLe wlLh counLrles
wlLh much lower cosL of paLenLs such as !apan and Lhe uS,
233
Lhe ulglLal Agenda
234
hlghllghLed Lhe
avallablllLy of a wlde and auracuve onllne legal oñer for shaplng Lhe regulaLory envlronmenL.
233
Cverall, Lhe lnLervlewees
noLed LhaL clear advlce and
quallñed sLañ be avallable Lo
caLer for Lhe needs of CCls Lo
eñecuvely use lÞ8 as an
e n a b l e r f o r L h e l r
enLrepreneurlal acuvlLy. 8oLh
Lhe regulaLory and Lhe human
resource envlronmenL should
be lmproved Lo make lÞ8
advlce more LransparenL and
less ume consumlng. Cwn lL ln Lhe uk ls an example of a free lÞ8 advlce cenLre for SMLs speclallsed
ln Lhe CCls (see 8esL Case 26). SupporL on demand for lÞ8 advlce ln order Lo beuer respond Lo Lhe
changlng needs of Lhe CCls LhroughouL Lhelr llfe cycle was clLed as a essenual Lo promoLe Lhelr use
as an enabler for enLrepreneurlal and creauve acuvlues.
CWN I1
Cwn |t |s a Uk free |nte||ectua| property adv|ce for creanve
bus|nesses. It a|ms to prov|de creanve entrepreneurs w|th
access|b|e, spec|a||sed know|edge IÞ systems as we|| as |t
oñers workshop, network|ng and coach|ng and one to one
adv|ses.
(See 8esL Case 26)
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 138
233
Þro lnnC Lurope, (2007), op. clL., p. 33
234
LC Communlcauon, (May 2010a), ulglLal Agenda for Lurope, CCM (2010) 243
233
lbld., p. 8
3.4. Lntrepreneursh|p educanon, sk|||s and tra|n|ng
lL ls clear from Lhe sLudy LhaL Lhere ls a general lack of enLrepreneurlal skllls wlLhln all secLors of Lhe
CCls. LlmlLed buslness skllls were clLed as Lhe second mosL lmporLanL buslness-relaLed challenge
aûer lack of ñnance when sLarung a company (see llg. 28. below).
Ooesuoo. wblcb wos tbe most lmpottoot bosloess-teloteJ cbolleoqe
wbeo stotuoq yoot compooy?
!"# $"# %!"# %$"# &!"# &$"# '!"# '$"# (!"#
)*+,#*-#./,01102,341#56*506,7#6.89,+#
:42;#*-#))<#+*2.41#+0236.,7#+290=0#
>4?#@36A0/+#
B,906#
:42;#*-#;/*C10A80#4@*3,#,90#=46;0,#
D.89#2*=50EE*/#./#,90#=46;0,#
:.=.,0A#;/*C10A80#*/#63//./8#4#@3+./0++#
:42;#*-#F/4/20#
I|gure 28: Most |mportant bus|ness re|ated cha||enge when starnng a company
(5ootce. íotoklels 2010, oolloe sotvey)
ln Lhe CLCu's enLrepreneurshlp framework, Lhe 'culLure of enLrepreneurshlp' ls lncluded as a
deLermlnanL of enLrepreneurshlp, belng lnßuenual ln developlng a conduclve envlronmenL for
fosLerlng enLrepreneurlal acuvlLy.
236
uesplLe lLs lmporLance, Lhere ls sull lnsumclenL lnLegrauon of
enLrepreneurshlp educauon ln general currlcula and ln arLs educauon.
237
1here ls sull relauvely llule daLa on Lhe ouLcomes and lmpacL of Lhe recenL lncrease ln general
enLrepreneurshlp and educauon programmes.
238
losLerlng Lhe Lake up of enLrepreneurlal skllls by
culLural and creauve enLrepreneurs may also requlre non-Lradluonal educauonal programmes. 1he
narrow model of enLrepreneurshlp focuslng solely on commerclal success does noL seem Lo
correspond Lo Lhe CCls, for whom crlucal creauve and culLural achlevemenLs are oûen more
lmporLanL.
239
Powever, sumulaung Lhe developmenL and lmplemenLauon of enLrepreneurlal skllls
ls needed ln Lerms of enLrepreneurlal developmenL, markeL orlenLauon, reLurn on creauvlLy,
communlcauon skllls, neLwork developmenL, and Leam bulldlng wlLhln Lhe enLrepreneurlal llfe
cycle.
A speclñc sklll seL ranglng from baslc buslness plannlng skllls Lo presenLauon (e.g. plLchlng an ldea)
and managemenL skllls are cruclal for Lhe culLural and creauve enLrepreneurs Lo adveruse Lhelr
producLs and servlces. lrom Lhe experL quesuonnalres, markeL enLry ls dlrecLly lnhlblLed by
knowledge-obsLrucung facLors such as Lhe lack of buslness skllls (as dlscussed above ln secuon
3.2.). LxperLs also hlghllghLed Lhe lack of buslness skllls as Lhe mosL lmporLanL enLry barrler. lndeed,
for freelancers, Lhe experL respondenLs clLed, ñrsL, Lhe lack of enLrepreneurlal skllls (41°) and Lhen
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 139
236
CLCu (2009), Lvaluauon of Þrogrammes Concernlng Lducauon for LnLrepreneurshlp, reporL by Lhe CLCu Worklng ÞarLy on SMLs
and LnLrepreneurshlp, Þarls: CLCu p. 9.
237
uCMS (2006), ueveloplng LnLrepreneurshlp for Lhe Creauve lndusLrles- 1he 8ole of Plgher and lurLher Lducauon London:
ueparLmenL of CulLure, Medla and SporL
238
CLCu (2009), op. clL., p. 9.
239
1he Plgher Lducauon Academy ArL ueslgn Medla Sub[ecL CenLre and nLS1A, (2007), op. clL., pp. 13-14.
Lhe lack of knowledge (22.7°). Cn Lhe oLher hand, for pan Luropean experLs, lack of buslness
advlce and of neLworks (60°) accounL for Lhe mosL lmporLanL knowledge facLors obsLrucung CCl
SMLs growLh.
260
8egardlng Lhe lnLegrauon of enLrepreneurshlp wlLhln Lhe educauonal sysLem (see llg. 29. below),
69° of Lhe respondenLs ln Lhe onllne quesuonnalre dlsagreed wlLh Lhe sLaLemenL LhaL
enLrepreneurshlp was sumclenLly addressed ln Lhe educauonal sysLem, whlle 26° agreed.
261
Ooesuoo. íJocouoo ooJ ttololoq ls ofeo tbe ptefetteJ losttomeot to fostet o coltote of
eottepteoeotsblp. uo yoo oqtee tbot eottepteoeotsblp ls so€cleotly oJJtesseJ lo tbe eJocouoool
system?
!"# $!"# %!"# &!"# '!"# (!"#
)*+,-./0#1.+22#
3,-4*#5-,6#
)*+,-./0#3781.+22#
9.+22#
3781.+22#
I|gure 29: Agreement on sumc|ent |ntegranon of entrepreneursh|p
|n educanona| system
(5ootce. íotoklels 2010, oolloe sotvey)
1hls suggesLs a lack of enLrepreneurlal educauonal programmes ñmng Lhe needs of Lhe CCl secLor.
Þarallel Lo Lhe posslble Lenslons beLween Lhe 'enLrepreneurlal' and Lhe 'creauve' slde of a CC
enLrepreneur, Lhe comblnauon of enLrepreneurlal skllls wlLh arusuc and creauve educauon ls noL
yeL well lnLegraLed. Several Lypes of educauonal schemes are Lrylng Lo brlng Lhe Lwo aspecLs
LogeLher Lo fosLer enLrepreneurlal skllls.
3.4.1. Þrob|ems |n current educanona| and tra|n|ng systems
1he managemenL of culLural and creauve enLerprlses requlres speclñc skllls from boLh Lhe
enLrepreneurlal and Lhe arusuc or culLural perspecuves. 1he CC enLrepreneurs are responslble for
Lhelr own buslness models and ñnanclal resources. 1he CC enLrepreneur has Lo undersLand
buslness models LhaL are focused malnly on componenLs of value proposluons, relauonshlps wlLh
vlslLors and cllenLs, cosL sLrucLures and value chalns.
Þrofesslonal lnsuLuLes of hlgher educauon, arL schools, LheaLre schools, conservaLorles, culLural
and medla sLudles oûen do noL address Lhe enLrepreneurlal aspecLs of Lhe CCls.
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 140
260
LxperL ‚uesuonnalre
261
Cnllne survey
Cn Lhe oLher hand, professlonal and lnLermedlaLe enLrepreneurlal supporL lnsuLuuons oûen lack
Lhe culLural amnlLy and professlonal knowledge LhaL ls needed Lo supporL CC enLrepreneurs,
alLhough good examples such as kunsL en Zaken do exlsL (see 8esL Case 27). uesplLe recenL
lnluauves almed aL enhanclng enLrepreneurshlp educauon for arL, deslgn and medla sLudenLs,
lncludlng pro[ecLs LhaL promoLe collaborauon wlLh Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles, Lhere ls llule
lndlcauon on wheLher Lhese have been eñecuve.
262
Addl uonal l y, recel vl ng a
professlonal degree ln Lhe
Ar L s does noL pr ovl de
a u L o m a u c a c c e s s L o
employmenL. llne arL, muslc,
drama and deslgn courses are
heavl l y oversubscr l bed,
sLandards are demandlng
and, wl Lh mosL courses
requlrlng a huge amounL of
ume ln rehearsal or sLudlo,
Lhe workload ls huge. lL ls
unsurprlslng LhaL enLrepreneurlal skllls are noL acqulred durlng Lhls perlod of educauon as Lhe
ma[orlLy of ume ls devoLed Lo developlng oLher, more speclñc, professlonal skllls.
noneLheless, resulLs from Lhe onllne quesuonnalre lndlcaLe LhaL mosL enLrepreneurs conslder
Lhemselves sumclenLly skllled aL Lhe momenL of buslness sLarL-up. Powever, Lhese skllls are noL
necessarlly derlved from Lhe formal educauon sysLem. As seen ln 1able 10 below , 36° of CC
enLrepreneurs galn Lhelr enLrepreneurlal and buslness skllls aL Lhe graduaLe/posL graduaLe level
whlle 61° galn Lhese skllls Lhrough on-slLe experlence and lnLernshlps.
ln oLher words, formal educauon sysLems do noL necessarlly provlde Lhe proper enLrepreneurlal
and buslness Lools for lndlvlduals ln Lhe CCls. lnLegraung creauvlLy and enLrepreneurshlp wlLhln
exlsung educauonal currlcula ls an lmporLanL way Lo supporL CCl SMLs
263
and noL sumclenLly
recognlsed aL Lhe momenL.
3.4.2. Informa| versus forma| educanon and tra|n|ng
1he dlñerence beLween formal and lnformal enLrepreneurshlp educauon ls a recurrlng dlscusslon
for CCls. Accordlng Lo some of Lhe respondenLs, supporL Lo develop enLrepreneurlal skllls should
come as early as posslble, ln phase one of Lhe enLrepreneurlal llfecycle, and even earller ln Lhe
educauon sysLem ln order Lo address Lhe deslrablllLy of belng an enLrepreneur.
lollowlng Lhe sLarL-up of an SML, lL ls lnLeresung Lo noLe LhaL 76° of ñnanclal and economlc
plannlng ls done by Lhe CCl enLrepreneur Lhemselves. Whlle some may have Lhe experlence Lo deal
wlLh ñnanclal budgeung and plannlng, many may slmply be avoldlng addluonal cosLs. lL ls,
Lherefore, lmporLanL LhaL aL Lhe lndlvldual level, CC enLrepreneurs are comforLable and capable of
managlng Lhelr ñnances, as Lhls wlll dlrecLly añecL Lhelr buslness growLh and poLenual.
kunst en 2aken
kunst en 2aken prov|des support |n order to make the
trans|non from art-student to creanve worker more
eñecnve. 1hey a|so a|m to enhance the pa|eue of
poss|b|||nes for the creanve workers by try|ng to hnd
d|ñerent mode|s |n wh|ch they can trade the|r |nte||ectua|
va|ue to regu|ar bus|nesses.
(See 8esL Case 27)
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 141
262
1he Plgher Lducauon Academy ArL ueslgn Medla Sub[ecL CenLre and nLS1A, (2007), op. clL., p. 36.
263
LxperL ‚uesuonnalre
Ooesuoo. now Jo/JlJ yoo qolo eottepteoeotsblp skllls?
Item ¼
1hrough personal neLworks 62.1
1hrough lnLernshlps or hands on learnlng or learnlng by dolng 61.2
1hrough graduaLe and posL graduaLe educauon ln enLrepreneurlal and
buslness skllls
36.6
1hrough llfelong learnlng lnluauve and Lralnlng courses 30.2
1hrough baslc Lralnlng ln pro[ecL coordlnauon, Leam bulldlng and peer-
Lo-peer neLworklng
13.9
1hrough vocauonal Lralnlng ln producL and servlce developmenL 13.1
1hrough advance Lralnlng ln managemenL 12.3
1hrough prlvaLe buslness courses 12.1
1hrough baslc Lralnlng ln ñnanclal and buslness modellng 9.3
1hrough cenLers LhaL supporL SMLs and enLrepreneurshlp 7.8
1hrough enLrepreneurshlp Lralnlng programs aL Lhe reglonal level 4.7
1hrough enLrepreneurshlp Lralnlng programs aL Lhe nauonal level 3.9
1hough enLrepreneurshlp Lralnlng programs aL Lhe local/munlclpal level 2.6
1ab|e 10: Ways of acqu|r|ng entrepreneur|a| sk|||s
(íotoklels 2010, oolloe sotvey)
ln facL, Lhe Lwo mosL relevanL deLermlnanLs Lo acqulre enLrepreneurlal skllls are pracucal
experlences and Lhe CC enLrepreneur's personal relauonshlps. CraduaLe and posLgraduaLe
educauon Lakes Lhlrd place (36.6°) whlle publlc Lralnlng courses were almosL lrrelevanL (aL nauonal
(4,7°), reglonal (3.9°) and local levels (2.6°)).
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 142
lor CCl SMLs, buslness skllls
are needed Lo successfully
ma ke a l l v l ng , a ur a c L
lnvesLors and poLenually
expand Lhelr buslness. Many
SMLs, slmply puL, '...lack Lhe
skllls needed Lo develop a
buslness proposal Lo a sLage
where lL ls ready Lo auracL
exLernal lnvesLors'.
264
Creauve
graduaLes need Lo gal n
a w a r e n e s s o f L h e
LransferablllLy of Lhelr skllls
(l.e. Lo oLher secLors) lf Lhey
have an lnLeresL ln buslness enLrepreneurshlp,
263
posslbly Lhrough lnluauves such as uemola ln
llnland (see 8esL Case 28). 1he recenL LC Creen Þaper on Lhe poLenual of CCls sLresses Lhe need Lo
beuer maLch Lhe skllls needs of CCls by allowlng for conunuous Lralnlng lnluauves as well
promoung Lhe moblllLy of arusLs.
266
Llfe Long Learnlng mechanlsms can be provlded for such
conunuous learnlng schemes and could be deployed on demand by Lhe enLrepreneur.
As Lhe acqulsluon of such
skllls occurs Lhrough boLh
formal and lnformal means,
Lhe need Lo lncrease Lhe
neLworks and lnLerconnecuon
beLween buslnesses, SMLs,
educauon and vocauonal
lnsuLuuons ls recognlsed as
parucularly relevanL.
267
As a
way of example, Lhe uk's
Plgher Lducauon lnnovauon
lund (PLll) has been used as
a Lool Lo gulde hlgher educauon lnsuLuuons Lowards formlng greaLer llnks wlLh lndusLry and Lhe
wlder communlLy. 1he Pelslnkl School of Creauve LnLrepreneurshlp ln llnland (now parL of AalLo
unlverslLy) ls a collaborauve lnluauve LhaL alms aL sumulaung enLrepreneurlal educauon Lhrough
lLs neLwork of sLakeholders (see 8esL Case 29).
Powever, whlle such programmes would appear Lo be a posluve sLep ln encouraglng greaLer
numbers of enLrepreneurs, Lhe reallLy ls LhaL Lhey only auracL and beneñL Lhose for whom
enLrepreneurshlp ls already an lnLeresL.
268
Conversely, some experLs clalm LhaL compeLence
bulldlng and skllls ln enLrepreneurshlp are lrrelevanL. AgalnsL Lhe lack of evaluauon of educauonal
DLMCLA
Demo|a pro[ect |s part of a pro[ect |n Creanve 1ampere,
the C|ty of 1ampere's bus|ness deve|opment po||cy
programme,(2006-2011), wh|ch a|ms to fac|||tate new
bus|ness, serv|ces, |nnovanveness and creanv|ty by ||nk|ng
educanon and bus|ness. It makes the co-operanon
between compan|es and un|vers|nes c|oser. It teams up
student of d|ñerent backgrounds: techn|ca|, econom|ca|,
art or des|gn to make them work together.
(See 8esL Case 28)
ne|s|nk| SCL (Aa|to)
ne|s|nk| Schoo| of Creanve Lntrepreneursh|p |s a
co||aboranve |n|nanve that snmu|ates the
entrepreneursh|p of |ts students by |ntegranng three
schoo|s (art-des|gn, bus|ness and techno|ogy) to one
programme, snmu|anng cross-d|sc|p||nary pro[ects to
enhance the|r acnve |earn|ng from each other.
(See 8esL Case 29)
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 143
264
Puuon, W. (2007), SLaylng ahead: Lhe economlc performance of Lhe uk's creauve lndusLrles, London: uCMS, p. 137.
263
kLA, (2009), op. clL., p. 112.
266
Luropean Commlsslon Creen Þaper, (Aprll 2010), op. clL., p. 10.
267
1he Plgher Lducauon Academy ArL ueslgn Medla Sub[ecL CenLre and nLS1A, (2007), op. clL., p. 102 , Luropean Commlsslon Creen
Þaper, (2010), op. clL., p. 11.
268
1he Plgher Lducauon Academy ArL ueslgn Medla Sub[ecL CenLre and nLS1A, (2007), op. clL., p. 42.
enLrepreneurshlp programmes,
269
some suggesL redlrecung Lhe presenL educauonal mlcro eñorLs -
such as as courses ln buslness skllls
270
- almed aL sumulaung enLrepreneurshlp, Lo prlorluse reforms
ln regulaLory measures, such as compeuuon pollcy, Lax and beneñLs reglmes.
271
lnsLead of focuslng
on Lralnlng fuLure enLrepreneurs or glvlng Lhem courses ln buslness managemenL, Lhe advocaLes of
Lhls approach argue LhaL lL ls more eñecuve ln Lhe long run Lo supporL enLrepreneurshlp for SMLs
Lhrough macro economlc measures.
1hls Lenslon beLween Lhe mlcro and Lhe macro 'lnLervenuonlsL' lnluauves ls presenLly reßecLed ln
CCl supporL programmes whlch ulL Lhe balance Lowards lnLermedlary and complemenLary soluuons
LhaL comblne 'learnlng by dolng' and 'peer Lo peer' coachlng. lndeed, raLher Lhan focuslng on
educauon currlcula, a complemenLary alLernauve Lo supporL susLalnablllLy and growLh (whlch could
also dlsslpaLe Lhe Lenslon beLween Lhe 'growLh-orlenLed CC enLrepreneur' and Lhe 'creauon-
orlenLed CC enLrepreneur'), could be Lo bolsLer Lhe connecuons beLween Lhe CC enLrepreneurs and
lndlvlduals experlenced ln buslness.
272
3.4.3. Lntrepreneursh|p educanon |n a chang|ng d|g|ta| env|ronment
lncreaslng dlglusauon has led Lo new challenges for CCls such as deallng wlLh shlûlng ways of
learnlng and worklng and undersLandlng Lhe dlñerences ln how CCls and educauonal lnsuLuuons
reacL Lo Lhls fasL changlng cllmaLe. WlLh Lhe rapld growLh ln lnformauon consumpuon complexlLy,
Lhere exlsLs a need Lo brldge Lhe gap beLween generauons of consumers of dlglLal lnformauon.
•ounger generauons are growlng up wlLh far greaLer undersLandlng of lnformauon complexlLy
wlLhouL always requlrlng a llnk from Lhese dlglLal ob[ecLs Lo exlsung, real-world counLerparLs. lor
Lhe younger generauon, Lhe dlglLal ob[ecLs Lhemselves are Lhe real-world counLerparLs. lor Lhe
older generauon, however, Lhe expllclL llnk beLween physlcal ob[ecLs and Lhe dlglLal reposlLorles of
ob[ecLs remalns vlLal. lor Lhe older generauons, Lhe physlcal ob[ecLs remaln Lhe meLaphors applled
Lo bulld an undersLandlng of Lhe meanlng of LhaL parucular ob[ecL. 1hls ls noL necessarlly Lhe case
for Lhose who are 'born dlglLal'.
Many educauonal lnsuLuuons are already unable Lo respond adequaLely Lo Lhese changlng sLudenL
proñles. •oung people are developlng new forms of llLeracy. 1hey frequenLly co-operaLe, funcuon
well ln neLworks, qulckly plck up soclal codes, paruclpaLe ln gamlng (and learn and adhere Lo Lhe
accompanylng rules) and are very (soclally) lnvolved. 1hey are exLremely capable of dlgesung
dlsconunuous lnformauon ßows and have a pro-acuve way of learnlng. Þroblems Lherefore occur
wlLh Lhe more llnear Lransfer of knowledge found ln many exlsung learnlng and Lralnlng
envlronmenLs.
Cne useful approach Lo overcomlng such Lenslons can be found ln Lhe ldea of Š1-shaped
persons–.
273
1hese are people who, by naLure, end up Laklng a posluon beLween dlñerenL
dlsclpllnes and who see Lhe merger of Lhese Lwo or more dlsclpllnes as a whole and noL as
lndlvldual, separaLe and unrelaLed enuues. 1hese 1-shaped persons auLomaucally come Lo fulñl Lhe
role of medlaLor beLween Lhe varlous dlsclpllnes. 1hey experlence Lhe asslgnmenL from Lhe varlous
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 144
269
CLCu (2009), op. clL., p. 9.
270
ln Lhls conLexL, mlcro pollcles conslsL of programmes such as workshops ln buslness skllls or courses ln buslness for creauve
enLrepreneurs. Macro pollcles ln Lhls conLexL are undersLood as measures on ñscal regulauons (e.g. sLarL up reglsLrauon cosLs and
soclal securlLy).
271
SLorey, u.!., (2008), Š LnLrepreneurshlp and SML Þollcy–, World LnLrepreneurshlp lorum 2008
272
LxperL lnLervlews and 8esL Cases
273
kelley, 1. and Lluman, !., (2003), 1he Len faces of lnnovauon: luLC's SLraLegles for uefeaung Lhe uevll's AdvocaLe and urlvlng
CreauvlLy 1hroughouL your Crganlsauon, new •ork: uouble uay
dlsclpllnes buL Lhey are people who engage wlLh Lhe dlsclpllnes as an academlcally schooled
medlaLor mlghL. 1herefore Lhe 1-shaped person wlll be able Lo enLer lnLo a (worklng) relauonshlp
wlLh Lhese dlsclpllnes wlLh a degree of lnumacy and, based on Lhls, Lhey can lnLuluvely come up
wlLh research and deslgn soluuons.
1-shaped persons speclfy sysLems on Lhe basls of connecuons (brldges) beLween enuues lnsLead of
based on separaLe enuues. 1hey Lherefore have a much broader percepuon and a much more
Šßuld– way of Lhlnklng. 1hey enable companles and lnsuLuuons Lo esLabllsh connecuons based on
naLural commonallues. 8ecause of Lhe lnumaLe bond Lhey can forge wlLh boLh lndlvldual dlsclpllnes
and Lhe blgger whole, Lhey can couple Lhe lnner world of Lhese dlsclpllnes Lo Lhelr ouLer world
LransparenLly. 1hrough Lhls LransparenL connecuon Lhe varlous dlsclpllnes can communlcaLe more
lnformally and an undersLandlng emerges of how Lhls connecuon ls worklng and can keep on
worklng.
ln Lhls way, creauvlLy cannoL only be examlned by observlng how people deal wlLh llmlLauons.
CreauvlLy can also be examlned by observlng how people deal wlLh lnformal openness. 1-shaped
persons are able Lo operaLe ln dlñerenL semngs and Lhey wlll be able Lo Lransform Lhelr work
envlronmenL from one Lype lnLo Lhe oLher: from llmlLauon Lo (conLrollable) openness. 1hese are
llkely Lo be Lhe culLural and creauve enLrepreneurs of Lhe fuLure. ln vlew of provldlng supporL Lo
CCl's enLrepreneurlal skllls acqulsluon, lL ls lmporLanL Lo have ln mlnd Lhe conslderauons of Lhls
changlng cllmaLe and Lhe changlng needs of born dlglLal people.
3.4.4. Match|ng versus tra|n|ng
MaLchlng Lhe supply of skllls and Lhe demands of Lhe labour markeL ls a valuable complemenL, or
even alLernauve, Lo educauon and skllls acqulsluon for Lhe CCls. SupporL can be glven by maLchlng
lndlvlduals wlLh a buslness background wlLh creauve lndlvlduals, Lhus achlevlng muludlsclpllnary
crossovers. 1he emphasls, Lhen, ls on brldglng Lhe gap beLween Lhe creauve and buslness secLor by
ralslng awareness, communlcauon and semng up maLchmaklng programmes. Co-operauon
beLween formal educauon lnsuLuuons ln Lhe arLs and exlsung buslnesses ls crlucal ln order Lo
achleve Lhls. lnnovauon cenLres wlLhln a unlverslLy or creauve buslness lncubaLors, oûen llnked Lo
arL schools or unlverslues, have proved successful ln closlng Lhe gap by enabllng sLudenLs ln a
supporuve envlronmenL.
274
laclllLaung Lhe exchange of knowledge wlLhln Lhe CCls beLween experlenced and lnexperlenced
CCls ls anoLher Lype of maLchlng worLh conslderauon. Þeer Lo peer exchange wlLhln a neLwork may
provlde cruclal lnformauon on Lhe resources avallable and necessary Lo Lransluon from one phase
Lo anoLher. Whlle peer Lo peer exchange or 'peer coachlng'
273
applles parucularly Lo Lhe early
sLages of Lhe SML llfecycle, lL ls also appllcable LhroughouL Lhe growLh of a buslness as lnformauon
and Lechnology consLanLly undergoes change.
3.4.S. Support on demand: mentorsh|p programmers, adv|ce centres and |earn|ng |oops
8egardlng Lhe acqulsluon of enLrepreneurlal educauon and skllls, lL ls clear LhaL one slze clearly
does noL ñL all. 8aLher Lhan Lrylng Lo produce a formula for a falrly compllcaLed and dynamlc
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 143
274
kLA, (lebruary 2010a), 8uslness lnnovauon SupporL Servlces for Creauve lndusLrles, ShorL sLudy prepared for Lhe Luropean
Commlsslon, (uC LnLerprlse and lndusLry), hup://www.keaneL.eu/reporL/8lSScreauvelndusLrles.pdf. March 3, 2010.
273
LC Creen Þaper, (2010), op. clL.: lo tbe Jocomeot, peet coocbloq ls tbe op-qtoJloq of skllls ooJ ptocesses tbtooqb tbe excbooqe
betweeo peets focloq tbe some cbolleoqes, os o woy to leoto ftom otbets' mlstokes ot soccesses, foe-tooe ooe's ptojects tbooks to
expetleoceJ totots, explote oew tecbooloqles ot expooJ ooe's cootoct bose.
process, supporL should be oñered on demand, speclñc Lo Lhe phase of developmenL and Lhe
expressed needs of Lhe CCl SML ln quesuon.
ln order Lo provlde supporL on demand, respondenLs hlghllghLed a comblnauon of sLraLegles. Whlle
well-deñned and needs-speclñc Lralnlng and llfelong learnlng programmes are exLremely valuable,
Lhey can be comblned wlLh menLorlng, Lallor-made Lo Lhe CCl SMLs.
Advlce cenLres were also ldenuñed as essenual asseLs Lo a developlng buslness ln Lhe CCls. 1he
Compeuuveness and lnnovauon Þrogramme, an Lu ñnanclal framework puL ln place Lo lncrease
access Lo ñnance and buslness advlce for lnnovauve SMLs, ls one such lnluauve.
276
Powever,
desplLe belng LargeLed aL SMLs and Lrylng Lo puL Lhe focus on enLrepreneurshlp, Lhe lack of speclñc
Lallored advlce cenLres for CCl SMLs ls generally lacklng ln Lu lnluauves. MosL of Lhe respondenLs
agreed on Lhe need for a cenLral polnL where Lhey could geL speclñc advlce for CCls, alongslde
Lallored advlce on secLor speclñc pollcles.
ulñerenL besL pracuces ln CCl SML enLrepreneurshlp supporL were suggesLed, especlally lnvolvlng
lnluauves focuslng on cusLomlsed lnLeracuon: one-Lo-one coachlng and consulung, mlcro-credlL,
bouom-up meLhods for developlng locauons used solely by end users,
277
peer Lo peer consulLauons
and ßexlble buslness lncubaLors.
l n o r d e r L o l m p r o v e
p r o f e s s l o n a l L r a l n l n g ,
respondenLs menuoned ñrsLly
Lhe developmenL of reglonal
cenLres for CCl SMLs for
applled research and exchange
of pracuces (82.3°) and Lhen
Lhe semng up of menLorlng
s c hemes and Lur opean
moblllLy granLs (boLh 61°).
Cne besL case pracuce lmplemenung many of Lhe above llsLed characLerlsucs ls llrsLporL, an
organlsauon servlng CCl SMLs and oLher enLrepreneurs (see 8esL Case 30).
3.4.6. Þhases
As Lhe acqulsluon of enLrepreneurlal and buslness skllls ls sald Lo be besL lnLroduced ln Lhe
educauonal sysLem, before Lhe CCl enLrepreneur creaLes a buslness and as early as secondary
school, some of Lhe lnLervlewees suggesLed LhaL Lhere was a need Lo lnLroduce anoLher phase ln
Lhe enLrepreneurlal llfe cycle: phase zero. Several respondenLs expressed Lhe lmporLance of Lhls
perlod, whlch occurs prlor Lo Lhe creauon and pursulL of an ldea. naLurally Lhe Lransluon from
'professlonal Lralnlng lnLo professlonal pracuce' also proves Lo be a challenglng sLage.
278

IIkS1ÞCk1
I|rstport serves new and emerg|ng soc|a| entrepreneurs
through face-to-face support and adv|ce as we|| as sets the
cu|tura| and creanve entrepreneur w|th a strong network
and tra|n|ng sess|ons.
(See 8esL Case 30)
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 146
276
See hup://ec.europa.eu/clp/
277
Looklng aL Lhe lmporLance of feed back loops ln Lhe deslgn process and producuon of a producL and servlce, dlñerenL secured
locauons, such as resLrlcLed onllne plauorms, can be developed Lo enable greaLer lnLeracuon
278
LC Creen Þaper, (2010), op. clL.
1 h e d e v e l o p m e n L o f
apprenuceshlps ln CCl SMLs ls
cur renL l y used l n some
counLrles buL apprenuceshlp ls
easler ln Lradluonal lndusLrles
as hlrlng someone can also be
a conslderably heavy load for
mlcro-SMLs already under
u m e a n d r e s o u r c e s
consLralnLs. 1o address Lhls
problem, programmes such as Lhe nordlc Creauve knowledge Lxchange Þrogramme or Lhe uk
Creauve Apprenuceshlp Þrogramme (see 8esL Case 31), llnk lndusLrles, educauon and buslness
clusLers LogeLher by provldlng a vlLal neLwork of lnformauon and opporLunlues.
279

ln Lhe ñrsL phase, Lhe mosL adequaLe supporL for acqulrlng enLrepreneurlal pracuces was deemed
Lo be on slLe experlence or lnLernshlp for 33° of Lhe respondenLs (see llg. 30. below).
Ooesuoo. wbot type of soppott lo ocpoltloq eottepteoeotlol ptocuces
ls most osefol Jotloq tbe ftst pbose?
!"# $"# %!"# %$"# &!"# &$"# '!"# '$"# (!"#
)*#+,-.#./0.1,.*2.#31#,*-.1*+4,0+#
5167893+-5167#.*-1.01.*.:1,6;#-16*,*<#
=6+,2#-16,*,*<#,*#>*6*2,6;#?37.;,*<#
=6+,2#@16,*,*<#,*#013A.2-#23B317,*6C3*#
D326C3*6;#-16,*,*<#
@4.#,*-.1*.-#6*7#3*;,*.#?.7,6#
E6C3*6;#.*-1.01.*.:1+4,0#-16,*,*<##
)-4.1#
F326;#.*-1.01.*.:1+4,0#-16,*,*<##
G.<,3*6;#.*-1.01.*.:1+4,0#-16,*,*<##
I|gure 30: Most usefu| support for acqu|r|ng entrepreneur|a| pracnces |n the start up phase
(5ootce. íotoklels 2010, oolloe sotvey)
lL ls ln Lhls phase LhaL academla and enLrepreneurshlp are besL comblned. AL Lhe local level,
Chambers of Commerce Lackle aspecLs of educauonal supporL and provlde courses for sLarung
buslnesses and capaclLy bulldlng for young enLrepreneurs who are ln phases one and Lwo. AL a
nauonal level Lhe focus lles malnly on how Lo prepare educauonal lnsuLuuons Lo meeL Lhe needs of
culLural and creauve enLrepreneurs and fuLure SMLs.
uurlng phase Lwo, supporL needs Lo be very ßexlble and easlly accesslble. CC enLrepreneurs have Lo
become famlllar wlLh Lerms and regulauons LhaL may help Lhem ln Lhelr buslness. 1hey have Lo feel
comforLable wlLh debL ñnance and wlLh lÞ8 managemenL. 1hey musL develop compeLencles and
redeñne Lhelr buslness Lowards growLh wlLh Lhe alm of easlng Lhe Lransluon lnLo Lhe nexL phase.
Creanve Apprenncesh|p
Creanve Apprenncesh|p |s a Uk programme that a|ms at
br|dg|ng the |ack of sk|||s from students |n the CCI sectors
by oñer|ng the opportun|ty to |earn on-the-[ob and g|v|ng
young peop|e a start |n the CCI sectors.
(See 8esL Case 31)
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 147
279
See hup://www.ccskllls.org.uk/Apprenuceshlps/CreauveApprenuceshlps/Labld/82/uefaulL.aspx
Addluonally, elemenLs relaLed Lo Lralnlng were also menuoned durlng Lhls phase of Lhe
enLrepreneurlal llfe cycle. 1he nascenL enLrepreneur experlences a very sLeep learnlng curve,
especlally lf phase one has been Loo shorL or bypassed. Þhase Lwo ls a perlod of Lrlal and error,
durlng whlch culLural and creauve enLrepreneurs musL rely on menLors and addluonal Lralnlng or
coachlng LhaL mlghL be avallable. Accordlng Lo respondenLs of Lhe quesuonnalre, a speclñc
programme for lmprovlng ñnanclal and Lechnologlcal skllls ls needed (49° of Lhe respondenLs
agreed LhaL lL was needed and 37° agreed LhaL lL was very much needed). 1hls Lype of programme
was parucularly needed durlng phases 1 and 2 (see llg. 31.).
Ooesuoo. lo wblcb pboses of tbe llfe cycle woolJ tbls ptoqtomme be most osefol?
(yoo coo cboose mote tboo ooe pbose)
!" #" $!" $#" %!" %#" &!" &#" '!" '#"
()*+,"#-"./011,2314."
()*+,"'-".56789:06;."
()*+,"&-".56789:6<."
()*+,"%-".=;*>;"6<."
()*+,"$-".(>,<*>714";),"4>0619."
I|gure 31: Most appropr|ate phase for spec|hc tra|n|ng |n techno|ogy and hnanc|a| sk|||s
(5ootce. íotoklels 2010, oolloe sotvey)
Slmllarly, Llfelong learnlng (LLL) programmes, LhaL supporL sLarung and growlng companles by
provldlng personal and managemenL skllls, as well as rlsk managemenL, also occur aL Lhe
enLrepreneur or enLerprlse level and are usually preferred ln Lhe sLarL-up or Lhe bulld-up phase.
(see llg. 32.)
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 148
Ooesuoo. llfe looq leotoloq (lll) ptoqtommes ptovlJloq petsoool ooJ moooqemeot skllls, os well
os tlsk moooqemeot, coo soppott stotuoq ooJ qtowloq compooles. lo wblcb pbose of tbe llfe cycle
ote tbese ptoqtommes most osefol?
!"# $"# %!"#%$"#&!"#&$"#'!"#'$"#(!"#
)*+,-#$.#/0122-3425/#
)*+,-#(.#/6789:;<7=/#
)*+,-#%.#/)>-?+>825#=*-#
5>172:/#
)*+,-#'.#/6789:;7?/#
)*+,-#&.#/@=+>=#7?/#
I|gure 32: Þreferred phase for LLL |n ||fe cyc|e
(5ootce. (íotoklels 2010, oolloe sotvey)
lrom phase Lhree, lssues such as Lhe scalablllLy and growLh of a buslness come lnLo play. lL ls durlng
Lhls phase LhaL SMLs musL conslder wheLher or noL Lhey wanL Lo be scalable, whlch may lead Lo
dlñerlng paLhs Lo growLh. 1he susLalnablllLy of Lhe SML Lhus becomes an lmporLanL componenL ln
Lhls phase and Lhe phases Lo follow. More focused supporL ln buslness skllls are clLed as lmporLanL
skllls aL Lhls sLage. Cn-demand supporL such as coachlng ls expllclLly menuoned from Lhls polnL.
ln phases four and ñve, ñnanclng and markeL-relaLed lssues become more lmporLanL and Lhe
supporL should focus on organlslng Lhe creauve process, and managlng people and resources.
Addluonal emphasls ls glven Lo Lhe lmporLance of neLworks and peer-Lo-peer knowledge exchange.
ln Lhese Lwo lasL phases, ßexlblllLy glves way Lo a necessary rlgldlLy (e.g. dlsuncL organlsauonal
roles, many pro[ecLs, pro[ecL managemenL, resource managemenL) and Lhls can be dlmculL for CCls
lf Lhe shlû ln scale and change of focus and sLrucLures colncldes wlLh a lack of supporL and
guldance. lrom Lhls polnL on, SMLs conunue Lo requlre supporL, however, Lhe Lype and amounL of
supporL needed dlñers and on-demand advlce and coachlng needs Lo be speclñc and advanced.
3.4.7. Leve|s
Skllls, educauon and Lralnlng can be provlded aL dlñerenL levels. uue Lo Lhe fasL changlng
envlronmenL ln whlch Lhey work, regular Lralnlng ln developlng secLor-speclñc skllls ls lmporLanL.
84° of Lhe respondenLs LhoughL LhaL Lhe developmenL of advlce and supporL cenLres speclñcally
for CCls ls needed or very much needed, as lllusLraLed ln llg. 33. below. 8eglonal cenLres for CCl
SMLs were also suggesLed for lmprovlng professlonal Lralnlng (see llg. 34).
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 149
Ooesuoo. uo yoo see o oeeJ fot tbe Jevelopmeot of oJvlce ooJ soppott ceottes speclfcolly fot tbe
cteouve ooJ coltotol loJosttles?
!"# $!"# %!"# &!"# '!"# (!"# )!"#
*++,+,#
-+./#0123#4++,+,#
*56#0123#4++,+,#
*56#4++,+,#76#788#
*5#59:4:54#
I|gure 33: Need for deve|opment of adv|ce and support centres for CCIs
(5ootce. íotoklels 2010, oolloe sotvey)
Ooesuoo. At wblcb level woolJ tbese soppott ceottes be best ploceJ?
!"# $"# %!"# %$"# &!"# &$"# '!"# '$"#
()*+,#
-+.)/,01#/,2034506/37055/.406/3#1+8+1#
9:,/;+03#1+8+1#
</.017#=:34.4;01#1+8+1#
>06/301#<+8+1#
?+24/301#<+8+1#
I|gure 34: Þreferred |eve| for deve|op|ng adv|ce and support centres for CCIs
(5ootce. íotoklels 2010, oolloe sotvey)
AL Lhe enLrepreneur level, skllls and knowledge are galned ln varlous ways, as seen ln 1able 11.
above. Lven durlng Lhe educauonal phases, personal lnluauves and paruclpauon ln exLra-currlcular
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 130
acuvlues and experlences beyond Lhose acqulred Lhrough formal programmes have proven Lo play
a ma[or role ln Lhe developmenL of sLudenLs' and graduaLes' enLrepreneurlal capaclLy.
280
uurlng Lhls phase, Lhe compeLencles of Lhe lndlvldual musL conunue Lo develop, such as ln Lhe
areas of lnnovauon and 8&u, buL also ln Lhe organlsauon and managemenL of an enLerprlse. 1he
process remalns very much aL an lndlvldual level, ln parL due Lo Lhe large numbers of mlcro-SMLs.
AL Lhls level, Lhe Lralnlng, skllls and advlce LhaL were descrlbed for Lhe enLrepreneur level wlll also
apply.
1he conunulLy ln learnlng and skllls developmenL, or 'llfelong learnlng' (LLL), ls deemed essenual Lo
susLaln Lurope's lnnovauon as research shows Lhe lnßuence LLL has on Lhe creauve and lnnovauve
poLenual of lndlvlduals, groups, organlsauons and counLrles.
281
1herefore, LLL has become a
cornersLone of Lhe Lu's learnlng sLraLegy, alLhough Lhe poLenual of LLL has yeL Lo be fully
embraced.
282
1he Luropean, reglonal and nauonal levels may each play an lmporLanL role ln
execuung LLL programmes, Lhough Lhe ma[orlLy of respondenLs belleve LhaL Lhe responslblllLy
should lle aL Lhe Luropean level (29°),
283
as ln llg. 33. below.
Ooesuoo. At wbot level Jo yoo see tbls type of lll ptoqtomme
most osefol fot yoot compooy?
!"# $"# %!"# %$"# &!"# &$"# '!"#
()*+,#
-./01234)5#1+6+1#
7+/).,01#088./409.:#1+6+1#
;+<4.:01#-+6+1#
=09.:01#-+6+1#
>?,.@+0:#-+6+1#
I|gure 3S: Þreferred |eve| for LLL strateg|es
(5ootce. íotoklels 2010, oolloe sotvey)
AL Lhe local level, Lhe munlclpallLy may provlde enLrepreneurlal Lralnlng Lo enLrepreneurs. Powever,
accordlng Lo respondenLs, Lralnlng and advlce ls oûen noL Lallored Lo Lhe CCls and ls Lherefore noL
sulLable. Local pollcy may have a narrow vlew of enLrepreneurshlp, Lendlng Lo focus on commerclal
enLrepreneurshlp measured Lhrough levels of buslness sLarL-up.
284
1hls ls due Lo a lack of
undersLandlng of Lhe CCls by local governmenLs or by local general SMLs supporL cenLres LhaL may
noL possess lnformauon on Lhe CCl secLor. Powever, Lralnlng aL Lhls level ls beneñclal ln LhaL Lhe CC
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 131
280
1he Plgher Lducauon Academy ArL ueslgn Medla Sub[ecL CenLre and nLS1A, (2007), op. clL., pp. 94-101.
281
uohmen, M. (2009), 1he fuLure of conunulng educauon ln Lurope, 8onn: Cerman lederal MlnlsLry of Lducauon and 8esearch,
8onn, Cermany
282
kLA, (2009), op. clL., p. 119.
283
Cnllne survey
284
1he Plgher Lducauon Academy ArL ueslgn Medla Sub[ecL CenLre and nLS1A, (2007) op. clL., p. 23.
enLrepreneurs LhaL paruclpaLe can dlrecLly conLrlbuLe Lo Lhelr local envlronmenL. 1hus, Lhere may
be greaLer lmpacL ln less ume Lhrough local Lralnlng and advlce cenLres.
1he role of Lhe reglonal level
was sLrongly hlghllghLed by
Lhe lnLervlewees regardlng
L h e c o mp e L e n c l e s o f
enLrepreneurs ln Lhe CCls,
one good example belng Arge
CreauvWlrLschaû (See 8esL
Case 32). 8eglons are oûen
close Lo developmenLs ln Lhe
CCls, and oñer Lral nl ng,
coachlng, LLL programmes,
and Lhe organl sauon of
'learnlng loops' and Lhls can be emclenLly supporLed aL Lhe reglonal level alongslde oLher servlces
such as consulung, advlslng and buslness modelllng. 32° of respondenLs belleve LhaL advlce
supporL cenLres should be placed aL Lhe reglonal level, whlle 22° chose Lhe nauonal level (see llg.
33. above). ln addluon Lo Lhe servlces llsLed above, Lhe reglon plays an lmporLanL lnLermedlary
supporL role, llnklng Lhe local level wlLh Lhe nauonal level. Cverall, a sysLem for advlce and supporL
orlenLed Lo Lhe CCls ls sLrongly requlred ln parucular aL reglonal and local levels.
Accordlng Lo respondenLs, Lhe nauonal level also has an lmporLanL role Lo play ln Lerms of
educauon and skllls for Lhe CCls. lL ls seen as useful Lo esLabllsh collaborauve plauorms, advlce
cenLres and Lo fosLer llnks beLween CCls and research and developmenL. Addluonally, supporL can
lnLervene ln formal educauon currlcula developmenL as lL ls usually a nauonal compeLence and noL
reglonal one. lor lnsLance, ln Lhe neLherlands, Lhe requlremenLs Lo become a professlonal archlLecL
are esLabllshed aL a nauonal level. Cn Lhe oLher hand, aL Lhe nauonal level, Lhe local conLexL may
be overlooked and Lhe needs of CC enLrepreneurs and mlcro-SMLs are noL always properly
ldenuñed or addressed. 1herefore, Lhe nauonal and reglonal levels need Lo be llnked so LhaL Lhe
reglonal level can be an ambassador for pollcles made aL Lhe nauonal level, and Lhe nauonal level
ln Lurn can beneñL from Lhe undersLandlng LhaL Lhe reglons have on Lhe needs of lndlvlduals ln Lhe
CCls.
1he Lu level ls prlmarlly responslble for Lhe sLrucLural measures requlred by Lhe CCls regardlng Lhe
regulaLory envlronmenL. 1hese lnclude enforclng and correcLly evaluaung lÞ8, and proacuvely
oñerlng dlrecL supporL ln Lhe ñeld of Lralnlng and formal neLworklng. laclllLaung lncreased
exchange beLween groups of professlonals, such as pollcy makers, lnnovauon supporL experLs, and
creauve clusLer managers would lmprove Lhe wealLh of experuse on worklng pracuces and
programmes ln Lhe CCls.
283
1he Lu level ls noL Lhe level of auLhorlLy besL sulLed for dellverlng
servlces. 8aLher, aL Lhls level, culLural exchange and Lhe ßow of ldeas beLween Member SLaLes on
enLrepreneurlal educauonal programmes can be more eñecuve.
1he dlmculues of CC enLrepreneurs and mlcro-SMLs may also vary greaLly dependlng on Lhe secLor
wlLhln Lhe CCls. lor lnsLance, conLrary Lo Lhe gamlng secLor, where Lhe dlmculues wlLhln Lhe secLor
lle ln Lhe area of knowledge sharlng, enLrepreneurlal skllls and communlcauon wlLh supporung
organlsauons, Lhe muslc secLor ñnds lLs dlmculues semng up ñnanclal ßow models and
mechanlsms LhaL ald ln Lhe susLalnablllLy and growLh of Lhe acuvlues carrled ouL by SMLs.
Arge CreanvW|rtschah
Arge CreanvW|rtschah |s a competence centre for creanve
entrepreneurs and |nd|v|dua|s. It acts |n entrepreneur|a|
sk|||s (tra|n|ng and support |n network|ng), representanon
of |nterests and |nformanon and awareness ra|s|ng. It acts
as a know|edge hub for the |nterests of the creanve
|ndustr|es.
(See 8esL Case 32)
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 132
283
kLA, (2010a), op. clL.
Powever, whlle Lhe needs may vary greaLly beLween secLors of Lhe CCls, essenual general Lralnlng
on enLrepreneurlal skllls, alongslde secLor-speclñc Lralnlng, ls cruclal. Lssenual Lralnlng, from
wrlung buslness plans Lo relaung producL ldeas Lo a markeL slLuauon, ls requlred Lo remaln
lnformed and Lo reßecL on new developmenLs. 1hls ls parucularly Lrue for Lhose SMLs LhaL noL only
lack Lechnologlcal Lralnlng, buL also secLor-speclñc Lralnlng. CurrenLly, Lhe secLoral assoclauons
may only provlde some baslc Lralnlng Lhough more speclallsed knowledge ls necessary. SecLoral
supporL for CCls' enLrepreneurlal skllls was mosLly percelved Lo be Lhrough exchange of besL
pracuces (97°) and consulLauons (76°) Lo gaLher for example, lnformauon on CCl pollcles and
eñecuveness.
3.3. Access Lo lnnovauon
1he Lurope 2020 SLraLegy hlghllghLs Lhe need Lo sLrengLhen Lhe role of knowledge and lnnovauon
as drlvers of growLh for Lurope's fuLure challenges.
286
1he lnnovauon unlon, one of Lhe ßagshlp
lnluauves announced ln Lurope 2020, recognlses Lhe role of creauvlLy ln Lhe lnnovauon process,
and underllnes LhaL •tbe cteouvlty ooJ Jlvetslty of oot people ooJ tbe stteoqtb of íotopeoo
cteouve loJosttles o[et boqe poteouol fot oew qtowtb ooJ jobs tbtooqb looovouoo, especlolly fot
5Mís•.
287
1hese prlorlues placed Lhe spoLllghL on CCls, acknowledglng Lhe role of Lhe creauve
LalenL workforce and enLrepreneurshlp as essenual for Lackllng Lhese challenges.
288
lnnovauon now
also encompasses noL only sclenuñc lnnovauon buL also hldden lnnovauon, such as lnnovauve
processes hldden from classlcal lnnovauon measures,
289
soû lnnovauon,
290
or deslgn processes as
drlvers of user-cenLred lnnovauon.
291
1hls ls an lndlcauon of Lhe wllllngness Lo unlock Lhe poLenual
role LhaL Lhe CCls could have ln furLher enabllng lnnovauon ln Lurope.
1he 1hlrd AusLrlan 8eporL on CulLural and Creauve lndusLrles suggesLed LhaL Lhe CCls are more
lnnovauve Lhan Lhe average secLor ln Lhe economy. ln 2008, a survey underLaken wlLh more Lhan
Lwo Lhousand AusLrlan CCl enLerprlses showed LhaL 46 ° of organlsauons ln Lhe culLural and
creauve lndusLrles supporLed cusLomers ouLslde of Lhelr secLor ln generaung lnnovauon.
292

Powever, ln order Lo fully Lap lnLo Lhe lnnovauve poLenual of Lhe CCls and lncrease Lhelr (lndlrecL)
lmpacL on oLher secLors of Lhe economy, lL ls essenual Lo faclllLaLe Lhelr access Lo lnnovauve
processes and Lools. SLrengLhenlng Lhe llnks beLween academla, knowledge lnsuLuLes, CCls and
buslnesses ln oLher secLors can be one prompung facLor LhaL supporL CCls' access Lo lnnovauve
Lra[ecLorles. lf Lhey are Lo prosper from Lhls, Lhe CCls musL have Lhe sLraLeglc ablllLy Lo undersLand
Lhe lmpacL of new Lechnology and Lhe pracucal ablllLy Lo explolL lL.
293
AL Lhe same ume, rapld communlcauon and dlglLal convergence represenL a fundamenLal
opporLunlLy for lnnovauon for CCls. 1he opporLunlues for resorung Lo user-drlven creauon Lhrough
lnLeracuve neLworks, lncludlng feedback loops ln Lhe producuon processes as well as uslng Lhe
lnLerneL for lnnovauve meLhods Lo approach audlences, are keys Lo enabllng greaLer lnnovauon
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 133
286
LC Communlcauon, (March 2010b), op. clL., p. 9.
287
LC Communlcauon, (CcLober 2010), op. clL., p. 7.
288
lbld., p. 9.
289
Mlles, l. and Creen, L. (2008), Pldden lnnovauon ln Lhe Creauve lndusLrles, London: nLS1A
290
SLoneman, Þ. (2009), Soû lnnovauon: 1owards a more compleLe plcLure of lnnovauve change, London: nLS1A.
291
LC SLañ Worklng documenL, (2009a), op. clL.,
292
Arge CreauvwlrLschaû AusLrla, (2010), op. clL., p. 11.
293
uCMS (ueparLmenL for CulLure, Medla and SporL), (2008), Creauve 8rlLaln- new 1alenLs for Lhe new Lconomy, London:
ueparLmenL of CulLure, Medla and SporL
wlLhln Lhe CCls. lnnovauon pollcles musL Lherefore address Lhese key drlvers, boLh Lechnologlcal
and non-Lechnologlcal, and allow for ßexlble approaches LhaL correspond Lo Lhe needs of CCls.
1hus, Lhe posluonlng of Lhe CCls ls Lwofold. CCls can Lhemselves be drlvers of creauvlLy and
lnnovauon and recognlsed as an essenual parL of creauvlLy ln soclal and Lechnologlcal lnnovauon
processes,
294
whlle supporL for lnnovauon ls needed Lo furLher Lhe creauve poLenual of Lhe CCls
and ls essenual ln malnLalnlng Lhelr compeuuveness.
1he lmporLance of lnnovauon was also recognlsed ln Lhe onllne quesuonnalre as 74° of Lhe
respondenLs hlghllghLed Lhe need for lnvesLmenL ln lnnovauon for CCl SMLs whlle Lhe need for
sLronger supporL ln 8&u was also percelved as necessary by 83° of Lhe respondenLs.
3.S.1. Dynam|c |nnovanon |andscape
lnnovauon ls Lradluonally vlewed and measured from Lhe Lechnologlcal and sclenuñc perspecuve.
1hls makes lL dlmculL Lo lnclude Lhe more lnLanglble and creauve naLure of lnnovauon Lhe CCls
have Lo oñer. Lven Lhough lnnovauon ls now accepLed as encompasslng more Lhan [usL
Lechnology,
293
lL ls sull hard Lo predlcL wheLher Lhese lnnovauve processes wlll succeed ln Lhe
markeL.
1he concepL of soû lnnovauon, reßecung changes of a largely aesLheuc naLure,
296
can be boLh non-
funcuonal (aesLheucs) as well as funcuonal. Accordlng Lo nLS1A, soû lnnovauon ls largely found ln
Lhe creauve secLor, even Lhough Lhe non-creauve secLor holds also some soû lnnovauon
poLenual.
297
1he acLual lack of measurlng lndlces LhaL Lake lnLo accounL soû lnnovauon alongslde
Lechnlcal and sclenuñc lnnovauon accounLs for one of Lhe ma[or dlmculues ln Lerms of recognluon
for Lhe CCls.
298

new measures, such as Lhose belng researched by nLS1A
299
or by Lhe Luropean lnnovauon
Scoreboard,
300
auempL Lo brldge Lhls gap. 1he neLherlands and Canada have also sLarLed Lo do so
by lncorporaung user-lnnovauon wlLhln lnnovauon measuremenL.
301
AparL from aesLheuc changes,
lnnovauve processes, new organlsauonal models or new buslness models have also begun Lo be
recognlsed as lnnovauon under Lhe name blJJeo looovouoo.
302
1he lauer ls dlmculL Lo dlsenLangle
from rouune work of 'problem solvlng' by an organlsauon and ls noL necessarlly recorded ln Lhe
organlsauon's lnnovauon pracuces and Lhus ls noL ßagged as lnnovauon. 1hls makes lL hard Lo back
up wlLh approprlaLe pollcy. Soû lnnovauon and Lhe subsequenL processes of hldden lnnovauon are,
however, essenual when deallng wlLh servlce lnnovauon.
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 134
294
Cpen MeLhod of Coordlnauon for Lhe CulLural and Creauve lndusLrles ln Lurope, (2009) Þrellmlnary reporL, p. 18.
293
LC Communlcauon, (SepLember 2009c), op. clL., p. 8.
296
SLoneham, Þ, (2008), op. clL., p. 18.
297
SLoneham, Þ, (2008), op. clL., p. 18.
298
lnLervlew Luropean SecLoral Crganlsauon
299
See hup://www.nesLa.org.uk/lnnovauon_lndex
300
See hup://www.prolnno-europe.eu/lndex.cfm•fuseacuon˜page.dlsplay&Loplclu˜273&parenLlu˜31•
301
nLS1A, (Aprll 2010a), op. clL., p. 11.
302
Creen, L, (uec 2008), Pldden lnnovauon ln Creauve lndusLrles, nLS1A- vldeo game lnnovauon workshop, ManchesLer 8uslness
School
1he lnßuence LhaL such lnnovauve processes can have on an organlsauon's emclency, managemenL
procedures or Lhe lnLeracuon wlLh Lhe cusLomers can be conslderable. 1he Lu LÞlSlS lnnC-neL
303

and Lhe Lu knowledge lnLenslve Servlce lnnovauon Þlauorm are pollcles and lnsLrumenLs Lo
supporL servlce lnnovauon and are lllusLrauve of Lhe recognluon of such lnnovauve processes aL
Lhe declslon-maklng level.
Moreover, Lhe concepL of open lnnovauon, deñned as 'Lhe use of purposlve lnßows and ouulows of
knowledge Lo acceleraLe lnLernal lnnovauon, and expand Lhe markeLs for exLernal use of
lnnovauon,'
304
blends Lhe muluple lnnovauon processes of organlsauons Lo advance new meLhods
Lo achleve a common goal. 1hls can be lllusLrauve of Lhe lmpacL LhaL CCls can oñer Lo oLher
organlsauons as an lndlrecL spln-oñ eñecL of creauvlLy as a drlver of lnnovauon ln oLher
organlsauons. Cne example among many ls '1he Walk'. 1hls was a collaborauon beLween a vlsual
arusL produclng a human sculpLure wlLh a Lexule enLerprlse and was almed aL sumulaung Lhe
ßexlblllLy of Lhe enLerprlse employees. lL almed Lo Leach Lhem Lo Lhlnk ln a more fuLure-orlenLed
way ln order Lo anuclpaLe Lhe ever-changlng markeL wlLh a vlew Lo modlfylng organlsauonal
processes.
303

Powever, Lhe appreclauon of soû lnnovauon or oLher Lypes of non-Lechnologlcal lnnovauon ls noL
fully homogenlsed across governmenL or ls noL yeL LranslaLed lnLo pollcy acuons. CounLrles have
dlñerenL ways of Lackllng lnnovauon LhaL añecLs Lhe general conLexL for CCls. A counLry ln Lhe
knowledge economles clusLer recognlses Lhe beneñL of soû lnnovauon for buslness and wlll have
speclñc programmes almed aL supporung CCls. 1he uk for example encourages Lhe upLake of
lnnovauon vouchers LhaL could 'nudge' ñrms Lowards an lncreaslng use of lnnovauon servlces.
306

CLher lnluauves such as Lhe knowledge 1ransfer neLwork (see 8esL Case 33) from Lhe uk
1echnology SLraLegy 8oard are also lllusLrauve of Lhe supporL Lhey glve Lo enhance lnnovauon ln
Lhe CCls.
Powever, noL only do CCls need Lo be recognlsed as drlvers of lnnovauon, ln all Lhe senses
menuoned above, buL Lhey also need Lo be approprlaLely supporLed ln lnnovauve processes Lo Lap
lnLo Lhelr full lnnovauve poLenual. 1he Lu has lnvesLed 147 bllllon Luros (2007-2013) Lo sumulaLe
8&u and lC1, buL such lnnovauon pollcy largely lgnores Lhe value of culLure-based creauvlLy. lL ls
esumaLed LhaL Lhe Lu wlll spend less Lhan 3 bllllon Luros (2007-2013) on culLure-based
creauvlLy.
307

Cpen source and collaborauve plauorm developmenLs LhaL have arlsen from dlglLal and
Lechnologlcal developmenL open up opporLunlues for Lhe CCls Lo respond Lo new demands. 1hls
allows for low-cosL creauve experlmenLauon LhaL can be LesLed and reshaped by Lhe pro-sumer,
allowlng for a more level playlng ñeld for lnnovauon Lry-ouLs.
308
Allowlng such creauve Lry-ouLs ls
essenual ln Lrlggerlng lnnovauon. A sLudy by nLS1A found LhaL 23° of user lnnovaLor ñrms have
shared Lhelr process wlLh equlpmenL suppllers (20° dld recelve royalues as compensauon for Lhelr
sharlng).
309
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 133
303
See hup://www.prolnno-europe.eu/eplsls
304
Chesbrough, P.W, ((2003), op. clL.
303
See hup://www.arLeconomy.be/hLm/geLpageLn.asp•l˜3
306
Þous, !., Morrlson, k., (Aprll 2009b), nudglng lnnovauon, London: nLS1A
307
kLA, (2006), op. clL., p. 139.
308
uk 1echnology SLraLegy 8oard,(2009), op. clL., p. 26.
309
nauonal LndowmenL for Sclence, 1echnology and Lhe ArLs, (Aprll 2010a), Measurlng user lnnovauon ln Lhe uk - 1he lmporLance
of producL creauon by users, London: nLS1A, p. 8.
CCls, and especlally Lhe deslgn secLor, use user-orlenLed sLraLegles.
310
ueslgn can acL as a poLenual
lnsLrumenL for lnnovauve soluuons and producLs LhaL seek Lo undersLand user needs, asplrauons
and ablllues aL a lower cosL Lhan Lradluonal 8&u acuvlues.
311
1he role of CCl SMLs ln malnLalnlng
closer lnLeracuon wlLh Lhe user and consumer ls lnßuenual ln Lhelr capaclLy Lo lnnovaLe new
processes and servlces. 1hls changlng dynamlc beLween audlence and conLenL creaLor, especlally
wlLh Lhe rlse of dlglLal conLenL, allows for Lhe personallsauon and co-creauon of servlces and
producLs. 1hls also allows for greaLer knowledge exchange and can have a conslderable eñecL on
Lhe buslness models of culLural and creauve lndusLrles. Šuser-lnnovaLors are ñrms or lndlvldual
consumers LhaL expecL Lo beneñL from uslng a novel producL or a servlce Lhey develop–.
312
CulLural
and creauve enLrepreneurs are well aware of Lhls poLenual.
Lnabllng such exploraLory envlronmenLs Lo emerge ls Lherefore vlLal for unlocklng Lhe poLenual of
CCls Lo lnnovaLe and fosLer a spln oñ eñecL on Lhe oLher secLors. ln Lhls conLexL, lnLeroperablllLy ls
lmporLanL as lL can also ensure greaLer access Lo new plauorms for CCl SMLs and as such can
lncrease Lhe level of cross-secLoral and mulu-dlsclpllnary collaborauon LhaL can enhance open
lnnovauon aL a lower cosL across borders.
CCls are consLanLly lnnovaung ln Lhelr producLs or servlces and ln Lhe sLudy's onllne quesuonnalre,
lL emerged LhaL Lhe mosL lmporLanL reasons Lo lnnovaLe are usually lmprovemenL orlenLed (33°) or
user-orlenLed (29°) (see llg. 36. below).
Ooesuoo. wbot ls tbe olm of yoot otqoolsouoo wbeo looovouoq?
!"# $"# %!"# %$"# &!"# &$"# '!"# '$"# (!"#
)**+,-.*/#0+#/-1*#23412*45#1*#062#78+9:4.+*#+;#-#
<28,142#
)**+,-.*/#0+#=-046#:<28<#92=-*9<#
)**+,-.*/#;+8#-2<062.4->?#-8.<.4#82-<+*<#
)**+,-.*/#;+8#<+41->#1=78+,2=2*0<#
@+#*+0#1**+,-02#520#
A0628#
I|gure 36: A|m of CCIs when |nnovanng
(5ootce. íotoklels 2010, oolloe sotvey)
ln Lhls regard, deslgn ls lncreaslngly seen as a parucular sLrengLh for Lurope and a source of
compeuuve advanLage. 1he Lu Communlcauon on ueslgn as a drlver of user-cenLred lnnovauon
showed LhaL non-Lechnology 8&u was as compeuuve as Lechnology 8&u and could be seen as a
soluuon for low Lechnology SMLs Lo lncrease Lhelr compeuuveness.
313
1hls was conñrmed ln Lhe
resulLs of Lhe open consulLauon on deslgn as user-cenLred lnnovauon Lo be lnLegraLed ln Lhe fuLure
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 136
310
LC Worklng documenL, (Aprll 2009a), op. clL., p. 17.
311
lbld., p. 12.
312
nauonal LndowmenL for Sclence, 1echnology and Lhe ArLs, (Aprll 2010a), Measurlng user lnnovauon ln Lhe uk - 1he lmporLance
of producL creauon by users, London: nLS1A, p. 9.
313
LC SLañ Worklng Þaper, (Aprll 2009), op. clL., p. 12.
lnnovauon pollcy.
314
Powever, one of Lhe greaLesL barrlers ls Lhe lack of awareness of pollcy makers
and SMLs Lhemselves of Lhe economlc and lnnovauve poLenual of deslgn.
313
Cn Lop of lacklng awareness of Lhe lnnovauve poLenual of deslgn, CCls also face lnnovauon
consLralnLs and challenges ln undersLandlng new emerglng llfesLyles and managlng Lhe role of Lhe
user/consumer (see llg. 37. below). CreaLer lnLeracuon wlLh Lhe cusLomer Lhrough, for example,
dlglLal lnLeracuve plauorms could supporL CC enLrepreneurs. Accordlng Lo Lhe research lnsuLuLe
CreauwlrLschaû, cerLaln oLher consLralnLs, such as lack of ume (20°), lack of fundlng sources (18°)
and mlsslng cusLomer approval (14°) are also lnnovauon consLralnLs.
316
Ooesuoo. lleose, select tbe tbtee most lmpottoot cbolleoqes lo looovouoo
tbot yoot sectot foces
!"# $"# %!"# %$"# &!"# &$"# '!"#
()*+,-./0)#01#20,34/5#.).26434#
7*8+-#
()*+,-./0)#01#9*62+#.):#;+58)020,6#
()*+,-./0)#01#+<=+-/4+#3)#=-0:>5*#:+?+20=@+)*#
A02+#01#5>4*0@+-B>4+-#
C):+-4*.):3),#+@+-,3),#231+4*62+4#
I|gure 37: Most |mportant cha||enges |n terms of |nnovanon
(5ootce. (íotoklels 2009, sectotol expett poesuoooolte)
3.S.2. Þromonng |nnovanon for CCIs: targeted or b|ended support for |nnovanon
1here ls a recognlsed need Lo supporL lnnovauon and access Lo lnnovauon for Lhe CCls ln order Lo
enhance Lhelr exlsung lnnovauve processes and lncrease Lhelr emclency as well as splll-overs Lo
oLher secLors of Lhe economy.
3.S.2.1. 8roaden|ng |nnovanon dehn|nons
ln order Lo supporL lnnovauon Lake up by CCls, ñrsL of all, Lhe lnnovauve poLenual of CCls have Lo
be recognlsed. Cpenlng up Lhe deñnluon of lnnovauon Lo lnclude CCl ouLpuLs and processes
conLrlbuLes Lo supporung CCl lnnovauve pracuces. 8ecognlslng, for example, LalenL based research
(such as LalenL scouung) or user-lnnovauon as parL of CCls lnnovauon can also enable access Lo
fundlng from exlsung lnnovauon funds.
1wo maln ldeas emerged from Lhe experL lnLervlews. llrsLly, Lhere ls a need Lo recognlse creauvlLy
and soû lnnovauon as parL of lnnovauon. ln so dolng, Lhe opporLunlLy for CCls Lo apply for
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 137
314
LC SLañ Worklng Þaper, (Aprll 2009), op. clL., Cunnlngham, Þ.n, (2008), nauonal and 8eglonal Þollcles for ueslgn, CreauvlLy and
user-drlven lnnovauon, 1hemauc reporL, Luropean 1rend CharL on lnnovauon Þollcy
313
LC, (CcLober 2009), 8esulLs of Lhe open consulLauon on deslgn as a drlver of user-cenLered lnnovauon, hup://ec.europa.eu/
enLerprlse/pollcles/lnnovauon/ñles/resulLs_deslgn_consulLauon_en.pdf
316
See hup://www.creauvwlrLschaû.aL
lnnovauon fundlng can be opened, alLhough speclñc LargeLed supporL for lnnovauon mlghL be
necessary and complemenLary ln order Lo lncrease Lhe use of Lhese programmes by CCls. 1he
respondenLs from Lhe experL quesuonnalre agreed or fully agreed (70°) on Lhe facL LhaL lnnovauon
pollcy needed a secLor-speclñc approach, perhaps as a ñrsL sLep. Secondly, lnnovauon funds usually
go Lo Lhe mosL lnsuLuuonallsed secLor and lnnovauon pollcles are mosLly dlrecLed aL 8&u and
sclenuñc secLors. 8ecognlslng Lhe poLenual of CCls as producers of knowledge and soû lnnovaLors
can unlock some of Lhese funds.
3.S.2.2.%Access to know|edge
knowledge, compeLence and relaLed lnLanglbles have emerged as key drlvers of compeuuve
advanLage ln developed counLrles. Cne of Lhe prlorlues noLed by Lhe uk 1echnology SLraLegy
8oard's reporL on Creauve lndusLrles Lo fosLer lnnovauon, ls developlng Lhe skllls, knowledge
sharlng and Lhe cross-exchange of experlence and knowledge beLween Lhe dlñerenL secLors of Lhe
CCls.
317
CCls rely on knowledge Lo break Lhrough lnnovauve servlces or producLs or Lo keep
updaLed abouL new pracuces, markeLs and Lechnologles. knowledge exchange can acL as a
caLalyser for Lhe CCls' Lo reach blgger opporLunlues and closer lnLeracuon wlLh users. ln a sLudy by
nLS1A, lL was shown LhaL lnnovauon was closely assoclaLed wlLh accesslng knowledge (33°),
especlally lnLernauonal sources of knowledge.
318

Accesslng exLernal knowledge ls a key facLor for a ñrm's compeuuveness.
319
Looklng aL Lhe
lmporLanL use of mulu-plauorms for lnnovauon, Lhe uk SLraLegy 1echnologlcal 8oard underllned
Lhe need Lo promoLe knowledge sharlng and sumulaLe new skllls and cross medla collaborauon ln
order Lo promoLe open lnnovauon processes and develop new brands, producLs, servlces.
320
As Lhe
dlñerences beLween secLors become more blurred, Lhls means LhaL cross-medla knowledge
Lransfer can Lake place ln an easler manner.
1he exlsung lnluauve funded
by Lhe uk 1echnology 8oard
C r e a u v e l n d u s L r l e s ,
knowledge 1ransfer neLwork
8eacons, demonsLraLes Lhe
l mporLance accorded Lo
Lransfer of knowledge and
lllusLraLes Lhe Lype of supporL
Lo lnnovauon by lncreaslng
knowledge ßow and exchange
(see 8esL Case 33).
321
ln Lhls
case, knowl edge sharl ng
across borders and dlñerenL uses of lÞ ln order Lo enable SMLs Lo Lake advanLage of Lhe ßow of
lnformauon were sLrong suggesuons from Lhe experL quesuonnalre.
know|edge 1ransfer Network
know|edge 1ransfer Network for CCI |s the Uk nanona|
networks |n CCI wh|ch br|ngs together peop|e from
bus|nesses, un|vers|nes, research, hnance and techno|ogy
organ|sanons to snmu|ate |nnovanon through know|edge
transfer.
(See 8esL Case 33)
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 138
317
uk 1echnology SLraLegy 8oard, (2009), op. clL.
318
nLS1A, (2010c), op. clL., p. 3.
319
nLS1A, (May 2010), op. clL., p. 7.
320
uk 1echnology SLraLegy 8oard,(2009), op. clL., p. 11.
321
ÞrospecL for Clk1n, Šunlocklng knowledge 1ransfer: 8eporL 1/3 8asellnes–, Clk1n 8eacon Þro[ecL, see hup://
creauvelndusLrleskLn.org/beacons
llg. 38. below demonsLraLes LhaL CCl SMLs found lnformauon and knowledge Lhrough peer-Lo-peer
exchange of knowledge (24°), co-operauon wlLh oLher secLoral organlsauon (19°) or open
lnformauon sources (18°) mosL relevanL. Þrogrammes LhaL fosLer Lhe exchange of pracuces
beLween CCls and peer-Lo-peer learnlng have been seen as havlng greaL poLenual Lo fosLer
knowledge exchange and lnnovauve pracuces.
Ooesuoo. 5elect tbe tbtee most televoot sootces of koowleJqe fot ccl 5Mís
!"# $"# %!"# %$"# &!"# &$"# '!"#
()*+,#
-,./#01)+,123.124#5.44.6707/8#
9.:.;+,23.1#<0)*#)*+#;7=405#2>/0108),23.1#
-,./##5.:.;+,23.1#<0)*#;,0?2)+#25).,8#
9.:.;+,23.1#<0)*#710?+,80)@A,+8+2,5*#0183)7)+#
(;+1#B1C.,/23.1#D.7,5+8#
-,./#5.:.;+,23.1#<0)*#8+5).,#288.5023.18#
B1>0?0>724#E1.<4+>F+#8*2,01F#
I|gure 38: Most re|evant sources of know|edge for CCI SMLS
(5ootce. íotoklels 2009, 5ectotol íxpett poesuoooolte)
AlLhough mosL knowledge
a b o u L r e s e a r c h a n d
lnnovauon lnluauves mosLly
comes from Lhe lnLerneL, Lhe
lmporLance of neLworks, boLh
professlonal and personal, ls
far from lnslgnlñcanL (see llg.
39. below). 1he lnLerneL can
also be Lhe medlum for onllne
plauorms of exchange and
accounLs for an lmporLanL
source of knowledge. Soclal
medla Lools and open source
soûware are all elemenLs LhaL
e n c o u r a g e l n n o v a u v e
pr a c uc e s L hr oug h L he
exchange of lnformauon or
Lhrough collaborauve conLenL
creauon processes.
322
1he
need Lo l ncrease dl gl Lal
llLeracy Lo make use of dlglLal
opporLunlues ls essenual Lo
promoLe lnnovauon, Lhrough
meL hods s uc h as us er
SLL
SLL - Shar|ng Lxper|ence Lurope - Þo||cy, Innovanon &
Des|gn |s a network of e|even organ|sanons shar|ng
know|edge and exper|ence |n order to deve|op new
th|nk|ng, d|ssem|nate good pracnces and |nßuence |oca|,
reg|ona| and nanona| po||c|es for des|gn and |nnovanon |n
the|r countr|es.
(See 8esL Case 34)
I881
I881 |s an |ndependent research |nsntute created by the
I|em|sh government to monvate IC1 |nnovanon by
|ntegranng demand-dr|ven approaches. It p|aces great
emphas|s on engag|ng |n mu|n-d|sc|p||nary research
stud|es and |s spec|a||y focused on new med|a.
(See 8esL Case 33)
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 139
322
uk 1echnology SLraLegy 8oard, (2009), op. clL., p. 24.
paruclpauon. ulñerenL SLaLe lnluauves have been esLabllshed wlLh Lhe alm of lncreaslng Lhe Lake
up of lnnovauon wlLh Lhe use of Lhe dlglLal medla. 1he examples of SLL ln Lhe uk and l881 ln
llanders, 8elglum, are lllusLrauve (see 8esL Cases 34 and 33).
1he place of cusLomers and employees as a source of knowledge for research and lnnovauon
lnluauves ls noL yeL fully explolLed as can be seen from llg. 39. lncreaslng dlglLal llLeracy can
lmprove Lhe Lake up of Lhe poLenual LhaL Lhe dlglLal world has Lo oñer.
Ooesuoo. now Jo yoo ocpolte koowleJqe oboot teseotcb ooJ looovouoo loluouves ooJ
ptoqtommes teloteJ to yoot bosloess?
!" #!" $!" %!" &!" '!" (!"
)*+,-.*"/*0"12/0+20/"
)*+,-.*"3+,40551,267"20/8,+9"
)*+,-.*"30+5,267"20/8,+9"
)*+,-.*":0506+;*"62<"=22,>6?,2"
)*+,-.*"@-5/,A0+5"
)*+,-.*"BA37,C005"
D,/"+0E-1+0<"
I|gure 39: Ways to acqu|re know|edge about research and |nnovanon |n|nanves
(5ootce. íotoklels 2010, oolloe sotvey)
3.S.2.3. Access to networks
As noLed earller, neLworks can serve as a source of lnnovauon Lhrough Lhe exchange of besL
pracuces. 1he cross-exchange of knowledge, ldeas, pracuces beLween varlous acLors such as
academla, buslness and CCls can enhance lnnovauon poLenual.
323

Moreover, neLworks can serve as rellable source of lnformauon. 1he need Lo access knowledge ls
closely llnked Lo accesslng speclñc lnformauon ouL of Lhe vasL amounL of lnformauon avallable.
Powever, Lhe amounL of lnformauon avallable ls dlsproporuonaLe Lo Lhe ume CCl SMLs have Lo
acqulre Lhls knowledge. lllLerlng Lhe lnformauon Lhrough neLworks, and especlally Lhrough
lnformal evenLs such as 'peers and beers' ls essenual for CCl SMLs Lo exchange valuable knowledge
and lnformauon,
324
as can be seen ln llg. 39. above. (neLworklng and collaborauon are explored ln
greaLer deLall ln secuon 3.6 below).
3.S.2.4. kecogn|s|ng CCI SMLs as producers of know|edge
CCl SMLs are noL sumclenLly appreclaLed ln produclng new knowledge and adapung speclñc
knowledge Lransfer processes. Cn Lhe oLher hand, glven Lhelr lnherenL sLablllLy, larger companles
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 160
323
LC Creen Þaper, (Aprll 2010), op. clL., p. 11.
324
Clk1n, (2010) ÞrospecL for Clk1n, Šunlocklng knowledge 1ransfer: reporL 1/3 basellnes–, Clk1n 8eacon Þro[ecL •9, see hup://
creauvelndusLrleskLn.org/beacons, p. 9.
and unlverslues Lend Lo have well-esLabllshed llnks wlLh research supporL and fundlng
opporLunlues and are recognlsed as producers of knowledge. Clven Lhelr larger premlses,
professlonal sLañ, Lechnlcal resources and breadLh of skllls (lncludlng dedlcaLed legal, P8 and
ñnanclal experLs), Lhey Lend Lo seL Lhe research agenda whlle CCl SMLs have llule say and recelve
llule recognluon of Lhe research ouLcomes of Lhelr own processes.
Powever, for mosL CCl SMLs,
Lhe role of unlverslues ls
somewhaL llmlLed ln provldlng
knowl edge, Lhough good
examples llke 1ull ln llnland do
exlsL (see 8esL Case 36). Cn
Lhe oLher hand, communlues
of pracuce - professlonal
a s s oc l a uons a nd mor e
l nf or ma l g r oups - a r e
consldered an exLremely lmporLanL source of new ldeas. losLerlng a culLure of lnnovauon
Lhrough non-Lechnologlcal drlvers such as enLrepreneurshlp developmenL requlres more auenuon
belng pald Lo Lhe skllls gap presenL beLween large organlsauons and CCl SMLs. More recognluon for
Lhe role of Lhe Applled 8esearch secLor ln helplng Lo assess CCl SMLs ouLpuL ln Lerms of knowledge
producuon should be consldered.
1o enable SMLs Lo locaLe susLalnable paLhs Lo growLh, Lhey musL be able Lo Lap lnLo speclñc skllls
more-or-less as Lhey are requlred, or on-demand. Whlle several LC programmes have soughL Lo
beuer address Lhe needs of SMLs and lnclude SMLs ln research programmes, Lhese SMLs are
Lhemselves oûen unaware of Lhelr applled research needs and are unable coherenLly Lo express
Lhem. A medlaung lnLermedlary level ls clearly requlred Lo negouaLe beLween Lhe educauonal and
Lralnlng perspecuve and Lhe economlc perspecuve.
Such a layer could be provlded on a reglonal basls Lo supporL small scale, pracuce-orlenLed buslness
lnnovauon. ln Lhls respecL, Lhe 8eglonal Auenuon and Acuon for knowledge Clrculauon (8AAk)
programme ln Lhe neLherlands oñers some polnLers. 8AAk brlngs LogeLher unlverslues of Applled
Sclence and SMLs on a reglonal basls and a recenL evaluauon has shown LhaL a large number of
SMLs paruclpaLe ln 8AAk are noL auLomaucally lnvolved ln lnnovauon processes.
323
lor SMLs ln Lhe
CCls, such an approach would have Lhe added advanLage of sLrengLhenlng Lhe applled research
backbone of creauve clusLers and ln so dolng lncrease knowledge exchange.
1ULI
1u|| |s I|nn|sh nanon-w|de program that turns research
resu|ts |nto bus|ness |nnovanons. 1hey fund r|sky |deas |nto
product or serv|ces as we|| as prov|des |nformanon on
patent, |ega| aspects and market ana|yses for CCIs.
(See 8esL Case 36)
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 161
323
Suchung lnnovaue Alllanue, (2008), 8AAk 8eleldsevaluaue 2003-2008. See hup://www.lnnovaue-alllanue.nl/•ld˜379
WlLhln Lhe CCls, lnnovauve
fundlng approaches, whlch
engage more dlrecLly wlLh
lnnovauve, bouom-up, small-
scale creauve neLworks, are
llkely Lo be crlucal Lo fosLerlng
f uL ure L ransf or mauonal
r e s e a r c h l n L h e C C l s .
Comblned wlLh Lrends ln
dlglLal convergence, Lhese
l n n o v a u v e f u n d l n g
approaches look llkely Lo
s u p e r s e d e L r a d l u o n a l
approaches (see 3.6 below
and ulgl uemo, 8esL Case 37)). Þroduclng knowledge ls noL Lhe sole compeLence of academla or
research lnsuLuLes buL can also be found wlLhln CCl SMLs processes and neLworks. 8ecognlslng Lhls
enables pollcy makers Lo open up broader collaborauve schemes for Lhe exchange of lnnovauve
pracuces.
3.S.2.S. Invesnng |n |nnovanon
lrom Lhe experL quesuonnalre, publlc-prlvaLe parLnershlp was Lhe mosL relevanL measures Lo
fosLer lnnovauon pro[ecLs. lndeed, 26° of Lhe respondenLs agreed wlLh Lhls sLaLemenL (see llg. 40.
below).
ÞrlvaLe lnvesLmenLs ln lnnovauve CCls, such as a venLure caplLal or buslness angel frameworks, are
regarded as beneñclal for fosLerlng CCl lnnovauon. ÞrlvaLe lnvesLmenLs can provlde a cerLaln
ßexlblllLy and allow for experlmenLauon LhaL ls vlLal for CCl lnnovauve processes.
Ooesuoo. 5elect tbe tbtee most lmpottoot meosotes fot tbe ptomouoo of looovouoo
0¼ S¼ 10¼ 1S¼ 20¼ 2S¼ 30¼
Þub||c - Þr|vate Þartnersh|p (ex. Io|nt research.)
Cpen compennon
Þromonon of spec|hc techno|ogy |nfrastructure
Þromonng market-|ed |n|nanves
Þub||c procurement of research and |nnovanon
Las|er access to standard|zanon of |nnovanon
Cther
I|gure 40: Most |mportant measures for the promonon of |nnovanon
(5ootce. íotoklels 2009, loo íotopeoo expett poesuoooolte)
D|g| Demo
D|g| Demo |s a I|nn|sh governmenta| pro[ect that has as
the ma|n goa| to support the deve|opment of cu|tura||y
re|evant d|g|ta| creanve content, wh|ch enab|es compan|es
to a||ocate resources to deve|opment work. D|g|Demo
subs|d|es have been |mportant for preproducnon phase
deve|opment pro[ects, for wh|ch very ||u|e other fund|ng |s
ava||ab|e.
(See 8esL Case 37)
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 162
ln Lerms of publlc lnluauves, publlc procuremenL ls regarded as an unLapped mechanlsms Lo fosLer
lnnovauon
326
and markeL access Lo CCls, as descrlbed ln secuon 3.1 above
lnnovauon vouchers are also seen as anoLher publlc or seml-publlc fundlng scheme LhaL could
fosLer lnnovauon. nLS1A and kLA are currenLly underLaklng longlLudlnal research Lo quanufy Lhe
success of Lhls currenL approach used ln Lhelr plloL pro[ecL ln ManchesLer.
327
1hese vouchers are
used Lo encourage buslnesses Lo hlre creauves Lo Lrlgger lnnovauve mechanlsms ln Lhelr buslness
as 'soû' lnnovauon may noL yeL be avallable ln Lhelr value chaln. 1hls can help lncrease Lhe
lnnovauon capaclLy of Lhe non-creauve buslnesses and Lhe cross-secLoral dlmenslon.
328
lnnovauon
vouchers can also be provlded for CCls as a way Lo lncrease Lhelr lnvesLmenL on lnnovauon.
3.S.3. Þhases of support
CCls are consLanLly lnnovaung and adapung Lhelr producLs and servlces, lncreaslng Lhe dlverslLy of
Lhe producLs and servlces avallable, as well as adapung Lo Lhe envlronmenL and Lo demands of Lhe
user/consumers. Powever, ln Lerms of buslness sLraLegy, lL emerged from Lhe onllne survey (see
llg. 41. below) LhaL lnnovauon supporL ls consldered mosL lmporLanL durlng Lhe bulld-up phase of
Lhe CCls. Pavlng acqulred an lnlual ñrsL level of sLable, susLalnable exlsLence, Lhe novelLy of Lhe
beglnnlng ls changed lnLo adapLable behavlour, based on pracucal crlLerla and usablllLy. lnnovauon
supporL can sLrengLhen Lhe CCls Lo Lransform 'dlscovery' lnLo 'explolLauon'.
Ooesuoo. lo wblcb pbose of tbe llfe cycle ls looovouoo soppott
most lmpottoot fot yoot compooy?
!"# $"# %!"# %$"# &!"# &$"# '!"# '$"# (!"#
)*+,-#$.#/011-2314#
)*+,-#%.#)5-6+5714#8*-#45091:#
)*+,-#(.#;97<:#098#
)*+,-#&.#=8+58>96#
)*+,-#'.#;97<:>96#
I|gure 41: Most |mportant phase for |nnovanon support for CCI SMLs
(5ootce. íotoklels 2010, oolloe sotvey)
Accordlng Lo some respondenLs, Lhls phase corresponds Lo Lhe momenL when CCl SMLs are faced
wlLh Lhe cholce of growlng and/or susLalnlng Lhemselves aL Lhe same level. lnnovaung ln servlces,
producLs or sLraLeglc developmenL aL Lhls sLage can enable Lhe CCl Lo remaln compeuuve and
novel, as well as enabllng lL Lo dlscover new opporLunlues for growLh poLenual.
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 163
326
nauonal LndowmenL for Sclence, 1echnology and Lhe ArLs, (May 2010b), 8esearch 8eporL: CpporLunlues for lnnovauon Lhrough
local governmenL procuremenL- A case sLudy of CreaLer ManchesLer, London: nLS1A, p. 16.
327
lnLervlew nLS1A
328
lnLervlew wlLh Luropean 1hlnk 1ank
3.S.4. Leve|s of support
ln Lerms of levels of supporL, respondenLs from Lhe onllne survey lndlcaLed a sllghL preference for
lnnovauon supporL comlng from Lhe nauonal level, wlLh reglonal and Luropean level followlng
closely behlnd (see llg. 42. below).
Ooesuoo. At wbot levels Jo yoo see o oeeJ fot fottbet sumolouoo lo looovouoo fot ccl 5Mís?
!"# $"# %!"# %$"# &!"# &$"# '!"# '$"#
()*+,)-#-./.-#
012+3.),#-./.-#
4.56+,)-#-./.-#
7.89+2)-#+25),6:)*+,;)::+86)*+,#-./.-#
<+8)-;869=#-./.-#
>9?.2#
I|gure 42: Þreferred Leve|s for |nnovanon |nvestments for CCI SMLs
(5ootce. íotoklels 2010, oolloe sotvey)
nauonal servlces for lnnovauon such as lnnovauon vouchers or advlce cenLres and knowledge
neLworks, can provlde lmporLanL opporLunlues for oLher secLors Lo engage wlLh CCls or can fosLer
CCls Lo engage ln lnnovauon, lncreaslng Lhe lnnovauve poLenual ouLpuLs of CCls.
8eglonal supporL can represenL Lhe lnLermedlaLe level, llnklng knowledge neLworks, CCl SMLs,
applled research cenLres and oLher buslnesses. As CCl SMLs are noL necessarlly aware of Lhelr own
needs ln Lerms of applled research or lnnovauon, Lhe reglonal level can oñer small-scale and
pracuce-orlenLed clusLers LhaL oñer a greaL opporLunlLy Lo exchange knowledge and aL Lhe same
ume lncrease learnlng processes for SMLs. CCl SMLs musL be able Lo requlre lnnovauon supporL
more or less on-demand. As far as Lhe reglons are concerned, sLrucLural funds can be used Lo fund
lnnovauve, small-scale creauve neLworks LhaL wlll have slgnlñcanL lmpacL on lnnovauve ouLpuLs
from CCls and on oLher secLors.
1rlangulauon and lncreaslng Lhe level of exchange beLween research lnsuLuLes academlc and CCl
SMLs ls Lhus cruclal for enabllng greaLer collaborauon and fosLerlng new ldeas and lnnovauve
processes. ln Lhe onllne survey, lL emerged LhaL nauonal and reglonal levels were seen as mosL
adequaLe levels Lo sumulaLe parLnershlps. (see llg. 43. below).
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 164
Ooesuoo. At wblcb level Jo yoo see o oeeJ lo sumolouoq pottoetsblp betweeo ptlvote bosloess,
pobllc losutouoos ooJ ccl 5Mís?
!"# $"# %!"# %$"# &!"# &$"# '!"#
()*+,#
-+.)/,01#022/.304/5#1+6+1#
7/.018.3)9#1+6+1#
:04/501#
;<,/=+05#
>+?3/501#
I|gure 43: Þreferred |eve| to snmu|ate partnersh|p between pr|vate bus|ness, pub||c |nsntunons
and CCI SMLs
(5ootce. íotoklels 2010, oolloe sotvey)
uesplLe Lhe number of currenL lnnovauon programmes aL Lhe Luropean level, Lhe complexlLy of Lhe
procedures lnvolved means Lhey are noL necessarlly adequaLe for small enLerprlses such as CCl
SMLS LhaL may have llmlLed resources ln ume, money and knowledge. Powever, as noLed earller,
openlng up Lhe deñnluon of lnnovauon can open up opporLunlues for lnnovauon fundlng for Lhe
CCls.
3.6. C|usters and co||aboranon
ln order Lo lncrease Lhe capaclLy Lo experlmenL, Lo lnnovaLe, Lo grow as successful CC
enLrepreneurs wlLh Lhe rlghL skllls and sources of ñnance, Lhere ls a need Lo fosLer conduclve
envlronmenLs where CCls wlll prosper wlLh a cerLaln securlLy, freedom Lo experlmenL and wlLh
access Lo Lhe rlghL lnformauon and knowledge. ln Lhls regard, collaborauon and neLworklng ls a
key enabler Lo sLrengLhen CCls.
3.6.1. Co||aboranon and networks
As seen ln Lhe prevlous secuon, neLworklng was seen as an essenual aspecL for CCls Lo access and
exchange besL pracuces, exchange knowledge or Lo have a supporung scheme for collecuve
lnluauves: neLworks are Lhus seen as enablers of lnnovauon. ln Lhe experL quesuonnalre, 32° of
Lhe respondenLs noLed LhaL neLworklng opporLunlues were mosL relevanL for supporung Lhe
growLh of CCl SMLs.
As noLed, CCl SMLs have Lo comblne muluple Lasks such as produclng creauve ouLpuL,
admlnlsLrauve Lasks and gaLherlng lmporLanL lnformauon ln order Lo keep updaLed and so Lo sLay
compeuuve. 1hls requlres a conslderable amounL of ume. As a nLS1A sLudy demonsLraLed, small
ñrms Lend Lo be dlsadvanLaged ln Lerms of sourclng knowledge and Lhey use neLworks Lo overcome
Šlmperfecuons ln Lhe markeL of knowledge– as Lhe conñgurauon of a neLwork ln a ñrm aL an early
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 163
sLage wlll lnßuence Lhe company's performance.
329
Accordlng Lo nLS1A, 47° of Lhelr sLudy's
respondenLs found LhaL Lhls was slgnlñcanLly helpful for Lhelr lnnovauon poLenual.
330

Collaborauon and neLworks are Lhus essenual for CCl SMLs Lo survlve. ln Lhe sLudy's onllne
quesuonnalre, lL was seen LhaL half of Lhe respondenLs someumes collaboraLed wlLh oLher
enLerprlses ln Lhe same secLor, and slmllar resulLs were found for collaborauon wlLh oLher secLors
(see llg. 44. and llg. 43. below).
Ooesuoo. uoes yoot eotetptlse co-opetote wltb otbet eotetptlses lo tbe some sectot?
!"# $!"# %!"# &!"# '!"# (!"#
)*+,-+,.#
/0,1#
23456.#
7*8#6,8#
7,9,:#
;*1<8#=1*4#
I|gure 44: Co-operanon w|th other enterpr|ses |n the same sector
(5ootce. íotoklels 2010, oolloe sotvey)
Ooesuoo. uoes yoot eotetptlse co-opetote wltb otbet eotetptlses lo Jl[eteot sectots?
!"# $!"# %!"# &!"# '!"# (!"# )!"#
*+,-.#/,+0#
12324#
1+.#52.#
670859#
:;2,#
<+=2>=29#
I|gure 4S: Co-operanon w|th enterpr|ses |n a d|ñerent sector
(5ootce. íotoklels 2010, oolloe sotvey)
1hese neLworks are mosLly lnformal (33°) alLhough formal collaborauon ls also lmporLanL (40°)
accordlng Lo Lhe onllne survey.
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 166
329
nLS1A, (May 2010c), op. clL., p. 8.
330
nLS1A, (May 2010c), op. clL., p. 10.
3.6.1.1. Network types
8esearch has lndlcaLed LhaL clusLers are supporuve Lo CCls. lor example, Lhe 1hlrd AusLrlan 8eporL
on Creauve lndusLrles has, among oLher Lhlngs, examlned research on neLwork formauons ln Lhe
CCls (llg. 46.). 1hey found LhaL creauve lndusLrles are dynamlc, yeL noL enough embedded ln
neLworks. ln AusLrla, 60 ° of Lhe creauve enLrepreneurs elLher had no neLworks (slngles), or had
shorL relauonshlps LhaL were pro[ecL-drlven, hlerarchlcal, and hlghly lnnovauve wlLh a hlgh rlsk of
burnouL (spoL markeLs).
331

I|gure 46: 1ype of network
(5ootce. Netwotks lo tbe cteouve loJosttles lA5 2010 tettleveJ ftom cteouvwlttscbof
JJ2
1he AusLrlan sLudy recommends four dlñerenL areas where one could bulld neLworks ln Lhe CCls ln
order Lo lnLegraLe resources besL. 1hese are:

wlLhln creauve lndusLrles Lhemselves buL also ln oLher sub-secLors

wlLhln Lhe value chaln buL ouLslde creauve lndusLrles

ouLslde Lhe value chaln and ouLslde Lhe creauve lndusLrles

lnLernauonally vla exporL
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 167
331
Arge CreauvwlrLschaû AusLrla, (2010), op. clL., p.33
332
Arge CreauvwlrLschaû AusLrla, (2010), op. clL., p. 3.
Collaborauon and neLworks
can enable CCl SMLs Lo enLer
a pool of lnformauon ßows
LhaL allow Lhe company Lo
Lake advanLage of such
lnLeracuon. noL only can
neLworklng allow a greaLer
exchange of lnformauon and
ls key ln enabllng lnnovauve
processes, buL worklng ln a
collaborauve manner also
lmplles exchanglng pracucal lnformauon LhaL mlghL serve Lhe company, especlally Lhe sLarL-up LhaL
needs guldance ln admlnlsLrauve, ñnanclal and lnnovauon measures. Þlaclng CCl SMLs LogeLher
can enable Lhem Lo noL only beneñL from each oLher's resources, buL also pool Lhelr eñorLs for
worklng space, for accounung servlces and oLher requlred supporL for enLrepreneurshlp.
333
Cross-secLoral neLworks (beLween CCls and ouLslde Lhe CCl secLor) can also enable lnnovauve
pracuces, as was dlscussed earller ln Lhe framework of open lnnovauon (secuon 3.3.1), as well
provldlng vlslblllLy of Lhe CCl secLor Lo oLher secLors, as lllusLraLed ln Lhe example of lnserralves (see
8esL Case 38).
3.6.1.2. kecreanng growth through co||aboranve processes and us|ng soc|a|
med|a
Soclal medla can be used eñecuvely Lo lncrease collaborauon beLween CCls, nauonally and
lnLernauonally, wlLhln slmllar secLors and across secLors as seen ln Lhe prevlous secuon. 1he use of
Lhe lnLerneL has been lncreaslngly beneñclal ln Lerms of connecung people and engaglng
enLrepreneurs Lo showcase Lhelr producLs and ñnd a place where lnformauon ls accuraLe, up-Lo-
daLe and readlly avallable. 1he dlglLal shlû ls responslble for emergenL lnnovauve processes ln Lhe
CCls and as such has fosLered Lhe emergence of culLural and creauve enLrepreneurs by glvlng Lhe
opporLunlLy Lo access valuable lnformauon and neLworklng opporLunlues. 1he example of Lhe slLe
Mashable
334
ln Lhe uk glves concreLe lnformauon for CCls Lo collecL and exchange lnformauon on
soclal and dlglLal medla, glvlng a boosL Lo Lhelr enLrepreneurlal acuvlues aL Lhe same ume.
1here ls now a conßauon of producer and consumer. As seen ln Lhe prevlous secuon, Lhe secLors
are adapung Lhelr processes Lo lnLegraLe Lhese changes. Powever, CCls' concerns are noL
necessarlly undersLood by academla and oLher dlsclpllnes as Lhelr processes, such as creauve
deslgn processes, are someumes noL expllclL and are based on applled meLhods. 1here has been a
blendlng of Lradluonal concerns beLween academla and CCls where Lhe lauer are now also
produclng knowledge and experlence. knowledge can lead Lo experlence buL ln Lhe case of creauve
processes, experlence also leads Lo new knowledge.
CCls are hlghly dynamlc ln adapung Lo Lhe changes due Lo Lhe mulupllclLy of knowledge resources.
1hrough Lhelr adapLauon Lo Lhls changlng envlronmenL, CCls merge Lhe creauon of 'experlence'
wlLh Lhe acL of produclng knowledge. 8y adapung Lhelr worklng processes, deslgnlng new servlces
and producLs ln adapLauon Lo Lhe envlronmenL, CCls develop and produce lnsLrumenLs, such as
creauve deslgn Lools, LhaL can be lnLuluvely used by deslgners whlle aL Lhe same ume can provlde
Inserra|ves
Inserra|ves Incubator |s a reg|ona| Þortuguese pro[ect
suppornng entrepreneur|a| |n|nanves |n the creanve
|ndustr|es. 1h|s |ncubator a|ms at br|dg|ng the we|| known
gaps between creanve peop|e and arnsts, and the bus|ness
wor|d, by prov|d|ng adequate env|ronment and cond|nons.
(See 8esL Case 38)
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 168
333
Arge CreauvwlrLschaû AusLrla, (2010), op. clL., p. 3.
334
See hup://mashable.com
for well-sLrucLured daLa for observers. 1he use of collaborauve processes found ln mulu-dlsclpllnary
envlronmenLs where CCls, academla and prlvaLe secLors work wlLhln a dynamlc framework where
producLs and processes can be consLanLly evaluaLed and can beneñL from supporL (research as well
as ñnanclal) from Lhe enuues parL of Lhe framework, ls clearly Lo be encouraged. 1hls can enable
Lhe CCl enLrepreneur Lo beneñL from Lralnlng and learnlng processes as parL of Lhe lnLeracuon wlLh
Lhe oLher sLakeholders, as well as from exLernal knowledge LhaL ls cruclal for lnnovauon.
333

Assoclaung venLure caplLal
s L r a L e g l e s w l L h s u c h
collaborauve processes can
secure a reLurn on lnvesLmenL
for Lhe funders as well as
securlng funds for Lhe CCl
SMLs and enLrepreneurs. 1he
ldea of clusLers and lncubaLors
l s L o provl de emergenL
locauons Lo allow for such
c o n v e r g e n c e b e L we e n
dlñerenL sLakeholders allowlng
Lhe creauve processes as well as sLrengLhenlng enLrepreneurlal opporLunlues. A good lllusLrauon ls
Lhe uuLch game Carden (see 8esL Case 39).
3.6.1.3. C|uster|ng Strateg|es
lncubaLors and clusLers are ways Lo faclllLaLe Lhe neLworklng and collaborauon of several
buslnesses. As sLaLed ln Lhe Creen Þaper, Lhe lnLeracuon beLween prlvaLe secLor, CCl SMLs and
hlgher educauonal lnsuLuuons musL be encouraged Lo allow for cross-over learnlng processes and
experlmenLauon.
336
MosL of Lhe lnLervlewees agreed LhaL collaborauve clusLers need Lo be encouraged as Lhey enable
people wlLh dlñerenL seLs of skllls Lo work LogeLher and creaLe new ldeas. 8egardlng growLh, CCl
SMLs need Lo expand Lhelr neLworks wlLhln Lhelr secLor and across secLors, especlally lf such
neLworks can be more helpful Lhan Lralnlng programmes. 1he lmporLance of learnlng processes ln
such collaborauve envlronmenLs ls especlally appeallng for CCl SMLs.
ln Lhe LC Communlcauon '1owards World-Class ClusLers ln Lhe Luropean unlon: lmplemenung a
8road-8ased lnnovauon SLraLegy', Lhe place of SMLs ln clusLers was encouraged for Lhe ßexlble and
lnnovauve poLenual as well as belng beneñclal for Lhe lnLernauonallsauon of Lhe SMLs and
encouraglng enLrepreneurshlp by provldlng beuer framework condluons.
337
1he Lu has been placlng serlous eñorLs ln promoung clusLers ln Lurope as a way Lo supporL
lnnovauon and enLrepreneurshlp. 1he new SLaLe ald lramework for 8esearch, uevelopmenL and
lnnovauon should help Member SLaLes Lo LargeL Lhelr exlsung supporL budgeL Lo promoLe
lnnovauve clusLers, hlghllghung Lhe need Lo form a funcuonlng lnLernal markeL for enhanclng co-
operauon.
338
1he Luropean lnnCvA lnluauve under Lhe ClÞ (Compeuuon and lnnovauon
Dutch Game Garden
Dutch Game Garden has the v|s|on of |nsp|r|ng, |nnovanng,
snmu|anng and connecnng the Dutch game Industry |n the
Nether|ands and, |f poss|b|e, |nternanona||y. 1he|r
approach to network|ng a|ms at ma|nta|n|ng forma|
re|anonsh|ps |n |nforma| way and the|r methods are h|gh|y
cross-sectora|.
(See 8esL Case 39)
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 169
333
nLS1A, (May 2010), op. clL., p. 8.
336
LC Creen Þaper, (Aprll 2010), op. clL., p. 9.
337
Luropean Commlsslon Communlcauon, (november 2008), op. clL., p. 4.
338
lbld., p. 3.
Þrogramme) focuses on Lhe use of [olnL developmenL programmes LhaL llnk clusLers by glvlng Lhem
buslness supporL servlces.
339

Lurope could also sumulaLe clusLers Lo work LogeLher and Lo place conslderable vlslblllLy on Lhe
Luropean ClusLers so LhaL Lhey can galn an lnLernauonal repuLauon.
1he forLhcomlng lnluauve of Lhe Luropean Creauve lndusLrles Alllance (LClA) promoLed by Lhe
Luropean Commlsslon and whlch was announced ln Lhe AmsLerdam ueclarauon ln lebruary
2010,
340
goes along Lhe same llne of focuslng on Laklng beuer advanLage of Lhe lnnovauve poLenual
of Lhe creauve lndusLrles wlLh oLher lndusLrles wlLh a vlew Lo faclllLaung broader creauvlLy and
lnnovauon.
Powever, Lhere was an overall agreemenL LhaL neLworks should occur organlcally and from Lhe
bouom up raLher Lhan belng lmposed on Lhe dlñerenL CCl secLors. 1hls ls also ln llne wlLh Lhe
concepL of •smarL speclallsauon• as developed ln Lhe recenL LC Communlcauon •8eglonal Þollcy
conLrlbuung Lo smarL growLh ln Lurope 2020•.
341
Cne can aruñclally creaLe clusLers vla lnvesung ln
lnfrasLrucLure and Largeung a reglon geographlcally. 1he prollferauon of deslgnaLed creauve places
ln recenL years ls Lesumony Lo pollcy pracuuoners' bellef LhaL regardless of local condluons Lhey
can also moblllse creauvlLy and Lransform Lhelr economles and communlues (such as Creauve
1oronLo, Creauve Shemeld, Creauve new •ork and CreaLe 8erlln).
342

A good example ls Lhe Cl1lLS
neLwork (see 8esL Case 40).
1hls ls an Lu led lnluauve
e nc our a g l ng munl c l pa l
neLworks Lo fosLer pollcles ln
supporL of CCls. Powever, Lhe
model ln one clLy may noL
work elsewhere, and Lhe
reglonal eñorLs Lo revlve a clLy
may be counLeracLed.
1he adopuon of a clusLer approach alms aL easlng Lhe lnLeracuon beLween exlsung and poLenual
enLerprlses, posslble culLural consumpuon and lncreases Lhe poLenual of Lrlangulauon as sLaLed ln
Lhe Creen Þaper. An example of where Lhese elemenLs have been successful can be seen ln places
where hlgher educauon ls presenL ln creauve buslness lncubaLors. Plgher educauon can be seen ln
Lhe form of unlverslLy, vocauonal and Lechnlcal Lralnlng hubs, educauon and Lralnlng faclllues, 8&u,
lncubauon/sLarL-up companles, and consumer educauon ln LasLes and Lrends. lnnovauon was
closely relaLed Lo 8&u hlgher educauon lndusLry hubs. 1he case of Lhe 8aden-WŒruemberg lllm
CI1ILS
C|nes |s a Þan Luropean network that a|ms to |mprove
reg|ona| and |oca| po||c|es through |nterreg|ona| co-
operanon, address|ng the promonon and support of
creanve and cu|tura| |ndustr|es. It prov|des network
throughout Lurope and snmu|ates the exchange of pracnce
(See 8esL Case 40)
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 170
339
See hup://www.europe-lnnova.eu/web/guesL,[sesslonld˜776648982l47989389C93603u713A0ul
340
AmsLerdam ueclarauon, (March 2010), see hup://83.92.129.90/œworkshop/
341
LC Communlcauon •8eglonal Þollcy conLrlbuung Lo smarL growLh ln Lurope 2020•, (CcLober 2010), - CCM(2010) 333
342
loord, !., (2008), op. clL.
Academy ln Cermany ls Lelllng
of how Lhe locauon of a hlgher
lnsuLuuon can auracL buslness
(such as medla buslness, vlsual
eñecLs, dlglLal posL-producuon
buslnesses) around a secLoral
clusLer and auracL world
vlslblllLy.
343
1he sLudenLs Lhen
Lake Lhe opporLunlLy Lo Lake
ñrsL sLeps l n supporuve
envlronmenL.
344
ln lrance, Cap
ulglLal provldes such anoLher approach for Þarls (see 8esL Case 41).
1hls approach ls noL yeL vlslble ln all of Lurope. AlLhough some vlrLuous emerglng economy
counLrles have been able Lo successfully esLabllsh creauve lncubaLors, some oLher counLrles'
sysLem ls sull based on hlghly cenLrallsed sysLems whlch may lmpede Lhe esLabllshmenL of reglonal
clusLers
343
. 1he experL quesuonnalre clLed Lhe weak publlc ñnanclal supporL (83°) as Lhe maln
barrlers for Lhe emergence of a world class clusLer ln Lurope, as well as a dlmculL access Lo prlvaLe
fundlng (77.8°). Some clLed an excess of omclal regulauons and Lhe lack of an lnLernauonal show-
case as belng barrlers for Lhe emergence of a global clusLer ln Lurope.
As a soluuon Lo Lhls, mosL respondenLs clLed Lhe need Lo creaLe condluons for growLh of SMLs and
freelancers (70°) ln order Lo promoLe Lhe emergence of world renown clusLers ln Lurope as well as
creaLe condluons for self-organlslng lnnovauon (60°) and lncrease Lhe coheslon beLween Lhe
dlñerenL level of auLhorlues ln Lhe Lu (47°). Collaborauve clusLers operaLe well aL a pro[ecL level,
buL Lhey need Lo be able Lo represenL Lhemselves aL a pollucal level as well, ln Lhe long Lerm, ln
order Lo be able Lo volce Lhelr concerns.
3.6.2. Þhases for suppornng networks and c|usters towards entrepreneursh|p
1he use of neLworks ls one of Lhe pre-requlslLes when sLarung a culLural and creauve
enLrepreneurlal acuvlLy. Creauve clusLers have soclal as well as enLerprlse ob[ecuves - goals of
lncluslon, culLural developmenL, as well as enLerprlse growLh.
CAÞ DIGI1AL
Cap D|g|ta| |s a Irench bus|ness c|uster for d|g|ta| content
and serv|ces |n the Þar|s|an reg|on. Cap D|g|ta| prov|des
members w|th essenna| |nformanon, networks, and
resources. 1hese |nc|ude ongo|ng compennve |nte|||gence,
tra|n|ng, partnersh|ps, fund|ng so|unons, and pro[ect
rev|ews.
(See 8esL Case 41)
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 171
343
lnLervlew wlLh Luropean SecLoral LxperL, hup://www.ñlmakademle.de
344
kLA, (leb 2010a), op. clL., p. 11.
343
lnLervlew wlLh nauonal MlnlsLry of CulLure and Lducauon ln lagglng behlnd emerglng economy
Ooesuoo. wbete JlJ yoo qet oJvlce ooJ soppott wbeo stotuoq yoot compooy lo tbe coltotol ooJ
cteouve sectot?
Item ¼
1hrough personal neLworks 68.1
1hrough my secLoral organlsauon/assoclauon 17.7
AL Lhe reglonal level 17.2
AL Lhe munlclpal level 14.7
AL Lhe nauonal level 11.2
AL Lhe Luropean level 4.7
1ab|e 11: Ways to get adv|ce and support when starnng a CCI company
(5ootce. íotoklels 2010, oolloe sotvey)
1he enLrepreneur needs Lo be well surrounded and Lhe ldea of an lncubaLor, oñerlng access Lo
knowledge, ñnance and research as well as Lo Lhe markeL from Lhe neLwork, can be supporuve
from Lhe very beglnnlng. 1argeung neLworklng acuvlues ln Lhe beglnnlng of Lhe acuvlLy can
conLrlbuLe Lo Lhe enLrepreneur's learnlng process. As mosL of Lhe lnformauon and supporL are
glven wlLhln personal neLworks, promoung speclñc advlce for culLural and creauve enLrepreneurs
and maLchlng Lhem wlLh oLher buslnesses can conLrlbuLe Lo sLrengLhenlng Lhelr posluon. ln Lhe
onllne quesuonnalre, such Lypes of advlce cenLres speclñc Lo CCls were regarded as hlghly needed
(83°) (see llg. 47. below).
Ooesuoo. uo yoo see o oeeJ fot tbe Jevelopmeot of oJvlce ooJ soppott ceottes speclfcolly fot tbe
cteouve ooJ coltotol loJosttles?
I|gure 47: Need for deve|opment of adv|ce and support centre spec|hc for CCI (5ootce. íotoklels
2010, oolloe sotvey)
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 172
ln Lerms of clusLers, one sLrlklng resulL was LhaL Lhey remaln largely unknown Lo Lhe CCls. lndeed,
20° do noL know of Lhese lnluauves whlle a quarLer of Lhe onllne survey respondenLs work ln a
creauve clusLer lnluauve/lncubaLor. 47° of Lhe respondenLs saw a need Lo develop such
collaborauve buslness envlronmenL lnluauves (see llg. 48.).
Ooesuoo. uoes yoot eotetptlse wotk wltblo o collobotouve bosloess eovltoomeot socb os o cteouve
clostet loluouve ot oo locobotot?
!"# $"# %!"# %$"# &!"# &$"# '!"#
()*)+#,)-+.#/0#
(/1#2)1#
(/#
3)4#
I|gure 48: Use of co||aboranve bus|ness env|ronment (c|uster or |ncubator) w|th|n CCIs
(5ootce. íotoklels 2010, oolloe sotvey)
AlLhough CCl enLrepreneurs need an exlsung neLwork of relauon Lo sLarL up Lhelr company, lL
emerged from Lhe sLudy LhaL CCls saw collaborauve buslness envlronmenL such as a clusLer as mosL
useful ln Lhe laLer sLage of Lhe llfe cycle (see llg. 49). lrom Lhe lnLervlews, Lhe phases of Lhe
enLrepreneurlal cycle LhaL needed mosL auenuon were boLh Lhe sLarung-up as well as ln Lhe bulld-
up and bulld-ouL phases where Lhe CCl enLerprlse ls sLarung Lo plck up cllenLs and where Lhe
clusLer can serve as a faclllLauon Lo access a broader markeL.
Ooesuoo. lo wblcb pbose of tbe llfe cycle ls tbls collobotouve
bosloess eovltoomeot most osefol?
!"# $"# %!"# %$"# &!"# &$"# '!"# '$"# (!"#
)*+,-#%.#)/-0+/123#4*-#3/5627#
)*+,-#$.#8522-9:23#
)*+,-#&.#;4+/4<60#
)*+,-#(.#=61>7#564#
)*+,-#'.#=61>7<60#
I|gure 49: Þreferred phase for co||aboranve bus|ness env|ronment
(5ootce. íotoklels 2010, oolloe sotvey)
As noLed, clusLers and neLworks can fosLer poollng of resources of Lhe dlñerenL companles and can
also supporL small slzed CCl SMLs Lo beneñL from Lhese resources LhaL could noL necessarlly have
been avallable ln a non-collaborauve envlronmenL. ln Lhls case, clusLerlng CCl SMLs wlLh oLher
larger organlsauons can serve as a wln-wln soluuon, for CCl SMLS can acL as rlsk Lakers whlle also
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 173
beneñung from Lhe supporL of larger organlsauons Lo enLer Lhe markeL. 1he LC Communlcauon
'1owards World- Class ClusLers ln Lhe Luropean unlon: lmplemenung a 8road-8ased lnnovauon
SLraLegy' descrlbed Lhe recenL progress made ln Lhls area as Lhe Lu recognlsed Lhe lmporLance of
SMLs and encouraged Lhe faclllLauon of SMLs ln cross-secLoral clusLers.
346
1he use of cross-secLoral
plauorms beLween CCls and oLher secLors of Lhe economy was largely supporLed by Lhe onllne
survey's respondenLs (see llg. 30. below).
Ooesuoo. uo yoo see tbe oeeJ fot locteoseJ oppottoolues fot
ctoss-sectotol 5Mí co-opetouoo?
!"# $!"# %!"# &!"# '!"# (!"# )!"#
*+,#-./0-1#2,#211#
*+,#3/45#-./0-1#
*+#+6787+8#
9/45#-./0-1#
:./0-1#
I|gure S0: Need for cross-sectora| SML co-operanon
(5ootce. íotoklels 2010, oolloe sotvey)
3.6.3. Leve|s of support
ulñerenL levels of supporL exlsL ln Lerms of developlng a conduclve envlronmenL as well as
advanclng personal and professlonal neLworks LhaL can boosL Lhe enLrepreneurlal acuvlLy. Several
clues have adverused Lhemselves as creauve ln order Lo auracL more CCls. 1hey make Lhe
envlronmenL more auracuve Lo oLher employers and can auracL subsLanual Lourlsm as well as new
culLural lnluauves.
347
Powever, ln Lerms of provldlng Lhe mosL approprlaLe Lype of supporL for collaborauve processes,
mosL of Lhe respondenLs ln Lhe onllne survey hlghllghLed Lhe reglonal level as well as Lhe Luropean
and nauonal ones as mosL approprlaLe (see llg. 31. below).
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 174
346
LC Communlcauon, (november 2008), 1owards World- Class ClusLers ln Lhe Luropean unlon: lmplemenung a 8road-8ased
lnnovauon SLraLegy, SLC (2008) 2637
347
lnLervlew conducLed wlLh a MlnlsLry of CulLure from a knowledge Lconomy
Ooesuoo. At wbot level woolJ yoo see tbe Jevelopmeot of
collobotouve bosloess eovltoomeot loluouve boppeoloq?
!"# $"# %!"# %$"# &!"# &$"# '!"#
()*+,#
-+.)/,01#022/.304/5#1+6+1#
7/.018.3)9#1+6+1#
:04/501#
;<,/=+05#
>+?3/501#
I|gure S1: Þreferred |eve| for deve|op|ng co||aboranve bus|ness env|ronment |n|nanves
(5ootce. íotoklels 2010, oolloe sotvey)
1he reglonal level can acL as an lnLermedlary beLween Lhe nauonal and Lhe Luropean level
fosLerlng maLchlng CCls wlLh oLher buslnesses as well as faclllLaung clusLerlng aL a reglonal level.
CerLaln respondenLs hlghllghLed Lhe role of clusLers wlLhln Lhe reglon as a sumclenL way Lo supporL
CCls. 1hls emphasls on Lhe role of Lhe reglons was also supporLed by Lhe AmsLerdam declarauon
LhaL 'lnvlLed Lhe reglons Lo promoLe a favourable eco-sysLem' for Lhe CCl SMLs.
348

Slmllarly, Lhe reglon ls also seen as a Lool Lo reach ouL Lo oLher reglons ln order Lo lncrease cross-
reglonal lnluauves of llnklng up neLworks. 84° of Lhe onllne survey's respondenLs agreed for an
lncrease ln cross-reglonal co-operauon as a way Lo supporL Lhe growLh of CCl SMLs (see llg. 32).
Ooesuoo. uo yoo see tbe oeeJ fot locteoseJ oppottoolues fot ctoss-teqloool
co-opetouoo to belp tbe qtowtb of ccl 5Mís?
!"# $!"# %!"# &!"# '!"# (!"# )!"#
*+,-./#
0,12#.+,-./#
34#4567647#
348#9,12#.+,-./#
348#.+,-./#:8#://#
I|gure S2: Need for an |ncrease |n cross-reg|ona| co-operanon
to |mprove growth of CCI SMLs
(5ootce. íotoklels 2010, oolloe sotvey)
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 173
348
AmsLerdam ueclarauon,(2010), see hup://83.92.129.90/œworkshop/
1he SLrucLural lunds are ln Lhls way a source of fundlng LhaL can be speclñcally used Lo supporL
CCls Lhrough Lhe semng up of neLworks or collaborauve plauorms. Powever, Lhe general
framework can be lnluaLed by Lhe nauonal governmenL or aL Lhe Luropean level.
1he nauonal supporL can Lake advanLage of lLs more dlsLanL posluonlng from CCls Lo sLeer and co-
ordlnaLe dlñerenL buslness clusLers. 1he experL quesuonnalres revealed LhaL 70° of Lhe
respondenLs clLed Lhe need Lo creaLe condluons for Lhe growLh of SMLs and freelancers ln order Lo
promoLe Lhe emergence of world class clusLers and ln so dolng, Lo lncrease Lhe condluons for self-
organlslng lnnovauon and Lo promoLe enLrepreneurshlp. As Lhe nauonal level ls usually compeLenL
ln Lerms of regulaLory measures, Lhe nauonal level can acL as Lhe lndlrecL supporL Lo clusLer
developmenL.
Supporung neLworks and clusLers aL Lhe Lu level was also underllned. 1he lmporLance of a Lu
collaborauve level has already been menuoned (see secuon 3.6.1 lmporLance of clusLers and
collaborauon). 1he wlsh of Lhe respondenLs ln Lhe lnLervlews was clearly sLaung LhaL Lhe Luropean
level could help as a general faclllLaLor and as an overall llnk Lo all reglonal clusLers/neLworks,
enabllng a Luropean lnLegrauon of Lhe CC supporL also ln vlew of sLrengLhenlng Lhe Luropean
creauve economy.
1he lmporLance of bouom-up approaches, based on a more local level, ls noL undermlned when
underllnlng Lhe added usefulness of a Luropean vlslon buL raLher complemenLs lL. 1he Luropean
level can faclllLaLe dlalogue and open neLworks Lo blgger markeLs of local lnluauves. ln Lhls regard,
Lhe Luropean vlslon acLs as a faclllLaLor for CCl and CC clusLer Lo grow.
ln Lerms of secLoral supporL, Lhere are many who ñnd a secLoral approach useful ln Lerms of Lallor-
made supporL sysLems and lnformauon whlch can be dlñerenL for Lhose worklng for example ln Lhe
arLs versus more commerclal secLors such as ñlm or deslgn.
3.7. Conc|ud|ng remarks
ln Lhls chapLer Lhe slx 'deLermlnanLs of enLrepreneurshlp' speclñc Lo CCls and whlch encompass Lhe
overall surroundlng envlronmenL for Lhe enLrepreneurlal acuvlLy of Lhe culLural and creauve
lndusLrles were consldered. 1hese lssues were examlned from Lhe perspecuve of Lhe
enLrepreneurlal llfecycle Lo assess Lhe besL ways Lo enable more conduclve envlronmenLs LhaL can
provlde a susLalnable exlsLence or reallsuc paLh Lo growLh for CCl enLerprlses, especlally SMLs.
More Lhan [usL separaLe lssues, Lhese slx deLermlnanLs are Lo be seen ln sysLems LhaL are lnherenL
Lo nauonal conLexLs and whlch already have speclñc culLural Lradluons LhaL wlll shape Lhe dlrecuon
of Lhe supporL, acknowledglng Lhe value of CCls and supporung Lhelr needs.
Moreover, Lhe lssues have Lo be consldered ln Lhelr LoLallLy, acuon on a slngle polnL wlll advance
Lhe needs of CCls buL Lhe overall conduclve envlronmenL wlll only be creaLed Lhrough Lhe
lnLegrauon of a mulu-layered approach. 1he followlng chapLer oñers some recommendauons on
how Lhls mlghL be achleved.
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 176
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 177
chapLer four: recommendauons
chapLer four: recommendauons
4.1. 1ransversa| recommendanons
1he recenL Lurope 2020 SLraLegy reporL from Lhe Luropean Commlsslon lald down Lhe prlorlues for
enabllng a compeuuve and lnnovauve Lurope and placed conslderable lmporLance on Lhe need Lo
use Lurope's creauvlLy and lnnovauon Lo Lackle Lomorrow's challenges. 1he conLrlbuuon of culLural
and creauve lndusLrles (CCls) Lo Lhls SLraLegy has been relLeraLed by Lhe Creen Þaper •unlocklng
Lhe poLenual of CCls• and by numerous sLudles.
349
1he ßagshlp lnluauves announced ln Lhls
SLraLegy, especlally Lhose concernlng Lhe lnnovauon unlon, a ulglLal Agenda and an lndusLrlal
Þollcy for Lhe Cloballsauon Lra and SMLs, are of parucular relevance for CCls. 1he recenL
Communlcauon •8eglonal Þollcy conLrlbuung Lo smarL growLh• hlghllghLs Lhe poLenual of CCls for
reglonal and local developmenL. 1he eñorLs LhaL have been underway ln lndlvldual Member SLaLes
also lllusLraLe Lhese auempLs Lo caLalyse supporL for CCls.
CulLural and creauve enLrepreneurs are cenLral Lo Lurope's creauve poLenual for drlvlng lnnovauve
processes lnLo reallLy. 'CulLure-based creauvlLy' has Lhe poLenual Lo have posluve cross-over eñecLs
ln Lhe wlder economy and socleLy ln general. 1hls creauvlLy can acL as a drlver of non-Lechnologlcal
lnnovauon lf Lhe rlghL enablers are puL ln place Lo develop a conduclve envlronmenL for Lhe
enLrepreneurlal acuvlLy of Lhe CCls. Creaung sulLable envlronmenLs ln whlch lndlvlduals can make
use of Lhelr creauve poLenual by supporung Lhelr enLrepreneurlal skllls can fosLer non-
Lechnologlcal lnnovauon, as well as enrlch Luropean culLural dlverslLy. 8ecognlslng Lhe
enLrepreneurlal dlmenslon of CCls as a drlver of non-Lechnologlcal lnnovauon and recognlslng Lhe
value of Lhelr lnLanglble asseLs are ñrsL sLeps Lo shape Lhls envlronmenL.
Several general recommendauons can be drawn:
1. ln order beuer Lo LargeL Lhe requlremenLs of CCls, more data and stansncs are needed
for the cu|tura| and creanve |ndustr|es, and espec|a||y for each |nd|v|dua| sector. 8ased
on Lhe currenL muluple daLa gaLherlng processes on Lhe CCls, Lhls could be co-ordlnaLed aL
the Luropean |eve| and data concern|ng CCIs centra||sed and d|ssem|nated at d|ñerent
po||cy |eve|s to he|p construct a matr|x of po||cy opnons that can be cons|dered |n ||ne
w|th the pr|or|nes of po||cy makers |n Member States.
2. As seen from counLrles LhaL have advanced supporL mechanlsms for CCls and dellver
sLrong lnnovauon resulLs, the co-ord|nanon of severa| M|n|str|es for the po||cy
formu|anon of CCI support mechan|sms can serve to target the eñorts and enab|e
greater coherence. As Lhe CCls are cross-dlsclpllnary and address boLh culLural and
economlc facLors, the co||aboranon between M|n|str|es, espec|a||y the M|n|stry of
Cu|ture and the M|n|stry of Lconom|c Aña|rs, shou|d be encouraged and co-ord|nanon
and coherence of mu|n |ayered po||c|es shou|d be re|nforced to ach|eve emc|ent
suppornng schemes. Slmllarly, supporL provlded by ñnanclal (and non-ñnanclal)
lnLermedlarles should be beuer co-ordlnaLed for an lncreased emclency ln supporL
provlslon.
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 178
349
See ln parucular, kLA (2006), 1he Lconomy of CulLure ln Lurope, kLA Luropean Añalrs, 8russels and kLA (2009), kLA, (2009), 1he
lmpacL of CulLure on CreauvlLy, kLA Luropean Añalrs, 8russels, uk 1echnology SLraLegy 8oard,(2009), urlvlng lnnovauon: Creauve
lndusLrles 1echnology SLraLegy 2009-2012, London: uk 1echnology SLraLegy
CCl SMLs have dlñerenL needs aL dlñerenL umes and operaLe ln a conLexL LhaL requlres several
levels of declslon maklng. Supporung Lhese enLerprlses requlres a mulu-layered approach where
lnnovauon supporL can ln Lurn be complemenLed wlLh ñnanclal and markeL supporL. CreaLer
recognluon of Lhe characLerlsucs of CCls ln dlñerenL pollcles and aL dlñerenL levels can supporL
such mulu-layered approaches. 1hls requlres pollcy-makers Lo conslder Lhe dlñerenL sLages of Lhe
enLrepreneurlal llfecycle and Lhe assoclaLed needs of Lhe CCls, parucularly mlcro-SMLs. As Lhese
mlcro-SMLs have few resources Lo look Lhrough muluple sources of lnformauon, Lhey need Lo be
able Lo have speclñc supporL when requlred. Support on demand shou|d therefore be preferred
to genera| approaches.
3. Sumulauon pollcles are needed, aL reglonal, nauonal and Luropean levels, ln order fully
Lo address Lhe speclñc requlremenLs of Lhe CCls. A|| |eve|s of po||cy governance shou|d
p|ay a ro|e |n acknow|edg|ng the contr|bunon of CCIs to the new economy and ln
ensurlng a level playlng ñeld for Lhe CCls. ln general:
3a) Nanona| bod|es shape the regu|atory framework ln whlch CCls work.
1axauon remalns one of Lhe mosL lmporLanL regulaLory facLors for CCls - especlally
mlcro-SMLs - Lo encourage Lhelr enLry lnLo Lhe markeL. 1ax exempnons for CCI
products or serv|ces could encourage Lhe producuon and dlsLrlbuuon of CCl
producLs and servlces and sumulaLe growLh across many secLors. Slmllarly, Lhe
moblllLy of arusLs could be encouraged by fac|||tanng the regu|atory procedures
for cross border |n|nanves. AgreemenL on lssues such as double Laxauon
beLween counLrles can help culLural and creauve enLrepreneurs and promoLe
Lhelr moblllLy.
3b) 8eglons are closer Lo CCl needs and can respond Lo Lhelr needs raLher qulckly.
As CCIs prefer to have c|ose |nteracnon and support on demand, reg|ons cou|d
act as |ntermed|ar|es between the CCIs and other po||cy |eve|s such as the
nanona| or the Luropean. keg|ons can encourage reg|ona| c|usters and sectora|
networks to be p|auorms of |nnovanon, encouraglng CCl SMLs Lo be lnLegraLed
wlLhln clusLers. keg|ons can use ex|snng Structura| Iunds to target CCIs fund|ng.
3c) 1he Lu should encourage exlsung and fuLure framework programmes for
8esearch and 1echnologlcal uevelopmenL (lÞ7, lÞ8) or Lhe Compeuuveness and
lnnovauon Þrogramme (ClÞ), as well as Lhe Coheslon Þollcy, to be more targeted
towards CCIs |nter a||a by |nc|ud|ng non techno|og|ca| |nnovanon pro[ects and
|ncorporanng CCI SMLS (and not on|y those |n the IC1 sector). lL should also
lncrease Lhe vlslblllLy of ongolng acuvlues aL reglonal and nauonal levels and
encourage greaLer neLworklng.
ln order Lo supporL Lhe CCls more concrete|y, several recommendauons can be made ln vlew of Lhe
Lhemauc ouLcomes from Lhe sLudy, such as supporung CCls by locaung ñnance, accesslng Lhe
markeL, supporung enLrepreneurshlp Lralnlng ln Lhe CCls, supporung Lhe lnnovauve poLenual of
CCls and enabllng a conduclve envlronmenL for CCls Lo ßourlsh.
4.2. Access|ng hnance
Lack of ñnance ls a recurrenL lssue for CCls and especlally for mlcro-SMLs. Þrovlslon of ñnance
should respond to the d|ñerent phases of the entrepreneur|a| ||fe cyc|e accord|ng to the needs of
the CCI SMLs, provldlng for ñnanclal posslblllues ln Lhe sLarL up phase, provldlng rlsk (debL)
ñnanclng ln order Lo Lrlgger experlmenLauon and lnnovauon, oñerlng growLh ñnance Lhrough bank
loan guaranLees ln order Lo promoLe corporaLe fundlng raLher Lhan fundlng on a pro[ecL-basls, and
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 179
provldlng venLure caplLal funds Lo enable growLh. ln Lhls respecL, exlsung programmes can be
LargeLed aL CCls. 1he use of reg|ons Lo channel Lhe funds and Lhe use of ñnanclal lnLermedlarles
LhaL are aware of the character|sncs of CCI SMLs are essenual lssues ln Largeung supporL for Lhe
CCls.
AL Lhe Luropean level:
4. 1he large fundlng schemes for supporung lnnovauon are Loo complex (Loo bureaucrauc,
Loo cosLly and ume consumlng) for CCls. At the LU |eve|, Lhe fund|ng schemes should be
made less complex so as Lo allow CCI SMLs Lo apply more easlly. Lxlsung programmes
(lÞ7, ClÞ) should be sLrongly LargeLed aL CCl SMLs.
3. 1he MLulA programme glves speclñc supporL Lo a parucular secLor ln Lhe dlñerenL
sLages of Lhe 'value chaln'. S|m||ar support opportun|nes shou|d be deve|oped for other
sectors of the CCIs at cruc|a| po|nts |n the|r respecnve va|ue cha|ns.
6. At the LU |eve|, the LI8 and LII funds, that a|so promote |nnovanon, cou|d be used to
fund CCIs debt hnanc|ng or venture cap|ta| for deve|opment of non-techno|og|ca|
|nnovanon. 1hey cou|d a|so back nanona| or reg|ona| |n|nanves a|med at deve|op|ng
guarantees schemes. ln Lhls regard, due auenuon should be pald Lo Lhe example of Lhe
guaranLee fund for Lhe audlovlsual secLor soon Lo be lnLroduced ln Lhe MLulA programme
for dlglLallsauon of clnema.
7. In co-ord|nanon w|th the Member States, lL ls recommended LhaL Lhe Lu conslder Lhe
creauon or sLrengLhenlng of |ower VA1 rate and oLher tax |ncennves for boLh onllne and
oñ-llne labour lnLenslve creauve servlces and producLs.
AL Lhe nanona| level:
8. 1he regulaLory framework ls lmporLanL ln boosung Lhe enLrepreneurlal acuvlLy of CCls.
Grannng hsca| reducnons or |ncennves to |nvestors |n the CCIs can enab|e greater
|nvestment. 1ax she|ters such as Lhe ones found ln Lhe audlovlsual secLor ln some
counLrles or ln Lhe vldeogame lndusLry ln oLhers, can subsLanually help unlock funds and
lnvesLmenL for Lhe secLor.
9. Nanona| States are encouraged to cons|der tax she|ter measures for other sectors and
support the deve|opment of Venture Cap|ta| Iunds (such as pub||c venture cap|ta|
funds), the |nvestment of 8us|ness Ange|s |n CCIs and m|cro cred|ts to fund CCIs.
Slmllarly, speclñc measures such as guaranteed bank |oans could sumulaLe ñnanclal
supporL sLrucLures.
AL Lhe reg|ona| level:
10. 1he lnvesLmenL of Lhe Luropean Structura| Iunds |n CCIs should be encouraged, wlLh
speclal supporL Lo reglonal neLworklng lnluauves and plauorms for CCls.
4.3. Access|ng the market
1he markeLs for culLural and creauve producLs and servlces are oûen characLerlsed by
unpredlcLable demand condluons. LnLrepreneurs have Lo Lake heLerogeneous, changlng LasLes lnLo
accounL. ln addluon, creauve producLs serve funcuons LhaL oûen escape 'ob[ecuve', quanuLauve
measuremenL.
AL Lhe Luropean level:
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 180
11. 1he Lu should promoLe Lhe opporLunlues for CCls Lo access Lhe markeL by us|ng pub||c
procurement measures that ho|d untapped potenna| to support |nnovanon. Þub||c
procurement requests cou|d be targeted at |nnovanve non-techno|og|ca| processes,
products and serv|ces for wh|ch CCIs, and espec|a||y m|cro-SMLS, cou|d app|y.
12. 1he Lead Market In|nanve (LMI) launched by Lhe Lu ln 2008 was seL Lo ldenufy new
needs and new markeLs for lnnovauve producLs or servlces. 1hls can help LargeL fuLure
demand and Lhus oñer an experlmenLal playlng ñeld for lnnovaLors. ln order Lo LargeL
socleLal needs, Lhe LU shou|d cons|der open|ng up LMI to non-techno|og|ca| |nnovanon
and |nnovanon |n serv|ces to tap |nto CCIs' |nnovanve potenna|.
13. Access|ng the market remalns dlmculL for CCl SMLs, especlally where a few large
companles domlnaLe Lhe markeL. 1he LU shou|d cons|der adapnng compennon po||cy to
CCIs' character|sncs |n order to avo|d excess|ve market concentranon. 1hls could ensure
LhaL all culLural players have a m|n|mum access to a|| d|str|bunon channe|s, |nc|ud|ng on
the on||ne market, ln order Lo oñer real culLural dlverslLy and cholce for consumers.
AL Lhe nanona| level:
14. Nanona| po||cy-makers and hnanc|a| |ntermed|ar|es should be Lralned Lo understand
the |nnovanve entrepreneur|a| potenna| of Lhe CCls and should be encouraged Lo use
pub||c procurement for CCIs to promote non-Lechnologlcal lnnovauon.
13. 1he nauonal and 8eglonal levels should promote CCIs' v|s|b|||ty at a nanona| and
|nternanona| |eve| |n order to encourage the|r access to new geograph|ca| markets.
AL Lhe reg|ona| level:
16. CCls and especlally m|cro-SMLs ohen do not have sumc|ent |nformanon on market
opportun|nes ln Lhelr reglon and more speclñcally across reglons and ln cross-border
markeLs. keg|ons shou|d promote the d|ssem|nanon of |nformanon about cross-sectora|
and cross-border market opportun|nes to CCIs through a reg|ona| network. 8eglons can
acL as plauorm for Lhe exchange of besL pracuces on boLh Lechnologlcal and non-
Lechnologlcal lssues.
17. 8eglons could encourage a mlnlmum access Lo Lhe markeL by semng up p|auorms
where CCI SMLs cou|d showcase the|r products]serv|ces and as such promoLe Lhe
vlslblllLy of Lhe CCls ln Lhelr reglon.
4.4. 8r|dg|ng the entrepreneur|a| sk|||s gap
1here ls a general lack of enLrepreneurlal skllls wlLhln all secLors of Lhe CCls. uesplLe Lhe
lmporLance of Lhe Loplc, Lhere ls sull a lack of lnLegrauon of enLrepreneurshlp educauon ln currlcula
ln educauon, and parucularly ln arLs educauon.
AL Lhe Luropean level:
18. WlLh a budgeL of t 7 bllllon for 2007-2013, Lhe L|fe Long Learn|ng Þrogramme ls Lhe
LU's ma|n fund|ng programme for educanon and tra|n|ng pro[ects and acuvlues. lL ls
suggesLed LhaL the programme pr|or|nse the deve|opment of creanv|ty and support for
entrepreneursh|p tra|n|ng |nc|ud|ng |n the creanve sector. Speclal focus on |ncreas|ng
tra|n|ng |n d|g|ta| sk|||s cou|d enab|e CCIs to keep updated about the |atest changes |n
techno|ogy, Lhereby lmprovlng Lhe poLenual for lnnovauon. 1here should also be an
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 181
|ncreased eñort to promote soh sk|||s such as creanve or |ntercu|tura| sk|||s through
stronger partnersh|ps between educanon |nsntunons and CCIs.
19. 1he Lu could help Lo beuer understand and map the current and future sk|||s' needs
of CCIs Lhrough Lhe varlous lnluauves carrled ouL ln Lhls regard aL nauonal level.
AL Lhe nanona| level:
20. SLudenLs' skllls and quallñcauons oûen do noL maLch Lhe needs of Lhe CCls. ln order Lo
maLch Lhe educauonal sysLem wlLh Lhe demands of lndusLry, programmes of
apprenuceshlp for CCls should be promoLed at the nanona| |eve|. Luropean Soc|a| Iunds
cou|d be used to he|p strengthen emp|oyment |n CCIs by, for example, channelllng Lhe
funds lnLo creanve apprenncesh|ps ln order Lo ease Lhe Lransluon from educauon Lo
employmenL by promoung 'on Lhe [ob' learnlng. IC1 sk|||s tra|n|ng shou|d be |nc|uded or
strengthened |n the curr|cu|um of arts |nsntunons ln order Lo fosLer Lhe lnnovauve
poLenual of CCls and help Lhem furLher explolL Lhe opporLunlues oñered by Lhe dlglLal
shlû.
21. 1he ||nk between educanon, pub||c |nsntunons and pr|vate bus|ness ls needed Lo
brldge Lhe gaps beLween Lhe Lhree so as Lo supporL a real Lrlangulauon and
communlcauon beLween Lhe needs and Lhe opporLunlues for Lhe CCls. llndlngs showed
LhaL mosL of Lhe CCl SMLs acqulre enLrepreneurlal skllls Lhrough neLworks and lnformal
'on Lhe go' experlences. It |s recommended that the nanona| |eve| encourage cross-overs
and mu|nd|sc|p||nary pro[ects between bus|ness peop|e and creanve peop|e through
educanon |nsntunons and cross-d|sc|p||nary c|usters.
AL Lhe reg|ona| level:
22. Un|vers|nes of App||ed Sc|ence (UAS) cou|d p|ay a va|uab|e ro|e |n ||nk|ng reg|ona|
acnv|nes to other Luropean reg|ons and networks of CCIs. CCls are also producers of
knowledge Lhrough applled research processes. Llnklng collaborauve work beLween
knowledge lnsuLuuons and local SMLs could acL as a complemenLary caLalysL Lo lnnovauve
capaclues ln Lhe reglon. lurLher llnklng CCl enuues and applled research lnsuLuuons would
also conLrlbuLe Lo Lhe profess|ona| sk|||s-upgrad|ng of SMLs ln Lhe reglon regardlng
professlonally orlenLed lnnovauon, enLrepreneurshlp, creauvlLy and research
compeLencles.
23. Match|ng creanve entrepreneurs and bus|ness |nd|v|dua|s can fac|||tate
entrepreneursh|p and the profess|ona| upgrad|ng of sk|||s through mutua| |earn|ng.
1hese coachlng sysLems can enable beuer lnLegrauon of enLrepreneurlal skllls wlLhln CCls.
lL ls recommended LhaL peer to peer networks be encouraged at the reg|ona| |eve| Lo
lncrease peer learnlng and cross-dlsclpllnary supporL neLworks.
4.S. Deve|op|ng entrepreneursh|p as non-techno|og|ca| dr|ver of |nnovanon
ln order Lo sumulaLe Lhe lnnovauon poLenual of CCls, and develop enLrepreneurshlp as a non-
Lechnologlcal drlver of lnnovauon, Lhe followlng speclñc recommendauons are made.
AL Lhe Luropean level:
24. Cons|deranon shou|d be g|ven to the w|den|ng of the dehn|non of |nnovanon |n the
up-com|ng rev|ew of |nnovanon and research po||cy Lo encompass all forms of
lnnovauon, boLh from Lhe publlc and prlvaLe secLor, lncludlng processes of soû and hldden
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 182
lnnovauon and recogn|se k&D ln some of Lhe processes Lyplcal of Lhe CCls, such as des|gn
processes or ta|ent scounng. 1hls should fosLer more mulu-dlsclpllnary and mulu-secLoral
lnluauves for CCls.
23. 1he Lu should |mprove SMLs' access to copyr|ght |nstruments and fac|||tate eas|er
use of IÞ |nstruments for SMLs. 1he dlglLal envlronmenL has broughL some challenges ln
Lerms of lÞ8 ln Lhe dlglLal world. Creanve so|unons that reward the r|ghts-ho|ders but
ensure ßex|b|||ty and eas|er app||cab|||ty shou|d be sought at the Luropean |eve|.
AL Lhe nanona| level:
26. 1he use of alLernauve opuons such as |nnovanon vouchers could be promoLed by
reg|ona| and nanona| governments. Innovanon vouchers should encourage oLher
buslness Lo collaboraLe wlLh culLural and creauve enLrepreneurs. 1hey could also be almed
aL fosLerlng lnnovauon wlLhln CCls.
AL Lhe reg|ona| level:
27. 1o encourage reg|ons Lo |ncrease cross-co||aboranon and know|edge transfer
between the CCIs, research |nsntutes and pr|vate sector ln order Lo research soluuons
LhaL lncrease lnnovauon ln CCls buL also Lo posluvely lnßuence Lhe wlder economy and
socleLy.
28. 1o encourage reg|ons to work w|th |ntermed|ar|es ln order Lo llnk CCls, ln parucular
CCl SMLs, wlLh oLher buslnesses so as Lo fosLer lnnovauve plauorms and processes Lo
emerge. Supporung clusLers llnklng boLh CCls and oLher buslnesses could supporL
lnnovauve pracuces as well as Lhe lnLegrauon of CCl SML.
4.6. Suppornng use of d|g|ta||sanon
CCls face new opporLunlues as well as challenges wlLh Lhe 'd|g|ta| sh|h' and Lhey need Lo be
adequaLely supporLed Lo Lake advanLage of Lhem. ln order Lo enable Lhe CCls Lo Lake full
advanLage, Lhe followlng recommendauons are made:
AL Lhe Luropean level:
29. Un|ock|ng spec|a| funds to promote the use of d|g|ta| techno|og|es |n the CCIs, such
as underLaken Lhrough Lhe MLulA programme for Lhe audlovlsual secLor.
AL Lhe nanona| level:
30. Speclal funds should be allocaLed Lo CCls, especlally SMLs, to ensure greater med|a
||teracy and take-up of d|g|ta| too|s w|th|n the|r enterpr|ses. Member SLaLes' lndlvldual
fundlng lnluauves almed aL promoung Lhe use of dlglLal Lechnologles should be promoLed.
31. Supporung CCls and ln parucular SMLs Lo adapL Lo Lhe d|g|ta| sh|h by proposlng new
on||ne serv|ces promonng author's r|ghts and ne|ghbour|ng r|ghts.
Cne of Lhe key ouLcomes of Lhls sLudy ls Lhe reallsauon LhaL culLural and creauve enLrepreneurs
re|y heav||y on the use of networks w|th|n h|gh|y |nnovanve and r|sk-or|ented env|ronments.
Powever, Lhe lack of access Lo ñnance, Lo markeL and Lhe lack of knowledge of speclñc skllls can
hlnder Lhelr developmenL, maklng lL dlmculL for culLural and creauve enLrepreneurs Lo fully
embrace Lhe opporLunlues oñered by Lhe dlglLal shlû and forclng Lhem lnLo complex procedures
when Lhey are already under pressure due Lo Lhelr small slze.
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 183
1hls shapes Lhe need for CCl SMLs Lo |ook for co||aboranve so|unons ln Lerms of organlsauon,
buslness supporL or producuon. ueveloplng an enLrepreneurlal acuvlLy ln Lhls conLexL requlres a
cerLaln degree of ßexlblllLy, rlsk orlenLed soluuons and cross dlsclpllnary skllls LhaL can also provlde
a non-Lechnologlcal lnnovauon drlver for Lhe resL of Lhe economy. ln order Lo supporL Lhe CCls,
co||aboranon and networks need to be supported.
1hese recommendauons should be Laken lnLo conslderauon ln Lhe conLexL of Lhe follow-up of Lhe
Creen Þaper ´uolockloq tbe poteouol of ccls´ ln order Lo lmplemenL some of Lhese
recommendauons when developlng Lhe fuLure pollcy ln supporL of Lhe culLural and creauve secLor
ln Lurope.
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 184
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 183
besL cases
besL cases
8est Case 1: I|anders DC
6-#+54)&I%C'-%)**'4+5'*%+*8%3+&">)*D%$#-4)"#$%C'-%C+$>)'*
I|anders DC
8e|g|um
llanders ulsLrlcL of CreauvlLy ls a
llemlsh governmenLal organlsauon
LhaL promoLes enLrepreneurlal
creauvlLy ln Lhe reglon ln order Lo
boosL llanders creauvlLy and
lnnovauon.
lL provldes acuvlues Lo fosLer creauvlLy
and lnnovauon processes ln
enLerprlses Lhrough open lnnovauon
meLhods, provldlng speclñc lnnovauon
managemenL and creauvlLy Lechnlques
Lralnlng, by provldlng a neLwork,
lnLernauonal Lralneeshlp
opporLunlues, prlze conLesL as well as
lL acLs on promoung he deslrablllLy Lo
become an enLrepreneur schools. lL
also alms aL brldglng Lhe buslness and
managers closer Lo Lhe creauve
economy and vlce versa and Lo provlde
wlLh research and lnformauon.
Š1bose ote tbe octool ptojects tbot we
ote Joloq oo tbe botJet betweeo
"cteouve eottepteoeotsblp" ooJ
"eottepteoeotlol cteouvlty".
AparL from Lhese acuvlues, llanders
uC also provlde onllne Lools Lo help
Lhe enLrepreneur.
1hey alm aL enhanclng Lhe
enLrepreneurshlp of Lhe creauve
secLors. ln fashlon, ln parLnershlp wlLh
llanders lashlon lnsuLuLe , llanders
uC does paLronage pro[ecL, where
Lhey maLch 13 deslgners wlLh 2 people
who are paLrons. 1here are ñxed
Lhemes open for dlscusslon beLween
Lhe deslgners and Lhe paLrons. 1hls
enables cross-ferullzauon and acLs as
sorLs of creauve sesslons. 1he
paLronage, ls aL Lhe momenL, secLor by
secLor buL wlll be exLended Lo mlx all
of secLors, mlxlng more Lhe Lradluonal
secLors wlLh Lhe creauve secLor ln
order Lo fosLer coachlng sesslons.
1hese sesslons alm aL enhanclng Lhe
enLrepreneurlal skllls buL Lhey could be
abouL very baslc sLuñ such as
accounung or how Lo posluon one's
company agalnsL compeuLors. 1hose
are Lhe cross ferullsauon LhaL we wanL
Lo do.
www.ßandersdc.be
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 186
8est Case 2: ArteLconomy
,2&2+7%9#*#=&$%W)&>%'@#*%)**'4+5'*%3#&>'8$%9I%3+&">)*D%&>#%+-5$&$%+*8%#*&-#@-#*#2-$
Arteconomy
8e|g|um
lalLhful Lo lLs name, ArLeconomy
connecLs arL and Lhe economy Lhrough
varlous forms of collaborauon wlLh
arusLs and enLrepreneurs. ArL
economy endorses long-Lerm pro[ecLs
and alms Lo sumulaLe a broad range of
people Lo Lhlnk abouL arL and Lhe
economy and Lhe ways Lhese Lwo can
lnLersecL. ArLeconomy help Lo creaLe
an envlronmenL of exchange and co-
operauon beLween Lhe world of
creauvlLy and Lhe world of buslness.
ArLeconomy provldes faclllues,
pro[ecLs and resources essenual Lo
lncrease Lhe undersLandlng of Lhe
creauve lndusLrles and Lhelr economlc
value and workshops.
ArLeconomy alms Lo creaLe added
value for companles and organlzauons
by enabllng dlrecL conLacL beLween
arusLs and Lhe enLrepreneurs ln order
Lo, for lnsLance, confronL mauers of
company culLure, Lo share common
values, and Lo develop hldden LalenL.
Added value ls also achleved Lhrough
furLher research and developmenL as
new concepLs and producLs/servlces
are developed Lhrough knowledge
exchange. SLarL up companles are [usL
one of Lhe ouLcomes of Lhese
lnLeracuons.
ArLeconomy sLrlves Lo remaln a neuLral
lnLermedlary and Lo faclllLaLe Lhe
processes beLween arL and Lhe
economy Lhrough coachlng and advlce.
As parL of Lhls underLaklng,
ArLeconomy makes a dlsuncuon
beLween relauonal aspecLs of a pro[ecL
and pro[ecL conLenLs durlng
collaborauon. 8oLh are valued, buL
Lhey are dlñerenuaLed. Llkewlse, Lhere
ls no resulL commlLmenL ln pro[ecLs
faclllLaLed by ArLeconomy. 1he
engagemenL durlng a pro[ecL lles more
ln Lhe developmenL of a proLoLype
raLher Lhan ln obLalnlng a markeL-
ready resulL or producL.
WhaL does Lhls look llke ln pracucal
Lerms• An lnluauve can come from a
company, an organlzer and an arusL.
1hese approach ArLeconomy, who
Lhen ñnd a sulLable parLner. 1o do so,
ArLeconomy musL ñnd a parLner open
and lnLeresLed ln engaglng. llnanclal
mauers are negouaLed and agreed
upon from Lhe beglnnlng of Lhe pro[ecL
and from Lhere Lhe pro[ecL and
relauonshlps may go ln many
dlrecuons, oûen lasung for a long Lerm
or, oLherwlse, a shorL Lerm, dependlng
on whaL Lhe lnLenuons and agreemenL
are behlnd Lhe pro[ecL.
hup:]]www.arteconomy.be
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 187
8est Case 3: AIL: Ita||an Þub||shers Assoc|anon
T#"&'-+7%$2@@'-&%C'-%T,L%9+$#
8est Case 4: Cross Cver Labs
Ita||an Þub||shers Assoc|anon
Ita|y
AlL ls a secLoral organlsauon
supporung Lhe publlshlng lndusLry. AlL
has acuvely esLabllshed a number of
core acuvlues whlch are especlally
focused on supporung SMLs ln Lhe
lLallan publlshlng lndusLry. 1he book
falr Þl• llberl ls an lndependenL
publlshers book falr almlng aL
lncreaslng Lhe vlslblllLy of lndependenL
SMLs.
1he evenL has been organlsed slnce
2002 wlLh Lhe alm of provldlng
vlslblllLy and markeL opporLunlues Lo
Lhe small and medlum lLallan
lndependenL publlshers.
lndependenL publlshers are oûen very
lnnovauve, work on Lhe creauon of a
caLalogues focused ln speclallsed
narrow nlches and are followed by
very loyal cusLomers, buL ln many case
have more dlmculues Lhan Lhe blgger
ones Lo approach a wlder markeL and
Lo reach Lhelr readers.
Þl• llbrl ls nowadays one of Lhe mosL
well known and appreclaLed book falr
ln Lhe world boLh by vlslLors and
publlshers. 1he falr has been creaLed
and promoLed by Lhe small and
medlum publlshers' group wlLhln Lhe
Assoclauon and lLs enormous success
ls a sLrong demonsLrauon LhaL Lhe
AlL's wlll Lo proLecL and Lo supporL Lhe
lndependenL publlshers was rlghL. lL ls
a very good example on how creauvlLy
and enLrepreneurshlp may be foreseen
wlLhln Lrade assoclauons as well, when
Lhere are clear goals and sLrong
commlLmenL from Lhe sLakeholders.
Aslde Lhe program for Lhe publlc Lhere
ls a speclñc Þrofesslonal program for
book lndusLry professlonals, where Lhe
mosL up Lo daLe and lnLeresung Loplcs
ln Lhe book markeL are dlscussed, from
Lhe role of lndependenL booksLores
and book chalns Lo Lhe relauonshlp
beLween book and movle lndusLry,
from producuon processes Lo Lhe
emerglng ebook markeL.
ln Lhe recenL years Þl• llbrl focused on
Lhe lmpacL of Lechnologles ln Lhe
publlshlng lndusLry wlLh speclñc
semlnars.
A speclal Lrack named 1he Þl• llbrl
lellowshlp Þrogram ls reserved Lo
forelgn publlshers. lL ls a Lrade
neLworklng lnluauve reserved for a
llmlLed number of carefully selecLed
lnLernauonal publlshers and llLerary
agenLs who wlll be glven Lhe
opporLunlLy Lo vlslL publlshlng houses
ln Lhe clLy of 8ome durlng Lhe days
leadlng up Lo Lhe lalr and Lo meeL
durlng Lhe lalr ln a dedlcaLed area Lhe
mosL lmporLanL lLallan sales manager.
www.p|u||br|.|t
www.a|e.|t]
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 188
,275X8)$")@7)*+-I%W'-.$>'@%C'-%.*'W7#8D#%#Y">+*D#%W)&>%+%@+-5"27+-%C'"2$%'*%*#W%3#8)+%&''7$
Crossover Labs
Un|ted k|ngdom
Crossover lnnovauons Lab ls a creauve
lab ln Lhe sense LhaL lL encourages
experlmenLauon wlLh dlñerenL forms
of medla and Lhe creauon of new
comblnauons and meLhods. 8ased ln
London, lL ls an lnLernauonal program
deslgned Lo explore Lhe creauve and
commerclal challenges of new medla
Lools and developlng conLenL Lhrough
Lhese. 1o achleve Lhls, Crossover
organlzes ñve-day evenLs wlLh up Lo
LwenLy-ñve, lndlvldually chosen
paruclpanLs and a Leam of experL
menLors.
unllke oLher models of lab, Crossover
does noL work wlLh pre-concelved
proposals. Powever, lL comprlses a seL
of robusL meLhodologles LhaL have
been reñned over ume Lo LesL,
enhance and develop ldeas for
converglng servlces and programs.
Crossover alms aL explorlng a pracucal
and dynamlc range of Lechnlques for
developlng mulu-plauorm pro[ecLs
and provldes a framework for Lhe
developmenL of concreLe pro[ecLs,
whlch resulL ln Lhe bulldlng of plLches
and early sLage concepL proLoLypes.
1he maln alm of Lhls phase ls Lo
exchange knowledge.
ln Lhe second phase, cross plauorm
ldea generauon, paruclpanLs creaLe
orlglnal ldeas for cross-plauorm
producLs and servlces. varlous
exchange meLhods are used whlle
paruclpanLs work ln consLanLly
changlng lnLerdlsclpllnary Leams. ln
Lhe ñnal Lwo phases, selecuons,
evaluauon and developmenL, and
presenLauon, experuse ls furLher
converged whlle Leams selecL an ldea
Lo develop furLher. uurlng Lhe ñnal
LwenLy-four hours ln Lhe lab, Leams
focus on developlng a plLch for a slngle
pro[ecL. 1hls plLch ls presenLed on Lhe
ñnal day of Lhe lab perlod.
Crossover Labs engages professlonals
ln a way LhaL Lhey may lack ln Lhelr
day-Lo-day work llfe. lL challenges
Lhem Lo Lake up Lools Lhey are
unfamlllar wlLh and galn experuse ln
areas Lhey prevlously may have had
llule Lo no knowledge abouL. 1he
resulL ls a regular ouLpuL of well
connecLed, lnsplred and lnnovauve
lndlvlduals from a wlde specLrum of
secLors, spurred Lo engage ln cross-
dlsclpllnary exchanges for Lhe
beuermenL of Lhelr own professlonal
careers and Lhe lndusLry as a whole. lL
ls a unlque, reallsuc and personal
approach Lo Lhls common and
reoccurrlng problem of Lhe creauve
and culLural lndusLrles and Crossover,
ln lL of lLself, solves Lhls problem ln an
lnnovauve and lnLeracuve way.
hup:]]www.crossover|abs.org
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 189
8est Case S: GA1L: Game kesearch for 1ra|n|ng & Lnterta|nment
Z*'W7#8D#%8#4#7'@3#*&%&>-'2D>%K+3#%T,L%)*&#D-+5'*%)*%-#$#+-">%@-'"#$$#$%+*8%&>-'2D>%&>#%
3#8)23%'C%*#W%&#">*'7'DI%$#-4)"#%@-'4)$)'*
Game kesearch for 1ra|n|ng
and Lnterta|nment (GA1L)
1he Nether|ands
1he Came 8esearch for 1ralnlng and
LnLerLalnmenL (CA1L) alms Lo
develop an lnLernauonal compeuuve
knowledge base wlLh respecL Lo
game Lechnology, and Lo Lraln Lhe
LalenL requlred Lo enhance Lhe
producuvlLy and compeuuve edge of
small and medlum-slzed creauve
lndusLrlal companles. 1he pro[ecL ls
also almed aL lmprovlng subsLanually
Lhe compeuuveness of companles
produclng (Lools for) games and
slmulauons by provldlng dlrecL
access Lo new Lechnology and by
Lechnology Lransfer pro[ecLs. 1he
goal of Lhe research ls Lo
subsLanually advance Lhe sLaLe-of-
Lhe-arL ln gamlng, slmulauon and
vlrLual reallLy Lo creaung hlghly
eñecuve enLerLalnmenL producLs
and experlence learnlng sysLems.
lL ls hoped LhaL resulLs obLalned
from Lhls pro[ecL wlll lead Lo Lhe
creauon of larger companles,
encourage Lhe foundlng of new
companles, and auracL companles
from oLher counLrles Lo Lhe
neLherlands. 1he pro[ecL ls also
hoped wlll make people aware of Lhe
posslblllues of gamlng ln publlc
secLors such as educauon, healLh,
and safeLy by performlng plloLs ln
Lhese areas. As a resulL gamlng and
slmulauon wlll become more
commonly applled ln Lhese secLors,
leadlng Lo quallLy lmprovemenLs and
cosL reducuons.
1hls pro[ecL does noL provlde dlrecL
supporL Lo SML's ln Lhe culLural and
creauve lndusLrles however because
CA1L ls noL only abouL academlc
research lnLo games and Came-
Lechnology Lhls pro[ecL has been
geared Lowards developlng
knowledge furLher as pracucal
soluuons. 1hrough knowledge
1ransfer Þro[ecLs, Came 8esearch
consLanLly collaboraLe wlLh small and
medlum slzed enLerprlses and oLher
research parLners. knowledge
quesuons provlded by companles
are developed lnLo pracucal
soluuons LhaL make research resulLs
ñL-for-use for lndusLry. 1hus Lhrough
SML's, Lhe resulLs obLalned from
research are LranslaLed lnLo pracucal
soluuons.
hup:]]gate.gameresearch.n|]
|ndex.php
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 190
8est Case 6: b.1WLLN
('$&#-)*D%#Y">+*D#%'C%)8#+$%+*8%@7+['-3%+$%W#77%+$%)*&-'82"5'*%'C%8)D)&+7%3#8)+%+$%+%C2&2-#%
3#8)23%C'-%66/%+"54)5#$
b.1WLLN- Cross Þ|auorm
Deve|opment Lab
Un|ted k|ngdom
London based b.1WLLn was founded
slx years ago Lo provlde a dynamlc
envlronmenL where members would
feel safe Lo creaLe and share ldeas, and
meeL people who can help Lo Lurn
good ldeas lnLo good producLs. ln Lhe
uk, b.1WLLn has been acclalmed as
ŠLhe deslgners of Lhe fuLure of dlglLal
buslness–.
Among lLs acuvlues, b.1WLLn
organlzes fesuvals where creauves,
lnßuencers and vlslonarles wlLh a
commerclal edge are encouraged Lo
auend and exchange. Workshops on
sub[ecLs such as locauon-based
narrauves and oLher Lrends wlLhln Lhe
medla world are also oñered Lo
paruclpanLs
AparL from Lhe fesuval, b.1WLLn oñers
many ways for lnLeresLed parues Lo geL
lnvolved such as Lhe 8randlng 1alenL
compeuuon ln 2009. ln Lhls
compeuuon, small creauve companles
and freelancers from across Lhe dlglLal
medla lndusLrles were lnvlLed Lo enLer
Šseed ldeas– Lo provlde new ways for
Shop ulrecL, a home shopplng
organlzauon, Lo connecL wlLh Lhelr
cusLomers. 1he ldea was developed
over a monLh's perlod before belng
plLched Lo Shop ulrecL.
A recenL pro[ecL organlzed by b.1WLLn
ln Lhe norLh WesL b.1WLLn 1v
Þlauorms where delegaLes are lnvlLed
Lo develop lnnovauve soclal enLerprlse
ldeas. 1he alm of Lhls pro[ecL ls Lo
auracL soclal lnnovaLors Lo creaLe an
enLerprlse uslng connecLed Lechnology
Lo answer soclal and envlronmenLal
challenges.
b.1WLLn oñers a cumng-edge porLal
lnLo Lhe world of dlglLal medla. lL oñers
lnLeresLed sLudenLs and professlonals
acuvlues Lo boosL and home Lhelr skllls
Lhrough compeuuons, dlscusslon and
neLwork connecuons. ln dolng so,
b.1WLLn nurLures an enabllng
envlronmenL and sumulaLes Lhe
creauve Lechnologlcal lndusLrles of
Loday.
hup:]]www.btween.co.uk
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 191
8est Case 7: Arch|tectuur Lokaa|
T#"&'-+7%$2@@'-&%W)&>%+%2$#-%C'"2$
Arch|tectuur Lokaa|
1he Nether|ands
1he maln purpose of ArchlLecLuur
Lokaal ls Lo sLrengLhen archlLecLural
pollcy ŠlnfrasLrucLure– by sumulaung
cllenLs Lo devoLe more auenuon Lo Lhe
culLural aspecLs of bulldlng
developmenL. 8y dolng so, Lhe
organlzauon ls slmulLaneously
relnforclng Lhe posluon of archlLecLure
and professlonals of Lhe secLor by
provldlng Lhe lauer wlLh cllenLs
lnLeresLed ln Lhelr work.
ArchlLecLuur Lokaal, operaLes ln large
parL aL Lhe local level. Powever, Lhey
LargeL munlclpal auLhorlues and
prlvaLe-secLor parues aL boLh Lhe local
and reglonal levels. 1hey also engage
lnLernauonally, exLendlng Lhelr
neLwork and sharlng experuse. Cne
recurrlng pro[ecL lnvolvlng
ArchlLecLuur Lokaal ls Þanorama
Lurope, a gaLherlng of experLs on
commlsslonlng developmenL and
challenges faclng spaual plannlng
pollcy. 1hls occurs beLween Lwo
counLrles and, ln prevlous years, has
lnvolved Cermany, 8elglum and Lhe
unlLed klngdom (ScoLland).
ArchlLecLuur Lokaal acLs as a cenLral
brldge-bullder beLween sLakeholders
lnvolved ln Lhe bulldlng process. lL
oñers consulLauons on mauers
relaung Lo archlLecLural pollcy, spaual
quallLy pollcy and buslness
commlsslonlng. lL also provldes cllenLs
wlLh programs Lo furLher develop Lhelr
experuse ln Lhese areas, parucularly ln
mauers of pollcy. 8y way of Lhese
acuvlues, Lhe economlc and culLural
values of archlLecLure are also
Lransmlued Lo Lhe cllenL, who ls
encouraged Lo ldenufy Lhe added
value of lncorporaung archlLecLure Lo
Lhelr bulldlng pro[ecLs.
Cne of Lhe mosL appeallng servlces run
by ArchlLecLuur Lokaal ls Lo advlse
publlc and prlvaLe cllenLs on Lhe
selecuon of deslgners and properLy
developers. Slmply puL, Lhe cllenL's
lnvesLmenL lnLo Lhe deslgn and quallLy
of Lhelr pro[ecLs durlng Lhe
consLrucuon phase wlll noLably pay oñ
ln Lhe long run, when Lhe value of
Lhelr bulldlng ls based on lLs aesLheuc
and culLural value ln addluon Lo lLs
sLrucLurally sound consLrucuon.
1hrough Lhelr acuvlues of acuvely
engaglng and advlslng poLenual
bullders, and wlLh Lhelr experuse, Lhe
organlzauon sumulaLes Lhe secLor of
archlLecLure and Lhus Lhe creauve and
culLural lndusLrles as a whole, ln Lhe
neLherlands, prlmarlly, buL also ln
oLher areas of Lurope.
hup:]]www.arch-|okaa|.n|
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 192
8est Case 8: LSA: Luropean Adverns|ng Standard
E)D)&+7%3+-.#5*D%"'332*)"+5'*%+*8%$#"&'-+7%+84)$#$%'*%$#7C%-#D27+5'*
Luropean Adverns|ng
Standard A|||ance
LU
LASA ls Lhe slngle auLhorlLauve volce
on adveruslng self-regulauon lssues
and promoLes hlgh eLhlcal sLandards ln
commerclal communlcauons by means
of eñecuve self-regulauon, wh||e be|ng
m|ndfu| of nanona| d|ñerences of
cu|ture, |ega| and commerc|a|
pracnce.

As a non-proñL organlsauon based ln
8russels, lL brlngs LogeLher nauonal
adveruslng self-regulaLory
organlsauons (S8Cs) and organlsauons
represenung Lhe adveruslng lndusLry
ln Lurope. LASA promoLes
responslble adveruslng by provldlng
deLalled guldance on how Lo go abouL
adveruslng self-regulauon across Lhe
Slngle MarkeL for Lhe beneñL of
consumers and buslnesses. lL
sLrengLhens exlsung self-regulauon. ln
2004, Lhe adveruslng lndusLry slgned
Lhe LASA adveruslng Self -8egulauon
CharLer whlch meanL semng up
sysLems ln some of Lhe new counLrles,
whlch dld noL yeL have a self-
regulaLory sysLem, and sLrengLhenlng
Lhe already exlsung sysLems.
Cne of Lhe ways LhaL LASA sLrengLhens
and consolldaLes self-regulauon ls by
provldlng self-regulaLory organlsauons
(S8Cs) wlLh 8esL Þracuce
8ecommendauons. LASA currenLly has
8esL Þracuce 8ecommendauons ln
areas such as dlglLal markeung
communlcauons, conñdenuallLy,
complalnLs handllng or fundlng, and
many more.
LASA also provldes research and
lnformauon on Lhe adverusemenL
monlLorlng on conLroverslal areas.
www.easa-a|||ance.org
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 193
8est Case 9: D|sseny nub 8arce|ona
T#"&'-+7%*#&W'-.%$#-4)*D%+$%-#$#+-">%"#*&-#%+$%W#77%+$%$5327+5*D%"'77+9'-+5'*%9#&W##*%
8#$)D*#-$%+*8%92$)*#$$#$%+*8%66/$
D|sseny nub 8arce|ona
Spa|n
1he prlmary alm of uPu8 ls Lo
promoLe greaLer undersLandlng and
promouon of Lhe deslgn world. uPu8
ls parL of Lhe lnsuLuLo de CulLura de
8arcelona, and Lhrough Lhls lnsuLuLe
promoLes Lhe advancemenL of all
faceLs of Lhe deslgn dlsclpllne. 1hls ls
achleved by operaung ln boLh a vlrLual
and physlcal envlronmenL and by
organlzlng dlverse acuvlues year
round. ln addluon, uPu8 provldes an
accesslble neLwork of deslgn curaLors,
creaLors and consumers and sLrlves Lo
achleve a forum for professlonal
dlalogue and appralsal, dlssemlnaung
knowledge Lo Lhe publlc, and
sLrengLhenlng Lhe economy Lhrough
Lhe creauve and culLural lndusLrles.
1o achleve lLs goals, uPu8 boasLs
acuvlues such as exhlbluons, sLudy
gallerles, symposlums, conferences
and educauonal program addressed
elLher for secondary school sLudenLs
or adulLs. Lxhlbluons and sLudy
gallerles, from Lhelr parL, encourage
Lhe lnvesugauon and appreclauon of
exlsung work.
ln addluon Lo Lhese acuvlues, uPu8 ls
acuve ln research and reference
resources. A reference cenLer, Lo be
opened Lhls year, wlll cover Lhe four
areas of operauon of uPu8, Lhese
belng archlLecLure and lnLerlor deslgn,
vlsual communlcauon deslgn, producL
deslgn, and fashlon deslgn.
uPu8, slmply Lhrough lLs webslLe, also
provldes and exLenslve dlglLal resource
reference cenLer.
8y Largeung a dlverse audlence and
paruclpanLs from varlous secLor wlLhln
Lhe deslgn lndusLry, lncludlng deslgn
professlonals, sLudenLs and Lhe
general publlc, uPu8 sumulaLes
collaborauon wlLhln and beLween Lhe
buslness, economlcally-orlenLed,
world, and Lhe creauve lndusLrles ln
Spaln and ln Lurope as a whole.
hup:]]www.dhub-bcn.cat]en
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 194
8est Case 10: LDIMA
L2-'@#+*%0-'\#"&%&'%'@#*%&>#%7#D+7%C-+3#W'-.%C'-%*#W%8)D)&+7%@-'82"&$%&'%"-#+&#%+%$)*D7#%
L2-'@#+*%8)D)&+7%3+-.#&
LDIMA
Luropean Un|on
LulMA (Luropean ulglLal Medla
Assoclauon) pro[ecL of Lhe Lu alms aL
creaung an open and legal framework
for new dlglLal producLs LhroughouL
Lhe Lu so as Lo avold Lhe legal barrlers
blocklng a slngle Luropean dlglLal
markeL.
lL alms aL lmprovlng consumer
conñdence, lncrease Lhe coordlnauon
of pollcy formauon by esLabllshlng a
new LÞ lnLer(nauonal) group on Lhe
new medla secLor, have a beuer
lmplemenLauon of laws, and ensure a
beuer ñL wlLh regards Lo Lhe copyrlghL
llcenslng reglme for Lhe dlglLal age.
1he Luropean commlssloner vlvlane
8edlng acknowledged slmllar needs ln
compleung a slngle dlglLal markeL.
A slngle dlglLal markeL would ensure a
beuer and easler coordlnauon of
procedures for new medla servlces
across Lhe Lu. CopyrlghL lssues could
be coordlnaLed. A Luropean LrusL-mark
could be creaLed and faclllLaLe Lhe
dlglLallzauon of books and orphan
works, bulldlng on Lhe exlsung pro[ecLs
such as A88CW
120
(Accesslble
8eglsLrles of 8lghLs lnformauon and
Crphan Works) and Luropeana
121
.
hup:]]
www.europeand|g|ta|med|a.org]
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 193
8est Case 11: MLDIA
L2-'@#+*%T2@@'-&%&'%!28)'4)$2+7%T#"&'-X%()*+*"#B%!""#$$%&'%,+-.#&B%O-+)*)*D%+*8%$>'-&7I%7'+*%
D2+-+*&##
MLDIA
Luropean Un|on
MLulA ls Lhe Lu supporL programme for
Lhe Luropean audlovlsual lndusLry.
MLulA co-ñnances Lralnlng lnluauves for
audlovlsual lndusLry professlonals, Lhe
developmenL of producuon pro[ecLs
(feaLure ñlms, Lelevlslon drama,
documenLarles, anlmauon and new
medla), as well as Lhe promouon of
Luropean audlovlsual works... more
1he MLulA 2007 - 2013 Þrogramme
comprlses a serles of supporL measures
for Lhe Luropean audlovlsual lndusLry
focuslng on:
— Lralnlng professlonals
— developlng producuon pro[ecLs
— dlsLrlbuung ñlms and
audlovlsual programmes
— promoung ñlms and
audlovlsual programmes
— supporung ñlm fesuvals
1hls programme was hlghllghLed as an
example of besL supporL Lo a secLor as lL
Look under conslderauon Lhe dlñerenL
parLs of Lhe creauve process. A new focus
on supporung Lhe secLor Lo face Lhe
dlglLal shlû Lhrough lnnovauve acuon ln
Lhe ñeld of dlglusauon and Lhrough a
beuer access Lo credlL.
hup:]]ec.europa.eu]cu|ture]med|a]
|ndex_en.htm
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 196
8est Case 12: ILÞ: Iederanon of Luropean Þub||shers
T#"&'-+7%$2@@'-&%+&%&>#%LQ%7#4#7%+$%W#77%+$%*+5'*+77I%)*%*#&W'-.%92)78)*DB%+$$)$&+*"#%&'%C+"#%&>#%
8)D)&+7%$>)]%+*8%@-'4)$)'*%'C%+84)"#$%+*8%&-+)*)*D
Iederanon of Luropean
Þub||shers
Luropean Un|on
ILÞ ls an lndependenL, non-commerclal
umbrella assoclauon of book publlshers
assoclauons ln Lhe Luropean unlon. lLÞ
represenLs 26 nauonal assoclauons of
book publlshers of Lhe Luropean unlon
and of Lhe Luropean Lconomlc Area.
lL malnly deals wlLh Luropean leglslauon
and advlses publlshers' assoclauons on
copyrlghL and oLher leglslauve lssues. ln
2010, lLs acuvlues lncluded conLrlbuung
Lo Lhe dlglLal sLraLegy of uC lnformauon
SocleLy and medla, several conLrlbuuons
regardlng copyrlghLs and collecuve
managemenL or lLs paruclpauon Lo
Luropean CulLural Þlauorms as well as
malnLalnlng Lhe neLwork of Luropean
publlshers LogeLher.
1hls provldes Lhe publlshlng enLrepreneur
wlLh ad hoc secLor speclñc Lralnlng as well
as consulLancy servlces.
www.fep-fee.eu
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 197
8est Case 13: IMAGINCV
/,!K/^_U%K+3#%672$&#-%)*%(-+*"#%$2@@'-&#8%9I%&>#%-#D)'*%+*8%$5327+5*D%3275X8)$")@7)*+-I%
@-'\#"&$%@-'3'5*D%$#"&'-+7%C'-%3+-.#&%'@@'-&2*)&I
IMAGINCV
Irance
lMAClnCv ls a Lyon based reglonal clusLer
whlch was born ouL of Lhe clusLer/pole of
compeuuveness ŠulglLal Lelsure– focused
on vldeo games companles. 1he pole was
acknowledged by Lhe lrench governmenL
ln 2007.
1he members of Lhe organlsauon (around
210) represenL 1,13 bllllon t of
revenues and represenL 12 700 of
employmenLs. 1he clusLer has auracLed
many enLerprlses Lo Lyon. Serlous games
companles have an exponenually Lurnover
and have recelved speclñc supporL from
Lhe clusLer Lhrough workshops and acung
as markeL lnLermedlarles as well as
Lhrough subsldles for 8&u.
1he reglon of 8hone Alpes has speclñcally
provlded preferenual regulaLory
envlronmenL by glvlng a Lax credlL for
vldeo games lndusLry (20°), access Lo
subsldles for 8&u Lhrough Lhe pole of
compeuuveness funds.
1he 8eglon 8hone Alpes has also
encouraged lnnovauon and new buslness
models Lhrough several conLesLs such as
Šlmaglnov Commerclal– and Šlmaglnov
lnLernauonal–. 100 companles have been
rewarded ln Lhree years.
WlLh Lhe help of Lhe reglon, Lhe clusLer
has been a ma[or player ln Lerms of
secLoral speclñclues. lL has helped auracL
companles ln Lhe reglon.
www.|mag|nove.fr
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 198
8est Case 14: Dutch Med|a nub
T#"&'-%"72$&#-%@-'4)8)*D%$#-4)"#$%)*%"'*&#*&%@-'82"5'*B%8)$&-)925'*B%8#4#7'@3#*&%+$%W#77%+$%+"&$%
+$%+%*#&W'-.%W)&>%32*)")@+7B%-#D)'*+7%+*8%*+5'*+7%+2&>'-)5#$
Dutch Med|a nub
1he Nether|ands
1he uuLch Medla Pub alms Lo bundle Lhe
rlch varleLy of uuLch creauve , medla and
faclllLy companles. 1hls way becomlng Lhe
ulglLal CaLeway Lo Lurope. 1he uuLch
Medla Pub Lrles Lo achleve Lhls by
sumulaung Lhe corporauon amongsL
parLners and by organlzlng promouonal
acuvlues.
1he uuLch Medla Pub bundles Lhe
companles lnvolved by provldlng supporL
servlces for conLenL producuon (such as
lnLerneL faclllues), conLenL dlsLrlbuuon
(from sLreamlng Lo ulglLal 8lghLs
managemenL advlse), servlces
developmenL (such as proLoLype or
pro[ecL managemenL). lL also provldes
conLenL sLorage supporL (formaL
managemenL , medla asseL managemenL
for example) as well as lL also conLrlbuLes
Lo Lhe companles wlLh Lranslauon
servlces, converslon, Lranscodlng or
locallsauon.
1he paruclpanLs ln Lhe Pub also
paruclpaLe on sLandarlsauon procedures,
lnLeroperablllLy lssues, anu-plracy lsssues
or lnLernauonal markeung.
1he Pub gaLhers medla companles as well
as munlclpal, reglonal and nauonal
auLhorlues as well as Chamber of
Commerce.
www.dutchmed|ahub.com
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 199
8est Case 1S: 8andpoo|
T2@@'-5*D%$#"&'-%&>-'2D>%"'+">)*D%+*8%*#&W'-.)*D%'@@'-&2*)5#$
8andpoo|
Germany
1he 8andpool pro[ecL ls operaLed by Þop
Academy 8aden-Wueruemberg -
unlverslLy of Þopular Muslc and Muslc
8uslness. 1he Þop Academy 8aden-
Wueruemberg ls an academy LhaL
dlsungulshes lLself from oLhers
LhroughouL ouLsLandlng repuLauons for all
aspecLs of Lhe muslc buslness. 1hls ls
supporLed by numerous pro[ecLs ranglng
from Luropean parLnershlps Lo Lhe
reglonal developmenL and economlc
supporL for medla buslnesses ln Lhe
reglon of 8aden-Wueruemberg.
1hls pro[ecL was lnluaLed as a coachlng
Lool for bands and slngle arusLs, who
lnLend Lo Lake Lhe declslve sLep Lowards a
serlous career as professlonals. 1hls
pro[ecLs supporLs bands and slngle arusLs
ln Lhe Muslc lndusLry by, wlLhln a perlod
of 18 monLhs, oñerlng Lhem one-Lo-one
coachlng, lnLenslve workshops, ob[ecuve
analysls, glvlng Lhem Lhe opporLunlLy Lo
make conLacLs and as well as many oLher
ouLcomes. 1hls ls done wlLh Lhe supporL
of experLs from Lhe muslc lndusLry.
1he resulLs of Lhls pro[ecL are evldenL:
many 8andpool acLs have already slgned
wlLh renowned labels and Lhere are
several charL enLrles and nomlnauons for
muslc awards.
1o promoLe lmproved neLworklng
beLween Lhe muslc and medla scenes as
well as beLween pollucs and Lhe economy
evenLs are also organlzed Lo serve as
meeung polnLs for people from muslc and
medla lndusLrles. 1hese meeungs
lncreases general awareness of Lhe muslc
buslness as an lnnovauve and creauve
secLor of economy.
www.popakadem|e.de
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 200
8est Case 16: UÞ1Lk
T#"&'-+7%)**'4+5'*%"72$&#-%)*4'74)*D%3275X8)$")@7)*+-I%@+-5")@+*&$%+*8%+84)$#$%'*%7#D+7B%C2*8)*D%
#Y@#-5$#%+$%W#77%+$%+"&$%+$%+%"'77+9'-+54#%@7+['-3
UÞ1Lk
Irance
lnvolvlng research lnsuLuLes, hlgher
educauon labs, fashlon enLerprlses and
chamber of commerce, uÞ1L› ls an
lnnovauon clusLer LhaL alms aL lnnovaung
Lhe Lexule and fashlon secLor Lo lnLegraLe
new performances. Almlng aL reachlng
new Lexules, new poly-sensorlal
Lechnlques and lnLegraung deslgn and
mass cusLomlsauon, uÞ1L› lnLegraLes
user-demand processes ln order Lo
develop cusLomlsed Lexule.
noL only ls Lhe clusLer lnnovaung ln Lerms
of Lechnologlcal, sclenuñc and lndusLrlal
Lechnlques buL lL ls also lnLegraung soû
lnnovauon processes such as managerlal
and organlsauonal processes ln order Lo
beuer be able Lo respond Lo consumer's
demand.
uÞ1L› oñers lLs members legal servlces,
economlc experuse and fundlng
opporLunlues as well as lL provldes for a
collaborauve plauorm Lo promoLe
lnformauon exchange wlLhln Lhe clusLer as
well as maLchlng servlces for speclñc
sclenuñc and lndusLrlal parLners for Lhe
deslgners.
Moreover, as Lhe secLor ls lnherenLly
lnLernauonal, Lhe clusLer alms aL
supporung Lhe lnLernauonallsauon of lLs
members by developlng Lhe lnLernauonal
level of enLerprlses and encourage lnLer-
clusLer collaborauon. lL also provldes
markeL research lnformauon for Lhe
members Lo supporL Lhelr access ln Lhe
markeL.
www.up-tex.fr
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 201
8est Case 17: Cn||neArt
6'77#"5*D%$'")#5#$%9I%+*8%C'-%4)$2+7%+-5$&$%#*+97)*D%+""#$$%+$%W#77%+$%-#W+-8
Cn||neArt
8e|g|um
1he collecung socleues for vlsual
arusLs have bulld up an lnLernauonal
neLwork Lo llcense lnLerneL uses for
world-wlde llcenslng of prlmary rlghLs.
lL represenLs over 30 000 auLhors and
esLaLes of arL.
CnLlneArL ls Lhe Cne-sLop-shop for
worldwlde llcenses on works of ñne arL
for uses on Lhe World Wlde Web - be lL
commerclal or non-commerclal.
CnLlneArL ls Lhe lnLerface connecung
markeL demands for easy access Lo
world wlde rlghLs and Lhe auLhors and
Lhelr esLaLes lnLeresLs' represenLed by
Lhelr vlsual arLs collecuve
managemenL socleues. new
Lechnologles oñer new opporLunlues
for broad dlssemlnauon of works Lo a
large lnLeresLed publlc.
CnLlneArL recognlses Lhe sLrong
markeL demand for easy legal access
Lo conLenL and oñers a markeL soluuon
based on besL pracuce and know-how.
AL Lhe same ume CnLlneArL ensures
LhaL auLhors' lnLeresLs are proLecLed
and LhaL Lhey are rewarded when Lhelr
works are explolLed by oLhers.
1hus, users can go ahead wlLh web slLe
pro[ecLs ln legal cerLalnLy and arusLs
ñnd Lhemselves ln an envlronmenL
where Lhe value Lhey add Lo Lhe
culLure scene and growLh of economy
ls equlLably rewarded. 1he members of
CnLlneArL are all noL-for-proñL
organlsauons, Lhey acL for auLhors as
Lhelr LrusLees. 1hey are parL of Lhe
culLural landscape ln Lhe language and
culLure area Lhey are locaLed. 1hey
have long sLandlng conLracLual
conLacLs wlLh museums, educauonal
lnsuLuuons, llbrarles, broadcasLers and
arL publlshers. WlLh Lhelr servlces Lhey
conLrlbuLe slgnlñcanLly Lo Lhe
malnLenance and furLher developmenL
of culLural dlverslLy.
CnLlneArL also glves legal advlces and
puLs ln place a broad daLabase LhaL
can serve as lnformauve fuLure markeL
dlrecuons lnformlng Lhe auLhors abouL
legal uses around Lhe world. lL applles
a common Larlñs so LhaL user are
LreaLed equally and recelved
sLandarlsed and slmple llcenclng
servlce.
www.on||neart.|nfo
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 202
8est Case 18: Departure
()*+*")+77I%$2@@'-5*D%66/$%9I%@-'4)8)*D%+%7)*.%9#&W##*%&>#%#"'*'3I%+*8%&>#%66/$%+*8%@-'3'5*D%
+%$&-'*D%*#&W'-.%)*%7'"+7B%-#D)'*+7B%*+5'*+7%+*8%)*&#-*+5'*+7%C-'*5#-$
Departure
Austr|a
ueparLure, a fundlng lnsuLuuon based
ln vlenna, AusLrla, endorses creauve
professlonals who conslder Lhemselves
parL of Lhe economy and who sLrlve Lo
reveal Lhelr producLs or skllls Lo Lhe
clLy of vlenna, Lhereby conLrlbuung Lo
Lhe prosperlLy of Lhe meLropolls. Many
of Lhose whom ueparLure supporLs are
already enLrepreneurs or company
founders acuve ln Lhe creauve
lndusLrles, and Lhus aware of Lhe
lnLernauonal and culLural ßalr Lhey can
brlng Lo vlenna. Powever, many are
also lndlvlduals lnLeresLed ln Lurnlng a
creauve ldea lnLo a buslness
opporLunlLy. ueparLure sLrlves Lo
ldenufy and ñnanclally supporL
ouLsLandlng and vlslonary pro[ecLs ln
Lhe creauve lndusLrles.
1he maln ob[ecuves of ueparLure are
Lo develop an economlcally
susLalnable basls for local creauve
professlonals wlLh Lhe eñecLs of
promoung economlc growLh Lhrough,
for lnsLance, Lhe creauon of new
companles and [obs. 1o do so,
ueparLure emphaslzes knowledge
exchange and co-operauon beLween
Lhe creauve lndusLrles and Lhe
economy.
ueparLure ls very acuve ln Lhe area of
fundlng Lhrough four programs LhaL
supporL lndlvldual and creauve Lop
performances. Cf Lhese, one program
addresses young and creauve LalenLs
and alds Lhem ln sLarung an
enLerprlse, wlLh up Lo t13,000 aL Lhelr
dlsposal. 30° of Lhe fundlng has Lo be
used for experL coachlng, Lhereby
provldlng an opporLunlLy for buslness
skllls acqulsluon. AnoLher fundlng
program Lhrough ueparLure LargeLs
exlsung classlc companles by provldlng
Lhese wlLh coachlng on ways Lo
reorlenL Lhelr buslness Lo new
markeLs. A LoLal of 13.3 mllllon Luros
have been used Lo ñnance 182
pro[ecLs (2009), whlch subsequenLly
led Lo 32.9 mllllon Luros worLh of
prlvaLe lnvesLmenL and creaLed over
943 [obs.
ueparLure expllclLly sLaLes lLs role as a
supporL sLrucLure Lowards Lhe
lnLegrauon of culLural and creauve
ouLpuL lnLo economlc llfe, raLher Lhan
an arL fundlng lnsuLuuon. lL's
economlc orlenLauon and Lhe goal of
conLrlbuung Lo Lhe prosperlLy of
vlenna, has greaLly lmproved
communlcauon and co-operauon
beLween Lhe creauve lndusLry
represenLauves and Lhe clLy
admlnlsLrauon. llnally, lL has achleved
Lhls whlle sull provldlng essenual
resources and plauorms for creauve
professlonals and progress for Lhe
lndusLry as a whole.
hup:]]departure.at
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 203
8est Case 19: IICIC
V+*.%:'+*%K2+-+*&##%$I$&#3%C'-%=*+*")*D%66/$
IICIC
Irance
1he MlnlsLry of CulLure and
Communlcauon and Lhe lrench
MlnlsLry of llnance esLabllshed llClC
wlLh Lhe alm Lo conLrlbuLe Lo Lhe
developmenL of Lhe culLural lndusLry ln
lrance by maklng lL easler for
companles wlLhln Lhe secLor Lo obLaln
bank ñnanclng. llClC ls a neuLral and
lndependenL lnsuLuuon and ls a
llmlLed prlvaLe-secLor company
enLrusLed wlLh a servlce of general
lnLeresL. lLs caplLal ls owned by lrench
banks, large publlc ñnanclal
lnsuLuuons, and Lhe lrench SLaLe.
1he loans guaranLeed by llClC cover
mosL of Lhe needs of companles, aL all
sLages of Lhelr developmenL. Slnce lL
was seen LhaL CCls dld noL only
concern creaLors buL also publlshers,
producers.., llClC was esLabllshed Lo
guaranLee Lhe rlsks LhaL CCls have due
Lo Lhe uncerLalnLy of belng a SML
complemenLed wlLh Lhe rlsk Laken
wlLh Lhelr culLural producL/servlce.
llClC does noL glve subsldles buL
raLher guaranLees Lhe loans Laken by
CCl ln Lhe banks 1he banks LhaL work
wlLh llClC are noL only glven ñnanclal
guaranLees ln Lhe evenL LhaL
companles should fall, buL also rlsk
analyses LhaL are speclñc Lo Lhe
culLural lndusLrles. llClC also helps
enLrepreneurlal companles Lo geL
ñnanclal backlng for pro[ecLs from
Lhelr banks (llClC Lyplcally guaranLees
30° of Lhe loans obLalned), and also
oñers lLs own ñnanclal experuse.
llClC has equlLy of abouL t 16 mllllon
and, more lmporLanLly, Lwo acuve
guaranLee funds wlLh a LoLal gross
value exceedlng t 73 mllllon : Lhe
looJs Je qotooue cloémo et
AoJlovlsoel, whlch ls funded by Lhe
CenLre nauonal de la ClnemaLographle
(CnC) and Lhe looJs loJosttles
coltotelles, funded ln large parL by Lhe
MlnlsLry of CulLure,.
1hese funds enable llClC Lo guaranLee
up Lo t 273 mllllon (llClC share),
correspondlng Lo LoLal loans of Lhe
order of t 363 mllllon, and sull have
sumclenL capaclLy Lo Lake on new rlsk.
8lsk rauos are regularly verlñed.
llClC guaranLees loans Lo ñlm and
audlovlsual producers and/or
dlsLrlbuLors whose acuvlues make
Lhem ellglble for CnC backlng, for Lhe
producuon or dlsLrlbuuon of Luropean
works suscepuble of auracung ñlm
lnvesLmenL or fundlng from Lhe
audlovlsual producuon supporL fund.
llClC guaranLees close Lo Lwo-Lhlrds of
Lhe lndependenL ñlms produced each
year. AparL from Lhe audlovlsual, All
companles reglsLered ln Lhe Lu and
acuve ln Lhe culLure lndusLry are
ellglble for llClC guaranLees.
hup:]]www.|fc|c.fr]eng||sh-
vers|on.htm|
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 204
8est Case 20: ICC
0297)"%"-#8)&%)*$5&25'*$%=*+*")*D%66/$
ICC
Spa|n
1he Cmclal CredlL lnsuLuLe ls a publlc
economlc enuLy under Lhe MlnlsLry of
llnance and Lconomy. 1he lnsuLuLe has
Lhe legal sLaLus of a credlL lnsuLuuon, wlLh
auLonomy ln lL's moneLary mauers and
managemenL Lo achleve Lhelr alms.
lCC promoLes economlc acuvlues LhaL are
relevanL for socleLy ln culLural, lnnovauve
or/and ecologlcal Lerms. 1hey supporL
lnvesLmenL pro[ecLs of Spanlsh
companles, seeklng Lo obLaln a more
compeuuve markeL and Lhus conLrlbuung
Lo Lhe economlc progress of Spaln. 1helr
lnvesLmenL ln companles alms Lo boosL
secLors llke Lhe ñlm lndusLry, LransporL,
Lechnologlcal lnnovauon pro[ecLs,
renewable energles and Lhe sLrengLhenlng
of Spanlsh companles abroad.
lurLhermore, lCC geLs lnvolved ln
economlc pollcy programmes ln crlsls
slLuauons, naLural dlsasLers or as an
lnsLrumenL Lo supporL Spanlsh exporLs.
1he lCC's funcuons can be organlsed ln
Lwo branches: llrsL, lL ls a speclallsed
credlL lnsuLuuon, meanlng LhaL ñrms ln
Spaln or Spanlsh companles LhaL are
esLabllshed abroad are funded boLh ln Lhe
medlum and long-Lerm. 8egardlng Lhls
aspecL Lhe lCC acLs ln Lwo ways: one
belng as a llne of medlLauon (Lhe
approprlauons are requesLed ln banks and
Lhrlûs), and second Lhrough dlrecL
operauons (companles applylng for
fundlng dlrecLly Lo Lhe lCC). Second, Lhe
lCC works as Lhe SLaLe llnanclal Agency,
managlng funds LhaL Lhe governmenL has
expressly asked Lo go Lo Lhose añecLed by
slLuauons of serlous economlc crlses,
naLural dlsasLers or slmllar slLuauons.
www.|co.es
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 203
8est Case 21: Cu|tuurInvest
()*+*")+7%)*&#-3#8)+-I%)*4#$5*D%$>'-&%+*8%7'*D%&#-3%7'+*$%)*%&>#%66/$
Cu|tuur Invest
8e|g|um
CulLuur lnvesL ls an lndependenL
lnvesLmenL fund managed by Lhe
Þaruclpaue MaaLschappl[ vlaanderen
(ÞMv). 1he fund ls almed aL
enLrepreneurs ln Lhe culLural
lndusLrles, who have producLs or
servlces wlLh a culLural conLenL,
creauon and markeung. WlLh Lhe
supporL of CulLuurlnvesL, Lhese
enLrepreneurs seek lndependence and
economlc growLh Lhrough a balanced
buslness model.
Slnce 2006, llanders has lnvesLed ln
fundlng for culLural acuvlues and
buslnesses. Clven Lhe lack of prlvaLe
lnvesLmenL ln culLural lndusLrles,
CulLuur lnvesL was creaLed. lL ls
lmporLanL Lo make clear LhaL Lhey do
lnvesL, as opposed Lo belng a granL
provldlng body, and Lherefore expecL a
ñnanclal reLurn. 1he lnvesLmenLs are
made ln Lhe secLors of: new medla and
compuLer games, audlovlsual and
dlglLal deslgn, Lhe muslc lndusLry,
fashlon deslgn, prlnLed medla and
graphlc deslgn, publlshers and
booksellers, muslcal and performlng
arLs, dlsLrlbuuon ln Lhe vlsual arLs.
1he lnvesLmenL body currenLly holds a
caplLal of t21.3 mllllon. 1hls was half
funded by ÞMv, wlLh and Lhe oLher
half belng provlded by seven sLraLeglc
prlvaLe parLners. WlLh an assumed raLe
of reLurn of 3.3 mllllon euro per year,
aûer Lwelve years Lhe fund ls expecLed
Lo have an lmpacL on Lhe markeL of
t100 mllllon. 1hls ob[ecuve can only
be achleved lf CulLuur lnvesL operaLes
as a rolllng fund, meanlng LhaL Lhe
funds LhaL are lnvesLed make a proñL.
1he basls for CulLuur lnvesL Lo lnvesL ls
Lherefore ñrsL and foremosL a well-
founded buslness plan and a
compeLenL Leam of enLrepreneurs,
wlLh culLural crlLerla Laklng on an
lmporLanL buL secondary role.
1hey lnvesL prlmarlly ln pro[ecLs of
companles Lhrough shorL Lerm loans,
buL also work wlLh loans for longer
perlods. 1hese loans are always
granLed Lo Lhe enLerprlse, and noL Lhe
lndlvlduals. 8esldes loans,
CulLuurlnvesL can also paruclpaLe ln
Lhe caplLal of Lhe companles, buL does
Lhls only by ralslng Lhe exlsung caplLal.
8oLh are ñnanclal lnsLrumenLs
deslgned Lo glve a boosL Lo Lhe culLural
enLrepreneurs and Lhus open Lhem Lo
greaLer opporLunlues. lurLhermore,
CulLuurlnvesL also collaLes daLa and
lnformauon from a range of
organlsauons wlLh servlces avallable
LhaL are speclñcally geared Lowards
Lhe creauve and culLural lndusLrles.
www.cu|tuur|nvest.be]
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 206
8est Case 22: Advantage Creanve Iund
U#*&2-#%6+@)&+7%C'-%66/$
Advantage Creanve Iund
Un|ted k|ngdom
1he lnvesLmenL fund ls operaLed by
AdvanLage Creauve lund (ACl) and
was seLup ln 2003 as Lhe ñrsL venLure
caplLal fund dedlcaLed Lo lnvesung ln
Lhe creauve lndusLrles.
1he fund was seL up when lL was
dlscovered LhaL Lhe creauve lndusLrles
have Lradluonally been dlsadvanLaged
when lL comes Lo sources of
lnvesLmenL supporL due Lo Lhelr
lnLanglble producLs and dynamlc
naLure. 1he fund operaLes by maklng
lnvesLmenLs from
£10,000 and up Lo a sum of £230,000
ln creauve companles based ln Lhe
WesL Mldlands and ln reLurn Lhese
Lake a small equlLy sLake. 1he
lnLeresung parL of Lhls pro[ecL ls LhaL lL
ls open Lo proposals from all klnds of
creauve buslnesses lncludlng sLarL-up
enLerprlses and esLabllshed
companles. 1here ls an amounL of
t280 000 on equlLy lnvesLmenL.
1he pro[ecL however pays speclal
auenuon Lo buslnesses LhaL
demonsLraLe: a sound undersLandlng
of Lhelr markeL of operauon, a deslre
Lo make money and also a wllllngness
Lo Lake rlsks. unllke mosL venLure
caplLal funds, Lhls pro[ecL even Lhough
lL ls publlcly funded, alms aL
sLrengLhenlng and developlng Lhe
creauve lndusLry secLor LhroughouL
Lhe WesL Mldlands.
1he pro[ecL ls ñnanced by Lhe Lu
8eglonal and uevelopmenL lund of
Lhe Lu Coheslon Þollcy.
www.advantagecreanvefund.co.uk
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 207
8est Case 23: Create 8er||n
E#$)D*#-%@7+['-3$%7)*.)*D%8#$)D*#-$B%@'7)5"+7%+*8%#"'*'3)"%8#")$)'*%3+.#-$
CkLA1L 8LkLIN
Germany
C8LA1L 8L8Lln ls an lnluauve by and for
8erlln ueslgners. C8LA1L 8L8Lln was
founded ln 2006 by 13 esLabllshed 8erlln-
based creauve buslnesses. now lL ls a
neLwork wlLh over 60 members
represenung Lhe creauve dlverslLy of Lhe
8erlln deslgn scene. C8LA1L 8L8Lln brlngs
LogeLher energles and ldeas and provldes
creauve LalenLs wlLh opporLunlues Lo
reallse Lhelr vlslons by sLrongly bellevlng
ln Lhe lmporLance of Lhe creauve
lndusLrles ln Lhe clLy's economlc
developmenL. C8LA1L 8L8Lln also alms Lo
connecL and brlng LogeLher 8erlln's
creauve LalenLs wlLh pollucal and
economlc declslon makers.
ln Lerms of supporL for enLrepreneurs ln
Lhe CulLural and Creauve lndusLrles,
C8LA1L 8L8Lln serves as a supporung hub
for creauve mlnds and ldeas ln and
around 8erlln.
C8LA1L 8erlln also promoLes Lhe
economlc poLenual of 8erlln's lndusLrles
by supporung lnnovauve pro[ecLs and also
oñers deslgners an opporLunlLy Lo furLher
neLwork and markeL Lhelr producLs. 1hls ls
done Lhrough monLhly Showrooms whlch
seeks Lo be Lhe hoLspoLs for Lhe reglonal
and lnLernauonal deslgn scene ln 8erlln.
1he showrooms whlch malnly alms aL
showcaslng Lhe ldeas and producLs of
deslgner also auracLs arL- and deslgn
lovers as well as Lhe general publlc.
Þro[ecLs carrled ouL by C8LA1L 8L8Lln
creaLes awareness and sLeer Lhe focus of
an lnLernauonal audlence Lowards Lhe
Cerman CaplLal, lLs creauve scene as well
as lLs economlc poLenual. 1hrough lLs
pro[ecLs, C8LA1L 8L8Lln sLrengLhens
8erlln's repuLauon as a unlque and
asplrlng ma[or clLy for deslgn and as Lhe
unLSCC deslgnaLed ŠClLy of ueslgn–.
As a communlcauon plauorm spannlng all
deslgn dlsclpllnes C8LA1L 8L8Lln
promoLes 8erlln's creauve scene as an
economlc facLor Lo be Laken serlously
because slnce lLs esLabllshmenL ln 2006
Lhe lnluauve has already managed many
varlous pro[ecLs ln Lurope, Lhe uS and
Asla.
www.create-ber||n.de
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 208
8est Case 24: I|npro
T5327+5*D%&>#%)*&#-*+5'*+7)$+5'*%'C%66%T,L$
I|npro
I|n|and
llnpro ls an assoclauon founded by
llnnlsh companles. llnpro deals wlLh
llnnlsh companles aL dlñerenL sLages of
lnLernauonallsauon and alms aL
guaranLeelng LhaL llnnlsh companles,
especlally small and medlum slze
companles, have access Lo hlgh quallLy,
comprehenslve lnLernauonallsauon
servlces around Lhe world. llnpro acLs as
consulLanL and speclallsL Lo llnnlsh
cllenLs, small and medlum slzed
companles, as well as growLh companles
ln parucular. Worklng wlLh llnpro glves
cllenLs an lnLeresung opporLunlLy Lo use
and bulld personal compeLency.
Cne pro[ecL of llnpro LhaL ls worLh
menuonlng ls Lhe Luovlmo Þro[ecL.
Luovlmo ls a Lwo year lnLernauonallsauon
program for creauve companles ñnanced
by Lhe MlnlsLry of Lconomy and
LmploymenL and Lhe MlnlsLry of
Lducauon. 1hls pro[ecL alms Lo boosL Lhe
lnLernauonallsauon of 20 creauve
companles, promoLe neLworklng and
shared learnlng beLween dlñerenL
creauve lndusLry companles as well as co-
creauon of new creauve concepLs. 1hls
pro[ecL alms Lo recognlse besL pracuces
and models for growLh and
lnLernauonallsauon ln creauve lndusLrles,
and lncrease undersLandlng on creauve
lndusLry.
llnpro helps enLrepreneurs and
companles ln Lhe culLural and creauve
lndusLrles by helplng Lhem reallse Lhelr
lnLernauonallsauon plan and boosung Lhe
lnLernauonal growLh of companles LhaL
are already acuve lnLernauonal buL are ln
need of exLra resources. 1hls pro[ecL ls
focused on Lhe muslc, deslgn, performlng
arLs, games and conLenL buslness, and
ñlm, Lv, av-lndusLrles.

1hls pro[ecL supporLs enLrepreneurs and
companles by provldlng Lhem wlLh a 1allor
made lnLernauonallsauon supporL for
creauve concepLs. 1hrough Lhls pro[ecL
paruclpaung companles are oñered
lnLernauonallsauon programme whlch ls
Lallored Lo company speclñc needs,
lessons on lnnovauon process, where
companles recognlze shared challenges or
markeL opporLunlues and work ln small
Leams soluuons or new oñerlngs Lo meeL
Lhem. Also companles geL Lhe opporLunlLy
Lo learn and neLwork wlLh oLher creauve
lndusLry companles, Þubllc lnnovauon
neLwork and medla.and neLwork wlLh
oLher creauve lndusLry companles, Þubllc
lnnovauon neLwork and medla
hup:]]www.hnpro.h]en-US]Þrograms]
Luov|mo]
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 209
8est Case 2S: Creanve Depot
T#"2-)*D%)*C'-3+7%/01%'*7)*#
Creanve Depot
Austr|a
Creauve uepoL ls parL of
CreauvwlrLschaû. 1hey provlde secure
reglsLrauon of auLhorshlp of creauve
worklngs, from poeLry Lo phoLography. lL
ls an elecLronlc servlce where creauve
people can upload Lhelr concepL, ldea and
any Lype of ñle LhaL descrlbes or expresses
Lhelr creauve good. 1he concepL can Lhen
elLher be revealed ln whlch case Creauve
depoL serves as a Lool for markeung or lL
can remaln hldden ln whlch case lL slmply
serves Lo esLabllsh a prlorlLy on
auLhorshlp ln case Lhe work ls belng
lnfrlnged by a Lhlrd parLy.
1hls ls a Lool Lo secure or prove properLy
ln an area ln an lnformal way. lL also
serves as a Lool Lo lncrease awareness and
vlslblllLy of creauve producLs. lL ls noL a
place where creauves can reglsLer for a
paLenL buL lL lmproves Lhe proof of
auLhorshlp wlLhln Lhe scope of copyrlghL.
www.creanvdepot.at
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 210
8est Case 26: Cwn It
_*7)*#%@-'&#"5'*%'C%)*8)4)82+7%+$$#&$%+*8%/0%)*C'-3+5'*%"#*&-#%C'-%66/$
Cwn It
Un|ted k|ngdom
Cwn It ls a free lnLellecLual properLy
advlce for creauve buslnesses. lL ls an
exLremely successful organlsauon
whlch has ralsed awareness and
promoLed undersLandlng of
lnLellecLual properLy (lÞ) amongsL Lhe
creauve lndusLrles. lL was creaLed ln
2004 and has an average of 7,000
vlslLors per monLh. Cwn lL ls a publlcly
owned servlce based aL Lhe unlverslLy
of Lhe ArLs London wlLh a parLnershlp
pro[ecL wlLh Lhe London uevelopmenL
Agency (LuA).
WhaL makes Cwn lL unlque ls LhaL lL ls
a speclallsed and dedlcaLed lÞ supporL
webslLe servlng Lhe needs of Lhe uk
creauve lndusLrles. Cwn lL works wlLh
nauonal, local and secLor-speclñc
organlsauons Lo dellver lLs resulLs. lL
conslsLs of 11,000 creauve buslness
members, 3,000 organlzauon
members and works wlLh 14 law ñrms.
lL has an addluonal lÞ pro bono servlce
provlded by a law ñrm.
lL alms Lo provlde creauve
enLrepreneurs wlLh accesslble,
speclallzed knowledge lÞ sysLems
whlch are lnLegraLed wlLhln Lhe
Creauve London framework. Creauves
are able Lo: l). proLecL and explolL Lhelr
lnLellecLual asseLs, ll). Lake full
advanLage of Lhe held caplLal, and lll).
use Lhelr lÞ Lo susLaln, develop and
grow Lhelr buslness.
Cwn lL belleves LhaL lÞ educauon
should be a compulsory parL of all
undergraduaLe arL, deslgn and
communlcauon courses: ŠSo yes, Cwn
lL ls a brllllanLly successful model of
supporL buL lL ls only servlng one slde
of Lhe equauon and lL ls only servlng
Lhe end of buslness. lL ls noL really
changlng Lhe audlence as a whole so
Lherefore we need Lo do more wlLhln
educauon.– Cwn lL belleves LhaL
sLudenLs as well as creauve buslness
advlsors should be knowledgeable and
be able Lo advlse sLudenLs and
professlonals on lÞ.
Cwn lL has also been lnvolved ln oLher
pro[ecLs wlLh Lhe alm of lncreaslng
knowledge provldlng servlces for
sLudenLs as well as professlonals. She
devlsed and developed 1he Lnterpr|se
Centre for the Creanve Arts ln 2000
(LCCA, www. Lcca-london.org) aL Lhe
unlverslLy of ArLs London. 1hls onllne
slLe alms Lo 'gulde London's creauve
people Lhrough buslness' and oñers
free advlce and lmmedlaLe supporL
and guldance such as: a face-Lo-face
advlce servlce, coachlng, semlnars,
workshops & neLworklng, lndusLry
evenLs & Lralnlng opporLunlues, a
resource llbrary, a dlrecLory of
agencles & servlces, facL sheeLs &
podcasLs and case sLudles.
www.own-|t.org
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 211
8est Case 27: kunst & 2aken
E#4#7'@)*D%*#W%92$)*#$$%$'725'*$%C'-%66/$
kunst& 2aken
1he Nether|ands
Modeled aûer a Lhe successful
concepL called ŠArLs & 8uslness– whlch
runs ln Lhe uk and CreaL 8rlLaln,
ŠkunsL & Zaken– has been founded ln
1996 ln order Lo provlde execuuve and
managemenL supporL Lo publlc and
non-proñL culLural lnsuLuuons.
Speclñcally for arL academles, Lhey
provlde supporL ln order Lo make Lhe
Lransluon from arL-sLudenL Lo creauve
worker more eñecuve.
6>+*D#%,+*+D#3#*&`
lollowlng Lhe successful conLrlbuuon
from CreauvlLy28uslness Lo Lhe annual
8uslness Leadershlp Þrogram ln 2008
organlsed by Medlq,
CreauvlLy28uslness was asked agaln ln
uecember 2009 Lo Lake care of a parL
of Lhls program. 1he cenLral quesuon
ln Lhls parL of Lhe program was how Lo
make one buslness of Medlq, lnsLead
of a chaln of several smaller
companles. 1he percepuon of Lhe
lnLernauonal (group) dlrecLors was Lhe
approach belng used: Pow can Lhey
experlence Medlq from Lhe hearL• And
how can Lhe lndlvldual experlences of
Lhe group dlrecLors Lell one slngle
sLory abouL Medlq•
1he reducuon of approxlmaLely 43
lndlvldual sLorles lnLo a sLory ls a
complex process. 1he alm was Lo make
Lhls process more emclenL, eñecuve
and appeallng. 1o achleve Lhls,
CreauvlLy28uslness has used Lhe
sLoryLelllng and vlsuallzauon
dlsclpllnes. ArusLs and paruclpanLs
publlshed a sLory abouL Medlq wlLh
co-creauon as Lhelr work-form.
ulumaLely, Lhe CLC used Lhls as an
lnpuL Lo Lhe presenLauon he gave aL
Lhe end of Lhe day.
L*&-#@#*#2-+7%$.)77$`
8oer & Croon CorporaLe SLraLegy has
creauvlLy ln hlgh esLeem and Lhey
sLrlve Lo develop Lhemselves ln Lhls
area. 1he consulLanLs of 8oer & Croon
CorporaLe SLraLegy have already had a
creauvlLy Lralnlng ln Lhe pasL where
creauvlLy and problem solvlng was
cenLral.
ln order Lo address Lhls lssue
CreauvlLy28uslness had Lhe work of
Lhe consulLanL compared Lo Lhe
creauon of Lhe arLs. Analysls of Lhe
pracuce of arusLs, sclenusLs and
englneers shows LhaL generally
conducLed Lhey are along Lhe same
llnes. undersLandlng Lhe varlous sLages
of a process of creauon and creauvlLy
LhaL can be addressed whlle Lhe
sLrengLh of lndlvlduals, Leams and
organlzauons lncrease.
CreauvlLy28uslness made use of
creauve wrlung Lechnlques Lo
demonsLraLe Lhe dlñerenL processes.
www.kunst-en-zaken.n|
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 212
8est Case 28: Demo|a
:)*.)*D%Q*)4#-$)5#$%+*8%66/$
Demo|a |n Creanve 1empere
I|n|and
uemola ls parL of a pro[ecL ln Creauve
1ampere, Lhe ClLy of 1ampere's buslness
developmenL pollcy programme,
(2006-2011), whlch alms Lo faclllLaLe new
buslness, servlces, lnnovauveness and
creauvlLy. lL ls llnnlsh largesL reglonal
creauve economy developmenL
programme and for many years 1ampere
has been recognlsed lnLernauonally for lLs
lnluauves ln Lhe buslness secLor, culLural
lndusLry and conLenL developmenL. 1he
LargeL of Lhe programme ls Lo creaLe
pro[ecLs worLh over t 40 mllllon, aûer Lwo
years of operauon, more Lhan t 14 mllllon
have been accumulaLed ln 61 pro[ecLs.
Seed money for lnluaung Lhe pro[ecLs has
been reserved ln Lhe budgeL.
1he programme oñers a framework and
fundlng for klcklng oñ pro[ecLs LhaL creaLe
new buslness, and acLs as an acceleraLor
and as a creaLor of neLworks. Companles
and organlsauons plan and lmplemenL Lhe
pro[ecLs selecLed ln Lhe programme.
1he programme ls dlvlded lnLo Lhree
areas, such as Creauve lndusLrles,
lnnovauons and enLrepreneurshlp and
Auracuve clLy. Creauve 1empere has
pro[ecLs such as Luke- 1he creauve
lndusLrles developmenL programme, or
ŠCreauve 1ools– a Leonardo programme.
ln developlng enLrepreneurshlp, youLh
and creauve lndusLrles are our maln
LargeL groups ln Lhe Creauve 1ampere
programme. Cne example of an
lnnovauon plauorm ls Demo|a.
uemola makes Lhe co-operauon beLween
companles and unlverslues closer. lL
Leams up sLudenL of dlñerenL
backgrounds: Lechnlcal, economlcal, arL or
deslgn Lo make Lhem work LogeLher. 1he
uemola Leams make company pro[ecLs
wlLh an open lnnovauon prlnclple.
1here ls a comblnauon of a pedagoglcal
pro[ecL as well as applled research on Lhe
basls of open lnnovauon. 1he company
provldes Lhe problem Lo solve for Lhe
sLudenL Leams, Lhe Leams Lry Lo solve Lhe
problem and creaLe a feaslble soluuon / a
demo. ln Lhe end, Lhe lnvenLor/Leam
owns Lhe rlghLs Lo Lhe lnvenuon and geLs
compensauon for lL
uemola pro[ecL ls led by 1echnology
CenLre Permla LogeLher wlLh unlverslues.
nokla was Lhe lnluaLor for uemola. lL
sLarLed ln auLumn 2008.
www.|uovatampere.h]eng
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 213
8est Case 29: ne|s|nk| Schoo| of Creanve Lntrepreneursh|p
T5327+5*D%#*&-#@-#*#2-$>)@%)*%&>#%66/$
ne|s|nk| Schoo| of Creanve
Lntrepreneursh|p
I|n|and
1he Pelslnkl School of Creauve
LnLrepreneurshlp (PSCL) was
esLabllshed ln laLe 2003 Lo acL as a
caLalysL Lo develop Lhe enLrepreneurlal
capaclLy and Lo sumulaLe and supporL
research commerclallsauon eñorLs ln
Lhe Pelslnkl reglon.
PSCL draws upon Lhe LalenL pool of
llnland's leadlng deslgn (1alk),
buslness (PSL), and Lechnlcal (1kk)
unlverslues. SLarL-up fundlng and
supporL has been provlded by
1eknologlaLeolllsuuden 100-
vuoussˆˆu‹, Lhe clues of Pelslnkl,
Lspoo, vanLaa and kaunlalnen, Lhe
MlnlsLry of lnLerlor, and from Lhe
Pelslnkl MeLropollLan uevelopmenL
Agency, CulmlnaLum.
ln descrlblng Lhls collaborauve
lnluauve as a 'school', Lhe neLwork
ñrmly esLabllshes Lhe lmporLance of
educauon as Lhelr prlmary mlsslon.
Cperaung ln close co-operauon wlLh,
buL aL arm's lengLh from Lhe
unlverslues, PSCL ls able Lo
experlmenL wlLh hlgh lmpacL
approaches Lo enLrepreneurlal
educauon LhaL would be dlmculL Lo
underLake or ñnance wlLhln Lhe
currenL framework ln whlch
unlverslues operaLe. PSCL sLudenLs
wlll beneñL from Lhe lnslghLs of leadlng
'Lhlnkers' and 'pracuuoners' of
enLrepreneurshlp.
1he sLudenLs ln Lhe lu8M programme
Lake courses aL all Lhree unlverslues ln
Lechnology, buslness managemenL,
deslgn and arL, Lhus expandlng Lhelr
perspecuves. 1hen Lhey oñer Lhelr
knowledge ln Lhe form of lndusLry
pro[ecLs. Lach pro[ecL ls compleLed by
Leams of 3 Lo 3 sLudenLs, represenung
all Lhree unlverslues lnvolved. A
pro[ecL manager and an experL are
chosen from Lhe unlverslues Lo
supervlse Lhe progress of Lhe pro[ecL.
1he pro[ecLs are conñdenual, lf
necessary, Lhe sLudenLs and Lhe
supervlsors wlll slgn a non-dlsclosure
agreemenL.
ln Lhe lndusLry pro[ecLs, Lhe company
lnvolved ls able Lo come lnLo conLacL
wlLh young, lnnovauve sLudenLs and Lo
obLaln ñrsL-hand lnformauon on Lhe
mosL recenL research and Lralnlng ln
Lhe ñeld. uurlng Lhe course of Lhe
pro[ecL, Lhe company also has an
opporLunlLy Lo evaluaLe Lhe sLudenLs
ln vlew of posslble fuLure
collaborauon.
• ln 2009 Lhe lu8M
programme was llsLed ln
Lhe Lop 30 of Lhe besL
deslgn programmes ln Lhe
world by 8uslness Week.
• lu8M has been clLed as one
of Lhe Lop nlne
programmes Lo WaLch.
3
• CraduaLes Lyplcally ñnd
[obs ln deslgn
managemenL, research, or
consulLauon.
www.cu|m|natum.h, hup:]]
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 214
8est Case 30: I|rstport
T2@@'-&%'*%8#3+*8%C'-%$'")+7%#*&-#@-#*#2-$
I|rstport
Un|ted k|ngdom
llrsLporL serves new and emerglng
soclal enLrepreneurs Lhrough face-Lo-
face supporL and advlce. Cwlng Lo Lhe
facL LhaL Lhey work dlrecLly wlLh
lndlvlduals and Lhelr enLerprlses, Lhelr
pracucal needs can be qulckly
ldenuñed and addressed, from Lhe
early sLages of Lhe enLrepreneurlal
process, when new enLrepreneurs
requlre a baslc undersLandlng of Lhelr
ldeas' markeL poLenual, Lo Lhe laLer
sLages of Lhe enLerprlse's llfe-cycle.
Accordlng Lo llrsLporL correspondenL,
beglnnlng enLrepreneurs are lacklng
Lhe undersLandlng of Lwo essenual
mauers: money and markeLs. 1haL
belng Lhe case, Lhose who approach
llrsLporL for asslsLance are oñered,
lnlually, a personal consulLauon by
whlch Lhe supporL sLañ can hear
ñrsLhand whaL are Lhe ldeas and
vlslons of Lhe enLrepreneur, and can
Lhereby assess Lhe skllls LhaL wlll be
needed Lo face upcomlng challenges.
1hls one-Lo-one lnLeracuon ls one of
Lhe mosL auracuve feaLures of worklng
wlLh llrsLporL, ln parL because lL ls
compleLely free of cosL.
ln addluon Lo a personal meeung and
advlce sesslon, llrsLporL plugs new
enLrepreneurs lnLo exlsung neLworks
LhaL correspond Lo Lhe new
enLrepreneurs' geographlcal
convenlence. 1hrough Lhese, Lhe
enLrepreneur has access Lo regular
neLworklng meeungs where
knowledge and experlences can be
exchanged. 8aLher Lhan organlzlng
Lhese meeungs, llrsLporL faclllLaLes Lhe
connecuon by dlrecung enLrepreneurs
Lo organlzauons ln Lhelr own reglon
LhaL hosL meeungs and oLher
acuvlues.
LasL, buL noL leasL, llrsLporL provldes
Lralnlng Lhrough workshops and group
based masLer classes on mauers
relaLed Lo buslness and managerlal
skllls. lnformauon on oûen complex
ñnanclal, leglslauve and regulaLory
framework ls made approachable
Lhrough experL advlce. And, as many
creauve enLrepreneurs are, by naLure,
LempLed Lo change and lmprove
deslgns, llrsLporL, Lhrough lLs Lralnlng
programs, enables Lhem Lo learn skllls
ln keeplng a buslness plan conslsLenL,
yeL producuve.
www.hrstport.org.uk
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 213
8est Case 31: Creanve Apprenncesh|p
K)4)*D%&>#%'@@'-&2*)&I%&'%I'2*D%@#'@7#%&'%7#+-*%'*X&>#X\'9%&>-'2D>%+@@-#*5"#$>)@%)*%&>#%66/$
Creanve Apprenncesh|p
Un|ted k|ngdom
Creauve Apprenuceshlp ls parL of Lhe
Creauve & CulLural Skllls ln Lhe uk
SecLor Skllls Councll for Craûs, CulLural
PerlLage, ueslgn, LlLeraLure, Muslc,
Þerfomlng and vlsual ArLs. 1he Councll
brldges Lhe gap beLween lndusLry,
educauon and Lhe governmenL, Lo glve
employers a real lnßuence over
educauon and skllls ln Lhe uk.
lounded ln May 2004, Creauve &
CulLural Skllls was granLed lLs llcence
Lo operaLe by Lhe SecLor Skllls
uevelopmenL Agency on 1sL !une,
2003.
1he Creauve Apprenuceshlp was
founded on Lhe basls LhaL Lhe
quallñcauons of Lhe graduaLes are noL
necessarlly ñmng Lhe demands of Lhe
CCls such as enLrepreneurlal ßalr or
Lhe rlghLs skllls.
A culLure of unpald work experlence
domlnaLes Lhe creauve and culLural
lndusLrles. lor employers, someone
wlLh relevanL on-Lhe-[ob experlence ls
more valuable Lhan an unLesLed
graduaLe someumes. 1hls
dlscrlmlnaLes agalnsL Lhose who
cannoL añord Lo work for free and Lhe
lmpacL ls slgnlñcanL.
1he Creauve Apprenuceshlp alms aL
glvlng young LalenLed people a sLarL ln
Lhe creauve and culLural lndusLrles.
lL ls a mlx of on Lhe [ob and oñ Lhe [ob
Lralnlng where young people have Lhe
opporLunlLy Lo acqulre skllls and
knowledge and aualn quallñcauons
whlle dolng so. 1hese quallñcauons
are deslgned and approved by
lndusLry. Cn-Lhe-[ob learnlng ls a
slgnlñcanL componenL of Lhe Creauve
Apprenuceshlp.
Launched omclally ln SepLember 2008,
Lhe Creauve Apprenuceshlps ls Lhe
ñrsL lndusLry approved and
governmenL funded apprenuceshlp
framework for Lhe creauve and
culLural lndusLrles.
hup:]]www.ccsk|||s.org.uk]
Apprenncesh|ps]
CreanveApprenncesh|ps]tab|d]82]
Defau|t.aspx
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 216
8est Case 32: Creanvw|rtschah
O-+)*)*DB%*#&W'-.%+*8%-#@-#$#*&+5'*%'C%)*&#-#$&$%'C%66/$
Arge Creanv W|rtshah
Austr|a
Arge creauv wlrLschaû ausLrla (cwa) ls
Ša compeLence cenLre for creauve
enLrepreneurs and lndlvlduals and
represenLs Lhe lnLeresLs of Lhe
AusLrlan creauve economy counLry-
wlde slnce 2003. Lmbedded ln Lhe
AusLrlan lederal Lconomlc Chamber
cwa acLs as a llnk Lo Lhe economy and
supporLs all creauve people who wanL
Lo be acuve as enLrepreneurs ln Lhls
ñeld.–
AcLvlues are focused on Lhree areas: l).
enLrepreneurlal skllls- (Lralnlng and
supporL ln neLworklng), ll).
represenLauon of lnLeresLs- lll).
lnformauon and awareness- cwa acLs
as a knowledge hub for Lhe lnLeresLs of
Lhe creauve lndusLrles.
C hoch 3 (C to the th|rd power),
workshops for Creanve Commun|ty
Coach|ng
lor CCl and enLrepreneurs, neLworklng
and knowhow are prerequlslLes for
buslness success. 1he coachlng pro[ecL
was lnluaLed by Arge ln 2008 and has
developed wlLh Lhe help of Lvolve, Lhe
lnluauve for Lhe developmenL of
lnnovauon for creauve buslnesses, Lhe
MlnlsLry of Lconomy ln co-operauon
wlLh reglonal and local parLners.
CreanvDepot
Creauv uepoL ls an onllne servlce
whlch allows lndlvlduals Lo manage
Lhe lnLellecLual properLy rlghLs of a
self-devlsed concepL. 8eglsLered users
can dlglLally upload Lhelr plece of work
(e.g. LexL, vldeo, concepL) and recelve
a dlglLal umesLamp, a Creauve
Commons lcon. 1he work ls llnked Lo
Lhe auLhor and can be helpful wlLh
regards Lo lÞ rlghL. uaLa whlch has
been added Lo Lhe slLe ls publlcly
accesslble. 1he descrlpuon of Lhe work
ls vlslble. Powever, one can choose
wheLher Lhe uploaded ñle ls vlslble Lo
oLhers. lL ls posslble Lo upload a LoLal
of Lhree ñles per accounL and year.
1hls ls noL a paLenL or uullLy model.
CreauvuepoL does noL esLabllsh new
rlghLs. lLs alm ls Lo lmprove Lhe proof
of auLhorshlp wlLhln Lhe scope of
copyrlghL. ln case of lnfrlngemenL
dlspuLes, creauve wlrLschaû AusLrla
(CWA) oñers medlauon servlces.
(www.creauvedepoL.aL)
Informanon nub
Cne of Lhe faclllues of Lhe lnformauon
hub ls Lhe producuon of brochures
whlch are of lnLeresL for creauve
enLrepreneurs and are conunually
revlsed. 8esearch ls also done ln order
Lo ascerLaln wheLher Lhe needs of Lhe
creauve enLrepreneurs are meL.
lnformauon and awareness ls
exchanged vla Lhe webslLe.
www.creanvw|rtschah.at
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 217
8est Case 33: Creanve Industr|es know|edge 1ransfer
!84+*")*D%)**'4+5'*%&>-'2D>%.*'W7#8D#%&-+*$C#-
Creanve Industr|es know|edge
1ransfer
Un|ted k|ngdom
1he Creauve lndusLrles knowledge
1ransfer ls parL of Lhe 24 knowledge
1ransfer neLworks (k1n) funded by Lhe
uk 1echnology SLraLegy 8oard. 1hese
k1ns are nauonal neLworks ln a
speclñc ñeld of Lechnology or buslness
appllcauon whlch brlngs LogeLher
people from buslnesses, unlverslues,
research, ñnance and Lechnology
organlsauons Lo sumulaLe lnnovauon
Lhrough knowledge Lransfer.
1he Creauve lndusLrles k1n ls seL ln
place Lo lmprove Lhe uk's lnnovauon
performance by lncreaslng Lhe breadLh
and depLh or Lhe knowledge Lransfer
of Lechnology lnLo uk-based
buslnesses and by acceleraung Lhe
raLe aL whlch Lhls process occurs. 1he
speclñc alms of a knowledge 1ransfer
neLwork lnclude Lhe lmproved
lnnovauon Lhrough new collaborauons
beLween people, knowledge and
experlence ln buslness, and across
secLor.
1hrough mulu-dlsclpllnary neLworks
and Lrlangulauon beLween research,
buslness and dlñerenL secLors, Lhe
creauve lndusLrles k1n alm aL pracucal
soluuons Lo lmprove lnnovauon.
1he 8eacon Þro[ect (for knowledge
1ransfer-k1) alms aL creaung a vlslon
Lo lncrease Lhe exchange of knowledge
wlLhln Lhe CCls by creaung a basellne
lnformlng of opporLunlues and
Lhemauc barrlers for k1 ln CCls. 1he
key ñndlngs of Lhe ñrsL phase reporL
underllned Lhe need of exchange of
lnformauon (especlally Lechnlcal and
lnslghL conLenL), especlally lnformal
exchange of knowledge and of
connecung formal and lnformal
knowledge beLween dlñerenL
communlues such as academla, CCls
and buslnesses. 1he lssue of lÞ8s and
lnLernal and exLernal organlsauonal
culLure were also key elemenLs.
Aûer Lhe creauon of Lhls basellne, Lhe
Clk1n have creaLed scenarlos
encompasslng Lhe opporLunlues and
barrlers LhaL CCls have Lo face ln Lerms
of knowledge Lransfers. 1hls helped ln
brlnglng recommendauons ln order Lo
lncrease Lhe lnnovauon by focuslng on
knowledge Lransfer.
www.creanve|ndustr|esktn.org
hup:]]creanve|ndustr|esktn.org]
beacons
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 218
8est Case 34: SLL
T>+-)*D%.*'W7#8D#%+*8%#Y@#-)#*"#%)*%'-8#-%&'%8#4#7'@%*#W%&>)*.)*D
SLL Þro[ect
Un|ted k|ngdom
SLL - Sharlng Lxperlence Lurope -
Þollcy, lnnovauon & ueslgn ls a
neLwork of eleven organlzauons'
sharlng knowledge and experlence ln
order Lo develop new Lhlnklng,
dlssemlnaLe good pracuces and
lnßuence local, reglonal and nauonal
pollcles for deslgn and lnnovauon ln
Lhelr counLrles. 1he parLners come
from uk, 8elglum, uenmark, LsLonla,
llnland, lrance, lreland, lLaly, Þoland,
Slovenla and Spaln. All currenLly work
as an lnLegral parL of Lhelr own
reglonal lnnovauon pollcy and Lhelr
reglonal governmenLs have commlued
Lo explorlng lmprovemenLs ln Lhe
provlslon and dellvery of lnnovauon,
enLrepreneurshlp and deslgn Lhrough
lndlvldual or [olnL pollcles.
1he maln ob[ecuve of Lhls pro[ecL ls Lo
share knowledge and experlence on
how Lo lnLroduce and lnLegraLe deslgn
lnLo lnnovauon pollcles lnLo reglonal
and nauonal pollcles Lo boosL
lnnovauon, susLalnablllLy and soclal
and economlc developmenL. 1hls
pro[ecL also alms Lo sumulaLe debaLe,
develop new Lhlnklng and bulld
rapporL and credlblllLy ln order Lo
lnßuence deslgn and lnnovauon pollcy
aL reglonal and nauonal levels. Also
worklng dlrecLly wlLh governmenLs ln
paruclpaung counLrles ln each of Lhe
eleven counLrles Lhls pro[ecL hopes Lo
lobby and promoLe lnnovauon pollcy
ln Lurope.
Lven Lhough Lhe SLL Þro[ecL does noL
provlde dlrecL supporL Lo SML,s ln Lhe
CulLural and creauve lndusLrles lL has
Lhrough workshops succeeded ln
provldlng companles wlLh deLalled and
proven knowledge of how Lhey can
eñecuvely ñL deslgn lnLo Lhelr sLraLeglc
plannlng. lL has also provlded
opporLunlLy for managers Lo meeL
deslgners and also neLwork beLween
companles slnce guesL durlng Lhese
workshops are encouraged Lo lnLeracL
wlLh each oLher.
Also Lhrough semlnars and Lralnlng
Lhls pro[ecL has resulLed ln
lmprovemenLs ln new compeLencles ln
Lhe reglon (eco-deslgners) and Lhe
creauon of an eco-deslgn club. More
eco-deslgn pro[ecLs are under way and
a collecuve pro[ecL, ŠCradle Lo Cradle–
has sLarLed up.
hup:]]www.seepro[ect.org]|ndex
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 219
8est Case 3S: I881
/**'4+5'*%&>-'2D>%&#">*'7'DI
I881
8e|g|um
l881 (lnLerdlsclpllnary lnsuLuLe for
8roadband 1echnology) ls an
lndependenL research lnsuLuLe creaLed
by Lhe llemlsh governmenL Lo
mouvaLe lC1 lnnovauon. 1hls ls
achleved Lhrough varlous ways Lo
acuvely supporL companles and
organlzauons ln research and
developmenL. 1he lnsuLuLe brldges
LogeLher companles, auLhorlues and
non-proñL organlzauons Lhrough
research pro[ecLs LhaL address
Lechnlcal and non-Lechnlcal lssues.
l881, as a research lnsuLuuon, places
greaL emphasls on engaglng ln mulu-
dlsclpllnary, demand-drlven research
sLudles. 1hese are carrled ouL for Lhe
llemlsh buslness communlLy and Lhe
llemlsh governmenL and lncorporaLe
Lechnologlcal, legal and soclal
dlmenslons. 1hrough Lhese research
endeavors, Lhere ls Lhe ob[ecuve of
maklng llanders lnLo a leadlng and
lnLernauonally recognlzed player
wlLhln Lhe secLor of lC1 and lC1
lnnovauon.
ln Lerms of Lhe culLural and creauve
lndusLrles, l881 has one focus called
ŠArL&u–, co-operauon wlLhln arL and
research. l881 ls of Lhe oplnlon LhaL
research, organlzauon and creauvlLy
musL be lnLegraLed Lo develop a real
and durable compeuuve advanLage.
1hus, Lhe arL program supporLs
pro[ecLs LhaL are cumng-edge,
refreshlng and have an arusuc
poLenual and encourage collaborauon
beLween arusLs and researchers.
Also lnLeresung are l881's lSLep
Lralnlng sesslons, whlch began ln 2006.
1hese, conducLed LogeLher wlLh
vlerlck Leuven-CenL ManagemenL
School, are almed aL researchers ln
l881 pro[ecLs and oñer Lhem supporL
ln Lhe areas of developmenL and
lmplemenLauon of research resulLs.
ÞaruclpanLs learn how Lo llnk
Lechnology wlLh Lhe markeL and how
Lechnology pro[ecLs can be developed
Lo Lhe polnL where Lhey can acLually
be puL lnLo Lhe markeL.
locuslng on lC1 lnnovauons, as an all-
encompasslng domaln, l881 provldes
numerous supporL mechanlsms Lo Lhe
creauve professlonal and
enLrepreneur. CreauvlLy and new ldeas
are sumulaLed and nurLures by
acuvlues such as Lhe lncubaLor and Lhe
lab faclllues. 1he lnLerdlsclpllnary
research approach Lhus sumulaLes Lhe
lnvaluable co-operauon and exchange
beLween knowledge cenLers,
companles, publlc auLhorlues and Lhe
creauve lndusLrles aL large.
hup:]]www.|bbt.be
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 220
8est Case 36: 1ULI
()*+*")*D%-#$#+-">%)*&'%)**'4+5'*%@-'82"&a$#-4)"#$%+*8%66/$
1ULI
I|n|and
1he 1uLl program ls a nauon-wlde
program funded by 1ekes (Lhe llnnlsh
lundlng Agency for 1echnology and
lnnovauon) LhaL Lurns research resulLs
lnLo buslness lnnovauons. lnvolvlng
more Lhan 46 research lnnovauons ln
llnland, Lhe program began ln 2008
and wlll run unul 2013. lL relles on a
budgeL of approxlmaLely 30 mllllon
Luros. 1he 1uLl program, Lhough noL
excluslve Lo Lhe culLural and creauve
lndusLrles, has esLabllshed companles
selllng producLs and servlces ln secLors
such as gamlng and fashlon.
1he servlces provlded by 1uLl Lo Lhe
emerglng enLrepreneur who belleves
Lhey have a greaL ldea ls almosL Loo
good Lo be Lrue. 1he process from
ldea Lo enLerprlse beglns wlLh an
evaluauon process LhaL can be furLher
dlvlded lnLo Lhree sLeps: lnlual
evaluauon (experL servlces evaluaLe
Lhe lnlual commerclal poLenual of an
ldea, up Lo 3000 Luros avallable),
evaluauon (a commerclallzauon paLh
for Lhe ldea ls developed Lo open up
new prospecLs and removlng
obsLacles, 20000 Luros), and
reñnemenL (challenges and posslble
boulenecks solved ln Lhe areas of
producL developmenL and Lesung,
30000 Luros). lnvenLors Lake no
personal responslblllLy for Lhe fundlng.
1hus, Lhere ls no ñnanclal rlsk
lnvolved, whlch can be one of Lhe
mosL lnumldaung obsLacles lnhlblung
an ldea from reachlng anywhere near
Lhe polnL of commerclallzauon.
1he fundlng made avallable Lhrough
Lhe 1uLl program noL only eases Lhe
Lransluon from ldea Lo producL or
servlce, buL also provldes Lhe
enLrepreneurs wlLh lnvaluable
knowledge on Lhelr poLenual
enLerprlse and Lhe ways ln whlch Lhe
wlll have Lo cope, once esLabllshed.
lnformauon such as paLenung
procedures, legal aspecLs, markeL
analyses, Lhe developmenL of buslness
and fundlng plans, proLoLype
developmenL and a hosL of addluonal
servlces are oñered. Addluonally,
lmporLanL connecuons and neLworks
are esLabllshed wlLh lnLeresLed parues
ln Lhe buslness communlLy. Þarucularly
ln Lhe ñnal sLages of Lhe 1uLl process,
Lhe alm ls Lo Šprovlde Lhe ldea wlLh lLs
own capable wlngs and seL Lhe pro[ecL
on lLs way Lowards success.–
1he 1uLl program's mosL auracuve
feaLure ls LhaL all Lhe servlces are of
Lhe hlghesL quallLy and absoluLely free
of charge. ln addluon, lLs focus on
research and developmenL by
enllsung Lhe co-operauon of research
lnsuLuuons ls noLeworLhy. 1herefore,
Lhere has been Lremendous lnLeresL aL
a Luropean and even lnLernauonal
scale. lL ls a model worLh modellng ln
Lhe lnLeresLs of lnnovauon and
Lechnology as well as Lhe culLural and
creauve lndusLrles ln Lurope.
hup:]]www.tu||.|nfo]
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 221
8esL Case 37: ulgluemo
()*+*")+7%$2@@'-&%C'-%+$$)$5*D%66/$%)*%8#4#7'@)*D%"-#+54#%"'*&#*&%8)D)&+77I
D|g|Demo
I|n|and
ln Lhe auLumn of 2002 Lhe MlnlsLry of
Lducauon
2
and Lhe Þromouon CenLre for
Audlovlsual CulLure (AvLk) agreed on
supporung producL developmenL of
audlovlsual conLenL Lhrough a plloL
pro[ecL named lundlng for ÞroducL
uevelopmenL for Creauve lndusLrles from
2002 Lo 2003. ln Lhe auLumn of 2003 Lhe
MlnlsLry and AvLk launched a new Lhree
year ulglLal uemo Þro[ecL: ulgluemo
(2006-2008).
uurlng Lhe lundlng for ÞroducL
uevelopmenL for Creauve lndusLrles
programme Lhe LoLal amounL of subsldles
was small t 113.000, buL for ulgluemo Lhe
annual amounL of ñnanclal supporL was
ralsed Lo abouL t 400.000 per year, and
subsldles are allocaLed Lwlce a year. AL Lhe
beglnnlng of 2008 Lhe amounL of money
was ralsed from t 2.000 Lo t 3.000 per
pro[ecL. 1he subsldy amounL can cover up
Lo 30° of Lhe LoLal cosLs of Lhe
developmenL pro[ecL and ls almed for
mlcro, small and medlum slzed
enLerprlses.
73° of Lhe pro[ecLs ln Lhe ñrsL ulgluemo
programme have produced a ñnlshed
demo and demonsLraLed conLenL
producuon ln a form whlch ls compleLe
and coherenL from a professlonal and
lndusLrlal polnL of vlew. Powever, Lhe
conLenL has noL yeL (reporL wrluen ln
2008) spread wldely Lo addluonal
plauorms aûer Lesung. A maln reason
belng LhaL a remarkable share of conLenL
producLs are games or conLenL servlces
LargeLed Lo a cerLaln plauorm.
1he programme has played an lmporLanL
role ln promoung Lhe developmenL of a
LoLal of 21 new commerclal producLs, 13
new conLenL servlces, and a LoLal of 13
new concepL deslgns durlng 2003-2006.
nearly 70° of Lhe new commerclal
producLs are games
www.m|nedu.h
www.kop|osto.avek.h
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 222
8est Case 38: Inserra|ves Incubator
T2@@'-5*D%66/%$&+-&X2@$%+*8%9-)8D)*D%&>#%D+@$%9#&W##*%92$)*#$$#$%+*8%66/$
Inserra|ves Incubator
Þortuga|
lnserralves Þro[ecL ls operaLed by 1he
Serralves loundauon whlch ls an
Luropean culLural lnsuLuuon servlng
Lhe nauonal communlLy, whose
mlsslon ls Lo ralse Lhe general publlc's
awareness concernlng conLemporary
arL and Lhe envlronmenL.
1hls pro[ecL ls a speclallsed lncubaLor
for sumulaung and supporung
enLrepreneurlal lnluauves ln Lhe
creauve lndusLrles. 1hls lncubaLor alms
aL brldglng Lhe well known gaps
beLween creauve people and arusLs,
and Lhe buslness world, by provldlng
adequaLe envlronmenL and condluons.
1hls pro[ecLs was lnLroduced because
of Lhe need Lo glve a buslness
dlmenslon Lo Lhe acuvlLy of arusLs and
creauve enLrepreneurs. lL was also
lnLroduced because arusL and creauve
people mosL of Lhe ume Lend Lo have a
llmlLed background and knowledge ln
crlucal Loplcs for semng up a buslness,
such as baslc ldeas on managemenL,
buslness sLraLegy, pro[ecL managemenL
and fundlng, markeung and sales
pollcles.
As parL of lLs lnnovauve naLure Lhls
ŠlncubaLor– alms Lo provlde
enLrepreneurs ln Lhe CCl wlLh a speclal
physlcal envlronmenL for an Šopen–
developmenL of Lhelr enLrepreneurlal
pro[ecLs and for Lhelr lnLeracuon so as
Lo promoLe lnnovauon and
convergence of dlsclpllnes. Among
oLher Lhls pro[ecL also alms Lo creaLe
new developmenL and markeung
opporLunlues for enLrepreneurs by
Šbreedlng– new companles ln a
favourable envlronmenL ln Lerms of
creauvlLy.
1hls pro[ecL ls expecLed Lo have a
slgnlñcanL economlc lmpacL
parucularly ln Lhe ÞorLo 8eglon. Agaln
lL ls also expecLed Lo have conslderable
culLural eñecLs because Lhe resulLs of
Lhe enLerprlse acuvlues cover a broad
specLrum of areas, ranglng from muslc
producuon Lo web 1v, mulu-medla
deslgn for spaces, conLemporary arL
resLorauon, Šdldacuc cloLhlng–,
[ewellery, or Lhe producuon of mulu-
dlsclpllnary workshops for chlldren.
Also mosL of Lhe producLs and servlces
resulung from Lhe companles'
acuvlues are somehow framed or
promoLed by ŠSerralves– Lhus
guaranLeelng a large vlslblllLy and
dlssemlnauon. 1hls ls belleved wlll glve
a greaLer vlslblllLy Lo Lhese pro[ecLs,
and also hopefully have a repllcauon
eñecL wlLh clear culLural
consequences.
hup:]]www.serra|ves.pt]gca]?
|d=3068
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 223
8est Case 39: Dutch Game Garden
/*C'-3+7%+*8%"-'$$X$#"&'-+7%*#&W'-.)*D%C'-%9''$5*D%)**'4+54#%#*&-#@-#*#2-$
Dutch Game Garden
1he Nether|ands
•lt's o foooJouoo oot olmeJ ot
potts of tbe cbolo, bot ot tbe
wbole cbolo.• vlkLor Wl[nen
1he uuLch Came Carden (uCC) was
founded only Lwo years ago wlLh Lhe
vlslon of lnsplrlng, lnnovaung,
sumulaung and connecung Lhe uuLch
game lndusLry ln Lhe neLherlands and,
lf posslble, lnLernauonally.
1here are Lhree maln programs run by
Lhe uCC and whlch caLalog Lhe
ma[orlLy of Lhe organlzauons acuvlues.
1hey are Lhe Came uevelopmenL Club,
Lhe Came lncubaLor and, lasLly, Lhe
Came uevelopmenL 8uslness CenLers.
ln Lhe uevelopmenL Club, Lhe uCC
LargeLs sLudenLs by organlzlng
compeuuons, or game [ams, ln
addluon Lo summer schools,
workshops, and masLer classes. Slnce
Lhere already exlsL well esLabllshed
connecuons wlLh educauonal
lnsuLuuons, Lhe uCC has access Lo
faclllues and Lools needed Lo sumulaLe
sLudenLs Lo paruclpaLe.
1he Came lncubaLor ls almed prlmary
aL asslsung sLudenLs ln semng up Lhelr
own company. 1he lncubaLor program
provldes añordable and scalable
houslng and embeds Lhe young
enLrepreneur lnLo an already vlbranL
neLwork of professlonals.
llnally, Lhe uCC runs Came
uevelopmenL 8uslness CenLers. unllke
Lhe Came lncubaLor, Lhese cenLers are
focused on Lhe more maLure
companles of Lhe lndusLry. Agaln,
ßexlble and añordable house ls oñered
Lo Lhelr members along wlLh access Lo
oLher lmporLanL companles and
research lnsuLuuons.
What sets the DGG apart? Cne
evoluuonary feaLure LhaL makes Lhe
uCC unlque ls Lhelr approach Lo
neLworklng whlch alms aL malnLalnlng
formal relauonshlps ln lnformal ways.
lnsLead of newspapers, Lhey use
1wluer Lo keep members up-Lo-daLe.
Llkewlse, Lhe average, dull meeung ls
replaced wlLh •pop up• lunches and
gaLherlngs durlng whlch lndlvlduals
from all professlonal backgrounds can
lnLeracL and share experlences.
•1be loJostty os o wbole coo
footlsb wbeo tbey te oot
cootoloeJ wltblo ooe oteo of
expetuse.• vlkLor Wl[nen
8y caLerlng Lo professlonals who ñnd
Lhemselves aL dlñerenL sLages of Lhe
enLrepreneurlal cycle and by brldglng
Lhe wlde gap beLween Lhe creauve and
Lhe Lechnlcal lndlvlduals, Lhe uCC
represenLs a fresh and ßexlble model
whlch underllnes LhaL facL LhaL, when
lL comes Lo Lhe gamlng lndusLry, •one
slze Joeso't ñL all•.
www.dutchgamegarden.n|
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 224
8est Case 40: CI1ILS
L2-'@#+*%^#&W'-.%C'-%66/$%+)3)*D%+&%$5327+5*D%#Y">+*D#%'C%@-+"5"#$%&'%C'$&#-%66/$%+&%&>#%7'"+7%
+*8%-#D)'*+7%7#4#7$
CI1ILS
LU
Cl1lLS, Creauve lndusLrles ln
1radluonal lnLerculLural Spaces, was
born as a [olnL pro[ecL wlLh a durauon
of 36 monLhs, from CcLober 2008 Lo
SepLember 2011, lnvolvlng Lhe
followlng slx counLrles: LlLhuanla, lLaly,
Spaln, ÞorLugal, Pungary and Slovenla.
1he pro[ecL ls led by klalpeda ClLy
MunlclpallLy ln LlLhuanla and funded
by Lhe Lu's ln1L88LC lv C programme,
under Lhe sub-Lheme:
enLrepreneurshlp and small and
medlum slzed enLerprlses (SMLs). 1he
lnLerreglonal Co-Cperauon
Þrogramme, ln1L88LC lv C, ñnanced
by Lhe Luropean unlon's 8eglonal
uevelopmenL lund, helps reglons of
Lurope work LogeLher Lo share
experlence and good pracuce ln Lhe
areas of lnnovauon, knowledge
economy, Lhe envlronmenL and rlsk
prevenuon.
1o galn a beuer perspecuve and
undersLandlng of Cl1lLS, we can
plnpolnL Lhe oLher maln ob[ecuves
whlch are: lmprovlng reglonal and
local pollcles addresslng creauve and
culLural secLors, helplng Lo resLrucLure
reglons mosLly dependenL on
Lradluonal lndusLrles, lncludlng
renewal of lndusLrlal zones for new
sLarL-ups, gemng an overvlew of whaL
oLher Luropean reglons from parLners
clues have done Lo develop creauve
and culLural lndusLrles, growlng
culLure's lmpacL on reglon's economy
by encouraglng lnLerreglonal creauvlLy
and dlverslLy of culLures, supporung
reglonal buslness clusLers ln creauve
and culLural lndusLrles ñeld, promoung
of re-converslon of Lradluonal secLors
lnLo more knowledge-lnLenslve secLors
such as creauve and culLural
lndusLrles, and sLrengLhenlng co-
operauon beLween sLaLe, prlvaLe, non-
governmenLal lnsuLuuons ln creauve
and culLural lndusLrles secLor.
Cl1lLS was moved by Lhe bellef LhaL
Lhe baslc Lrends deñnlng Lhe culLural
pollcles ln Lurope over Lhe lasL 13
years could be named as follows:
concenLrauon on Lhe expllclL audlung/
evaluauon/ emclency schemes, and
regeneraung Lhe arLs and creauve
lndusLrles. 1he currenL economlc
slLuauon represenLs a challenge for
Lhe creauve and culLural secLor ln
some counLrles, and Lherefore, such
quesuons as funcuonlng of Lhe arLs
markeL, and programme based
ñnanclng versus malnLenance of
exlsung lnfrasLrucLure esLabllshmenL
need Lo be conslder.
www.eucreanve|ndustr|es.eu]
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 223
8est Case 41: Cap D|g|ta|
672$&#-)*D%C'-%$2@@'-5*D%)**'4+54#%66/$
Cap D|g|ta|
Irance
Cap ulglLal ls Lhe lrench buslness clusLer
for dlglLal conLenL and servlces ln Þarls
and Lhe lle de lrance reglon. lL ls a non-
proñL organlzauon of 600 members LhaL
are prlmarlly lnnovauve SMLs buL also
counL ma[or unlverslues, hlgher educauon
esLabllshmenLs, research labs, and
corporauons.
1he clusLer's members represenL Lhe
dlglLal lndusLry's mosL acuve players ln
dlglLal conLenL. nlne vlbranL member
communlues make a vlLal conLrlbuuon Lo
Lhe sLraLegy and dlrecuon of Lhe clusLer:
lmage, Sound and lnLeracuvlLy, vldeo
Cames, knowledge Lnglneerlng, CulLure,
Þress, and Medla, e-Learnlng and e-
1ralnlng, Collaborauve 1echnology &
lnLelllgence, Moblle LlfesLyle & Servlces,
8oboucs and Communlcaung Cb[ecLs, and
ulglLal ueslgn.
1he secLor-speclñc experuse ls managed
Lhrough an organlsauon of 1hemauc
Commlsslons, uomaln Communlues, and
experLs. 1hls sLrucLure ls permeable and
adapuve. A member of a commlsslon can
also be a member of a communlLy and a
Cap ulglLal experL. 1hls new sLrucLure
alms Lo muluply exchanges beLween Lhe
uomaln Communlues and make room for
fuLure evoluuons. Cap ulglLal provldes
members wlLh essenual lnformauon,
neLworks, and resources. 1hese lnclude
ongolng compeuuve lnLelllgence, Lralnlng,
parLnershlps, fundlng soluuons, and
pro[ecL revlews. ÞarLnershlps wlLh oLher
leadlng Luropean clusLers, aL a sLrucLural
and pro[ecL level, are an essenual elemenL
of Cap ulglLal's sLraLeglc acuvlues. lL oñers
Lralnlng on managemenL, fundlng as well
as human resources and exporL lssues. AL
Lhe same ume, lL helps Lhe buslness Lo
grow lLs vlslblllLy lnLernauonally by
muluple auendance aL lnLernauonal
workshop sesslon and wlLh Cap ulglLal's
lnLernauonal parLners.
1he secLor-speclñc experuse ls managed
Lhrough an organlsauon of 1hemauc
Commlsslons, uomaln Communlues, and
experLs. 1hls sLrucLure ls permeable and
adapuve. A member of a commlsslon can
also be a member of a communlLy and a
Cap ulglLal experL. 1hls new sLrucLure
alms Lo muluply exchanges beLween Lhe
uomaln Communlues and make room for
fuLure evoluuons.
Cap ulglLal caLalysed Lhe opporLunlues
glven by Lhe dlglLal shlû and Lhe
opporLunlues glven Lo work on a mulu
dlsclpllnary basls.
www.capd|g|ta|.com
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 226
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 227
blbllography
blbllography
[A88lnC 2008] Abblng, P. (2008), Why Are ArusLs Þoor• 1he Lxcepuonal Lconomy of Lhe ArLs, AmsLerdam: AmsLerdam unlverslLy
Þress
[APMAu & PCllMAnn 2008] Ahmad, n. and Poñman, A. (2008), A lramework for Addresslng and Measurlng LnLrepreneurshlp,
Þarls: CLCu SLausucs ulrecLoraLe Worklng Þaper, S1u/uCC(2008)2
[APMAu & SL•MCu8 2008] Ahmad, n., and Seymour, 8., (2008), ueñnlng LnLrepreneurlal AcuvlLy: ueñnlng Supporung lrameworks
for uaLa Collecuon, Þarls: CLCu SLausucs Worklng Þaper
[AnAL•SlS MASCn 2009] Analysls Mason, (May 2009), losLerlng creauve ambluon ln Lhe uk ulglLal Lconomy, London: Analysls
Mason, London
[A8ulCPvlLl eL al 2003] Ardlchvlll, A., Cardozo, 8. & Sourav, 8., (2003), ŠA 1heory of LnLrepreneurlal CpporLunlLy ldenuñcauon and
uevelopmenL–, !ournal of 8uslness venLurlng, volume 18, pp.103-23
[A8CL C8LA1lvWl81SCPAl1 2010] Arge CreauvwlrLschaû AusLrla, (2010), Lxecuuve Summary of Lhe 1hlrd AusLrlan 8eporL on
Creauve lndusLrles ln lnnovauon, vlenna: Arge CreauvwlrLschaû, AusLrla, hup://www.creauvwlrLschaû.aL/documenL/
kW8_kurzfassung_Ln_web.pdf
[8AkPSPl & 1P8CS8• 2010] 8akhshl, P. 1hrosby, u. (!une 2010), CulLure of lnnovauon: An economlc analysls of lnnovauon ln arLs
and culLural organlsauons, London: nLS1A
[8LnPAMCu 2003] 8enhamou, l. (2003), L'Lconomle de la culLure, Þarls: La uecouverLe, 4Lh ed.
[8Cu8ulLu 1979] 8ourdleu, Þ., (1979), ŠLes 1rols eLaLs du caplLal culLurel– ln: AcLes de la 8echerche en Sclences Soclales, 30
[88Aun 2007] 8raun, L., Lavanga, M., (2007) An lnLernauonal Comparauve ‚ulck Scan of nauonal Þollcles for Creauve lndusLrles.
8ouerdam: Wu8lCu8, Lrasmus unlverslLy 8ouerdam
[CA88L8A 8LAZ‚uLZ 2007] Cabrera 8lazquez, l.!, (2007), ŠulglLal 8lghLs ManagemenLs' sysLems (u8Ms): 8ecenL developmenLs ln
Lurope–, Luropean Audlovlsual CbservaLory, hup://www.obs.coe.lnL/oea_publ/lrls/lrls_plus/lplus1_2007.pdf.en
[CAvLS 2000] Caves, 8., (2000), Creauve lndusLrles: ConLracLs 8eLween ArL and Commerce, Cambrldge: Parvard unlv. Þress
[CPALML8S 2009] Chalmers, M., (2009), new 8esearch Þrocesses and 8uslness Models for Lhe Creauve lndusLrles, Clasgow: LÞS8C,
LÞ/C002088/1, Clasgow March 2009
[CPLS88CuCP 2003] Chesbrough, P.W. (2003), Cpen lnnovauon: 1he new lmperauve for creaung and proñung from Lechnology,
8osLon: Parvard 8uslness School Þress
[Clk1n 2010] Clk1n, (2010) ÞrospecL for Clk1n, Šunlocklng knowledge 1ransfer: reporL 1/3 basellnes–, Clk1n 8eacon Þro[ecL •9,
hup://creauvelndusLrleskLn.org/beacons
[CunnlnCPAM 2008] Cunnlngham, Þ.n, (2008), nauonal and 8eglonal Þollcles for ueslgn, CreauvlLy and user-drlven lnnovauon,
1hemauc reporL, Luropean 1rend CharL on lnnovauon Þollcy
[uAnlSP uLSlCnL8 2010] uanlsh ueslgner, (2010), Š1he role of deslgn ln Lhe 21
sL
CenLury: uanlsh ueslgners' ManlfesLo–,
Copenhague: uanlsh ueslgner
[uCMS 2001] uCMS (2001), Creauve lndusLrles Mapplng uocumenL 2001 (2 ed.), London: ueparLmenL of CulLure, Medla and SporL
[uCMS 2006] uCMS (2006), ueveloplng LnLrepreneurshlp for Lhe Creauve lndusLrles- 1he 8ole of Plgher and lurLher Lducauon
London: ueparLmenL of CulLure, Medla and SporL
[uCMS 2007] uCMS, (Aug 2007), An AssessmenL of ÞroducuvlLy lndlcaLors for Lhe Creauve lndusLrles London: ueparLmenL of
CulLure, Medla and SporL
[uCMS 2007] uCMS, (Aug 2007), Creauve lndusLry Þerformance: A SLausucal Analysls for uCMS, lronuer Lconomlcs , London:
ueparLmenL of CulLure, Medla and SporL
[uCMS 2008] uCMS (ueparLmenL for CulLure, Medla and SporL), (2008), Creauve 8rlLaln- new 1alenLs for Lhe new Lconomy, London:
ueparLmenL of CulLure, Medla and SporL
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 228
[uCMS/C8LA1lvL LCCnCM• Þ8CC8AMML 2006] uCMS/Creauve Lconomy Þrogramme (2006), 8uslness SupporL and Access Lo
llnance Croup, London: ueparLmenL of CulLure, Medla and SporL
[uCPMLn 2009] uohmen, M. (2009), 1he fuLure of conunulng educauon ln Lurope, 8onn: Cerman lederal MlnlsLry of Lducauon
and 8esearch, 8onn, Cermany
[uCS SAn1CS 2008] uos SanLos, L., (2008), 1he Creauve Lconomy 8eporL 2008. Ceneva: unC1Au, Ceneva
[u8uCkL8 1983] urucker, Þ. l., (1983), lnnovauon & LnLrepreneurshlp, new •ork: Parper and 8ow
[LCCL 2008] LCCL, (2008), CrowLh and developmenL of Creauve SMLs, uLrechL: Pku
[LCCL lnnCvA1lCn 2009] LCCL lnnovauon, (!uly 2009), Mapplng lnnovauon CpporLunlues SLemmlng lrom Collaborauon beLween
Creauve lndusLrles and CLher lndusLrles, SLuugarL: LCCL lnnovauon
[LlCPMAnn & 8LluL 2006] Llchmann P. and 8eldl, S., (2006), LrwerbsLˆugkelL ln der ArchlLekLur - eln harLes ÞßasLer, 8aukulLur
8eporL 2006. 8eLrleved 23 AugusL 2009: hup://www.baukulLurreporL.aL/lndex.php•ldcaL˜48
[LlCPMAnn eL al 2007] Llchmann P., llecker,!., 8eldl, S. (2007), Ls lsL [a elne freles Cewerbe.' ArbelLen ln der Wlener
kreauvwlrLschaû, vlenna: lC88A - lorschungs- und 8eraLungssLelle ArbelLswelL
[L8lCA81S 2008] L8lCarLs, (CcLober 2008), MoblllLy Mauers: Þrogrammes and Schemes Lo SupporL Lhe MoblllLy of ArusLs and
CulLural Þrofesslonals: llnal 8eporL, 8onn: SLudy for Lhe Luropean Commlsslon uC Lducauon and CulLure, 8onn, L8lCarLs
[Lu8LvAL MLulA CCnSuL1lnC C8CuÞ 2007] Lu8LvAL Medla Consulung group, (november 2007), llnal reporL of MLulA
programme Þlus and Medla lormauon, hup://ec.europa.eu/culLure/medla/programme/docs/overvlew/evaluauon/reporLs/medla
°20plus/execuuve_sum_en.pdf
[Lu8CÞLAn AuulCvlSuAL C8SL8vA1C8• 2009] Luropean Audlovlsual CbservaLory, (2009), Þress 8elease, Lmbargo ulglLal Screen
8ase grows 70° ln 2008, SLrasbourg/Mllan: hup://www.obs.coe.lnL/abouL/oea/pr/dlglLal_clnema2008.hLml
[Lu8CÞLAn AuulCvlSuAL C8SL8vA1C8• 2009] Luropean Audlovlsual CbservaLory, (2009), 1he Þubllc Servlce remlL and Lhe new
Medla, SLockholm: LAC hup://www.obs.coe.lnL/oea_publ/lrls/lrls_plus/lplus6_2009.pdf.en
[Lu8CÞLAn AuulCvlSuAL C8SL8vA1C8• 2009] Luropean Audlovlsual CbservaLory, (2009), vldeo on demand and CaLch up 1v ln
Lurope, SLockholm: LAC, hup://www.obs.coe.lnL/onllne_publlcauon/reporLs/vod_2009.pdf
[Lu8CÞLAn AuulCvlSuAL C8SL8vA1C8• 2010] Luropean Audlovlsual CbservaLory Þress release (!anuary 2010), CrowLh of Lhe
number of Lelevlslon channels and mulu-channel plauorms ln Lurope conunues desplLe Lhe crlsls, SLockholm: LAC hup://
www.obs.coe.lnL/abouL/oea/pr/mavlse_end2009.hLml
[Lu8CÞLAn CLuS1L8 C8SL8vA1C8• 2010] Luropean ClusLer CbservaLory, (March 2010), ÞrlorlLy SecLor 8eporL: CulLural and Creauve
lndusLrles, SLockholm: Luropean ClusLer CbservaLory
[Lu8CÞLAn CCMMlSSlCn 2008] Luropean Commlsslon, (2008), ConsulLauon Þaper of 8evlew of Lxlsung leglslauon on vA1 8educed
r a L e s , h up : / / e c . e u r o p a . e u / L a x a u o n _ c u s L o ms / r e s o u r c e s / d o c u me n L s / c o mmo n / c o n s u l L a u o n s / L a x /
vaL_raLes_publlc_consulLauon_documenL_en.pdf
[Lu8CÞLAn CCMMlSSlCn 2009] Luropean Commlsslon, (CcLober 2009), 8esulLs of Lhe open consulLauon on deslgn as a drlver of
user-cenLered lnnovauon, hup://ec.europa.eu/enLerprlse/pollcles/lnnovauon/ñles/resulLs_deslgn_consulLauon_en.pdf
[Lu8CÞLAn CCMMlSSlCn CCMMunlCA1lCn 2008b] Luropean Commlsslon Communlcauon, (november 2008), 1owards World-
Class ClusLers ln Lhe Luropean unlon: lmplemenung a 8road-8ased lnnovauon SLraLegy, SLC (2008) 2637
[Lu8CÞLAn CCMMlSSlCn CCMMunlCA1lCn 2009a] Luropean Commlsslon Communlcauon, (Aprll 2009), Assesslng CommunlLy
lnnovauon Þollcles ln Lhe perlod 2003-2009, SLC (2009) 1194
[Lu8CÞLAn CCMMlSSlCn CCMMunlCA1lCn 2009b] Luropean Commlsslon Communlcauon, (2009), Lurope's ulglLal
Compeuuveness 8eporL: Maln AchlevemenLs of Lhe l2010 sLraLegy 2003-2009, CCM (2009) 390 ñnal
[Lu8CÞLAn CCMMlSSlCn CCMMunlCA1lCn 2009c] Luropean Commlsslon Communlcauon, (SepLember 2009), 8evlewlng
CommunlLy lnnovauon Þollcy ln a Changlng World, CCM (2009) 442
[Lu8CÞLAn CCMMlSSlCn CCMMunlCA1lCn 2010a] Luropean Commlsslon Communlcauon, (March 2010), Lurope 2020: A sLraLegy
for smarL, susLalnable and lncluslve growLh, CCM (2010) 2020
[Lu8CÞLAn CCMMlSSlCn CCMMunlCA1lCn 2010b] Luropean Commlsslon Communlcauon, (May 2010), ulglLal Agenda for Lurope,
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 229
CCM (2010) 243
[Lu8CÞLAn CCMMlSSlCn C8LLn ÞAÞL8 2003] Luropean Commlsslon Creen Þaper, (2003), LnLrepreneurshlp ln Lurope, CCM (2003)
27 ñnal, avallable aL: hup://ec.europa.eu/enLerprlse/enLrepreneurshlp/green_paper/green_paper_ñnal_en.pdf
[Lu8CÞLAn CCMMlSSlCn C8LLn ÞAÞL8 2010] Luropean Commlsslon Creen Þaper, (Aprll 2010), unlocklng Lhe poLenual of culLural
and creauve lndusLrles, CCM (2010) 183
[Lu8CÞLAn CCMMlSSlCn MLMC 2010] Luropean Commlsslon Memo, (2010), ulglLal Agenda for Lurope: key lnluauves, Memo
10/200
[Lu8CÞLAn CCMMlSSlCn 8LCCMMLnuA1lCn 1996] Luropean Commlsslon 8ecommendauon, (Aprll 1996) 8ecommendauon
96/280/LC concernlng Lhe deñnluon of small and medlum-slzed enLerprlses (1exL wlLh LLA relevance), Cmclal !ournal L 107, p. 4-9,
of 30 Aprll 1996
[Lu8CÞLAn CCMMlSSlCn 8LCCMMLnuA1lCn 2003] Luropean Commlsslon 8ecommendauon, (2003), 8ecommendauon 2003/361/
LC, Cmclal !ournal of Lhe Luropean unlon L 124, p. 36 of 20 May 2003 (Ln n8-60-04-773-Ln-C 92-894-7909-4)
[Lu8CÞLAn CCMMlSSlCn S1All WC8klnC uCCuMLn1 2009] Luropean Commlsslon SLañ Worklng documenL, (2009), ueslgn as a
drlver of user-cenLred lnnovauon, SLC (2009) 301
[Lu8CÞLAn CCMMlSSlCn S1All WC8klnC uCCuMLn1 2010] Luropean Commlsslon SLañ Worklng uocumenL, (May 2010),
Lurope's ulglLal Compeuuveness 8eporL, SLC (2010) 627
[Lu8CÞLAn CCMMlSSlCn WC8klnC uCCuMLn1 2009a] Luropean Commlsslon Worklng uocumenL, (2009), llnanclng lnnovauon
and SMLs, SLC (2009) 1196
[Lu8CÞLAn CCMMlSSlCn WC8klnC uCCuMLn1 2009b] Luropean Commlsslon Worklng uocumenL, (SepLember 2009), Lead
MarkeL lnluauves for Lurope: Mld 1erm progress reporL, SLC (2009) 1198
[Lu8CÞLAn CCMMlSSlCn WC8klnC ÞAÞL8 2009] Luropean Commlsslon Worklng Þaper (2009), ueslgn as a drlver of user-cenLred
lnnovauon, SLC (2009) 301
[Lu8CÞLAn CCunClL CCnCLuSlCnS 2007] Luropean Councll Concluslons, (May 2007), ConLrlbuuon of Lhe culLural and creauve
secLors Lo Lhe achlevemenL of Lhe Llsbon ob[ecuves - Adopuon of Lhe Councll concluslons, 9021/07, uCl-2A, doc 8633/2/07 CuL1 23
8Lv 2, 8russels
[Lu8CÞLAn CCunClL CCnCLuSlCnS 2008] Luropean Councll Concluslons, (uecember 2008), 1hlnk Small llrsL- A Small 8uslness AcL
for Lurope, doc 16788/08
[Lu8CÞLAn CCunClL CCnCLuSlCnS 2009] Luropean Councll Concluslons, (May 2009), Concluslons for ŠCulLure as a CaLalysL for
CreauvlLy–, 2941sL Lducauon, •ouLh and CulLure, Councll meeung
[Lu8CÞLAn CCunClL CCnCLuSlCnS 2010] Luropean Councll Concluslons, (May 2010), Concluslons on Creaung an lnnovauve
Lurope–, 3016Lh Compeuuveness Councll Meeung, 26Lh May 2010
[Lu8CÞLAn ulCl1AL MLulA ASSCClA1lCn 2009] Luropean ulglLal Medla Assoclauon (LulMA), (2009), WhlLe Þaper on Þollcy SLraLegy
for Lhe uevelopmenL of new Medla Servlces 2009-2014, hup://ec.europa.eu/lnformauon_socleLy/eeurope/l2010/docs/posL_l2010/
addluonal_conLrlbuuons/edlma.pdf
[Lu8CÞLAn CAMLS uLvLLCÞL8 lLuL8A1lCn 2009] Luropean Cames ueveloper lederauon, (2009), CommenLs from Lhe Luropean
Cames ueveloper lederauon on ŠCreauve ConLenL ln a Luropean ulglLal Slngle MarkeL: Challenges for Lhe luLure A 8eßecuon
uocumenL– from Lhe uC lnlSC and uC MA8k1, Avallable onllne aL: hup://ec.europa.eu/lnLernal_markeL/consulLauons/docs/2009/
conLenL_onllne/reßecuon_paper°20web_en.pdf
[Lu8CÞLAn lnnCvA1lCn SCC8L8CA8u 2009] Luropean lnnovauon Scoreboard, (!an 2009), Luropean lnnovauon Scoreboard 2008
Comparauve analysls of lnnovauon performance, Þro lnno MeLrlcs
[lLSLL & S•nuL8MAnn 2007] lesel 8. and S‹ndermann, M., (2007), CulLure and Creauve lndusLrles ln Cermany, unLSCC : 8onn
[llnLAnu MlnlS18• Cl 18AuL Anu lnuuS18• 2007] llnland MlnlsLry of 1rade and lndusLry, (2007), uevelopmenL SLraLegy for
enLrepreneurshlp ln Lhe Creauve lndusLrles secLor for 2013, hup://ec.europa.eu/culLure/our-pollcy-developmenL/doc/
ñ_devpmL_sLraLegy_enLrepr_crea_lndusLrles2013.pdf
[lLC8luA 2001] llorlda, 8., (2004), 1he rlse of Lhe creauve class, new •ork: lS8n 0-463-02477-7
[lCkuS 2004] 1owse, 8., (2004), Š1owards an economy of creauvlLy•–, ln: Creauve lndusLrles A measure for urban developmenL•,
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 230
vlenna: lCkuS
[lCC8u 2008] loord, !. (2008), ŠSLraLegles for creauve lndusLrles: an lnLernauonal revlew–, Creauve lndusLrles !ournal, volume 1,
number 2.
[CA88CuA & MCn1MA8‚uL11L 1996] Carboua L L., MonLmarqueue, C., (1996), 'A mlcroeconomeLrlc sLudy of LheaLre demand',
!ournal of CulLural Lconomlcs, vol. 20, number 1
[CA81nL8 1988] CarLner, W.8., (1988), Š'Who ls an enLrepreneur•' ls Lhe wrong quesuon–, Amerlcan !ournal of Small 8uslness,
volume 12, number 4,pp. 11-32
[CASSLL8 2006] Cassler, P., 8eldl, S., (2006), kreauv Crunden• unLernehmensgrŒndungen ln den Wlener Creaueve lndusLrles, Wlen:
8erlchL 3. lC88A - lorschungs- und 8eraLungssLelle ArbelLswelL, Wlen
[Cl88 2003] Clbb, A., (2003), 1owards Lhe LnLrepreneurlal unlverslLy. LnLrepreneurshlp Lducauon as a lever for change, London:
nCCL
[ClCvAnnlnl 2008] Clovannlnl, L., (2008), Measurlng LnLrepreneurshlp. A ulgesL of lndlcaLors, Þarls: CLCu
[CCM8AuL1 2009] CombaulL, A, LlvaL-Þecheux, l, and uurrleuL, l. , (2009), AZ, L'Álphabem des lndusLrles Creauves, 1alance
[C8LLn 2008] Creen, L, (uec 2008), Pldden lnnovauon ln Creauve lndusLrles, nLS1A- vldeo game lnnovauon workshop, ManchesLer
8uslness School
[PACCC81 1998] PagoorL, C., (1998), SLraLeglsche ulaloog ln de kunsLensecLor, Þhu Lhesls, uLrechL
[PACCC81 2003] PagoorL, C., (2003), Llfe cycle of arL organlzauons, uLrechL, Pku
[PACCC81 2007] PagoorL, C., (2007), CulLural LnLrepreneurshlp. Cn Lhe freedom Lo creaLe arL and Lhe freedom of enLerprlse,
lnaugural LecLure !une 6, uLrechL 2007
[PACCC81 2009] PagoorL, C., (2009), Comblnlng urban and reglonal culLural enLrepreneurshlp, uLrechL: ASCM
[PA81LL• 2008] ParLley, !., (2008), 'lrom Lhe Consclousness lndusLry Lo Creauve lndusLrles: Consumer-creaLed conLenL, soclal
neLwork markeLs and Lhe growLh of knowledge' ln PolL, !. and Þerren, A. (eds), (2009), Medla lndusLrles: PlsLory, 1heory and
MeLhods Cxford: 8lackwell
[PLA8n eL al 2007] Pearn, Cregory n. and 8oodhouse, Slmon C. and 8lackey, !ulle M. (2007), Šlrom value chaln Lo value creaung
ecology: lmpllcauons for creauve lndusLrles developmenL pollcy–, lnLernauonal !ournal of CulLural Þollcy, volume 13, number 4, pp.
419-436.
[PlCCS & CunnlnCPAM 2007] Plggs, Þ. and Cunnlngham, S., (2007), AusLralla's Creauve Lconomy: Mapplng MeLhodologles.
1echnlcal 8eporL, 8rlsbane: CenLre of Lxcellence ln Creauve lndusLrles and lnnovauon
[PlCCS eL al 2007] Plggs Þ., CunnlnghamS. and 8akhshl P., (2007), 8eyond Lhe Creauve lndusLrles- Mapplng Lhe creauve economy ln
Lhe unlLed klngdom, London: nLS1A 2007.
[PlCCS & CunnlnCPAM 2009] Plggs, Þ. and Cunnlngham, S., (Aug 2009), ŠCreauve lndusLrles Mapplng: Where have we come from
and where are we golng•– ln Creauve lndusLrles !ournal, volume 1, lssue: 1, Aug 2009
[PC8LlnCS 2008] Porllngs, 1., (2008), ŠÞrospecLs for Creauve LnLrepreneurs–, ln: Clep PagoorL, Anneßoor Cosun[en, Marl[n van
1hlel (Lds.), CrowLh and uevelopmenL of Creauve SMLs, uLrechL: LCCL/Pku
[PCWklnS 2001] Powklns, !., (2001), 1he Creauve Lconomy: Pow Þeople Make Money lrom ldeas, new •ork: Þenguln
[Pu8L81 2009] PuberL, L., 8eldl, S., (2006), 8aukulLur 8eporL 2006: LrwerbsLˆugkelL ln der ArchlLekLur - eln harLes ÞßasLer,
8eLrleved 23 AugusL 2009, hup://www.baukulLurreporL.aL/lndex.php•ldcaL˜48
[Pu11Cn 2007] Puuon, W. (2007), SLaylng ahead: Lhe economlc performance of Lhe uk's creauve lndusLrles, London: uCMS
[lÞ8LC 2007] lÞ8LC, (2007), Memorandum on 8emovlng 8arrlers for a beuer use of lÞ8 by SMLs, 8eporL for Lhe uC for enLerprlses
and lndusLry and lÞ8 LxperL Croup
[lvAnCLvlCP eL al 1996] lvancevlch, !. M., konopaske, 8., and Maueson, M. 1., (1996), Crganlzauonal behavlour and managemenL.
Chlcago: unlverslLy of PousLon
[kA88A 2008] karra, n., (2008), 1he uk ueslgner lashlon Lconomy, London: nLS1A
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 231
[kLA 2006] kLA, (2006), 1he economy of culLure ln Lurope, 8russels: kLA Luropean Añalrs
[kLA 2009] kLA, (2009), 1he lmpacL of culLure on creauvlLy, 8russels: kLA Luropean Añalrs
[kLA 2010a] kLA, (lebruary 2010), 8uslness lnnovauon SupporL Servlces for Creauve lndusLrles, ShorL sLudy prepared for Lhe Lu uC
LnLerprlse and lndusLry
[kLA 2010b] kLA, (May 2010), Þromoung lnvesLmenL ln Lhe CulLural and Creauve SecLor: llnanclng needs, 1rends and CpporLunlues,
8eporL prepared for LCCL lnnovauon- nanLes MeLropole
[kLLL• & Ll11MAn 2003] kelley, 1. and Lluman, !., (2003), 1he Len faces of lnnovauon: luLC's SLraLegles for uefeaung Lhe uevll's
AdvocaLe and urlvlng CreauvlLy 1hroughouL your Crganlsauon, new •ork: uouble uay
[kl8ZnL8 1973] klrzner, l. M., (1973), Compeuuon and LnLrepreneurshlp, Chlcago, lL: unlverslLy of Chlcago Þress
[kLAML8 2006] klamer, A., (2006), CulLural enLrepreneurshlp, 8ouerdam: Lrasmus unlverslLy, Academla vlLae
[knlCP1 1921] knlghL, l. P., (1921), 8lsk, uncerLalnLy, and ÞroñL, 8osLon: ParL, Schañner & Marx
[kCLlCLu ‚ulnn 2009a] koefoed ‚ulnn, M., (2009), ueveloplng new 1ools and lnsLrumenLs for lnnovauve SMLs, ÞresenLauon aL
Lurope lnnCvA Annual ÞarLnerlng LvenL - ŠSupporung lnnovauon ln a Changlng World–, 20 -22 SepLember 2009, Perakllon, Creece
[kCLlCLu ‚ulnn 2009b] koefoed ‚ulnn, M. (nov 2009), 1he Lu perspecuve on lC1 and Creauve lndusLrles, C8eA1L lnLernauonal
Conference
[kCC•MAn 2009a] kooyman, 8. (ed) (2009) LACLA 1128 Þrellmlnary LlLeraLure 8evlew, uLrechL School of Lhe ArLs, uLrechL
[kCC•MAn 2009b] kooyman, 8. (ed) (2009) LACLA 1128 LnvlronmenLal lacLors ln Lhe CCls, uLrechL School of Lhe ArLs, uLrechL
[kCC•MAn 2009c] kooyman, 8. (ed) (2009) LACLA 1128 ueLermlnanLs of LnLrepreneurshlp ln Lhe CCls, uLrechL School of Lhe ArLs,
uLrechL
[k8CLS 2010] kroes, n., (May 2010), A ulglLal Agenda for Lurope, Speech 10/243
[LAlnC 1999] Lalng, u., (1999), Š1he Lconomlc lmporLance of muslc ln Lhe Luropean unlon–, Soundscapes, vol.2, Chap.7, hup://
www.lcce.rug.nl/œsoundscapes/uA1A8ASLS/MlL/ÞarL1_chapLer07.shLml•noLeref31
[LASP & u88• 1994] Lash, S. and urry, !., (1994), Lconomles of Slgns and Space, London: Sage Þubllcauons, as clLed ln: Pandke C.,
(2006), Surveylng lnnovauon ln Lhe Creauve lndusLrles, 8erlln/8ouerdam 2006
[MAA8SL 2009] Maarse, u., (2009), ŠÞro[ecL 8ased Learnlng: Lhe LemperaLure of our baLhwaLer– ln PagoorL C. and kooyman, 8.,
(Ld.), (2009), Creauve lndusLrles, Colourful labrlc ln Muluple ulmenslons, uLrechL: Pogeschool voor de kunsLen uLrechL
[MA8CuS 2003], Marcus C.,(2003), luLure of Creauve lndusLrles, lmpllcauons for 8esearch Þollcy, Luropean Commlsslon uC
8esearch, lS8n 92-894-9022-3.
[MlLLS & C8LLn 2008] Mlles, l. and Creen, L. (2008), Pldden lnnovauon ln Lhe Creauve lndusLrles, London: nLS1A
[MkW Wl81SCPAl1SlC8SCPunC 2001] MkW WlrLschaûsforschung CmbP, (2001), LxplolLauon and developmenL of Lhe [ob
poLenual ln Lhe culLural secLor ln Lhe age of dlglLallzauon, Þaper commlssloned for Luropean Commlsslon, uC LmploymenL and
Soclal Añalrs, Munlch
[MCk8L 2006] Mokre M., (2006), My CreauvlLy: Convenuon on lnLernauonal Creauve lndusLrles 8esearch, AmsLerdam. 8eLrleved 23
AugusL 2009 hup://Lransform.elpcp.neL/correspondence/1166104888
[nA1lCnAL LnuCWMLn1 lC8 SClLnCL 1LCPnCLCC• Anu 1PL A81S 2006] nauonal LndowmenL for Sclence, 1echnology and Lhe
ArLs, (2006), Creaung CrowLh: Pow Lhe uk Can uevelop World Class Creauve 8uslnesses, London: nLS1A
[nA1lCnAL LnuCWMLn1 lC8 SClLnCL 1LCPnCLCC• Anu 1PL A81S 2009] nauonal LndowmenL for Sclence, 1echnology and Lhe
ArLs (nLS1A), (!uly 2009), Soû lnnovauon: 1oward a more compleLe plcLure of lnnovauve change, London: nLS1A
[nA1lCnAL LnuCWMLn1 lC8 SClLnCL 1LCPnCLCC• Anu 1PL A81S 2010a] nauonal LndowmenL for Sclence, 1echnology and Lhe
ArLs, (Aprll 2010), Measurlng user lnnovauon ln Lhe uk- 1he lmporLance of producL creauon by users, London: nLS1A
[nA1lCnAL LnuCWMLn1 lC8 SClLnCL 1LCPnCLCC• Anu 1PL A81S 2010b] nauonal LndowmenL for Sclence, 1echnology and Lhe
ArLs, (May 2010), 8esearch 8eporL: CpporLunlues for lnnovauon Lhrough local governmenL procuremenL- A case sLudy of CreaLer
ManchesLer, London: nLS1A
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 232
[nA1lCnAL LnuCWMLn1 lC8 SClLnCL 1LCPnCLCC• Anu 1PL A81S 2010c] nLS1A, (May 2010), Sourclng knowledge for lnnovauon:
Lhe lnLernauonal dlmenslon, London: nLS1A
[nL1PL8LAnuS MlnlS18• Cl CuL1u8L Anu MlnlS18• Cl LCCnCMlCS 2009] neLherlands MlnlsLry of CulLure and MlnlsLry of
Lconomlcs (2009), Creauve value- CulLure and Lconomy pollcy Þaper, 1he Pague: MlnlsLry of CulLure and MlnlsLry Lconomlcs
[nCC8MAn 1997] noorman, u., (1997) kunsLmanagemenL
[CLCu 2009] CLCu (2009), Lvaluauon of Þrogrammes Concernlng Lducauon for LnLrepreneurshlp, reporL by Lhe CLCu Worklng ÞarLy
on SMLs and LnLrepreneurshlp, Þarls: CLCu
[CLCu/Lu8CS1A1 2008] CLCu/Lu8CS1A1, (2008), Measurlng LnLrepreneurshlp. A dlgesL of lndlcaLors, Ceneva/Þarls: LurosLaL/CLCu
[CÞLn ML1PCu Cl CCC8ulnA1lCn lC8 1PL CuL1u8AL Anu C8LA1lvL lnuuS18lLS ln Lu8CÞL 2009] Cpen MeLhod of Coordlnauon
for Lhe CulLural and Creauve lndusLrles ln Lurope, (2009) Þrellmlnary reporL
[CS1L8WALuL8 2010] CsLerwalder, A., (2010), Cn 8uslness Model lnnovauon. As reLrleved 12 Aprll 2010 from hup://
alexosLerwalder.com
[ÞLA8LL 2010] Þearle, (!anuary 2010), Creauve ConLenL ln a Luropean ulglLal Slngle MarkeL: reßecuons documenL of uC lnlSC and
uC MA8k1
[ÞLS18Ak 2008] ÞesLrak, C., (2008), Managlng Lhe growLh challenge ln creauve buslness
[ÞlL88AklS & WLS1LackL 2009] Þlerrakls, •. and WesLlacke, S. (2009), 8eshaplng Lhe uk economy, London: nLS1A
[ÞLA1lC8M Cn 1PL ÞC1Ln1lAL Cl C8LA1lvL Anu CuL1u8AL lnuuS18lLS 2009] Þlauorm on Lhe ÞoLenual of Creauve and CulLural
lndusLrles, (2009), llnal 8ecommendauons of Lhe Þlauorm on Lhe ÞoLenual of Creauve and CulLural lndusLrles
[ÞC11S 2009] Þous, !., (2009), ŠCreauve lndusLrles and lnnovauon Þollcy– ln lnnovauon: ManagemenL, Þollcy and Þracuce, volume
11, no 2, 138-147
[ÞC11S & CunnlnCPAM 2008] Þous !. and Cunnlngham, S., (2008), Šlour models of Lhe creauve lndusLrles–, lnLernauonal !ournal of
CulLural Þollcy, volume 14, number 3
[ÞC11S & MC88lSCn 2009] Þous, !., Morrlson, k., (Aprll 2009), nudglng lnnovauon, London: nLS1A
[Þ8A11 2009] Þrau, A. C., (2009), Š1he creauve and culLural economy and Lhe recesslon–, Ceoforum, volume 40, pp. 493-496
[Þ8C lnnC Lu8CÞL 2007] Þro lnnC Lurope, (2007), A Memorandum on 8emovlng 8arrlers for a beuer use of lÞ8 by SMLs, 8eporL
for Lhe uC for enLerprlses and lndusLry and lÞ8 LxperL Croup
[Þ8C lnnC Lu8CÞL 2007] Þ8C lnnC Lu8CÞL, (2007), ŠCulde on ueallng wlLh lnnovauve Soluuons ln Þubllc ÞrocuremenL: 10
elemenLs of good pracuce–, hup://www.eurosfalre.prd.fr/7pc/doc/1187838237_lnnovauon_procuremenL_manuscrlpL_2007.pdf
[Þ8C lnnC C8lÞS CLC8AL 8LvlLW Cl lnnCvA1lCn ln1LLLlCLnCL Anu ÞCLlC• AuulLnCLS 2003] Þro lnno Crlps Clobal 8evlew of
lnnovauon lnLelllgence and Þollcy Audlences, (2003), ueslgn as a Lool for lnnovauon, Mlnl SLudy prepared for uC LnLerprlse and
lndusLry
[8AllC eL al 2000] 8año eL al., (2000), Š1eachlng and learnlng enLrepreneurshlp for mlcro and small buslnesses ln Lhe culLural
lndusLrles secLor–, Lducauon and 1ralnlng, volume 42, no 6
[8AMAuAnl 2008] 8amadanl, v., (2008), 8uslness Angels, who Lhey really are, SouLh LasL Luropean unlverslLy of 1eLovo, Macedonla
[8LulnC 2009] 8eddlng, v., (CcLober 2009), Speech on Lhe ulglLal Slngle MarkeL: a key Lo unlock Lhe poLenual of Lhe knowledge base
economy, Avallable aL hup://www.lccwbo.org/bascap/ld33360/lndex.hLml
[8LluL & S1L•L8 2006] 8eldl S., SLeyer, l. (2006), Zwlschen unabhˆnglgkelL und ZukunûsangsL ‚uanuLauve Lrgeb- nlsse zur ArbelL ln
den Wlener Creauve lndusLrles, vlenna : lorba
[SAn1ACA1A 2009] SanLagaLa,W. , (2009), WhlLe paper on creauvlLy : 1owards an lLallan model of developmenL, Mllan: 8occonl
unlverslLy Ld
[SA8l•lLulZ & CZSA8l•lLulZ 1998] Sarlylldlz, S., Czsarlylldlz, S., (1998) Š1he fuLure of ArchlLecLural ueslgn Þracuce wlLhln lC1
developmenLs–, unpubllshed, reposlLory.Ludelû.nl
[SA• 1803] Say, !. 8., (1803), 1ralLe d'economle polluque, ou slmple exposluon de la manlere donL se formenL, se dlsLrlbuenL, eL se
composenL les rlchesses, Þarls
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 233
[SCP8AMM] Schramm, C., 1he LnLrepreneurlal lmperauve, new •ork: ParperColllns Þubllshers
[SCPuMÞL1L8 1973] SchumpeLer, !.A. (1973). CaplLallsm, Soclallsm, and uemocracy, new •ork: Parper
[SCC11 2003] Scou, A.!., (2003), Cn Pollywood, ÞrlnceLon: ÞrlnceLon unlverslLy Þress.
[SlCA 2010] SlCA, (uuLch CenLer for lnLernauonal CulLural Acuvlues), (!une 2010), 1he economlc crlsls and Lhe prospecLs for arLs and
culLure ln Lurope
[SCnuL8MAnn 2009] Sondermann, M. (leb 2009), CulLure and Creauve lndusLrles ln Cermany, 8erlln: 8MWl
[S1LuMAn 2006] SLedman, C., (2006), Šlrom CenLlemanly Þubllshlng Lo ConglomeraLes: 1he ConLemporary LlLerary lleld ln Lhe uk–,
ln: Chrlsuane Llsenberg, 8lLa Cerlach and Chrlsuan Pandke (eds.): CulLural lndusLrles: 1he 8rlush Lxperlence ln lnLernauonal
Þerspecuve, 8erlln: PumboldL unlverslLy
[S1LuMAn 2006] SLedman C., (2006), Šlrom CenLlemanly Þubllshlng Lo ConglomeraLes: 1he ConLemporary LlLerary lleld ln Lhe uk–
ln Llsenberg, C., Cerlach, 8. and Pandke, C., (eds.), (2006), CulLural lndusLrles: 1he 8rlush Lxperlence ln lnLernauonal Þerspecuve,
8erlln: PumboldL unlverslLy
[S1LLnPCvLn (ed) 2003] SLeenhoven, !. van den (Ld), (2003), Creauve CaplLal Conference, llnal 8eporL, AmsLerdam
[S1L8n8L8C & WLnnLkL8S 2003] SLernberg, 8. and Wennekers, S., (2003), ŠueLermlnanLs and eñecLs of new buslness creauon
uslng global enLrepreneurshlp monlLor daLa–, Small 8uslness Lconomlcs, volume 24, number 3, pp.193-203.
[S1CkLS & WlLSCn 2006] SLokes, u. and Wllson, n., (2006), Small 8uslness ManagemenL & LnLrepreneurshlp, London: 1homson
[S1CnLMAn 2009] SLoneman, Þ. (2009), Soû lnnovauon: 1owards a more compleLe plcLure of lnnovauve change, London: nLS1A.
[S1C8L• 2008] SLorey, u.!., (2008), Š LnLrepreneurshlp and SML Þollcy–, World LnLrepreneurshlp lorum 2008
[S1C8ÞL8 & vLnA8LLS 2004] SLorper, M. and venables, A.!., (2004), Š8uzz: lace-1o-lace ConLacL and Lhe urban Lconomy–, ln !ournal
of Lconomlc Ceography 2004, 4(4):331-370.
[1PL PlCPL8 LuuCA1lCn ACAuLM• A81 uLSlCn MLulA Su8!LC1 CLn18L & nLS1A 2007] 1he Plgher Lducauon Academy ArL ueslgn
Medla Sub[ecL CenLre and nLS1A, (2007), Creaung LnLrepreneurshlp: hlgher educauon and creauve lndusLrles, London: Plgher
Lducauon Academy ArL ueslgn Medla Sub[ecL CenLre and nLS1A
[1P8CS8• 2001] 1hrosby, u., (2001), Lconomlcs and culLure, Cambrldge: unlverslLy Þress
[1CWSL ed 2003] 1owse, 8. (ed), (2003), A Pandbook of CulLural Lconomlcs, ChelLenham: Ldward Llgar
[1CWSL 2004] 1owse, 8., (2004), Š1owards an economy of creauvlLy•– ln lCkuS, (2004), Creauve lndusLrles A measure for urban
developmenL• vlenna: lCkuS
[uk ueparLmenL of lndusLry and 1rade (u1l) 2003] uk ueparLmenL of lndusLry and 1rade (u1l) (2003), CreauvlLy, ueslgn and 8uslness
Þerformance, Lconomlcs Þaper no 13, London: u1l
[uk 1echnology SLraLegy 8oard 2009] uk 1echnology SLraLegy 8oard, (2009), urlvlng lnnovauon: Creauve lndusLrles 1echnology
SLraLegy 2009-2012, uk 1echnology SLraLegy: London
[unC1Au 2008] unC1Au (2008), 1he Creauve Lconomy, unC1Au/ul1C/2008/2, Ceneva
[uS nA1lCnAL LnuCWMLn1 lC8 1PL A81S 2010] uS nauonal LndowmenL for Lhe ArLs, (2010), Audlence 20: Pow 1echnology
lnßuences ArLs Þaruclpauon, WashlngLon: uS nauonal LndowmenL for Lhe ArLs
[vL8PLu8L eL al 2001] verheul, S. eL al., (2001), An Lclecuc 1heory on LnLrepreneurshlp, 1lmbergen lnsuLuLe ulscusslon Þapers,
01-030-3
[vCLuL8L c.s. 2006] voldere, l. ue c.s., (2006), 1he Creauve Lconomy. Challenges and opporLunlues for Lhe uC reglons, Leuven/CenL
[WALkL8 & 88CWn 2004] Walker, L. and 8rown, 8., (2004), ŠWhaL Success lacLors are lmporLanL Lo Small 8uslness Cwners•–, ln:
lnLernauonal Small 8uslness !ournal, vol. 22, no. 6, 2004, 377-394
[Wl!n8L8C 2003] Wl[nberg, n. (2003), 'Awards' ln: 8. 1owse (ed) A Pandbook of CulLural Lconomlcs, ChelLenham: Ldward Llgar, pp
81-84.
[W•SZCMl8Skl 2004] Wyszomlrskl M. !., (2004), Šueñnlng and ueveloplng Creauve SecLor lnluauves–, ln: Creauve lndusLrles, A
measure for urban developmenL• , vlenna
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 234
abouL us
Utrecht Schoo| of the Arts (nkU)
uLrechL School of Lhe ArLs (Pku) was esLabllshed ln 1987, followlng a merger beLween Lhe
Academle voor llne arLen, Lhe uLrechL ConservaLory, Lhe Academle voor Lxpressle door Woord en
Cebaar, Lhe nederlands kerklnsuLuuL and Lhe nederlandse 8elaardschool. WlLh around 3800
sLudenLs, uLrechL School of Lhe ArLs (Pku) ls one of Lhe largesL ArL Schools ln Lurope. Pku oñers
preparaLory courses, 8achelors and MasLers degrees and research degrees ln deslgn, medla, games
and lnLeracuon, muslc, ñne arL, LheaLre and arLs managemenL.
lour of Lhe ñve laculues are locaLed ln Lhe clLy of uLrechL, Lhe laculues of vlsual ArLs & ueslgn,
Muslc, 1heaLre and ArL & Lconomlcs). 1he laculLy of ArL, Medla & 1echnology, wlLh close ues Lo Lhe
creauve lndusLrles, ls locaLed ln Lhe broadcasung hub of Lhe neLherlands, Pllversum. Cne branch of
Lhe laculLy of Muslc, Lhe neLherlands Carlllon School, ls locaLed ln AmersfoorL.
8esldes excelllng ln Lhe ArLs, Pku ls commlued Lo Leachlng sLudenLs how Lo become professlonal
culLural and creauve enLrepreneurs. SLudenLs learn how Lo seL up neLworks and sLarL relauonshlps
wlLh oLher arusLs and organlsauons. Þro[ecL Cmces malnLaln conLacL wlLh buslness communlues,
Lhe governmenL, Lhe non-proñL secLor and Lhe medla and culLural secLor. 1he purpose of Lhe
Þro[ecL Cmces ls Lo ñnd commlsslons for sLudenLs, provldlng Lhe opporLunlLy Lo work ln
professlonal pracuce. 1hese commlsslons range from graphlc and archlLecLural asslgnmenLs Lo
webslLes, lnsLallauons, games, anlmauons, cllps, vldeos, ñlms, performances and concerLs.
Applled 8esearch aL Pku ls underLaken by 10 research groups on a varleLy of sub[ecLs, such as
LheaLre maklng processes, arusuc research, muslc deslgn, game deslgn and developmenL, creauve
appllcauons of Lechnology, ArLs managemenL and educauon and creauve enLrepreneurshlp. 1hese
8esearch Croups have close ues Lo educauon, Leachers and sLudenLs.
lor Lhls sLudy, Lwo faculues collaboraLed ln Lhe research:
!
laculLy of ArL and Lconomlcs: prepares sLudenLs for managemenL posluons ln Lhe
creauve lndusLry
!
laculLy of ArL, Medla & 1echnology: Lralns sLudenLs Lo deslgn and develop vlrLual
producLs
1he Pku has a sLrong posluon wlLhln Lurope when lL comes Lo Lralnlng young professlonals ln Lhe
creauve lndusLry, as seen ln Lhe hlgh ranklng ln 8uslness Weekly (leb 2007) ln a llsL of Lhe world's
mosL lnßuenual deslgn schools.
ConLacL: Þlerre Mersch: plerre.mersch[kmL.hku.nl
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 233
k2M Ltd: from know|edge to market
k2M provldes organlsauons wlLh susLalnable and durable lnnovauon readlness by developlng Lhelr
ablllues Lo creaLe and harness knowledge asseLs ln Lhe areas of dlglLal conLenL and medla, culLure
and Lourlsm, eLearnlng, dlglLal llbrarles, elnfrasLrucLures, moblle and wearable sysLems, and
eAccesslblllLy. lLs lnLerdlsclpllnary Leam of researchers and buslness analysLs develops lnnovauon
sLraLegles, valldaLes markeLs, assesses economlc feaslblllLy, performs benchmarklng and derlves
besL pracuces wlLh Lhe alm Lo lncrease Lhe level of eñecuveness of 8&u, new producL developmenL
and commerclallzauon processes. We are commlued Lo helplng LranslaLe your valuable asseLs lnLo
producLs and servlces LhaL can be dellvered Lo wlder communlues of end users.
ConLacL: Ceorge loannldls: gl[k2mark.com
Lurok|e|s S.r.|.
Luroklels ls a SML speclallzed ln economlc, ñnanclal and sLraLeglc consulLancy and sLudles wlLh Lhe
maln focus on lnformauon & Communlcauon 1echnologles. Luroklels parLners comblne Lhelr
academlc background wlLh numerous years of experlence ln varlous secLors and oñer lnLegraLed
servlces whlch cover all Lhe dlñerenL aspecLs lnvolved. Moreover, Luroklels parLners have worked
for a number of lnLernauonal companles, local auLhorlues and prlvaLe organlsauons as well as wlLh
Lhe Luropean Commlsslon.
ConLacL lrancesco 8elllnl: lrancesco.8elllnl[euroklels.com
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 236
2
K M
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 237
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles 238
Lhe entrepreneur|a| dlmenslon
of Lhe culLural and creauve lndusLrles

!"#$!"#$!%$!"!&$'()$%&'#()&*($*+$!"#$,-.!-/0.$0(%$,/#012#$&(%-)!/&#)$

$

$

$

4

!"#*!"#$!%$!"!&$'()$%&'#()&*($ *+$!"#$,-.!-/0.$0(%$,/#012#$&(%-)!/&#)

6/#70/#%$89$:!/#,"!$;,"**.$*+$!"#$</!)$=>?:@A$B&!"$?4C$D!%$0(%$ E-/*F.#&)$;G/G.GA$+*/$!"#$E%-,01*($H$I-.!-/#$JK$*+$!"#$E-/*7#0($ I*''&))&*(

K2M

!"#$!"#$!%$!"!&$'()$%&'#()&*($*+$!"#$,-.!-/0.$0(%$,/#012#$&(%-)!/&#)$

$

$

$

5

+,),%-,"
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

<19#%"18/, L"&)$ )!-%9$ &)$ )-8^#,!$ !*$ 0$ %&),.0&'#/$ 0(%$ ,*79/&O"!G$ L"#$ )!-%9$ B0)$ ,0//&#%$ *-!$ +*/$ !"#$ E-/*7#0($ I*''&))&*($ 0(%$ #W7/#))#)$ !"#$ *7&(&*()$ *+$ !"#$ */O0(&)01*()$ "02&(O$ -(%#/!0F#($!"#$ )!-%9G$L"#$ 2&#B)$"02#$ (*!$8##($ 0%*7!#%$ */$ &($ 0(9$ B09$ 077/*2#%$ 89$ !"#$ E-/*7#0($ I*''&))&*($ 0(%$ )"*-.%$ (*!$ 8#$ /#.&#%$ -7*($ 0)$ 0$ )!0!#'#(!$ *+$ !"#$ E-/*7#0($ I * ' ' & ) ) & * ( ` )$ 2 & # B ) G$ L " #$ E - / * 7 # 0 ($ I*''&))&*($ %*#)$ (*!$ O-0/0(!##$ !"#$ 0,,-/0,9$ *+$ !"#$ &(+*/'01*($O&2#($&($!"#$ )!-%9A$ (*/$ %*#)$ &!$ 0,,#7!$ /#)7*()&8&.&!9$ +*/$ 0(9$ -)#$ '0%#$ !"#/#*+G =)>',164& I*79/&O"!$ &)$ "#.%$ 89$ !"#$ E-/*7#0($ :(&*(G$ 6#/)*()$ B&)"&(O$ !*$ -)#$ !"#$ ,*(!#(!)$ *+$ !"&)$ )!-%9$ =&($B"*.#$ */$ &($70/!@$ +*/$ 7-/7*)#)$ *!"#/$ !"0($!"#&/$ 7#/)*(0.$ -)#$ 0/#$ &(2&!#%$ !*$)-8'&!$ 0$ B/&a#($ /#Q-#)!$ !*$ !"#$ +*..*B&(O$ 0%%/#))T$ E-/*7#0($ I*''&))&*(A$ E%-,01*($ <-%&*2&)-0.$ H$ I-.!-/#$ EW#,-12#$ <O#(,9A$ <2#(-#$ %-$ Z*-/O#!$3A$Zb:P$c$Zb:4dA$ZEN33ef$Z/-))#.) ?/*/,/5#/ >?:A$ =4f3f@A$ L"#$ E(!/#7/#(#-/&0.$ J&'#()&*($*+$ !"#$ I-.!-/0.$ 0(%$ I/#012#$ Y(%-)!/&#)A$ >*O#),"**.$2*/$%#$?-()!#($:!/#,"!A$:!/#,"!G$ Y;ZMcE<MT$ghiNgfNi3h4e5N3Ng J&O&!0.$,*7&#)$,0($8#$%*B(.*0%#%$+/*'T "a7Tcc#,G#-/*70G#-c,-.!-/#cF#9N%*,-'#(!)c %*,534ej#(G"!'G$ R-/!"#/$ 7/&(!$ ,*7&#)$ 0/#$ 0 2 0 & . 0 8 . #$ * ($ / # Q - # ) !$ ! * T$ 7&#//#G'#/),"UF'!G"F-G(. @$A%194/, I b D b P ; E L$ O / 0 S ) , " #$ 7 / * % - , 1 # ) A$ >*/!-)7.0(!)*#($hNiA$ 3f3i$L]A$<')!#/%0'A$ M#!"#/.0(%)G$ #'0&.T$&(+*U,*.*/)#!G(.

!"#$!"#$!%$!"!&$'()$%&'#()&*($*+$!"#$,-.!-/0.$0(%$,/#012#$&(%-)!/&#)$

$

$

$

e

!-/0./#012#$&(%-)!/&#)$ $ $ $ k ./#012#$&(%-)!/&#) !"#$!"#$!%$!"!&$'()$%&'#()&*($*+$!"#$.-.$0(%$.$0(%$.!-/0.-.!"#$!"#$!%$!"!&$'()$%&'#()&*($ *+$!"#$.

*'70))&(O$ '*/#$ !"0($ ^-)!$ !#.&S./&8#$ )*'#$ *+$ !"#$ 7/*8..-)$ *($ #(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7A$ !"#$ Q-#)1*($ 0/&)#)$ -(%#/$ B"0!$ ./5/$.#)A$ !"#$ %&_#/#(!$ ."$0a#(1*($&($ !"#$ %#80!#$ *($+*)!#/&(O$ 0(%$-(.#$ *+$ !"#$ I-.-')!0(.$.$ 0(%$ I/#012#$ Y(%-)!/&#)$ =IIY)@A$ 0)$ !**.#))$!*$ .!-/0..$ 0(%$.!#/&)1.!*/0.1.*()&%#/&(O$ )#.9$ &'7*/!0(!G$ 4G3$ V&!"$ !"&)$ +*.*''#/.!#/&)1.#))#)A$.L<L$ E(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7$ Y(%&.!$ "0)$ &%#(1S#%$ )&W$ !"#'#)$ !"0!$ %#).$ 0)$)7#.0708&..#0/."$!"#$#(!#/7/&)#)$S(%$!"#')#.$&((*201*($+*/$7/*%-.`$ 89$ (0!-/#A$ B*/F$ B&!"$ 7#*7./&8#$ !"#$ %#!#/'&(0(!)$ 0_#.)$ !*$ !0.&S.-.&0.!*/$ &)$ .)$*+$ 7*."0/0.07&!0.*O&.941>T$ 0./*N./#012#$ &(%-)!/&#)$ !*$ KJ6$ &($ E:$ C#'8#/$ .!-/0.# 3Gf$L"#$ &'70.!#%$'-./#0!#$ 2#/9$)'0..&#(1S.!$*+$ .#$ O**%)$ !"0!$ 0/#$ `.$ #(!#/7/&)#)$ ='&.-.*(*'&.!*/G$ >*B#2#/A$ O&2#($ !"#$ )!/*(O$ #.*-.$ 0)$!"#$ %&_#/#(!$ %#2#.*.#(O#)$!"0!$.CE)A$ "02#$ )7#.0($n*-/&)"$*/$ 0/#$ "&(%#/#%$ &($ !"#&/$ *7#/01*()G$ L"#$ bEIJcE:Pb../#012#$ )#.*7'#(!$ 7"0)#)$&($B"&.!-/0./#012&!9$ */$ B#$%&$./#012#$ &(%-)!/&#)A$ )-."#)$ +*/$ %#2#..0.0!*/$ 6/*^#..&O"1(O$ 8#)!$ 7/0."#!.*'7/#"#()&2#$ *2#/2&#B$ 8-!$ /0!"#/$ !*$ %#).9$ ."$ 0)$ 0.*O&.*(%&1*()A$ /#O-.*(!/&8-1*($ '0%#$ 89$ !"#$ ./#012#$ &(%-)!/&#)$ 0(%$ .$ *+$ 0$ E-/*7#0($B#.$ 077/*0."0..#.$ 0(%$ .9$ )'0.-.-..$0(%$.0/`$ #(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7G$ L"#9$ +/#Q-#(!.!-/0.*O9$ 0(%$PHJA$ #(!/#7/#(#-/&0.$ '0/F#!$ ."(*.$0(%$.#G$ Y($ *!"#/$ B*/%)A* 91H( 8"I).$ 0(%$ .*.!)$0(%$7/*.*''#(%01*()$ !*$ 7/*2&%#$ )-77*/!$ +*/$ #0.$ .$ +0./>.G$ L"&)$)!-%9A$ .$ %&'#()&*($ *+$ !"&)$ )#..$ !"#)#$ .*'70(&#)$&($ !"#$ IIY)A$ #)7#.*7&(O$ 0$ .815/( &4/( %"509#">/( )*( /5&.-.0!*/9$ +/0'#B*/F$ 0(%$0($ #(!/#7/#(#-/&0.-12#$)-''0/9 +.*(%-.#o$ '0/F#!$ 80//&#/)o$ &(!#.$ .#')$ ."(*..!-0.#W#..*''&))&*(#%$ 89$ !"#$ E-/*7#0($ I*''&))&*(A$ /#)7*(%)$ !*$ !"#$ O/*B&(O$ &'7*/!0(.%$"0'7#/$#(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7$0(%$7/#2#(!$ ./#012#$&(%-)!/&#)$*_#/$ !"#$*77*/!-(&!9$!*$8/&(O$#))#(10.0.!*/)$!"0!$ &(n-#(..01*($0(%$ !/0&(&(Oo$&((*201*(o$0(%$.-.&1#)A$ '0/F#!$ ..#))$ 0O/##'#(!$ *($ "*B$ !"&)$ .*''*($ !*$ 0.$ .2#)G +$!(/0!*1"#$!%$!"!&$2-'%*3*+-($(4#!$'2/42*.&0./"DE/( /#)5)8'G$ !"/&2&(O$ *($ &!)$&((*2012#$ 7*!#(10..$ 0(%$ '#%&-'N)&[#%$ #(!#/7/&)#)$ =.*()&%#/)$(01*(0.!-/0.9$ */&#(!#%$0(%$ -)-0.0($ 8#$ %#S(#%$B&!"&($!"#$ .!-/0.9$ *7#/0!#$ &($ )7#."$ %#!#/'&(0(!A$ "&O".$ 0(%$ .$ 7#/+*/'0(."0.&O"!)$ !/0()2#/)0.&S.#$ B"*$ 0/#$ *m#($ '*/#$ .#$ *+$ !"#$ .CE)@G$L"#$ &(!#(1*($ &)$(*!$ !*$ 7/*2&%#$ 0$ ."(*.0/$ .$#(2&/*('#(!0."0(O#)G$L"#$ .&S..!0!#)A$ %#S(&(O$ !"#$ #(!/#7/#(#-/&0.( ".!-/#$ 0(%$.0.$ %&_#/#(.#2#..)$ *+$ !"#$ .#)$ 0(%$ .*(!#(!N%/&2#($!"0($."0/0.-.$.#(O#)G$ Y(%##%A$ &((*201*($ &)$ (*B$ 0.$'0/F#!$0(%$!"#$%&O&!0./"9( &4"&( 0/&/./CA"9/0(#./#012#$&(%-)!/&#)$+/*'$8#(#S1(O$+/*'$!"#$&(!#/(0.01*($ *+$ &((*201*(A$ 0(%$ #2#($ .5*#-!*++62 4Gf$L"#/#$ &)$0$ (*$O#(#/0.!-/0.9$ *+$ !"#$ /*.!-/0.-//#(!$ 0(%$ +-!-/#$ .&/.#)$#(!/#7/#(#-/)$.-.-.&S.!-/0.$ 7/*8.$)"&mG$ 3G4$ L"#$ )!-%9$ %#).!-/#G$ 4G4$ <!$ !"#$ )0'#$ 1'#$ IIY$ #(!#/7/&)#)A$ &($ 70/1.&2#$ #(2&/*('#(!$ 0)$B#.#))#)G$ R/*'$ !"#)#$ F#9$ .*(%&1*()A$ 7/*%-.!-/0."0(O#$ &($(*(N !#./#012#$ #.#(O#)A$ !"#$ )!-%9$ )-OO#)!)$O#(#/0."0.F.#$ E-/*7#l)$ .$ 7/*7#/!9$ /&O"!)o$ #%-.$ /#.*''#(%01*()G$ L"#$ )!-%9$ "&O".#))$ !*$ S(0(.-./&8#)$ !"#$ '0&($ ./#012#$&(%-)!/&#)$ $ $ $ p .F&(O$ !"#$ 7*!#(10.$ ./#012#$ &(%-)!/&#)G$Y!$&(%&.*7'#(!$ *+$!"#)#$ #(!#/7/&)#)G$L"#$ )!-%9$ 7/*2&%#)$ 0($ -(%#/)!0(%&(O$ *+$ !"#$ F#9$ %#!#/'&(0(!)$+*/$ )!/#(O!"#(&(O$ #(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7$ +*/$ .*(!/&8-1(O$!*$0$'*/#$&(2#(12#$E-/*7#G 3G3$ L"#$ 0&'$ *+$ !"&)$ )!-%9$ &)$ !*$ 7/*2&%#$ 0$ 8#a#/$ -(%#/)!0(%&(O$ *+$ !"#$ *7#/01*()$ 0(%$ (##%)$ *+$ .&.1(O$ #(!/#7/#(#-/&0.08*/012#$ 7/*.A$ !#.#$ !"#$ %#2#.9$ 0)$ B#.-./"DE1&'F$ "0)$0a/0.$ 0(%$ ).F(*B.0!#)$)7#./#01*($ */$ )1'-.CE)@$ !"0!$'09$#W&)!$*($!"#$80)&)$*+$7#/'0(#(!$(#!B*/F)G !"#$!"#$!%$!"!&$'()$%&'#()&*($*+$!"#$.$ 0(%$ .$ 0O/##'#(!$ *($ "*B$ !*$%#S(#$ #(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7A$ B"#!"#/$ 0)$ /&)FN8#0/&(OA$ #(!#/7/&)#$ .*(*'9A$ 0(%$ '*/#$ )7#.#')$ 0(%$ 7/*2&%#$ /#.$ 0(%$ .#%O#%$ 0)$ #(.-.)$ !"0!$ '09$ )#70/0!#$ !"#'$ +/*'$ `/#O-.$ .

&)"&(O$0(%$'#%&0@G$ 4Gi$>*B#2#/A$ !"#$ '0^*/&!9$ *+$!"#$ .!-/0.%)$ !*O#!"#/T$ /#.$ 70/!$ *+$ !"#$ *2#/0.-.!*/)$ &($ B"&.-.!#%$ &($ &!)$ /0(O#$ *+$ 8-)&(#))#)G$ L"&)$ &(.#$ +*/$ *(..'*)!$)&W!9$7#/.*9##)@$ .$ #W7/#))&2#$ 7/*.!A$ IIY$B*/F#/)$0/#$'*/#$!"0($!B&./#012#$ &(%-)!/&#)$&)$*m#($ ./"DE/( /5&.!#/&)1.CE)$0(%$'&.*/%&(O$ !*$ !"#&/$ '*1201*()$ 0(%$ !"#$ )#.!#/&)#%$ 89$ 0$ "&O"$ 7/*7*/1*($ *+$ .#$ (*!$ )-r.."0/0.12&!9$ &($0$ ./#0)#)$!"#$ %&r.*&!01*($*2#/$&!)$.-%#)$ #2#/9$ !97#$ *+$ #(!#/7/&)#$ +/*'$ '-..-.-#$ =.#)$ !"#$ *(O*&(O$ %&2&)&*($8#!B##($ #(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7$7*../#012#$ #(!#/7/&)#)A$ &)$ *m#($ )##($ &($!"#$ %#)&/#$ !*$ 7/&*/&1)#$ !"#$ .9$&($*/%#/$!*$ +*/O#$ '*/#$ .&a.$ /#2#(-#)G$ M*!$ )-/7/&)&(O.#$ #(!#/7/&)#)$ &)$ '0/O&(0.!-/0.!-/0.!-/0./#012&!9$ 0(%$#(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7$ &)$(*!$ )!/0&O"q*/B0/%$ 0(%$#(!/#7/#(#-/)$%&_#/$ 0.$ */$ .$ )F&..&.$ !-/(*2#/$ *+$ !"#$ IIY)$ =3i$ t@G$ V&!"&($ !"&)$ '0^*/&!9$ *+$ `'&.#@A$ !"#9$ 0/#$ /#)7*()&8.#7!#%$ &($ !"#$ .$ #(!#/7/&)#)$ !*$ O/*B$ +/*'$ )'0.-.12&!9G$ 4Ge$L"#$ !#/'$ &)$(*!$ 0.01*()$+*/$7*.$ *+$ 7#*7."0/0.&0.*O(&)&(O$ !"#$ .0/O#/$ #(!#/7/&)#)$ =B&!"$ '*/#$ !"0($kf$#'7.!#/&)1.*()&%#/#%$#W7.$ 20./#01*(N*/&#(!#%@A$ B"&.#$ #(!#/7/&)#)$ "02#$ !"#$!"#$!%$!"!&$'()$%&'#()&*($*+$!"#$.$ ..$ 0.#7!$ !"0!$0.$ *+$ !"#$ .$ 70!")$!*$&((*201*(G$Y+$B#$0.-.9$ !*$8#$)#.-.$*+$ !"#)#$ 7/*.$ "0)$ &'7*/!0(!$&'7.*'7*)&1*($*+$.-.!*/)$ .-.$0(%$.!-/0.!$0(%$&(./#012#$ &(%-)!/&#)$ &)$ /#n#.9$0$ '*%#)!$ 7#/.!$ !"#$ '0(0O#'#(!$ *+$ !"#&/$ #(!/#7/#(#-/&0."0/0..#))#)A$ )*$ !**$ 0/#$ #(!/#7/#(#-/)$*m#($/#.*(!/&8-!#$ 0$ )-8)!0(10.+N#'7.$ ./&8#$ !"#&/$ &(%&2&%-0.$ B*/F$ 0(%$ !"#$ #(!/#7/#(#-/A$ !97&.( .#$ +*/$ '*/#$ !"0($ef$t$*+$!"#$ 0((-0.$#W7.CE)$/#(%#/)$!"#$ O/*B!"$*+$'&.$ 0.-.#$ '*1201*($ +*/$ O#(#/01(O$ #.-.*(*'&./0m)@$ 0(%$ *!"#/)$ !"0!$ &(./5/$.!$ */$ )#/2&.)$.#$ 0)$.&0!#%$ B&!"$0$ S(0(."0/0.$ 0_#.9$ 0))*.&.*9#%$!"0($ !"#$ 02#/0O#$ +*/$ !"#$ B"*.-%#$ 0$ 8/*0%#/$)7/#0%$*+$.*()&)!$ *+$ 2#/9$ )'0.-.#0/$ (##%$+*/$ !"#'$!*$8#$ .-.$ .-#$=O/*B!"N*/&#(!#%@G 4Gh$ L"#$ %&2#/)&!9$ *+$ ..$ '0((#/G$>*B#2#/A$ 0.$ (-'8#/$ *+$ .*/7*/01*()$ !*$ )#.0/O#N).#(!0O#$ *+$ !"#$ !*!0."%( "50( #.$ &(&1012#)$ &(!*$ '#%&-'N)&[#%$ S/')G$ L"#$ O07$ 8#!B##($ !"#$ u8&OO#/$ 7.0.*(*'9G$<.$8-)&(#))#)$=(*!08./*N#(!#/7/&)#)`$ 0.CE)$ B&!"$ '0(9$ )*.&F#.!#/&)1.&(F#%$!*$)&[#$ 0(%$!"#$ ./#012#$ 70!")$ !*$ O/*B!"G$ L"#$ !#/'$ .4G5$ <$ #$%&$./*N#(!#/7/&)#)$ =)'0.'*)!$ 08)#(!G$Y($ 2&#B$ *+$ !"#$ )!01)1./*N#(!#/7/&)#)A$ !"#$ .$7/&*/&1)#$!"#$#.0.$ 20.$0(%$.#)$!*$*/O0(&)#$ 0(%$'0(0O#$ !"&)$."&!#.9$ 0$"0(%+-.$ )#.)$&)$ )1./#012#$ &(%-)!/&#)T$ (0'#./#012#$&(%-)!/&#)$ $ $ $ h ..#$ 8#!B##($ .$ 0!$ .0.$ 0(%$ ..!-/0.$ *+$ '0(9$ ..&0.$.$ *8)#/201*()$ 0(%$ !"#$ &(!#/2&#B)$ .*''#/.!-/0.0/O#N).&.*9##)G 4Gg$ L"#$ (-'8#/$ *+$ .-./>.&.0(.&!.-.-.0((*!$ '0(0O#$ 0$ 8-)&(#))$0(%$.9N'0F#/)$ 0(%$ &(n-#(.!#%A$ !"#/#$ &)$ )-8)!0(10..$ %&r./#012#$7/*%-.&7.!-/0.&#(!.&.#$0(%$B"*$-)#)$#(!/#7/#(#-/&0.09#/)l$ 0(%$!"#$ '&.#A$ 0/.9$)*mB0/#A$7-8.$ 0(%$ )*...&0.#/!0&($ .0.!0(!$ !*$%&2-.#(!A$ 8-!$ !"#9$ 0/#$ /#)7*()&8.0.$ 7*.$20.$ 0(%$ ./#01*($ B&!"$ ./#012#$ &(%-)!/&#)$ 8-)&(#))#)$0/#$ '&.CE)$%&r./*N.#))$ !"0($ *(#$ 7#/.&0.!-/0.)$ !"0!$ B&./#0!*/$ *+$ 0$ .0!#(!$ #(!/#7/#(#-/&0.*(*'&.#$ !/0%#/)$ */$ '&.9N'0F#/)G 4G3f$L"&)$.!"*-O"$ !"#$ 20)!$ '0^*/&!9$ *+$.$'&.$ 20.#$ !"#$ 20)!$ '0^*/&!9$ *+$ #(!#/7/&)#)$ 0/#$ .$ 0(%$.0./#0!#)$*/$ 8/&(O)$!*$ '0/F#!$ 0$.-.*''*(.#%$ !"#$ `'&))&(O$ '&%%.-.#))#)$0/#$ &'7*/!0(!A$ !"#/#$ &)$0$ .-.."0/0./*N8-)&(#))#)$B&!"$*(.$ !-/(*2#/G$L"#)#$ )!01)1.!-/0./#012#$)7&/&!$*+$!"#$#(!/#7/#(#-/G$ 4Gp$ L"#$ !#()&*($ 8#!B##($ !"#$ .&.09#/)lG$ <$ 2#/9$ )'0....CE)$ =+*/$ #W0'7.1N(01*(0.$ *2#/.$ )7&/&!$ *+$ 0($0/1)!A$ !"#$.!-/#A$ +0)"&*(A$ .#(!$.#$ !"#$ #(!/#7/#(#-/$B&.$%&'#()&*($ B"&./*N.$ #(!#/7/&)#)G$ </*-(%$ift$ *+$ #(!#/7/&)#)$&($ !"#$ IIY)$0/#$ .."&#2&(O$ 0$ 80.!*/$ 0)$&!$ &)$)1.*9&(O$ *(.#lT$ '#%&-'$ )&[#%$ #(!#/7/&)#)$)##'$ !*$ 8#$ 0..9$ !"&)$ .-#)$ 8#"&(%$!"&)G$ b($ !"#$ *!"#/$ "0(%A$ !"#$ .!9$ &($0.!-/0.*(%-.#$ #.-.-#$ *+$ !"#$ .$ 7/&(.!-/0.#))&(O$ '0/F#!)$+*/$ !"#$ u)'0.0!#(!$.CE)$#'7.*(S/'$ 0($&'7*/!0(!$ 80)&..!-/0.$ 0(%$ .$7*.&#)$0(%$.%$0'*(O$ #.!9$ +*/$ )'0.!#/&)1./#012#$ 0.$ 0(%$ ."s$ *+$ !"#$ 0/1)!$ B"*$./#012#$ #(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7$ !"-)$ 0a#'7!)$ !*$ %/0B$ !"#)#$ B*/..B09)$B#./*N.O#$ !"#&/$ &(%&2&%-0.9$ "#.0($ 8#$ -(%#/)!**%$ 0)$)*'#*(#$ B"*$..#G$Y($+0.*O(&)&(O$ !"#$ .*(*'&.0/O#$0(%$)'0.!-/0.$ 0(%$ .!0(!$ !*$ %#).9$3$!*$5$#'7./#012#$ &(%-)!/&#)$ .."$ !"#9$ *7#/0!#G$ L"#$ !#/'$ !"-)$ /#+#/)$ !*$ !"#$ +0.-.!$ !"0!$ !"#)#$ #(!#/7/&)#)$ "02#$ .&.#/$ 7.9$ /#.&#)G 4Gk$ X-)!$ 0)$0/1)!)$ 0/#$ *m#($ /#.!-/0.*()&)!$*+$2#/9$)'0.#/$ !"0($ 3f$7#*7.9$ !"0!$ B"&..F)$S(0(.

1*(0.&!9G$ L"#$ )!/-.*()!#.*(2#/O#(.#(!$ S(0(."$ 7-!)$ +-/!"#/$ .&S."0&()G$L"#$ &(.!)G 4G3e$ I*()&%#/&(O$ !"#$ )7#./*N.#$ +*/$!"#$ .CE)$ &($!"#$ .#.9$ %9(0'&.2#$ *-!)*-/.$ 0(%$ .#))$ &'7.0!#$ !"#$ +-(%)$!*$ S(0(.&!9$0(%$O/*B!"G 4G33$L"#$ -)#$ *+$%&_#/#(!$ )!/0!#O&#)$89$!"#)#$ '&.#W$ .!#/&)1.!-/0./#012#$ &(%-)!/&#)A$ B&!"$ /#O0/%$!*$ )&[#A$ .*'7.08*/012#$ 0(%$."0((#..12#$)!/-.$ .-)!#/)$ *+$ (#!B*/F)lG$ bm#($ !"#$ .$ 0(%$ B*/F&(O$ !"/*-O"$.!)$0(%$)#/2&."0&($ *+$ .9$ %&2#/)#$ 7/*%-.#/!0&(!9$ 0(%$"&O"$ .$ 0(%$ .!-/0.&(#0/$ 7/*%-.*'70))#)$ !"#$ &%#0$ *+$ 0$ u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u%&O&!0.-."0(O&(O$ !"#$ 70a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n#W&8.CE)$ &)$(#.*(ON#)!08.)$*+$.-.*./#012#$ &(%-)!/&#)$ "02#$ '0(9$ .)$ 0(%$ !#.*.1*($20.!$ -)#/N7/*%-.!-/0.*'7#!#$ B&!"$'*/#$ #)!08.$0(%$ .N).01*()$ *($ !"#&/$ 70!")$ !*$ )-)!0&(08&.01*($ .F$ *+$ S(0(.9$ #'#/O#%$ B0)$ !"#$ *2#//&%&(O$ (##%$ !*$ O0!"#/$ '*/#$ .&)"#%$ &(+/0)!/-./*N..!-/#G 4G34$Y($0%%&1*($!*$+0.$#(!/#7/#(#-/&0.#)$ &!$ &)$.-.-#$ n*B$ 8#&(O$ '-..0/O#/$..1*($ .#))$!*$)&'&."$ n#W&8&.*)#.9$ B&!"$!"#&/$ !0/O#!$ 0-%&#(.#&2#%$ .!$ ."$0(%$%#2#.!)$ 0(%$ )#/2&./#012#$7/*%-.-.&#%$ &($ !"#$ .$ S(%&(O)$ !"0!$ Q-&.9!2 5Gf$ Y($ 2&#B$ *+$ !"#$ ."0&(A$ !"#$ !#/'$ BE"%$/( #..&!$ 7*&(!#/)$ +*/$ 8.!-/0.!-/0..$ 0v!-%#$ B"#($ /#)7*(%&(O$ !*$ '0/F#!$ *77*/!-(&1#)G$ L"&)$ '09$ &(2*.!-/0.&.&.!-/0.!-/0.#/80!#%$89$!"#$ #_#./#012#$ &(%-)!/&#)$ &)$ "*B$ !*$.F."$0$ B&%#/$ 0-%&#(.*()-'#/)$*+$!"#&/$*B($7/*%-.$ .#0/$ 70!")$!*$#(!#/7/&)#$ O/*B!"G$.$ 0(%$ .*'7#11*(A$ %&O&!0.#$ 7/*^#..CEA$E(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7$0(%$I-.*(%-.!$ *+$!"#$ /#.$ ."0.#A$ "&O".#$ 0(%$ %9(0'&.#G$L"#9$ 0/#$ 0.0./*))$E-/*7#$ +*/$ !"&)$ )!-%9A$ *(#$ *+$ !"#$ O#(#/0./#0!#$ %&/#.#/$ &(!#/0.-./#012#$&(%-)!/&#)$ $ $ $ i .*.$ 0(%$.B09)$ 7/*(#$ !*$/#B0/%&(O$ /&)F$ !0F&(O$ 8#"02&*-/A$ 8-!$ B"&.12&1#)$B"&.-.&!9$ 0(%$ O/*B!"G 7('"*8-!9(/4*:&#4.)$0/#$ (*!$ "*'*O#(#*-)$0(%$!"&)$ '#0()$!"0!$0(9$ .*'7#112#$ 0%20(!0O#$ +*/$ IIY)$&($*/%#/$ 8#)!$ !*$ )-77*/!$ !"#'$0(%$#'8#%$IIY$)-77*/!$B&!"&($Y((*201*(A$.$ )"&ml$ &)$.-#$ .'0./#01*($ 0(%$ .$ 0(%$ .$ .*'70/&)*($&)$ n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

$ 0(%$ #2#($ '#%&-'$)&[#%$#(!#/7/&)#A$ &!$ &)$#W.#))#)$n*7G$ !"#$!"#$!%$!"!&$'()$%&'#()&*($*+$!"#$."0(O&(O$ !0)!#)$ &(!*$ 0.#))$.!#%$B&!"$ 0(9$ %#O/##$*+$.$ 0(%$ 7/&20!#$ O/0(!)$ "02#$ 0$ /#)&%-0.$ )#.-."$!"#$ .#$ '0(9$ )&'&.&0.!*/$ '09$ 0))&)!$&($ !"#$ )!0/!N-7$0(%$ +-(%&(O$ *+$.9$ *($&(!0(O&8.!#%$ "02#$ 0$ )"*/!N!#/'$ )70($ *+$ S(0(.&(O$ )*-/.&0."#/)$B#/#$ 0.!-/0.0-)#$ !"#9$ 0/#$ .!-/0.$ !*$ )-r..08*/0!#%$ !"#&/$ +*/#.*O(&)#$ !"#$ 20.-..12&!9$ 0(%$&)$#))#(10..9$!-/($&(!*$)'0)"$"&!)A$0(%$)-/#NS/#$)-.#$ !"#$ *!"#/$ )*-/.!-/0.&1#)$ 0(%$ u'#%&0$ ./#012#$ &(%-)!/&#)$"0%$(*$ S(0(.&(#$ )-/2#9$ )"*B#%$ !"0!$ hkt$ *+$ !"#)#$ ."$!"#9$ 0/#$ *_#/#%$0(%$!"#$ )#.12#$ S(0(.$.#$ '09$%&_#/$."0(&)')A$ )-.!0(!$!*$)"0/#$7/*S!)$&($/#!-/(G 5Gh$V"&.&'&.$0(%$.*/#$ .*(!#(!lG$ >*B#2#/A$ &(!0(O&8.$ !"0!$ !"#$ '*)!$ &'7*/!0(!$ S(0(.&0.$ )-77*/!G$K/#0!#/$ -(%#/)!0(%&(O$ *+$ !"#$ 70/1.9$0$8#a#/$*71*($!*$0%#Q-0!#."$!"#9$ 0/#$ '0%#$ 020&.07&!0.&.#71*(0.*//#.$ /*.-.*'#$ '*/#$ /&)FN02#/)#$ 0(%A$ 0)$0$ /#)-.CE)A$ !"#9$ 0/#$ *m#($ '*/#$ 0.9$)#/2&..$ 0(%$.9$ et$ "0%$ 0$ S(0(.0!#%$ !*$-(%#/)!0(%A$ *m#($ %#!0.*79/&O"!$ 0(%$ .*0($ O-0/0(!##)$ B#/#A$ *2#/0.#$ !*$0.$ +*/$!"#$ O/*B!"$ 0(%$!"#$ )-)!0&(08&.*'70(&#)$ #.$ )-77*/!A$ &)$ *m#($ u(*!$ )-r.#))&!9$ !*$.!#/&)1.#$ 0))#!)$ )-.#A$ B"&.-./#012#$ #(!#/7/&)#G$L"#$ '0/F#!)$+*/$ ./#012#$ #(!/#7/#(#-/)$ 0/#$ O#(#/0.*))$*+$.$20.#$.*-(!)G$ R&(0(.!-/0.!-/0.&(#$ Q-#)1*((0&/#$ /#2#0."$ 0)$ 80(F)$ *m#($ +0&.&#(!.#))A$ !"#$ *(.!0(./#012#$&(%-)!/&#)$%-#$!*$ !"#&/$ 7#/..#G$Y($0%%&1*(A$ /#)7*()#)$+/*'$#W7#/!)$)-OO#)!$ !"0!$ 7-8.#))$0$ '0/F#!$ &)$(#.CE)G$ 5Gp$ >*B#2#/A$ %-#$ !*$ !"#$ S(0(.*(*'&.!*/)$ !"0($!*$!"#$ .0/$(##%)$*+$ .9A$ '0(9$ .-./#012#$ 7/*.!*/)$!*$B"&.#2#.9$&'7.-.!01*()$ 0(%$ (##%)$ *+$ #(!/#7/#(#-/)$ &($ !"#$ .-.#$ ./#012#$ 7/*%-.&0.$ &()!/-'#(!)$B#/#$/#7*/!#%.!-/0.$ Q-0.*'8&(#)$!/0%&1*(0./#012#$ &(%-)!/&#)$ 0)$0$ B"*.#$ k5t$ "0%$ 0$ *(#N9#0/$ +*/#.+N S(0(.0./#012#$&(%-)!/&#)$ $ $ $ g .0/$ !97#)$*+$ )-77*/!$0/#$ *_#/#%$!"/*-O"*-!$E-/*7#A$!"#$ .08.9$ )#.!-/0.*(!/*.*'7.!9A$ )*m$ &((*201*(A$ .&0.#&2#%$ "&O"N/&)F$ .!-/0.$ /#.0)!G$ b(.1*($)#Q-#(.#))$!*$S(0(.&0.+-./#012#$ &(%-)!/&#)$ *m#($ (##%)$ !*$ 8#$ ./#012#$ &(%-)!/&#)$B0)$.!-/0.#$ !*$'##!$ !"#$ #W7#.*(O$!#/'$S(0(.-#$ *+$&(!0(O&8.#)$ 0/#$ )#.$ &()1!-1*()$ )-.0((&(OG$L"#$ *(.9$ %&r."0/0.!)o$ .!l)$S(0.$ &(2#)!'#(!)G$ R*/$ !"#$ '&.0)!)$!"#')#.9$!*$)-77*/!$ 8-)&(#))#)$&($!"#$ .-#G 5Gk$V"&.-.!08.$ 0(%$ .!-/0.#$ 0))#!)G$L"#$ .$ *-!.$ !"0!$ )#!)$ !"#$ ..$ 0(%$ .-.*O(&)#$!"#&/$#..*7#%lG$ P#O&*(0."0/0.*()-.*()&%#/&(O$ !"#$ (#.!#/&)1.#2#.#)$ 0/#$ *m#($ .#)$)-.!-/0./#%&!)$0(%$ S).9G$R&(%&(O)$+/*'$!"#$ )!-%9l)$ *(.*(O#/N!#/'$ !"0($ *!"#/$ 2#(!-/#$ .$&(2#)!'#(!G$.$ 0(%$ .*(%0/9G$ Z0(F$.5G5$ C*)!$ *+$ !"#$ .0($!"#$ 7/*^#.$ 0(%$.##7#/)$&(#W7../*A$ )'0.&#(!.*()&%#/08.#$ )-8)&%&#)$+/*'$ !"#$ 7-8.9$ !0(O&8.&.#/!0&(!9T$).$ &(&1012#)$)##'$ -(08.)A$ 2#(!-/#$ .&..!$)!/0!#O&.#&%!""#$$ 5Gg$Z#&(O$ 08.&.-.$ B"#($7/*2&%&(O$!"#$ ./#012&!9$ 0/#$ *m#($ (*!$ /#n#.$0(%$.0((&(OA$ B"&.%$-7$*+$ !"#$0.$ +*/#."#%$+/*'$!"#$ !#//&!*/9$ &($B"&.$ )#..-.&F#.#$ %#'0(%$ .#))0/9$ +*/$ !"#$ 8-&.9$(*$)!0O#$ &($ !"#$7/*%-.$ 0(%$ .!A$0/#$ &(../#012#$ &(%-)!/&#)$ .-.&0.&!9$ *+$ !"#$ .)*$7-!$+*/B0/%$0)$ 7/*2&%&(O$ #_#.!)$ 0(%$ )#/2&.*(%&1*()G$ E(!/#7/#(#-/)$ "02#$ !*$ !0F#$ "#!#/*O#(#*-)A$ .$ 0(%$&((*201*($2*-.!-/0.#$ &)$-(%*-8!#%.$ 0(%$ .#$ 0))#!)$&($ +-(%&(O$ 7/*O/0''#)G$ R*/$ !"&)$ /#0)*(A$ !"#$ /#O&*(A$ 0)$0($ &(!#/'#%&0/9$ .!$ +-(%&(O$'#.$)-77*/!G$ 5Gi$C0(9$ #W7#/!)$)-OO#)!#%$!"#$ -)#$ *+$!0W$.&.-.!-/0.#A$ &)$!"#$ %#7#(%#(.$ )-77*/!G$ b!"#/$ )*-/.#G 5Ge$ b(#$ .-.*'70(9$ *7#/0!#)$0(%$ 0/#$(*!$(#.#))0/&.0)!$ *+$ -7$!*$k$9#0/)G$C*/#*2#/A$ .#$ &(+*/'01*($ 7/*%-.9$ %#2#.9$/#.&(OG$6-8.$ 7.07&!0.2#)A$0)$*77*)#%$!*$4ft$!"0!$-)#%$0$7/*+#))&*(0.$ 0(%$ #.#))&*(A$ '0(9$ 80(F)$ "02#$ 8#."$0)$8-)&(#))$0(O#./#012#$ #(!/#7/#(#-/$ ."$ 0)$ (*2#.$ 7.$ 7/*2&%#/$ *+$ S(0(.-.*(*'&.*'70(9A$0(%$0/#$/#.#$ !*$ !"#$ .!$ !*$ 0a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t$*+$!"#$ .

012#.$0..!*/$ "&O"./>.$ 0(%$.!-/0.$ *+$ #(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7$ +*..17.08&.0!#$ !*$ F(*B.12&!9G$ L"#$ 020&."$)9)!#')$ 0/#$ )1.0!#%$.!-/#$ 0/#$ 0'8&20.!-/0./#012#$&(%-)!/&#)$ $ $ $ 3f .CE)G$ 5G3e$R-!-/#$7*.#$ 8#+*/#$ !"#$ )!0/!$*+$ !"#&/$ #(!/#7/#(#-/&0.!$*+$!"#$ O07$8#!B##($!"#$ '&.#$ !*$.-)#%$ )*.$%&2#/)&!9G$ 5G34$L"#$ F#9$ ./#0)#$ 0B0/#(#))$*($!"#$ -)#$ *+$Y6P$ /#O&'#$ 0(%$ !*$ +0.-.-.$ *+$ !"#$ ..$ 0(%$ .-)&2#$ 0O/##'#(!)$ B&!"$ F#9$ %&)!/&8-!*/)$ 0(%$0.*'#)$ *+$ !"#)#$ 7/*O/0''#)G$L"#$ (0//*B$ '*%#.9.*()#Q-#(."15156 5G3p$ L"#/#$ &)$ 0$ O#(#/0.#))$89$IIY$.$B*/.!-/0.$ 0(%$.-.CE$ #(!/#7/#(#-/$ "0)$ !*$ 8#$ !0F#($&(!*$0.#))$ !*$ F(*B.&a."$)-.*()!/0&(!)G$ b($ !"#$ *!"#/$ "0(%$ YIL$ %&)/-7!)$ !/0%&1*(0.!-/0.#$ %0!0$ 0(%$#20./#0!*/)$ !*$ 7/*%-.#$ *+$ Y6P$ 0)$0($ &(./#012#$ #(!/#7/#(#-/)$ 0(%$ !"#$ /#B0/%$ +*/$ !"#&/$.%&(O$B&!"&($!"#$#(!/#7/#(#-/&0.CE)$%&%$ (*!$ /#.!-/0.9$'0F#$ -)#$ *+$ Y6PA$ !"#$ Q-#)1*($*+$"*B$!*$8#)!$'0F#$-)#$*+$Y6P$&($!"#&/$#(!/#7/#(#-/&0.!-/0.0($ %#'*()!/0!#$ !"#$ (##%$ !*$ &(.5G3f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n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b($ !"#$ *(#$ "0(%$ !#.&(O$ 0.9$ .*//#)7*(%$ !*$ !"#$ .&.)$ B&!"&($ 0.$0(%$.9$ *($ .-.&."0.01(O$!"#$ %#2#.$ 70!")$ !*$ O/*B!"$ &($ !"#$ '0/F#!$+*/$uO/*B!"$*/&#(!#%l$.#$ *+$ .&!9$ 0O/##'#(!)A$ B#/#$ -)#%$89$ *(#$Sm"$*+$IIY$.-01*($ *($ !"#$ *-!."&#2#'#(!)$0/#$ *m#($'*/#$ &'7*/!0(!G$>*B#2#/A$ )1'-.01*($ 7/*O/0''#)$ &($ /#.$0./#0)#)$!"#$ &'70.-.*B$ -)#$ *+$ 7/*!#.#(12#$ +*/$ .!$ 0)$ 0($ #(08..012#.&0.-#%G$ /01%)*$&-23#*&$% 5G35$R/*'$ !"#$ *(.$ Y6PA$ (0'#./*N.#/!0&($)#.-.0/O#$ 0(%$'-.$ 0(%$./#012#$#(!#/7/&)#)A$.$0(%$.!-/0.)G$ L"#$ *2#/0.#%O#$ 08*-!$ (#B$ #W!#/(0.&.9$ .)*$ !*$ S(%$ 077/*7/&0!#$ (#B$8-)&(#))$ '*%#.&(#$ )-/2#9A$ 0$ '0^*/&!9$ *+$ .CE)$ +*/$ B"&.*'#)$!*$!"#$+*/#G 5G3k$ L"#$ /#.1*(G$Y(+*/'0.0($!"-)$#()-/#$0$.$0(%$.$ )-./#012#$ &(%-)!/&#)$ )#.#$ *+$ '#%&-'N)&[#%$ #(!#/7/&)#)$ &(.#$ F##7&(O$ &($'&(%$ !"#$ &'7*/!0(.12&!9$...#'#(!0/9$ &'7#%&(O$ +0.$ )F&.!*/G$ L"#$ &'7*/!0(.#(!$ 9#0/)A$ !"#/#$ &)$ /#.#))$ %*#)$ (*!$ )##'$ !*$ .*''-(&./#012#$ .$ .!*/G$ C&.*'7#112#$ #(2&/*('#(!$ !97&.$ &()!/-'#(!$ +*/$ 7/*!#.#%O#$ *($ '0/F#!$ *77*/!-(&1#)G$L"#$ 7/#)#(.#$ .CE)$ &($ !"#$ .*-(!$ !"#$ .)$&)$(##%#%$+*/$ #(!#/7/&)#$ O/*B!"A$ '0/F#!$ */&#(!01*(A$ /#!-/($ *($ .#&2#$ 0(9$Y6P$0%2&./&1.#$ *+$ 0.#G !"#$!"#$!%$!"!&$'()$%&'#()&*($*+$!"#$.

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n-#(.*-.*)!$ )!/-.$ 0(%$ .01*()"&7)$ B&!"$ 2&)&!*/)$ 0(%$ .$ #(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7$ #%-.&!9$ *+$ 8#.F$*+$#(!/#7/#(#-/&0.*'7./#012#$&(%-)!/&#)$!*$0.#/)$&($7/*'*1(O$."&(O$ 0($ &%#0@$ 0(%$ '0(0O#'#(!$ )F&..%$ 8#$ "#.#$ 8#!B##($ +*/'0.%)G 5G43$ R/*'$ )&'7./#012#$ &(%-)!/&#)l$ )-77*/!$7/*O/0''#)A$ 1.$ .$ )-77*/!A$ !"#$ .$/#)*-/.#%$ &($ 8-)&(#))G$ C-./#012#$ &(%-)!/&#)$ &)$ 0($ #))#(10.&#(!)A$ .0($7/*2&%#$20.-//&.-.-//&./#012#$ #(!/#7/#(#-/)$ 0/#$ /#)7*()&8.#$ !"0!$ !"#$ .$ 0)$ *!"#/$ %#!#/'&(&(O$ 80//&#/)$ !*$ )-...#$ 8-&.*'8&(#$ u.!-/0.-.$ 0(%$ &(+*/'0.$ 7/*O/0''#)@$ !*$ &()!#0%$ %#2#.0./*B%N)*-/..$ 0(%$ 8-)&(#))$ !**.0.-)#%$ '0&(.-'$ &)$ &'7*/!0(!G$ $L"#/#0m#/$ D&+#$D*(O$ D#0/(&(O$ 7/*O/0''#)$.0($8#$ #(08.-.)G$ $ E0/.)$0(%$ .$ */$ 0%'&(&)!/012#$ '0(0O#'#(!$ )"*-.&(O$80)#%$*($ .#'#(!0/9$ )*.*7$ '0./#0)&(O$ !"#$ &(!#/0."0&()G$J-#$ !*$!"#$&(2*.#$ !*B0/%)$&(!#/'#%&0/9$ 0(%$ .$ 0(%$ (*($ O*2#/('#(!0./*$ 0(%$ !"#$ '0.!*/)$.-.0.$ 0(%$ .0((&(O$ )F&./*$ #_*/!)$ 0&'#%$ 0!$ )1'-.1*($ 8#!B##($ !"#$ u8-)&(#))l$ 0(%$ !"#$u.*/7*/0!#%$B&!"&($!"#$#%-.$ )F&.-.)$ !*$7/#)#(!01*($ =&G#G$ 7&!.#0/(&(O$ 89$ %*&(Ol$ 0(%$ u7##/$ !*$ 7##/l$ .1(O$+0./#012#$&(%-)!/&#)$ $ $ $ 33 .F$ *+$ #20...)$ 0/#$ .&0.%&(O$ 0(%$ )F&.)$ 0/#$ +*.01*(G$ <.$ )F&.01(O$ #(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7$ =8*!"$ O*2#/('#(!0.-.01*(0.#))#)$ 0)$ 0$ %/&2#/$ *+$ -)#/N.-//&.-1*()$ !"0!$ .#(!/#%$ &((*201*($ 0/#$ )&O()$ *+$ !"#$ 7*!#(10.$ 0(%$ .%$ 8#$&(.!-/0.#))$&((*201*(G$ !"#$!"#$!%$!"!&$'()$%&'#()&*($*+$!"#$.#'#(!0/9$ 0.!-/0.-.!-/0.$ 0(%$ ..!*/)$)-.-.&(O$ &((*201*($ &($ E-/*7#G$ b7#($ &((*201*($ '#!"*%)$!"0!$ &(.)G$ 5G3g$ I*(2#/)#.%$ 8#$ !*$ 8*.!*/)$.$ #%-.*0.#A$ 0(%$ !"#$ Q-#)1*($ *+$ !"#$ %#)&/08&.$ +*/$ !"#$ ..0$ 0(%$ 0/!)$ #%-.CE)A$ 0(%$ 8-)&(#))#)A$ 0)$ B#.*'7*(#(!)$ *+$ 20.1%&).!-/#)$0(%$20."$0)$!"#$ .&!9$ 0(%$ O/*B!"$.$ 0(%$.0&'$ !"0!$ .*0()$89$ O*2#/('#(!0.#2#.&(0/9$ 7/*^#.-.)!#/$ !"#$ ..F$ *+$ &(!#O/01*($ *+$ #(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7$ #%-.*(O$ /-($!*$ )-77*/!$ #(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7$ +*/$ .CE)G$ <.$ 0(%$ .$20.!-/0.5G3h$<$ )7#.$ &($ &(.%$ .)$&($ #(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7$ 0/#$ &//#.*/%&(O$ !*$ )*'#$ *+$ !"#$ /#)7*(%#(!)A$ )-77*/!$ !*$ %#2#.#$ +*/$ !"#&/$ *B($8-)&(#))$'*%#.0.$0(%$.!-/0.9$ &(!#O/01*($ *+$ .*'7#!#(.."$ 0/O-'#(!)A$ '0.$ 0(%$S(0(.7+-.&#)A$ .#%O#N*8)!/-.&S.."$ 0)$ !0W01*($ 0(%$ )!0!#$ /#O-.F$*+$F(*B.*/7*/01(O$ "&%%#($ &((*201*(A$ )*m$ &((*201*(A$ */$ %#)&O($ 7/*./*$ '#0)-/#)$ )-.-.9$ *($ .*/%&(O$ !*$ )-.!#/(012#$ !*$ )-77*/!$)-)!0&(08&..#$ .01*($ )9)!#')$ %*$ (*!$ 7/*2&%#$ !"#$ 7/*7#/$ #(!/#7/#(#-/&0.$ 0)$ #(O0O&(O$ B&!"$ *!"#/$ )#./#012#$ &(%-)!/&#)$ .!)$ 8#!B##($ 8-)&(#))#)$ 0(%$ #%-.$0(%$.#20(!G$ <O0&()!$ !"#$ .&(OA$ O/0(!)$ 0(%$ )-8)&%&#)G$ Z-)&(#))$ '*%#.9G$R*/$ )*'#$ *+$ !"#$ /#)7*(%#(!)A$ .-.$.0($8#$0(*!"#/$7/*'7!$+*/$.!$ !"#$ 7/#)#(!$ #%-.-%#$.-.$ )9)!#'$.01*(0./#012#l$B*/.-.F$*+$8-)&(#))$)F&.-./#012#$ &(%-)!/&#)$!*$#(O0O#$ &($&((*201*(G$L/&0(O-.-#)A$ 8-)&(#))$'*%#.#)T$80(F$."&(OG$Y(%##%A$ /0!"#/$ !"0($+*.-08.#W$ S(0(.01*(0.!-/0.08*/01*($8#!B##($%&_#/#(!$)#.$ .-//&.&7.F(*B.*'#$ 0)$ #0/.-#$ .$ 7/*O/0''#)A$ !"#/#$ 0/#$ )-OO#)1*()$ !*$ /#%&/#.#%O#$ 8#!B##($ 0.)$ *+$ #(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7G 5G4f$ L"&)$ !#()&*($ 8#!B##($ !"#$ '&.-//#(!$ %&).%$ "02#$ &($ #(08.2#'#(!$*+$.$ '&.!-/0.!#%$ &($ .12#$ &($!"#$ .0.*'7.!.$)F&./*$ u&(!#/2#(1*(&)!l$ &(&1012#)$ &)$ /#n#..9A$ )*'#$ #W7#/!)$.)$ #W7#/&#(.*((#.1*()$ 8#!B##($ !"#$ .#%O#$08*-!$'0/F#!$*77*/!-(&1#)G$ 5G3i$ L"#$ %&_#/#(./*$ 7*.$ &()1!-1*()$ .$ 0(%$ .0))#)$&($S(0(.$ )#!$ /0(O&(O$ +/*'$ 80)&.-)&(O$ *($#%-.-.-))&*($ &($!"#$ .$ 0(%$ .*7$ #(!/#7/#(#-/&0.01*($ &($ (01*(0.01*(0..0A$ 0$ .*-.&#)$ !"0!$ 0/#$ %##'#%$'*/#$ #_#.

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h$Y($*/%#/$ !*$&(.*-.12#G$.*()-.#/$!*$)!/#(O!"#($0.$ *+$ &(+*/'01*(G$ M#!B*/F&(O$ ."(*.*O(&)#)$ %#)&O($ 0)$ 0$ 7*!#(10.)*$ 7**.)$ 0(%$ )*-/."(*.#)A$ 8-!$ 0./#012#$ &(%-)!/&#)G$E(08.*B$ 0$ O/#0!#/$ #W."0(O#$ *+$ F(*B.-.#)G$ <)$ !"#$ %&_#/#(.$ 7/*)7#/$ B&!"$0$ ./#0)#$ !"#&/$ .!-/0..$ 0(%$ .-'#(!$ *($ J#)&O($ 0)$ 0$ %/&2#/$ *+$ -)#/N.$0(%$ &((*2012#$ 7*!#(10.$ &(+*/'01*($ !"0!$ '&O"!$ )#/2#$ !"#$ .)lA$ !"#$ EI$ /#.0.*O9$ PHJ$ B0)$0)$ .9$B&!"$!"#$ /&)#$ *+$%&O&!0.1.-..$ .&#%$/#)#0/.*.#$ 70!")$!*$O/*B!"A$ !"#9$ '-)!$8#$ 08..#%O#$ )"0/&(O$ 0(%$ )1'-.#2#.CE)$ !*$ &(.&#)$ #W.$ *+$ %#)&O(G 5G4e$ C0(9$ .$ 0(%$ &((*201*($ '#0)-/#)G$ 6.-1*()$ 0(%$ 7/*%-.#A$7/0.*(%-.#))$!*$#W!#/(0.*O9$ PHJ$ 0(%$ .CE)G$Y($*/%#/$ !*$#(08..$ &)$.9$ !"#$ )!0/!$ -7)$ !"0!$ (##%$ O-&%0(.0q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a#(1*($!*$!"#$ )F&.$ 0(%$ (01*(0.0.&S.*-/0O#%$ !*$ B*/F$ B&!"$ &(!#/'#%&0/&#)$ &($ */%#/$ !*$.)$*+$ ..)*$ &'7.$ *+$ &((*201*(G$ <!$ 0$ (01*(0.#))#)$!*$#'#/O#G 5G4p$R*)!#/&(O$ 0$ .-/&!9$ 0(%$ B&!"$ 0."0(O&(O$ %9(0'&.#)$0(%$*!"#/$/#Q-&/#%$)-77*/!$+*/$#(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7G !"#$!"#$!%$!"!&$'()$%&'#()&*($*+$!"#$.*'#$ 8.#$ '*/#$ #0)&.%$ 8#$ )##($ 0)$ 0$ )*.#))$ 0)$ !"#9$ 0/#$ /#Q-&/#%A$ */$ *(N%#'0(%G$ .9$ 8#(#S!$ +/*'$ #0./#012#$ &(%-)!/&#)$ !*$ &((*20!#$ 0(%$ .*()#Q-#(!.*.*-(1(O$)#/2&.9$ &(n-#(.#$ !"#'$ !*$ (*!$ *(."$0$.)$ '*/#N*/N.0($0.!*/$ .$ 0(%$.&0."$0)$0..&#%$P#)#0/.*-.$ *+$ .!-/0.$ O*2#/('#(!)G$ P#O&*()$ 0/#$ #(..CE)$ 0/#$ !"#')#.*O9$ .&."$ *!"#/l)$ /#)*-/.$*+$!"#$&))-#)$'#(1*(#%$08*2#G$ 5G4i$I*.*B$ !#.*O&./#0)#$ !"#$.08*/01*($ 0(%$ (#!B*/F&(O$&)$0$F#9$#(08.!*/$ 0(%$.%$8#$ 7/*2&%#%$*($ 0$ /#O&*(0."(*.#))$ !*$ !"#$ /&O"!$ &(+*/'01*($ 0(%$ F(*B.*..&(O$ !"#$ %&)!/&8-1*($ 0(%$8-)&(#))$'*%#.9$)7/#0%$!"#&/$&((*201*($!*$*!"#/$)#.$ 8#!B##($ 0-%&#(.!*/$ F(*B.!#/(012#$ *71*()$ )-.!-/0.*"#/#(!..0!#$ )-)!0&(08.F&(O$ !"#$ 7*!#(10./#012#$ #(!/#7/#(#-/)$ B&!"$ !"#$ /&O"!$ )F&."$(##%)$0(%$ 0/#$ -(08.9$ !*$ #W7/#))$ !"#'G$<$ '#%&01(O$ &(!#/'#%&0/9$ .$ 0(%$ .&(F#%$ !*$ u7/*%-.$ 0(%$!/0&(&(O$ 7#/)7#..*(*'&.0($!0F#$ 7.*'70(9A$ #)7#.!)$ *+$ !"#$ *7#($ .070.*7$ (#B$ 8/0(%)A$ 7/*%-.#0/.&!9$!*$#W7#/&'#(!A$ !*$&((*20!#A$ !*$O/*B$ 0)$)-.$ +*/$ -(.-."$ .#$ 0(%$.-1*($ +*/$ .9$ )##($ 0)$ 0$ 70/1.!*/)$)-.#)$ *+$ S(0(.2#)$ *m#($ -(0B0/#$ *+$ !"#&/$ 077./*))N)#.&S./#012#$ #(!#/7/&)#)$ %#7.#%O#$ &)$0.#/!0&($)#.&.$ F(*B.)*$ 0$ F#9$ +0.!*/$ +*/$0$ S/'l)$ .!-/0.$ !"#&/$ #_*/!)$+*/$B*/F&(O$)70.01*(0.12#$ 0(%$!"#$ #./#012#$ &(%-)!/&#)$ B&./#0)&(O.!-/#$ *+$&((*201*($!"/*-O"$ (*(N!#./#012#$&(%-)!/&#)$ $ $ $ 34 ."$ 0)$ &((*201*($ 2*-.$ &()!/-'#(!$ +*/$ &((*2012#$ )*.08*/01*($0(%$ (#!B*/F)$.!-/0.CE)$!"#')#.$7#/)7#..*.&0!#%$ B&!"$ 0$ )7#.."(*.*9$ -)#/N*/&#(!#%$ )!/0!#O&#)G$ J#)7&!#$ *m#($ 8#&(O$ 0))*./#0!*/A$ #)7#.!-/0.#))#)$ 0(%$ %#2#.A$ !"#$ -)#$ *+$ 0.2#)$ *+$!"#$ #.-.*B$ ."$)#.$0(%$.F$ *+$ 0B0/#(#))$*+$7*.#$ *+$ .0.*.01*()"&7$8#!B##($ !"#$ <77.*/0!*/9$#(2&/*('#(!)$!*$ #'#/O#$ &)$ 2&!0.!-/0.0.&(F$ IIY)A$ &($70/1.$ .!*/)G 5G4k$<./#012#$ &(%-)!/&#)$."$#W7..9$ /#Q-&/#%$!*$(#O*10!#$ 8#!B##($!"#$ #%-.#))#)A$ 8-!$ B*/F&(O$ &($ 0$ .#(!/#%$ &((*201*($ !*$ 8#$ &(!#O/0!#%$ &($ !"#$ +-!-/#$ &((*201*($ 7*.&0.0.-.

"$0)$B#..&(0/9$ 0(%$ 0%%/#))$ 8*!"$ .#%O#A$ &($ !#/')$ *+$ (#B$ 7/*.$ 0(%$ #.*.12&!9$ !"#$ .#2#.5G4g$L"#/#$ &)$(*B$ 0$ .&0.!-/0.*.#0/.-.*N*/%&(01*($ *+$)#2#/0.!-/0.08*/01*($ 8#!B##($ C&(&)!/&#)A$ #)7#.*.*-(!/&#)$ !"0!$ "02#$ 0%20(.$ 8*%&#)$ )"07#$ !"#$ /#O-.08*/01*($ B"&.*(*'&.!-/#G$L0/O#!#%$ '#0)-/#)$+*/$.*(*'9$ 0(%$ "#.9$ 0%%/#))$!"#$ )7#.07!-/#%G 5G5f$ L"#$ -)#$ *+$ .$ .#A$ 0)$B#.&#)$ 0/#$ (##%#%A$ *($ /#O&*(0."$ &(%&2&%-0.-/&(O$ +-(%)$ +*/$ !"#$ .*(!/&8-1*($ *+$ IIY)$ !*$ !"#$ (#B$ #.$ 7.9$ *($&(+*/'0.$ 077/*0.*''#(%01*()$ .#%$ )-77*/!$ '#.)$*+$!"#$ IIY)G$<.%#/)G$ I-."$'09$(*!$8#$#r."#'#)G eGe$ .&(#)G$?(*B.$ .&.%$ 8#$ #(.&(0/9$ #(2&/*('#(!)$ B"#/#$ ..#$8-!$&($!"#$ .!-/0.@A$ &)$.0!#/$ )!0O#)$ *+$ &!)$ 0.!-/0.0($ )#.0.08*/012#$ 7/*./#012#$&(%-)!/&#)$ $ $ $ 35 .-.0($8#(#S!$ +/*'$)-77*/!$ =/#)#0/.$ 0(%$ .#%O#$ !"#$ .!-/0.)$ 0/#$ (##%#%$ +*/$ !"#$ .$&($'#/O&(O$ !"#$ ./#012#$ &(%-)!/&#)$ 0/#$ .01*($+*/$."0(&)')$ +*/$ .$ 0(%$ .&7.!*/G$ e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n01*($ *+$ 7/*%-.#0%)$!*$(#B$F(*B.#%$!*$0.*0.-.!-/0./#012#$ &(%-)!/&#)$ !"0!$ 0/#$ .$ )!/0!#O&#)$ B&!"$ )-.#0%$!*$#W7#/&#(.!-/#$ 0(%$ E.$ '&(&)!/&#)A$ )"*-.&.*(!#W!A$ !"#$ B&%#/$ &((*201*($0O#(%0$ 0(%$!"#$(##%$!*$)1'-.-/#$ 0$ /#!-/($ *($ &(2#)!'#(!$ +*/$ !"#$ +-(%#/)$0)$ B#.&.$%/&2#/$*+$&((*201*(G$ eG3$ Y($ */%#/$ !*$ .-)!#/)$ '09$ 8#$ '*/#$ )-&!#%$ !*$ !"#$ .-)!#/$ &(&1012#)G$ L"&)$ )-OO#)!)$ !"0!$ 7#/)*(0./*))$ 0.9$ +*/$ #0.12&!9A$ )-.)$ *+$ .)$*+$7*."$ 0)$ &($ !"#$ 8-&.!#/&)1.0%#'&.#))#)$!*$&(!#O/0!#$!"#)#$.$ 0(%$7#/)*(0."2 eGf$b($!"#$ 80)&)$*+$!"#$ B*/F$ -(%#/!0F#($0$ (-'8#/$ *+$O#(#/0.-0!#%$0(%$.-."0(&)')$ .*//#.!*/)$ 0/#$ 0%071(O$ !"#&/$ 7/*.#$ )"*-.&01(O$ 2#(!-/#$ .#))#)A$#W7#/&#(.$ E-/*7#0($.%N*-!$ 7"0)#A$ !"#$ .*"#/#(.9$ %9(0'&.&#)$)"*-.#))#)$0)$70/!$*+$!"#$ &(!#/0.*./#012#$ #(!/#7/#(#-/$ !*$ 8#(#S!$+/*'$!/0&(&(O$ 0(%$.9$ /#.#))#)$ +*-(%$ &($ '-.&7.0($#(08.1N%&).CE)G eG5$ <)$ )##($ +/*'$ .*(*'&.!$ !*$#W7.A$ (01*(0..-./*N.$ 0.07&!0.$ 0(%$ ."0/0./#01*($*+$#W7#/&#(.&0.09#/#%$ 7*.#$ 8#a#/$ .*7#%$!"/*-O"$ !"#$ 20/&*-)$n0O)"&7$ &(&1012#)$*+$ !"#$ E-/*7#$ 4f4f$.99!"<(/.#))#)$ ..9$..$0(%$.-.%$8#$/#&(+*/.$ 0(%$ .!4.1'-.$C&(&)!/&#)$!*$ +*/'-.$(##%)$*+$'&.$ &($ !"#$ 8#O&((&(Oo$ B"&.$/#.$ +0.!*/)A$ !"#$ .#2#."&(O$ 0(%$ .9$ +*/$ ..*7&(O$ 0(%$ 7/*%-.-.08*/012#$ 7/*.!-/0.&#(!$)-77*/1(O$)./#012#$ 7/*.-."G$>*B#2#/A$!"#$ )#./#012#$ #(!/#7/#(#-/$ B&.$ 0(%$ .&S./*))$ %&).$ 0(%$ .*(.!-/0.$ 0(%$ .!.*./#012#$ &(%-)!/&#)$0(%$'*)!$ &'7*/!0(!.!#/&)1."$ 0)$ .0($./#012#$ &(%-)!/&#)A$ 0.F(*B.$ .$ ./#012#$&(%-)!/&#)$./#012#$ &(%-)!/&#)$0/#$"&O".%$ +*/$ !"#$ IIY)G$ M01*(0.*-(!$!"#$)7#.!)$0(%$7/*.#G$ <)$ !"#$ .08*/012#$ ).$ +/0'#B*/FA$ B"#/#$ 7/*%-.%$ !0F#$&(!*$0./*N.-.!-/0.!*/0.#%O#A$B"&.&0.%$0.!-/0.$ 0(%$ .#))#)$*+$ 0%07!01*($ 0/#$ '*/#$ %&r.-."$ .!)A$ !"#$ .-.0!#$#(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7$0)$0$(*(N!#.0($8#$ .."0(O#)$!"/*-O"$077.$ 0)$ )#.#))#)$ 0(%$ 7/*%-.-..#$ !"#$ .&S.*-/0O#%$ 0(%$ .$ 0(%$ .9$#20.#))#)$.$ 0(%$)7#..*N*/%&(01*($ 0(%$ .$ 0)$S(0(.&S.$0(%$..09&(O$ S#.$ 0(%$ ..$ 0(%$ .CE)$ '0F#$ O/#0!#/$ -)#$ *+$ .-.#$ 0.$ 8#$ %#2#.#$ '*/#$ +*/'0."&#2#$#r./#012#$ .1$ .#$ &($ !"#$ .!-/0.0)#$*+$./#012#$ &(%-)!/&#)A$ 0(%$ #)7#.!-/0..&(O$ #r.9$ I-..CE)$ !"0!$ B&.."(*.9$O*2#/(0(."#%$ B&!"$ !"#$ ..-.$ 0(%$.**F&(O$ !*$O/*B$ !*$ 0$ 8/*0%#/$ '0/F#!$ 0(%$ 8#(#S!$ +/*'$!"#$ &(&1012#)$*+$!"#$)-//*-(%&(O$70/!(#/)G$ 7('"*.0!*/9$ +/0'#B*/F$ &($ B"&.

"0&()G$ eGi$<!$!"#$ E:$.$ &(&1012#)$ 0&'#%$ 0!$ %#2#.:/& eG3f$ L"#$ E:$ )"*-.&(#$0(%$*_N.#))$.-%&(O$ (*($ !#.$ 7*&(!)$*+$ !"#&/$ /#)7#.&!9$*+$ 0/1)!)$.$0(%$(01*(0."(*.%$8#$70&%$!*$!"#$#W0'7.#2#.&.0.*-.$ R-(%)$=)-.$ 7/*...*)#$ &(!#/0.$ R-(%)$ &($ IIY)$ )"*-.*-.%$8#$ )!/*(O.0.*/7*/01(O$ IIY$ ."(*.*O&.0.CE)G$ $ L"#$ CEJY<$ 7/*O/0''#$ O&2#)$ )7#.#)$0(%$7/*%-.!/-.$ */$ /#O&*(0.0($"#.#$ 0.$ &((*201*(G$L"#9$.CE)G$ L"#$ -)#$ *+$/#O&*()$!*$.-/#'#(!$ '#0)-/#)$ !"0!$ "*.0/$ )-77*/!$ *77*/!-(&1#)$ )"*-..!*/0.*'7."#%$89$ !"#$E:$ &($4ffi$B0)$)#!$-7$!*$&%#(1+9$ (#B$ (##%)$ 0(%$(#B$'0/F#!)$ +*/$ &((*2012#$ 7/*%-.#%$&($!"#$ CEJY<$7/*O/0''#$ +*/$ %&O&!0.*-/0O#$ /#O&*(0.F$ *+$ S(0(.&0.*/%&(O$ !*$!"#$ (##%)$*+$ !"#$ IIY$./*))$ 8*/%#/$ &(&1012#)G$ <)$ IIY)$ 7/#+#/$ !*$ "02#$ .$ 7/*.9A$ !"#$ (01*(0."0((#.0/.9$ +*/$ '&."$0)$80(F$O-0/0(!##)G$$L"#$ &(2#)!'#(!$*+$ !"#$ E-/*7#0($ .!*/)$0(%$ )-77*/!$ !"#$ %#2#.0q*/')$*+$&((*201*(A$ #(.*-/0O#%$!*$.$2#(!-/#$ .$ +*/$ %#2#.&S.)$*+$IIY$.%$0..CE.&.$ 7/*.08*-/$&(!#()&2#$.9$ !0/O#!#%$0!$ IIY$.*7'#(!$ *+$\#(!-/#$ I07&!0.&0.$0(%$.*-/0O#$ !"#$ 7/*%-..&0."$ 0(%$ L#.&'&.0/O#$ +-(%&(O$ ).CE)$&)$#))#(10.#)$.*()&%#/$ !0W$ )"#.&.%$#(."(*.-.!0!#)A$ &!$&)$/#.*-/0O&(O$ IIY$.&'&.-#$.#2#.#%-/#)$ +*/$ .!)$*/$ )#/2&.#$ *+$!"#$ O-0/0(!##$ +-(%$+*/$ !"#$0-%&*2&)-0.0/."$ 0)$ R6h$ 0(%$ R6i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q*/')$+*/$IIY)G$ ?/#)88/50"D)59()5("##/99156(&4/(8".-.*-.-)!#/)G$$ eGk$ L"#$ E:$ )"*-."$IIY)A$0(%$#)7#.9$ !*$ 8#$ '*/#$ !0/O#!#%$ !*B0/%)$ IIY)$ &(!#/$ 0.07&!0.%$ )1'-.$ .*O&.*B#/$ \<L$ /0!#$ 0(%$ *!"#/$!0W$&(./#%&!)$ !*$ +-(%$IIY)G$.*N*/%&(01*($B&!"$!"#$ C#'8#/$ .-)!#/)$ 0(%$)#.$)-77*/!$ )!/-.#(12#)$+*/$8*!"$*(.!#/$ '#0)-/#)$+*/$ *!"#/$ )#.!*/$ &($ !"#$ %&_#/#(!$ )!0O#)$ *+$ !"#$ u20.-/#'#(!$ /#Q-#)!)$ .#W$+*/$ IIY)G$<!$ !"#$ E:$.&0.*7&(O$ O-0/0(!##$ ).!)$0(%$)#/2&.$ 0)$ !"#$ I*"#)&*($ 6*.07&!0.&0.&(#'0G$Y($.!-/0.%$ 8#$ !0/O#!#%$ 0!$ &((*2012#$ (*(N!#.$ )#./#012#$)#/2&.&.CE)$!*$8#$ &(!#O/0!#%$ B&!"&($ .9G$ eG33$L"#$ D#0%$C0/F#!$Y(&1012#$ =DCY@$ .$.$ .%$ -(!077#%$ 7*!#(10.%$8#$ -)#%$ !*$+-(%$IIY)$ %#8!$ S(0(.0/$ )#.*'7."0&(lG$ .-//#(!$ &))-#$ +*/$ IIY)$ 0(%$#)7#.*-.)$&($IIY)$0(%$ '&.$ !*$ )-77*/!$ &((*201*(G$ 6-8.12&1#)$ 0!$ /#O&*(0.$ (#!B*/F)$!*$8#$ 7.#))$ !"#$ '0/F#!$ 89$ -)&(O$ 7-8.#)$ !*$ B"&."0/0.9G$ EW&)1(O$ 7/*O/0''#)$ =R6hA$ IY6@$ )"*-.%$ #(.&."#'#)G$ Y($ !"&)$ /#O0/%A$ %-#$ 0a#(1*($)"*-.*-/0O#%$89$ +0.*-/0O#%$ A$ B&!"$ )7#.-#$ .!0!#)$0/#$ #(./*N.!#/&)1.*7'#(!$ )-.9A$ !"#$'*8&.0!*/9$ 7/*.0!#$ O/*B!"$0.$ +-(%)@A$ !"#$ &(2#)!'#(!$*+$ Z-)&(#))$<(O#.$ J#2#./*$."$0)$!"#$ (01*(0.)*$&(.!*/)G$.%$0./*))$'0(9$)#.#W$ )*$ 0)$!*$ 0.&)01*($*+$.0!#$ S(0(.*-/0O#$!"#&/$(#!B*/F&(OG ?/#)88/50"D)59()5("##/99156(J5"5#/ eGp$D0.A$.CE)G$6/*2&)&*($*+$S(0(.$ )-77*/!$ +*/$ /#O&*(0.&(#$.1*($0(%$%&)!/&8-1*($*+$ IIY)$7/*%-.#$ &)$0$ /#.!)$ 0(%$ &(."$0)$7-8.!-/0.$ &(!#/'#%&0/&#)$ !"0!$ 0/#$0B0/#$*+$!"#$.&!01(O$ !"#$ /#O-..$ (#!B*/F&(O$&(&1012#)$0(%$7.&'&.&(O$ */$ 2#(!-/#$ .%$ 0.#$ )"*-.)*$ 80.&+#$ ..#2#.)*$7/*'*!#$ &((*201*(A$ .CE)$ !*$077.!*/@G$Y!$)"*-.$ ..&.*-.!)G eGg$M01*(0.)$0(%$ #(.!$ 0)$ &(!#/'#%&0/&#)$ 8#!B##($ !"#$ IIY)$ 0(%$ *!"#/$ 7*.!*/$ )**($!*$8#$ &(!/*%-.*7'#(!$ *+$ (*($!#.!*/)$ *+$ !"#$ IIY)$ 0!$ ."(*./-.*-./*N.$ .9$'&.*-/0O#$ #W&)1(O$ 0(%$ +-!-/#$ +/0'#B*/F$ 7/*O/0''#)$ +*/$ P#)#0/.0./#01*($*/$ )!/#(O!"#(&(O$ *+$.*''#(%#%$!"0!$ !"#$ E:$./#0)#$ !"#$ 2&)&8&.&S.9$ '*/#$ #0)&.*-.)$)-.*7#%$+*/$ *!"#/$ )#.$ )-77*/!$ !*$ 0$ 70/1.$&($!0/O#1(O$)-77*/!$+*/$!"#$IIY)G$ eGh$L"#$ .A$ !"#$ +-(%&(O$ ).9.A$ !"#$ EYZ$0(%$EYR$ +-(%)A$ !"0!$0.$ */$ !"#$ E-/*7#0(G$P#O&*()$.*O&.%$077.#))#)A$ 7/*%-...%$ #(.*-.$ .$ !"#$ +-(%)$ 0(%$!"#$ -)#$ *+$ S(0(.&0$ 89$ &(.1*($ 0(%$ )-77*/!$ *($ %#'0(%A$ /#O&*()$ .%$ 8#$ %#2#."#'#)$+*/$ )-77*/1(O$ &((*201*($ 0/#$ !**$ .!)$*/$ )#/2&./#012#$&(%-)!/&#)$ $ $ $ 3e .*O&.

.*()&%#/$ *7#(&(O$ -7$ DCY$ !*$ (*(N!#.#))&2#$ '0/F#!$ .$ ../#012#$ 077/#(1.09$ 0$ 20.#))$ !*$ !"#$ '0/F#!$ 89$ )#v(O$ -7$ 7.9$!*$#(.*()&%#/01*($)"*-..-'$*+$0/!)$&()1!-1*()$&($*/%#/$ !*$+*)!#/$!"#$ &((*2012#$ 7*!#(10.*7'#(!$ *+$ .%$#()-/#$ !"0!$0.)*$.*O&."(*.-.106156(&4/(/5&.$ 7.-08.*.&0.&#!0.$ (##%)A$ !"#$ E:$)"*-.*(."$7*.$+*/')$*+$ &((*201*(A$ 8*!"$ +/*'$ !"#$ 7-8.$ .9$ B"#/#$ 0$ +#B$ .#$ =:<..01*($ !*$ #'7."$7/*'*!#$!"#$2&)&8&.%$0.0q*/')$ B"#/#$ IIY$ .!*/)$ *+$ !"#$ IIY)G$ J#)7&!#$ !"#$ &'7*/!0(.01*(G$ V&!"$ 0$ 8-%O#!$ *+$ w$h$8&.#)$ *($ 8*!"$ !#.#$ /*.$ R-(%)$.#)$0(%$0)$)-.01*($ &($ O#(#/0.$ .#(!$)."0((#.*.&(F&(O$ /#O&*(0.0q*/'$ +*/$ #W."(*.1E/.$ &((*201*($ 0(%$ &((*201*($ &($ )#/2&.$ .*-.*-..$ (#!B*/FG$ $ P#O&*()$ ."$&()1!-1*()$B*-.!-/0..*-1(OG$ !"#$!"#$!%$!"!&$'()$%&'#()&*($*+$!"#$.*()&%#/$ 0%071(O$ .*9'#(!$ 89$ 7/*'*1(O$ u*($ !"#$ ^*8l$ .$ 0.$ %/&2#/$ *+$ &((*201*(A$ .%$ )"*B.%$ 7/*'*!#$ !"#$ %&))#'&(01*($ *+$ &(+*/'01*($ 08*-!$ ..$)"&mG eG3p$ IIY)$ 0/#$ 0..#))&(O$ !"#$ '0/F#!$ /#'0&()$ %&r.0/O#$ .&#)G$ ?/#)88/50"D)59()5(0/E/%)>156(/5&.0.9$ */&#(!#%$ &((*201*(A$ #(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7A$ ..0)#$ !"#&/$ 7/*%-.#)$ !*$ !07$ &(!*$ IIY)l$&((*2012#$7*!#(10.0/..#))#)$ !97&.*&!$!"#$*77*/!-(&1#)$*_#/#%$89$!"#$%&O&!0.$ )F&.*-/0O#$ 0$ '&(&'-'$ 0./>.!)c)#/2&.!*/0.%$ 0.*_#/$ 0($#W7#/&'#(!0.-.7$!"#'$+-/!"#/$#W7.&#(.1.&S.!*/A$ &(.-%&(O$*($!"#$*(.*-.%$8#$ -)#%$!*$"#.*'7#11*($ 7*.CE)$.01*($0(%$!/0&(&(O$ 7/*^#.A$ !"#/#$ &)$ )1.%$ .*9'#(!$ &($IIY)$89A$ +*/$ #W0'7.*7$#(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7$0)$0$ (*(N !#.!)$ 0(%$ 0.CE)$%*$ (*!$ "02#$ )-r..-//&.CE)A$ #)7#.$ .0!0.$ *+$ !"#$ IIY)A$ )-..%$7.G$ eG34$ <.)$ !/0&(&(O$ )"*-.#0/(&(OG$ $ YIL$ )F&.!-/0.#$+*/$.*'&(O$/#2&#B$ *+$&((*201*($0(%$/#)#0/.!$ 0)$0$ .)*$ 7/*%-.&.#$ *+$ !"#$ !*7&.%$ .#))$!*$0.!*/G$ eG3k$E-/*7#0($ .$0(%$.&*($ +*/$ 4ffhN4f35A$ !"#$ D&+#$ D*(O$ $D#0/(&(O$ 6/*O/0''#$&)$!"#$ E:l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eG35$ IIY)$0(%$ #)7#.&#%$ /#)#0/.-.0!#$ !"#$ &((*201*($7*!#(10...#(!/01*(G$L"&)$.*O&.*.$ *+$IIY)$ 0(%$"#.070.)$ !*$02*&%$#W.()*(155)E"D)5 eG3h$Y($*/%#/$ !*$)1'-.12&1#)$!*$*!"#/$ E-/*7#0($ /#O&*()$ 0(%$(#!B*/F)$ *+$ IIY)G$R-/!"#/$ .*O(&)#$ PHJ$ &($ )*'#$ *+$ !"#$ 7/*./*))$/#O&*()$0(%$+*/$.0...0.*'7#!#(.9$ !*$IIY)l$ ./#012&!9$0(%$/#)#0/.#)"&7)$ &($ */%#/$ !*$#0)#$ !"#$ !/0()&1*($ +/*'$ #%-."*&.0A$ 0(%$ 70/1./*))N8*/%#/$ '0/F#!$ *77*/!-(&1#)$ !*$ IIY)$!"/*-O"$ 0$ /#O&*(0.&(#$ '0/F#!$ !*$*_#/$ /#0.1"%(9:1%%9(6"> eG3e$ L"#/#$ &)$ 0$ O#(#/0..$%&2#/)&!9$ 0(%$ .!$ 0)$ 0$ 7.0.$ *+$ IIY)A$ 0(%$ %#2#.!$ +*/$ IIY$ .$ 0(%$ .F$ *+$ #(!/#7/#(#-/&0.#/)$ *+$ F(*B.0.$)F&./#012#$&(%-)!/&#)$ $ $ $ 3k .*'70(&#)$ %*'&(0!#$ !"#$ '0/F#!G$L"#$ E:$)"*-."$ 0)$ %#)&O($ 7/*.&0.$ 0(%$ 7/&20!#$ )#.$ 7.-%&(O$&($!"#$.CE)$ &($ !"#$ /#O&*($ /#O0/%&(O$ 7/*+#))&*(0./*))N8*/%#/$'0/F#!)G$P#O&*()$ )"*-."(*..&..0.)*$'*/#$ )7#.%$ +*/$ &((*20!*/)G$Y($*/%#/$ !*$ !0/O#!$ )*..&#%$.*-.-.09&(O$ S#.&a./#012&!9$ 0(%$ )-77*/!$+*/$#(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7$!/0&(&(O$&(."0(O#$ *+$ 8#)!$ 7/0.&1#)$&($ !"#$ /#O&*(G$ $:(&2#/)&1#)$*+$ <77.#'#(!0/9$ .*O&.#A$ .&.9$0.941>("9(5)5C&/#45)%)61#"%(0.&!9$*+$!"#$IIY)$&($!"#$/#O&*(G$ ?/#)88/50"D)59()5(A.!#/&)1."0((#.#%O#$ &()1!-1*()$0(%$ .!-/0."(*.0.-//&.#))#)$ *+$ )*m$ 0(%$ "&%%#($ &((*201*($ 0(%$ /#.*-.%$8#$ O&2#($!*$!"#$ B&%#(&(O$ *+$ !"#$ %#S(&1*($ *+$ &((*201*($&($ !"#$ -7N./*))N)#.-.%$ 8#$ &(.$ 0(%$ (*(N!#.-%#%$ */$ )!/#(O!"#(#%$&($!"#$ .09#/)$"02#$ 0$ '&(&'-'$ 0.&(F&(O$IIY$#(11#)$0(%$077.*'70))$0.08*/012#$ B*/F$ 8#!B##($F(*B.

.7#.*7&(O$0($ #(!/#7/#(#-/&0.#))$!*$ .&!9$)"*-.$ +-(%)$ )"*-.$ 0)$.$ !**.-.&!0!#$ #0)&#/$ -)#$ *+$ Y6$ &()!/-'#(!)$+*/$ .%$ 8#$ 0.%G$ I/#012#$ )*.9$ "#02&.$ )"&ml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u%&O&!0.&0.164& eG3i$ L"#$ E:$ )"*-.&!#/0.*(*'9G$Y($ */%#/$ !*$ )-77*/!$ !"#$IIY)A$.G$ eG3g$ IIY)$ +0..%$&'7/*2#$ .0($ 0...#2#./#012#$&(%-)!/&#)$ $ $ $ 3p .CE)l$ 0.**F$ +*/$ .CE)G$ L"#$ %&O&!0.)$ !"0!$ .!-/0.%#/)$ 8-!$ #()-/#$ n#W&8&.-1*()$ &($ !#/')$ *+$ */O0(&)01*(A$ 8-)&(#))$)-77*/!$*/$7/*%-.9$ 0(%$ !0F#N-7$ *+$ %&O&!0.-.&)01*($ !"0!$ ./#012#$ #(!/#7/#(#-/)$ /#.%$8#$)*-O"!$0!$!"#$E-/*7#0($.&.&!9$ 0(%$ #0)&#/$ 077.9$ )-77*/!#%$ !*$ !0F#$ 0%20(!0O#$ *+$ !"#'G$ $ .08*/012#$ )*.9$ *($ !"#$ -)#$ *+$ (#!B*/F)$ B&!"&($ "&O"..-1*()$ 0(%$ ...9$ &((*2012#$ 0(%$ /&)FN*/&#(!#%$ #(2&/*('#(!)G$ L"&)$ )"07#)$ !"#$ (##%$ +*/$ IIY$ ."0.)$ B&!"&($ !"#&/$ #(!#/7/&)#)G$ eG4f$ b(#$ *+$ !"#$ F#9$ *-!.12&!9$ &($!"&)$.#/!0&($ %#O/##$ *+$ n#W&8&."0.$ B*/.0.?/#)88/50"D)59()5(9$>>).9$ .!-/0.

!-/0.-.$0(%$./s012#) !"#$!"#$!%$!"!&$'()$%&'#()&*($*+$!"#$..#)$#!$.!-/#.D0$%&'#()&*($!"#$!%$!"!&$'()!$ %#)$&(%-)!/&#)$.-./#012#$&(%-)!/&#)$ $ $ $ 3h .

.&!s)$#(!/#7/#(#-/&0./s012#$ {$ #($ E-/*7#A$ Q-&$ )`077-&#/0&!$ )-/$ )0$ .*O&#$ #!$.#'#(!0&/#$#!$.ls.l&'70.!-/#.0$ 7/s)#(!#$ s!-%#$ #)!$ %l*_/&/$ -(#$ '#&.*.*(.#$/#(+*/.07&!0.#7!$ )`0/1.#)$ )#.#/$ -($ !97#$ %`#(!/#7/#(#-/&0!$ !"#$!"#$!%$!"!&$'()$%&'#()&*($*+$!"#$.#!$sO0/%A$.l0.0$ 7/&)#$ %#$ /&)Q-#A$ |$ .)$ #!$ +-!-/)$ %#$ .x)$ 0-$ '0/.#)$ 7/*8.#)$ 6CEA$ 7/s)#(!#(!$ %#)$ .#)$ %/*&!)$ %#$ 7/*7/&s!s$ &(!#../#012#$&(%-)!/&#)$ $ $ $ 3i ..A$ |$ )02*&/T$ .0$ I*''&))&*($ #-/*7s#((#A$ /s7*(%$ |$ .*''#$ )#$ .#)A$.*()#()-)G$ I#7#(%0(!A$ 2-$ .#$ 7*./s012#)$ =YII@$ #($ !0(!$ Q-l&()!/-'#(!)$%#$ (0!-/#$ |$ .*(*'&#$ ./s)-'s$#Ws.&'&!0(!$ |$ %#)$ .*(!/0&/#$ y$ #(!/02#(!$.*&#'#(!$ %`-(#$ z$ s.l#(!/#7/#(#-/&0!$ 0-$)#&($ %#)$ YII$#!$%`#'7~.*''0(%01*()$)7s.#)Q-#.0$."s$&(!s/&#-/$#!$%#$.$ 0$ s!s$ 8#0-.1+$%#$ .0!#-/)$%#$ .#-/$ %s2#.!-#..s)$ Q-&$ )*(!$ %#$ (0!-/#$ |$ /#(+*/./&/#$ .*O&Q-#)$|$ %#)$7/*%-&!)$#!$ 7/*.0/0.*77#'#(!$%0()$.-.*'7/#(%/#$ .&#(1SQ-#)G$D#)$ YII$7#/'#a#(!$ %`077*/!#/$ %#)$&((*201*()$(*($!#.x'#)$!/0()2#/)0-W$Q-&$ )*(!$ .x)$0-$ .0/0.0$ +*/!#$ .`#)7/&!$%`#(!/#7/&)#G$ 4G4$ J0()$ .*77#'#(!G$E.`s2&%#(.A$ .#)$ #!$ .*O&Q-#)$ *-$ ).#$ %#)$ YIIA$ |$ )02*&/$ .-1+ =!*4."(*.#/$ %#)$ /#.$ #)!$ |$ .0$ PHJA$.#! 3Gf$I#)$%#/(&x/#)$0((s#)A$ &.-.#/$ .08*/01+)G$ Dls!-%#$ )-OOx/#$ %#)$ 077/*.#)$%#/(&x/#)$%#$1/#/$70/1$%-$'0/.!s/&)1Q-#)$ )7s./*&))0(!#$ %#$ .#$ 0-$ )#.0$/s2*.-)$)7s.*'7/#(%/#$ .#)$#(!/#7/&)#)G$ =>!"#$!%$!"!&$'(#*4$?(/5*!#*)!2*4($(4#?$'2/@&!2*<!2*6++ 4Gf$D#$)#()$|$ %*((#/$0-$.#2#/$ ..#(!$ .070.#)$ O/0(%#)$ .l&((*201*($ (`#)!$ 7..#!$ '0&)$ %#$ %s.#$ '~'#$ !#'7)A$ .#)$YIIG$ E.l&((*201*(o$ #!$ .!-/#.!-/#.#$ %#)$ &(%-)!/&#)$ .*'7.lE-/*7#G$E($ #_#!A$ .0$ .0%/#$ /sO./s012&!s$ Os(s/s#$ 70/$ .#."sA$.Q-#)$ %sS)$ )7s..$ #!$ .#$ ./&!$ ..#'#(!o$ .#o$ ."so$ .#)$6CEG$ Dl&(!#(1*($ (l#)!$ 70)$ %l*_/&/$ -($ 70(*/0'0$ .-1*($(-'s/&Q-#G$ 3G4$Dls!-%#$ %s.*(%&1*()$%#$ '0/.1*((#'#(!$#!$ %#)$ 8#)*&()$ %#)$ #(!/#7/&)#)$ %-$ )#.-.&!s$ |$ &((*2#/G$ D0$ 7/s)#(!#$ s!-%#A$ .!$%#$ .&SQ-#)A$ Q-&$ 7*-//0&#(!$ 077#.l0.#/!0&()$ 7/*8.#)$%s!#/'&(0(!)$ .*(%&1*()$Q-&$ +02*/&)#(!$ *-$y$ 0-$.#-/#$ .#7!$%l#(!/#7/#(#-/&0!$ (#$ +0&!$ 70)$.#$ %s7."#/..l:EA$ &./s01*($ %l#(!/#7/&)#$ *-$ |$ .0$ +*/'01*(o$ .-)$&(2#(12#G$ 3G3$Dl*8^#.&#/$ |$.!-/#${$$y$%0()$.-.#$ .$0(%$./s012#$ #!$ y$ 7.&O(#$ .*/#$ '*&()$ .l&'7*/!0(."0.&SQ-#)$ 7*-/$ .#)$ %sS)$0.#$ 709)0O#$ #(!/#7/#(#-/&0../s012#)A$ #!$ (*!0''#(!$ .#)$.#$ 0&()&$ Q-#$ %#)$ /#./s012&!s$ y$ *-$%#$ ..#718.*(!/&8-1*($ %#)$ YII$ 0-$ 6YZ$ %#)$ E!0!)$ '#'8/#)$ %#$ .`0))*.0$ %&'#()&*($ #(!/#7/#(#-/&0.!-/0.!#-/)$.#)$)#$!/*-2#(!$."#/$.l&((*201*(•$ D0$ +0€*($ %*(!$ .#))-)$ .*''0(%01*()G$Dls!-%#$ )*-.#)$ 2&)0(!$|$ %s2#.&SQ-#'#(!$ y$ %-$ /}.x)$ 0-$ S(0(..$ #!$ .#)$#!$ .s)$Q-&$ %s!#/'&(#(!$ .&#/$ .#))-)A$.#)$+0.*(!/&8-#/$ |$ /#.#$%s80!$ )-/$ .#)$.`0.-($%#$ .0$ !#.#'#(!$ *-$.-.!-#.!#-/G 4G3$<$.l#(!/#7/#(#-/&0!$ bIJEc E-/*)!0!$ 0$ 7#/'&)$%`&%#(1S#/$ )&W$ %s!#/'&(0(!)$Q-&$ 0_#.!-/#$ #!$ %#$ .-.0$ )1'-.01*($%#$ .!*/&#.#$%#$.&1Q-#$ #!$ %#)$ %&_s/#(!#)$ 7"0)#)$%#$%s2#..!#-/)$ #(2&/*((#'#(!0-W$ (01*(0-W$Q-&$ &(n-#(.!#(!$ .x'#)$ #!$ %#$ +*/'-.*'7/s"#()&*($%-$ +*(.*(*'&#$ .*'7!#$ %#)$ %&_s/#(.0$ %&'#()&*($#(!/#7/#(#-/&0.!-/#.*()&%x/#$ .*(.#)A$ %#)$ %&_s/#(!)$ (&2#0-W$ %#$ O*-2#/(0(.#$ ."(*."0(O#'#(!)$ !#."#)$ Os(s/0.0$ .!#-/$ .-)$ #(!#(%-#$ .#)$%`#(!/02#/$ .070.$ .#$ #(!/#7/#(#-/&0."(*.*77#/$ -($#(2&/*((#'#(!$ +02*/08.#$ &'7*/!0(!$ %#$ )0&)&/$ .#)$ #(!/#7/&)#)$ .#$ .-.0$ Q-#)1*($#)!$ %#$ '&#-W$."#!.#$)#.&SQ-#)$)-).-.*-7$Q-#)1*($ %#$ .0$ .*(!/&8-0(!$0&()&$|$-(#$E-/*7#$7.*''0(%s#$ 70/$ .l#()#&O(#'#(!$ #!$ .!#-/$ ..-..12&!s)$%#)$#(!/#7/#(#-/)G$D#$ 7/*O/0''#$ %l&(%&.*''-()$|$ !*-!#)$."#$ |$ '&#-W$./s01+$ +0&!$ #(.0$ 7#/+*/'0(.#G$ E($ %l0-!/#)$!#/'#)A$ $)&W$ +0.!s/&)1Q-#)$%#)$YII$ #!$ .#)$./s01+A$ #($ 70/1.#)$%s!#/'&(0(!)A$ #($'#a0(!$ #($.-'&x/#$ %#)$z8*((#)$7/01Q-#)${$$#!$ #($!#(0(!$.0$ z$.#)$ 7/*.#$ &%#(1S#$ 0-))&$ Q-#.#)$0.*()#()-)o$+0-!N&.

#))-)A$ &.`&((*201*(G$ $ L*-!#+*&)A$ )&$ (*-)$ /#.#)$ O/0(%#)$ #(!/#7/&)#)$ =7.#)$ )*-)N^0.*/#$ !/*7$ .0/&s)G$E($+0&!A$ .0$ '*%#$ *-$.#))-)$%`#W7/#))&*($.&()$ |$ #W7.!-/#.!-/#.-.0/0.#G$ D#$ ."#'&(#'#(!$ 2#/)$ ./s01+$ {$ $ ..l#W7.!#-/)G$ $ I#)$ )!01)1Q-#)$ .l#)7/&!$ .!s/&)1Q-#$ +*(%0'#(!0.0$ !/x)$ O/0(%#$ '0^*/&!s$ %#)$ #(!/#7/&)#)$ )*(!$ %#)$ ='&.0$ '#)-/#$ *•$ &.)$ {$ $70/$ (0!-/#$ #!$ !/020&.&$.#)$ %`-(#$ 70/!$ )-8)!0(1#.&1Q-#)$%#$)*-1#($|$.#$ =*/&#(!01*($ z$ .)$ !/020&./s012&!s$ #!$ #(!/#7/#(#-/&0!A$ #!$.)A$%#$.#${@G$ 4Gh$D0$ %&2#/)&!s$ %#)$YII$ )#$ /#nx!#$ 0-))&$ %0()$."&!#.!-/#.!#-/$%#)$.#7!s$ %0()$.1*($ %#$ .&0.#)$ 7#/)*((#)$Q-&$ !/020&.$ %#2&#(!$ (s.#-/$ s.)$*-$%#$ '&.$#!$ .#)$ 0-W$ )#./*@$ 6CEA$ .0$O#)1*($%#$.#)G$ 4Gk$J#$ '~'#$Q-#$ ..l0/1)!#$ '0-20&)$ O#)1*((0&/#$ %s7*-/2-$ %#$ .*90(!$-(#$ 7*&O(s#$ %#$ )0.`&'7*/!0(.0/0.-)$ %#$ kf$ #'7."s$ %#$ .!s/&)1Q-#$ 0$ %#)$ &'7.0$ 20.&s#$ 0-$.$ %#)$ 7#/)*((#)$%*(!$ .$ .!-/#./*&))0(.`#W7/#))&*($ )*-.0/0.-.&)#$ %#)$7/&(.#)$ #(!/#7/&)#)$ %#$ ./*N#(!/#7/&)#)$ ='*&()$ %#$ 3f$ 7#/)*((#)@A$ .#(!$ 02#.#)$ #!$ ..l0/.*''#$ -(#$ 7#/)*((#$ Q-&$ .*''#$ .&#/G$ E.!-/#)$='&../s01+$ #!$Q-&$-1./s012#$ %l-(#$ '0(&x/#$ ./s01+$ 7#-!$ )`#(!#(%/#$ .&8/#$ #(!/#$ .#$ .#(!G$ E($ .#)$ *7x/#(!$ +/sQ-#''#(!$ %0()$ %#)$ ."#/$ .#)$ #!$ ..`0.#)$ %#/(&x/#)$ $ (#$ /#7/s)#(!#(!$ Q-`-($ +0&8.0$."*&W$ %#$ %*((#/$ .#$ +0&!$ Q-#$ .*(!#(-$Q-l|$ .!0(!$ .#)$ #!$ )*.#$ %#)$ YIIT$ 0.#-/$ .!#-/)$)*&#(!$ %#)$ '&.-.#-/)$ .ls.0/0.$ #!$ .*'7s!#(.l0/1)0(0!@$ |$ ..#)$ )#.#$ S(0(.$ #!$ .#$ %#$ !*-)$ .1(01*(0.$ &.!#-/$ %0()$ ./s#$ *-$ ./s012#)$ )*(!$ %#)$ 6CE$ #!$ &./s01*($0-$%s!/&'#(!$ %#$ .!#-/)$ *(!$ .#(!#)G$ ‚-0(!$ 0-$ .*-/)$%0()$./*N#(!/#7/&)#)@$)`077-90(!$)-/$%#)$/s)#0-W$7#/'0(#(!)G$ 4G5$ :($ #(!/#7/#(#-/$ ./*&))0(.`s%&1*($#!$%#)$'s%&0)@G$ 4Gi$I#7#(%0(!A$ .*''#$ .0$ ..!-/#.#)$ 7/*.}!*&#(!T$%#)$ '-.#)$ %#-W$ '*(%#)$ #($/#.#(!$ 0-$ )#&($%#)$ YII$)*(!$ %#-W$ +*&)$ 7.*9s)G$ 4Gg$..*//*8*/#(!$ -(#$ .`0/O#(!$ #!$ Q-&$./s01*(${@$ $*-$ y$ 0-$ .#$)#.#)$ '&.#$ 7*-/../s0!#-/$ %l-($7/*%-&!$."&_/#$ %l0_0&/#)$ 0((-#.#)$#(!/#7/#(#-/)$%&_x/#(!$ .-.&)#(!$ !*-!#+*&)$7.#a#$ .$.#)$ &%#(1S#/$ #W7.!s/&)#(!$ 70/$ -(#$ +*/!#$ 7/*7*/1*($ %#$ 6CE$ =.$0(%$..#7!$ %`z$ #(!/#7/#(#-/&0!$ .#))0&/#A$ &.!#/$.#(!0O#$ %-$ .&))&*($#(!/#$7*.-.-.#-/$ .*&!01*($ s.0$ '*9#((#$ %#$ .0$ 20.#$ )#..#A$ .!s/&)#(!$70/$-($(*'8/#$ s.*((0&))*()$ .$ (`#)!$ 70)$ +0.#)$ -()$ %#)$ 0-!/#)$ #($ +*(.$ Os(s/s$ 70/$ .#$ .*(%&1*()$ %#$ '0/.#)$0/1)!#)$)*(!$)*-2#(!$/s1..*(!/0&/#$ y$ |$ ./s012#)A$ )#$ %*((#$ |$ 2*&/$ %0()$ ./s01+)$ 2#/)$ ./s01+$.-.#-/$ .-)$ %#$ eft$ %-$ .0!#(!$ %#$ !*-!$#(!/#7/#(#-/G$ 4Gp$D0$ !#()&*($Q-&$ #W&)!#$#(!/#$ .*(*'&Q-#$ 70/$ /077*/!$ |$ .0/O#'#(!$ 0))*.*''#/.&7#)$#(!/#7/#(#-/&0-W$ 7*-/$ */O0(&)#/$ #!$ Os/#/$ )*($ 0."#/./*N#(!/#7/&)#)${A$ 7/x)$%#$ pft$ )*(!$%#$!/x)$7#1!#)$)!/-.`#(!/#7/#(#-/&0!$#!$7*.&Q-#/$ .$ 20$ )0()$ %&/#$ Q-#$ .#))0&/#$ %#$ .0$).&0.-.!s/&)1Q-#)$Q-&$)*(!$%#$(0!-/#$|$0_#.*(./&/#$ .$ #W&)!#$ s(*/'s'#(!$ %`#(!/#7/#(#-/)$&(%&2&%-#.#'#(!$ 7#-$ #(.&#.&!#'#(!$ %#$ )*/!#$ |$ .$ 0$ #(.#)$O/0(%#)$#(!/#7/&)#)$)*(!$ !/x)$7#-$(*'8/#-)#)$='*&()$%#$3t@A$#.0/0.#$Q-&$+02*/&)#$.*O&.0$ 7/&*/&!s$ |$ .&.$ %#)$YII$ =3it@G$ 60/'&$ .#$ 7.0$ '0^#-/#$ 70/1#$ %#)$ #(!/#7/&)#)$ %#$ .#-/$ ..#/!0&(#)$ .#2s$ %#$ !/x)$7#1!#)$)!/-.#)$ )#."&_/#$ %l0_0&/#)$!*!0.0$'0^*/&!s$ %#)$YII$)#$ ./*N#(!/#7/&)#)$#'7.!-/#.0!#(!$ %#$ !*-!$ 0/1)!#$ #!$ .!#-/$ .&1Q-#)$.#)$ #(!/#7/#(#-/)$ )*(!$ Os(s/0.!-/#.12&!s$#(!/#7/#(#-/&0./s012#A$ %#$ '~'#$ ."#'&()$ .#$ %#)$ /#2#(-)$ !*!0-WG$ Y.-)$)*-2#(!$ %#$!/x)$7#1!#)$)!/-.#$ %#$ .*'7/#(0(!$%#$3$|$5$#'7.*(*'&Q-#$=*/&#(!01*($z$.&.70/1.#-/$ )*(!$ 7/*7/#)A$ 7/*%-&)#(!$ %#)$ 8&#()$ Q-&$ )*(!$ z$.#)$ 20.*(*'&Q-#)A$ .#$ 8*($ sQ-&.0$ '*1201*($#)!$7.&s$ |$ -(#$ %&'#()&*($ S(0(.-.*9s)@$ )*(!$ /#%#208.#)$!97#)$!/x)$ 20/&s)$%`#(!/#7/&)#)$Q-&$ )`9$./s#/$ %020(!0O#$ %#$ .#)$%`~!/#$ |$ .*(1(-#$ %`~!/#$ !/*7$ .#-/$ '*1201*($ *-$ %-$ )#.*'8&(#(!$ O/0(%#)$#!$ 7#1!#)$ #(!/#7/&)#)$=.-.#Q-#.-.#G$ I#7#(%0(!A$ &.-.&)#$ -($7/*%-&!$ *-$)#/2&.*'7!#$ Q-#$ ./s#(!$ .#)$z$'&.$ %0()$.#$ %#$ !/*-2#/$ .*''#/.0$ 20.#-/)$7/*.&x/#$ *.!#-/)$ Q-&$ )#$ .*/)$ Q-#$ .*()sQ-#(.`#(2&#$ %#$ O0O(#/$ %#$ .&x/#$ (s.#(!)$|$%s.!-/#.l#(!/#7/#(#-/A$ )&$ !97&Q-#$ %#$ 8&#($ %#)$ #(!/#7/&)#)$ ./#012#$&(%-)!/&#)$ $ $ $ 3g .&..!-/0."#$ |$ /077/*.01*()$ !"#$!"#$!%$!"!&$'()$%&'#()&*($*+$!"#$.-.&.!-/#.!-/#)$."s$ Q-&$ .!-/#)G$ E(2&/*($ ift$ %#)$ #(!/#7/&)#)$ .-)$)-).&O(#$ .#$ .#-W$Q-&$ .*(*'&#G$ $Z&#($ Q-#$ ..!-/#A$ .l#)7/&!$ #(!/#7/#(#-/&0.#)$)#.&0.&#-W$s.12&!s$ .!-/#.-)$.*((0&))0(!$ .0$ .#718.!-/#.#G$ 4Ge$D#$ !#/'#$ (l#)!$ 70)$!*-^*-/)$ 8&#($0.-.-..0/O#'#(!$ .$ *-$.!-/#.#)$/s0.

#2#/)#$ .)$%#)$YII$%0()$ .0%/#$ %#$ .*'7*)&1*($ #!$ %#$ 7/*.$ %#2&#(!$ 7*))&8."s$ '0.*'70/0&)*(G !"#$!"#$!%$!"!&$'()$%&'#()&*($*+$!"#$.#)$%s.*'7*)&1*($ %#)$ YII$ #)!$ )*-2#(!$ .#'#(!$%0()$-($#(2&/*((#'#(!$Q-&$ (`#)!$70)$!*-^*-/)$7/~!$ |$/s."#/.*'7.&%#)$ &(+/0)!/-.*(*'&#$%#)$&(!#/'s%&0&/#)G$."(&Q-#)$ 7#/'#a#(!$%`0a#&(%/#$ -($7-8..#))-)$%#$7/*%-.#)$#(!/#7/&)#)$%#$ !0&.*()!#.0$ !0&.#)$ s2*.*-7$ 7.*(.#)$ 7/*.)$ #!$ ."#'&()$ %#$ .1*($ -(&.&#-$'0(Q-0(!${$T$.!#-/A$ ."0(O#'#(!)G$ 4G35$ D#$ .`0^*-!0(!$|$ .0$ 7*-/)-&!#$ %#$ 7/*^#!)$ '-..`s!-%#$ Q-`&..-.*"s/#(!#)$)-/$ .!-/#.#(!$ #($ O/077#)$ %#$ /s)#0-WG$ D#)$ #(!/#7/#(#-/)$ .#)$ 0S($ %#$ '&#-W$ )0&)&/$ .#$ Q-&$/#(%$#(.`s.08*/01*($#!$ %`020(!0O#)$.#$ )*-1#($ %0()$ .#)$ 7/*O/x)$ !#.&#(!)$ .#)$ %9(0'&Q-#)$ #!$ (#$ %&)7*)#(!$ 70)$ %#$ .#$ 7*-/$ .#$ |$ %#)$ %sS)$ (*'8/#-W$ #!$ .#(!$ Q-0)&'#(!$08)#(!#)$ %-$ 709)0O#G$ $ Y.!-/#G$ 5G3$ Dl-(#$ %#)$ ..#)$7.&SQ-#)$#($!#/'#)$ %#$ !0&./s01*($#!$ %#$ .0%/#$ 0$ s!s$ %s2#./s01+)$ %*&2#(!$ )*-2#(!$ .-)$ n#W&8.*-/&/$ |$%&2#/)#)$)!/0!sO&#)$|$7#1!#$ s.$ 7.#)$8#0-.#$%#$+0&/#$ .*'7/#(%/#$ ..#)$ .#$ (-'s/&Q-#$ 0$ '*%&Ss$ .01*($ %`#(!/#7/&)#)$ Q-&$ )*(!$ %9(0'&Q-#)A$ )-8&))#(!$%#)$n-W$ '-.-.*77s$ 0S($%#$ '&#-W$.-)$.#)$ +*(!$ Q-#$ .#)$%#$ .#/$ %#)$ #(!/#7/&)#)$ '&#-W$ s!08.`s.#$ '*%x.#W#)G$ E./#012#$&(%-)!/&#)$ $ $ $ 4f .&#)$ (`090(!$ 70)$ 8#)*&($ %#$ +0&/#$ 7/#-2#$ %#$ .#$ .012#)$ |$ .)$ %*&2#(!$ &(!#/0O&/$ s!/*&!#'#(!$ 02#.*.)$ #!$ .0$ 70/1.#)$ !#(%0(..*(2#/O#(.&#/$%l-(#$)!/-.!-/#)$%`0.#)$ #(!/#7/#(#-/&0.#)$(#$)*(!$70)$"*'*Ox(#)A$."0ƒ(#$ %#$ 7/*%-.01*($z$'&.#))-)$ %#$ .#$ ../*N#(!/#7/&)#)$(l*(!$ 70)$ 0.*'7#()#/$.#$ 8#)*&($ %#$ /#.#-/${A$ $ .0$ (*1*($ %l$z$s.#)$ #!$ %9(0'&Q-#)$ 7*-/$ /s7*(%/#$ 0-W$ *77*/!-(&!s)$ %-$ '0/.12#$7.#)$.x)$ 0-W$ '~'#)$ '*9#()$ 7*-/$ 0))*&/$ .!s/&)1Q-#)$ )!/-.`077#./*&))0(.#7!$ !/0%&1*((#.$ %#$ .*'7s!#(./*&))0(.#)$(*-2#0-W$ '*%x..*/#$7.#A$ +0&/#$7/#-2#$ %`-($ O/0(%$ %9(0'&)'#$ #!$ ~!/#$ 7/~!#)$ |$ 7/#(%/#$ %#)$ /&)Q-#)$ 7*-/$ ./*N#(!/#7/&)#)$%*&2#(!$ %*(.&!sG$ I#)$ .0$ .&)01*(A$ .!#-/$ {G$ Y.#)$&(%-)!/&#)G$D#)$)!01)1Q-#)$ (01*(0.0/0.$ #)!$!/x)$%&r.#)$%#/(&#/)$#!$.0$ .*.*()*''0!#-/)$%#$.0$ ..#)$ Q-&$ 0$ /07&%#'#(!$ s'#/Os$ %#)$ #(!/#1#()$ /s0."#.#G$ =!2*%$'"4'%(&.0$ ..l#(!/#7/#(#-/&0!$#!$|$.#-/$./*&))0(..0$ +*/!#$ .l0.&/$ %#)$ %*((s#)$ 7..-)$.*''-(&.&.#7!$ %#$ z$.-)$7#1!)$#(!/02#$ .$ /#))*/!$ %#)$ *8)#/201*()$ )!01)1Q-#)$ #!$ %#)$ #(!/#1#()$ /s0.0$ '~'#$ n#W&8&.*O&#)$ ."#'&(#'#(!$2#/)$.#$ %#$ %&)!/&8-1*($ #!$ 7#/!-/8#$ .s)$#!$ .*.#$ #!$ |$ .."#$ #!$ %#$ %s2#.#)$#!$.*(.0/0.#-/$ /#(%$.)$ #!$ !/020&./*N#(!/#7/&)#)$ *(!$ 8#)*&($ %#$ .&s#$ |$ .0/!$ #(!/#$ .1*()$ %&/#.0/0.&1Q-#)G$ 4G3f$ I#a#$ .#$ s2&%#(!)G$ D#)$ 7..01*($ #!$ .#A$ %#$ .!-/#)$ !#(%#(!$ |$ 0%*7!#/$ %#)$ .0$ 7/&)#$ %#$ /&)Q-#A$ .#G$$ 4G33$I#)$ '&.*((-#$ )*-)$ .#$ 8-!$ %#$ '&#-W$ .&)0!#-/N7/*%-.x)$0-$'0/.!-/#.-.-//#(1#.#/1!-%#$ #!$ |$ .!-/#.&(s0&/#$ Q-`&'7.!#)$ z$ -1.l&((*201*(A$ 0-W$ 6CEA$ |$ .!-/#$.#-/)$ .!-/#.&Q-s$.-//#(..#)$ '&.0$7s/#((&!s$#!$.!-/#)$ %#$ /#.#$ '*9#((#G$Dls.!s/&)#(!$ .*()*''01*($ !/0%&1*((#.#)$.-//#(.-.0$.1*()$%#)$.0/0./*&))0(!#$ %#)$ .#)$7#1!#)$ )!/-.!s/&)1Q-#$ .0/O#$ #!$ %`*_/&/$ -(#$ O0''#$ %#$7/*%-&!)$#!$)#/2&.0/O#G$$ 4G34$.!s/&)1Q-#)$ )7s.&.#$ )#.#-/$7s/#((&!s$#!$.."0ƒ(#$ %#$ 20.#$ '*9#((#$)#'8.!s/&)1Q-#)$ %#)$YIIA$ -($.#.#)$ YII$ +*(!$ +0.#-/)$ .#)$ 0&()&$ Q-#$ ./s012#)$Q-&$)#$/#!/*-2#(!$|$...#))-)$%#$ %&)!/&8-1*($ %#)$7/*%-&!)$#!$ )#/2&.*'7*/!#'#(!)$ 7.)$)*(!$ /#'*%#.*(.l&%s#$ %`-(#$ .1*($#)!$ 0-^*-/%l"-&$ /#'&)$ #($ Q-#)1*($ %-$+0&!$ Q-`&.&'7*/!0(!#)$7*-/$."0ƒ(#)$ %#$ 20.#-/$.17.-#&.l020(!N7.$ /#.#)G$ D0$ /07&%&!s$ .0&)sG$ D#)$ !/x)$ O/0(%#)$ #(!/#7/&)#)$ %&)7*)#(!$ %#$ )*.*(.&701*($|$%#)$O/077#)$%`#(!/#7/&)#)$0S($%#$8s(sS.0(0-W$ %#$ .$0(%$.#$%#$ .`&(.#$ Q-&$ .#-/${$ /#(2*&#$ |$ .#$ )*(!$ 8&#($)*-2#(!$.&Q-#$ .!-/0.-)$ 7#1!#)$ )!/-./s0!/&.$ ./s#/$ %#)$ &(!#/0.#)$7.`E-/*7#$ #)!$ .*(.#-/$ !/0%&1*((#.&%#-/)$7*.Q-s/&/$ -(#$ !0&."sA$ .`#W!#/(0.-)$.*$?2&)#(#2*#-?9(/@&!2 5Gf$I*'7!#$ !#(-$%#)$.*(./s01*(A$ .&8.#)$ 7*.-)$ s!#(%-#G$D#)$ '*%#)$%#$ .0$.0/0.-)$.#)$ *-$ .#)$ '&.-)$O/0(%)$#!$.*''#$ .1%&/#.#)$6CE$.1*((#.#-/)$7/*%-&!)G$ 4G3e$ I*'7!#$ !#(-$%#$ .0($%#$.-#(!$ sO0../*&))0(.#$Q-&$+0-))#$!*-!#$.-.0/!0(!$%-$7/*.&)s)$ %0()$ ./s01+)G$ D#$ 70))0O#$ 0-$ (-'s/&Q-#$ 8*-.#)$ 7/#'&x/#)$ /s0.*77#'#(!$ !0(%&)$Q-#$ .#)$ %#$ 20.&1Q-#)$ /#.*'7.&)s)$ |$ !/02#/)$ .-)&*()$ Os(s/0.#)$ )*-!#(&/$ #!$ %`&(!sO/#/$ .

#)$/#))*-/.`s!-%#$ Q-#$ $ .*-/!N!#/'#G$ Y.#'#(!$ .#$ .*(&)#(!$ .#)$%`#($8s(sS.*'8&(#$ !/0%&1*((#..)$*(!$ 8#)*&($7*-/$S(0(.#G$ I#7#(%0(!A$ ./s01+)$/#%*-!#(!$ %#$ (*-#/$ %#)$ 70/!#(0/&0!)$02#.&x/#$ |$ ./*)A$ 7#1!#)$ #!$ '~'#$ '*9#((#)$#(!/#7/&)#)A$ &..#)$.)$#!$ ...0(&)'#)$%#$)*-1#($)&'&.0$ (s.l&((*201*($*(!$sO0.*'7!#)G$D#)$&()1!-1*()$S(0(./-.-#(!$#!$Q-`#.!s$ 0$ #(.-)$ Q-#$ %0()$.#)$ %l-($ .0(&S.#/8s#$70/$.*/#$ s!s$ #W0..#$ (&2#0-$0-Q-#.*'8&(#/$ !„.&Q-#)$7#-2#(!$ .*'7/#(%/#$ .&x/#$ #!$ s.*((0ƒ!/#$ .&Q-s#)$ |$ .#)$ #(!/#7/&)#)$ %#)$ YII$ #)!$ )0()$ %*-!#$ %#$ !/*-2#/$ .#$ %#$ .$ %#$ '&#-W$ .-.12&!s)G$6*-/$ .*((0&))#(!$)*-2#(!$70)$.*-/)$ 0-W$ )#/2&.&.#-/$ %#)$0.#)$#($s.$#)!$ 0-))&$ .*''#$ .#)$#!$ ./s01+A$ .#A$ .0(&)'#)$%#$ )*-1#($ S(0(.#)$ )*(!$ %s!0.#$ %/*&!$ %l0-!#-/$ *-$.-)$ .-.)$ )*(!$ *_#/!)$ #!$ .#))&8.`02&)$Os(s/0.!s/&)#(!$ 0-))&$ 70/$ .&#/A$ (#$ )*&!$ 70)$)-r)0''#(!$ '&)#$ |$ .`&.0/0.&#/$ 7#-2#(!$ 20/&#/$ .*()-.07&!0.l0-!*S(0(.l-($ %#)$ '*9#()$ .#)$ )#.01*($|$ -($0(G$ $.0$ 20./&)#$S(0(.)G$ $E($ *-!/#A$ )#.)A$ .#)$)*(!$ )#.#)$ #(!/#7/&)#)$ *(!$ -(#$ 7.*''#$.12&!s)G$I#a#$ %&r.`s2&%#(.#)$)-82#(1*()$7-8.A$ !"#$!"#$!%$!"!&$'()$%&'#()&*($*+$!"#$.&70.0$ 7/&(.&)01*($%-$.-)$ %&r.#)$'&.!-/#./s01*($#!$ 0-$ S(0(./#012#$&(%-)!/&#)$ $ $ $ 43 .-.&$ .08*/0&#(!$ .#-/$20.#(!#$.#)$#W7#/!)$ &(!#/2&#Bs)A$ ...!#-/)$)-).#)$'#)-/#)$%-$ )#.A$ !0(%&)$ Q-#$ .#$ .01*($ #.#)$#!$ .#-/$s.-)$ O/0(%#$ %&r.-70/!$ %#)$ #(!/#7/&)#)$ .-.)$.*/)$ Q-#$ 4ft$ 020&#(!$ /#.*/#$ 7.&!s#)G$Y.!-/#.$ (#$ )#'8.&.#)$'s.+""<$%+2%=*+*"#3#*& 5G4$ D0$ 7.#'#(!$ .0$ (*-2#0-!sA$ .#)$ #!$ .#)$#(!/#7/&)#)$.#)$#W*(s/01*()$ S).#)$ #(!/#7/#(#-/)$ #!$ .$ #)!$ (s.01*($S(0(.#)$#.-.#$ 70))s$ |$ 7/#(%/#$ %#)$/&)Q-#)$#!$%*(.#$ %l0v/#/$ %#)$&(2#)1))#'#(!)$ )!/0!sO&Q-#)G$ $J#$ '~'#A$ %#$ (*'8/#-W$ #(!/#7/#(#-/)$ .#$ /s)&%-#.!#-/$ 7-8.#$ )*-/.0.*(*'&Q-#A$ 8#0-.&x/#G$ 5G5$ D0$ 7.!s$ 7*-/$ .*($ .0(&S.#)$ &(2#)1))#-/)$ 7/*2&%#(1#.#-.$ |$ )*-!#(&/$ .*(*'&Q-#G$ 5Gk$..#)$ y$ 0-$ )#&($ %#)$ YII$ y$ 0-W$ )#.0$ ./s%&!$ %`&'7}!$ #!$%#)$#W*(s/01*()$S)..`E-/*7#A$ .*''#$ ..!-/#.#$ Q-#$ .&.-)$ 077/*7/&s)G$ Jl0-!/#)$ )*-/.l#(Q-~!#$ 0$ '*(!/s$ Q-#$ hkt$ %#)$ #(!/#7/&)#)$ s.#/$.$/#))*/!$ %-$ Q-#)1*((0&/#$ #($ .#)$ )*(!$ .)A$ ./s012#)$ %-$+0&!$ Q-`#.*'7!#$ !#(-$ %#$ ..0$ /sO&*(A$ #($ !0(!$ Q-#$ 7*-/2*9#-)#$ &(!#/'s%&0&/#$ %#$ )*-1#($S(0(.1+)$&''0!s/&#.0$/s.#'#(!G$ $D#)$0&%#)$7-8.!-/#.#'#(!$ et$ %#$ .*(!/}.#)G$J#$ +0€*($Os(s/0.$ /#O/#a08.&#/$ ^-Os)$ .!-/0.$/&)Q-#$%0()$..&x/#$ |$ k$0()G$ $J#$ 7.#$ .#$ #!$ .-)A$ .#)$%*(!$ &.#))-)$.#'#(!$s!s$ .#)$80(Q-#)$ (#$/#.-.$0(%$.0$ /s.-)$ )*-2#(!$ )-/!*-!$ 0.#)$ 8#)*&()$ )7s.#)$0))*.#)$8s(sS..#)$ 7./s01+$ .#)$8*()$|$ .07&!0.&SQ-#)$ %#)$ YII$ 7*-/$ *_/&/$ %#)$ 's.$%#)$&(2#)1))#-/)A$ $70/$.&#(!$-($(&2#0-$%#$ /&)Q-#$ s.0&/#)$|$ !/02#/)$.#2sG$$Dl&(2#)1))#'#(!$#($.#Q-#.01*($ S(0(.&O(#$ %#$ ./s012&!s$ (#$ )*(!$70)$/#7/&)$%0()$.*(O$!#/'#G$ 5Gi$J#$ (*'8/#-W$#W7#/!)$7/s.$&.&x/#)$.0(&S.$ #W&)!#$ %#$ (*'8/#-W$'s.#)$ 0-!/#)$ )*-/.01*($S(0(.-)$ &'7*/!0(!)$%#$S(0(.#$ Q-&$ y$ |$ 8&#($%#)$sO0/%)$y$ /#(%$ #(.#'#(!G$Y.0(&S.#$ 2&)N|N2&)$%#)$0.!#-/)$ %`0.:.!0(!$ 7/*+#))&*((#.*()1!-#(!$ 7*-/$ .#)$ 7.#(!$ 70)$ #($'#)-/#$ %#$ /s7*(%/#$ 0-W$ 0a#(!#)$#!$ 0-W$ 8#)*&()$ %#)$#(!/#7/&)#)$.#)$YII$ %*&!$ )*-2#(!$ )#$ +0&/#$ |$ 7.G$ 5Ge$D#)$YII$)#$ .$ .#)$ )*(!$ .#-/$ 7.#)$(l020&#(!$ 70)$%#$ 7.#-/$ 0.*'7.)$ %0()$ .0.#)$0.!s#)$ *(!$ -(#$ 7.#'#(!G$ <-))&$ #)!N&./0&(!#$ %#$ 7#/%/#$ .*(!#(-$ &(!0(O&8.#'#(!)G$ Dl#(!/#7/#(#-/$ .#)$ #(!/#7/&)#)$s2*.!-/#.*/#$ 7.*(O$ y!#/'#$ Q-#$ %0()$ ./s012#)A$ 0-WQ-#.*(*'&Q-#$ !0(%&)$Q-#$ k5t$ 020&#(!$ -(#$ 7.#$ %#$ S(0(.#$ 7.*(!/&8-#/$ |$ .0&/#)$ .#-/$.!#-/)$ Q-&$ )*(!$ 7-/#'#(!$ .&O(#$ Q-#$ 44t$%`#(!/#$ #.#)N'~'#)A$ $ 0..#))0&/#$ %#$ /#.*()&%s/08."0(O#G$$ 5Gh$.*()-.*-7$ %#$ 80(Q-#)$"s)&!#(!$ #(.#-/$+*/!#$ %s7#(%0(.#)$6CE$ .*'7/#(%/#A$ $ Q-`#.#-/)$0."#)$ 0%'&(&)!/012#$ #!$ 7/*.0$ .12&!s)G$$ 5Gp$I#7#(%0(!A$ #($ /0&)*($ %#$ .x)$ 0-W$ S(0(.*(!#(-$ !0(O&8.#))&*($s.#)$O0/0(1#)$ %#$ 7/~!)$)*(!$ .#'#(!$ /#)!#$ |$ .1+)$ &''0!s/&#.$ /&)Q-#$ #!$ .l&((*201*($ %&!#$ z$)*m$ {A$ .*'70O(&#$ #!$%`02*&/$|$ 70/!0O#/$.#)$ 7/*O/0''#)$ %#$ S(0(.#718.0(&)'#)$ %#$ )*-1#($ 077/*7/&s)A$ %#$ '~'#$ Q-`&.1+)$&''0!s/&#.#-/)$0.`-1.-.0(&S.#$ .#'#(!$ %#)$6CEA$ #.&Q-#)$*-$7/&2s#)$(`*(!$ Q-`-($/}.#))&!s$ %#$ .&0."s#)$ %-$ !#//&!*&/#$ %0()$ .-.#)$0-!/#)$)#.#)$(`*_/#(!$70)$!*-^*-/)$%#$)*-1#($|$.#/$ .*(!/&8-1*(G$ J#$ .$ #)!$ $#W!/~'#'#(!$ %&r.*(%0&/#)G$ D#)$ 7/~!)$ 80(.#)$ %#$ S(0(.#$ |$ %&'#()&*($ .$ #)!$ /#))*/1$%-$Q-#)1*((0&/#$ #($.

!$ %-$ +*))s$ Q-&$ #W&)!#$ #(!/#$ .#)$ .&(QG$ 5G3e$ L*-!#$ 7*.$ 0770/0ƒ!$ 0-))&$ Q-`-($ 1#/)$ %#)$ 6CE$ .&%#/$ .#$%#$ O/0(%)$#!$ (*'8/#-W$..#$'*(%#$2&/!-#.&.12&!s$ #(!/#7/#(#-/&0.!-/#.#)$ J6Y$ #!$ .#)$ &()!/-'#(!)$/sO&*(0-W$ Q-&$ )*(!$ .$ %#$ 7/*!#.#$ 8#)*&($7*-/$ .#)$%l0_0&/#)$ 077/*7/&s)G$D#)$/#!*'8s#)$ O.*''#$ (`&'7*/!#$ Q-#.#$ .}!sA$ ./ss#)$ %`02*&/$ 0.0/O#A$ &(%s7#(%0''#(!$ %#)$ .#-/$ .0$ '#)-/#$ *•$8#0-."#'&()$ %#$ .#G$D#)$#(!/#7/#(#-/)$ %*&2#(!$ !#(&/$ .#)$0.#'#(!$ ..&)s$ %`*-1..#$ %#$ .l&'70.#$)&$!97&Q-#$ %-$)#.-.$ #)!$ #))#(1#./*&))0(..#/$ .#-/$ 0.x)$ 0-$ '0/.1*($ &.&s#)$ |$ .#$ 7*!#(1#.#-/$-)0O#$%#)$J6Y$%0()$.`#(!/s#$ )-/$ .#)$ %/*&!)$ /#)!#(!$ 7*-/$ ./s012#)$ (l*(!$ 70)$ -1.#)$#(.!-/#.#)$ 7*./*N #(!/#7/&)#)$#!$ .#'#(!$ 70)$ %`*-1.$ #!$ .)$.#$ '0/.01.)$%#$ 7/*!#.-1*()$ Q-&$ 0_#.#$ 7/&(.#)G$D0$ 7/s)#(.01*($ #($ !/&*'7"#)$ !0(%&)$Q-#$%#)$z$)-.#$ /&)Q-#$ #)!$ Q-#$ .#)$ #!$ ."s)$%#)$7/*%-&!)$#!$ )#/2&.-..!#-/$)-/$.$ Q-&$ )#/0$ /s)#/2s$ |$ -($ 7/*^#!T$ %#)$ 7/*^#!)$ 0-WQ-#.#)$ *77*/!-(&!s)$ #)!$ .*((0&))0(.#$ )#.-)$|$ '~'#$ %#$ /s7*(%/#$ 0-W$ 8#)*&()$ %#$ S(0(.#$ 7*-/$ 7#/'#a/#$ 0-W$ '&./s012#)A$ &..!s/&)s)$70/$-(#$ %#'0(%#$2*.*(!#(-)$ .!-/#.#)$ #(!/#7/&)#)$Q-&$..$ +0-!$ .#)$#(!/#7/&)#)$..#)$ '*%x.#)$.!-/0./*N#(!/#7/#(#-/G$D#)$7/&(.*80.$ 7./*90&!$ )#$ !/0()+*/'#(!$ )0()$ #W7.*''#(.#)$ ./-.-.#$ Q-`&.#$ '0/.!-#..&70.*'7!#$ %#$ O*…!)$ "s!s/*Ox(#)$ #!$ .#$ %#$ 7/s2*&/$ 02#.#)$ 7*-/$ 0.#)$ #(!/02#)$ |$ .!#-/$ .!-/#.0$ %&r."#.#)$ *77*/!-(&!s)$ .#)$ %l0_0&/#)A$ )0()$ .1*($ )7s.#)$ #!$ .!-/#$ )*(!$ 0'8&20.&)#(!$ 0./s01+)$)*(!$)*-2#(!$.#$ )*(!$ #($#_#!$ .-.*77#/G$ 5G33$D0$ 7/s20.#)$.#)$ LYI$ 7#/!-/8#(!$ ..+""<$%+2%3+-">? 5Gg$6*-/$ .-.!s$ %`02*&/$ %#$ .#G$ 5G34$D#$ O/0(%$%sS$ #)!$ 0-))&$ %#$ !/*-2#/$ %#$ (*-2#0-W$ '*%x.&70-W$ *8)!0.*77#'#(!$ %#)$ YII$ %#2/0$ !#(&/$ .!-/#.#$ &'7*/!0(!#$ %#$ '*1201*($ #($ .#G$ Dl08)#(./#012#$&(%-)!/&#)$ $ $ $ 44 .!-/#.-.#(.08*/0(!$ %#)$..}!sA$ .*(!#W!#$ Q-`&.#-/$0.0$ 7*)&1*($%-$'&.$ %#$ 7*-2*&/$ 0.)$ )*&#(!$ .-.#G$ !"#$!"#$!%$!"!&$'()$%&'#()&*($*+$!"#$.`#(!/#7/#(#-/$ .)$ 7#/)*((#$ (#$ .&O(#$ Q-`-(#$ '0^*/&!s$ %#$ 6CE$ (l*(!$ 70)$/#€-$ %#$ .!#-/)G$Dl0)9's!/&#$ %#$ 7*)&1*($)-/$.*()&%s/s)$ .#2#/$ .-."s$ #!A$ %0()$.0/0.!-/#.*(.#)$ /#)7*()08./s0!#-/)A$ Q-&$ 7#-2#(!$ 7/*%-&/#$ #!$ %&)!/&8-#/$ .-($ '*'#(!$ %#$ .#)$ %#)$ LYI$ 7*-/$ .-#&.*()*.-.!#-/$ .-)$ ."s$ 0S($ %#$ .*/&)sG :#$%'257$%8#%@-'@-)?&?%)*&#77#"&2#77#% 5G35$Y.*''#/.#$ .0$ !#.&!s$ (#$ )*(!$-1.-//#(!)$#)!$0-))&$-($+0.#/!0&()$)#.#/1!-%#$ .#)$ '&.`#(Q-~!#$ #($ .&0.*''#$ .&0..0$ Q-#)1*($ )#$ 7*)#$ %#$ )02*&/$ .#$ '*9#((#$ 0-O'#(!#$ .0$%&2#/)&!s$./s01+G$$D0$ ./s01+$ '#!$ #($ s2&%#(.`&(+*/'01*($ )-/$ .#)$#!$ .`#W!s/&#-/$ #!$ %`0_/*(!#/$.$ (`#)!$ 7*))&8./s012#)$ (l-1.#-/$ 7s/#((&!sG$D#)$'0/.#)$ *77*/!-(&!s)$ ..`&(+*/'01*($ )-/$ ."0(O#0(!)G$ <$ Q-0)&'#(!$ 0-.$ #($ '01x/#$ %#$ %/*&!$ %#$ 7/*7/&s!s$ &(!#.s%#/$ 0-$'0/.*''#(!$.!#-/$ #(!/020(!G$6*-/$ .!#(!$ .&1Q-#$ +-!-/#$ %#$ )*-1#($ 0-$ %s2#.*''#/.$ #!$.`0.#.&0.!-/#..#)$ '&.#$ #!$.0$ .)$/#!#(1))0(!)G$ 5G3f$I`#)!$ %0()$.*(S%#(10.!-#.#)$|$ .*()&%s/#/$ ./*N#(!/#7/&)#)$ %#$ )#$ %s2#.)G$ L0(%&)$ Q-#$ %#$ (*-2#0-W$ '*%x.#-/)$†-2/#)$|$ -($7-8.*-7$%#$ 6CE$ .&.$ 0-!/#$ 7/*%-&!$ ..&0."0ƒ(#$ %#$ 7/*%-.)$ 7*-/$ .1*(A$ ."s$ #(!/#$ .&1Q-#)$ %#$ .*(!#(-)$ !/0%&1*((#.&)s$%0()$.$ %sS$ .-)&+)$&'7*)s)$ 70/$ ./s01+$ -(#$ )*-/./*ƒ!/#$Q-`*($7*-//0$O0/0(1/$.#$ '~'#$ !#'7)A$ #($ s.)$ 7#/'#a#(!$%#$ /s.#)$ O/0(%)$ %&)!/&8-!#-/)A$ '0&)$ 0-))&$ |$ .x)$O0/0(1)${$)*(!$%#)$s.!-/#.1*($ &(+*/'#.&s)$ 0-W$ 0//0(O#'#(!)$ #W.&SQ-#G$D#)$*-1./*&))0(..#'#(!G$ :.#)$O/0(%)$0.-.*''#/..)$ %#$ 7/*!#.#$ =J6Y@$ 020(!$ %#$ .$ #!$ .-//#(.&#/$ Q-#$ ..*O&#$ *_/#$ %#$ (*-2#../*N#(!/#7/&)#)A$ .-."s$ Q-&$ )*(!$ .$0(%$.*(!/0&(!#)$ 7"9)&Q-#)$ #!$ Os*O/07"&Q-#)G$ Jl-($ 0-!/#$ .*/%)$%#$ .#G$ Y.#)$ 7#&(#(!$ |$ s'#/O#/A$ .#(!#)G$Jl-($ .0$ !0&.!#-/)$%0()$.#-/$ 0.s%#/$ 0-$'0/..*'7#()#/$)0$ .0$ ."#/.*()#&.#7#(%0(!$ *-8.*-/0O#/$|$+0&/#$-($'#&.$ .$ /#))*/!$ %#$ .12&!s$#(!/#7/#(#-/&0.*'7!#$ %#)$ s2*.12&!s$#!$ %`0))*&/$ .-.#)$7.*()&)!#$ |$ *8!#(&/$ %#$ ."(*.)$#!$.0$ .#$ %#)$ 6CE$ %0()$ .#)$ *77*/!-(&!s)$ 7*-/$ .$#!$)*&!$0&()&$%s20.#)$ %#-W$ #W!/~'#)$ #)!$ n0O/0(!#G$ I`#)!$ #($ 7#/'#a0(!$ 0-W$ 6CE$ (*-2#..&)s)$ 70/$-(#$6CE$%-$)#."s$ )*(!$ #($ O/0(%#$ 70/1#$ ."#(!$|$.*(.#$ %`#(!/#7/&)#)$ %#$ !0&./s01*(G$E($*-!/#A$ %0()$.

)$."#/$ |$ %s2#.!-/0.#$ #(!/#7/#(#-/&0.?82"+5'*%A%7.-01*($)-/$ .*(!/&8-#/$ |$ !"#$!"#$!%$!"!&$'()$%&'#()&*($*+$!"#$.-/)-)$ (01*(0-W$ #!$ %0()$ .&0.#$ Q-&$ #)!$+0&!#$ %#)$&()!/-'#(!)$%#$7/*!#.0$ !0W01*($ *-$ .!-/#.#)G$ E($ .*'7s!#(.`08)#(.#$ ./*s.#)$ #)!$ (s.#)$ .!-/#.$ %#$ .#)$#!$ .0$ .#$ #($+02#-/$ %#$ )*.0$ %&)7*)&1*($ %#$ .#$ 7."s$ {A$ .#)$ #(!/#7/#(#-/&0.#*&-#@-#*#2-)+&B%7#$%"'3@?&#*"#$%#&%7+%C'-3+5'* 5G3p$b($ .-1*($ 7#/'#a0(!$ %#$ /#(+*/.#$ %#$ .0.-./#012#$&(%-)!/&#)$ $ $ $ 45 .#)$ *-$ #(.A$ Q-&$ )`&(!s/#))#$ -(&Q-#'#(!$ 0-$ )-.012#'#(!$+0&8.*'7s!#(.0$ /s-))&!#$ )-/$ ..-.#$ |$ .0&))#$ |$ 7#()#/$Q-`&.&x/#$ *-$ 0%'&(&)!/012#$ %#2/0&#(!$ ~!/#$&(.#'#(!0&/#)$ )*(!$ 7.&$ )*&#(!$ |$ '#a/#$ )-/$ .)$ )-OOx/#(!$ %#$ /#'7.`#(!/#7/&)#A$ )*($ */&#(!01*($z$'0/.-.$ /#2~!$ )*-2#(!$ 7.#))0&/#$ 7*-/$ 7#/'#a/#$ .*'8&(#(!$ .$ .$ #W&)!#$ /#.01*()$|$ %#2#(&/$ .#$ %l#(!/#7/#(#-/&0!$ s!/*&!$ !/0%&1*((#.#$ |$ .&)#/$ )-/$ ./*s.*/#$ .#$ 7.*(*'&Q-#)$ )#$ /#nx!#$ %0()$.#$ /#!*-/$ )-/$ .#)$ Q-#$ .0$ +*/'01*($ |$ ./s01+A$ .*''#(!$ 2#(%/#$ -(#$ &%s#@$ #!$ %#$ O#)1*(G$ Y.`#(!/#7/#(#-/&0!$ .#/$ .0$ 80.*((0ƒ!/#$ #!$ %`#($ +0.#$ #(!/#$ .-)$ %`&'7*/!0(.#)$ #(!/#7/#(#-/)$ .&7.-.#-/$ &'70.#)$.*(*'&Q-#)A$ Q-`&.#W#)G$D0$ Q-#)1*($%#$.0$'&)#$ #($/s)#0-$*-$#(./*&))0(.#)$ .-.#$ %#)$ 6CEG$ ."#+$ %`#(!/#7/&)#G$ $J#)$.0($ .*/#$ .`#(!/#7/&)#$ ./*s.l#(!/#7/#(#-/&0!$ #)!$ -($ !"x'#$ %#$ %&).#-/$ %9(0'&)'#$ #(!/#7/#(#-/&0.#.$ +0-!$ #(.5G3k$Dl-1.*((#.)$#!$ .`0.#$ .-!}!$ Q-#$ %#$ )#$ +*.#)Q-#.#G$ I#7#(%0(!A$ )*-!#(&/$ .#)$ +0&/#$ .*'7.*77#'#(!$ %#$ .!-/#..$0(%$.&#/$.0$ +*/'01*($ +*/'#.#(!/0.#/$ 7s/#((&!s$ #!$ .!#-/)$ Q-&$ .l#(!/#7/#(#-/&0!$ (`#)!$ 70)$ )-r)0''#(!$ 7/s)#(!#$ %0()$ .#$ %#)$ 0_0&/#)G$ J#)$ 7/*^#!)$ '-.l#W7s/&#(.#)$ #_*/!)$ %s7.x)$ 7*-/$ .*(*'&Q-#)$ #!$ &(!#/2#(1*()$ '0.*77#'#(!$ %#$ 7*.0$ .#)$|$ .!G$D#$'*%x.#)$ %#/(&x/#)$0((s#)A$ &.*-/)$%#$ O#)1*($S(0(.)$ #!$ .#$ Q-&$ .#$ %#$ .#)$%#$ 7/s)#(!01*($ =.!-/#.#/$ ."#/.x)$ y$ #)!$ %&/#.*(*'&Q-#)$ !#.#)$ 6CE$ .0$ .#)$%*&!$&(!#/2#(&/$ .0$ /#(%#(!$ 0&()&$ 7*))&8./s01+)A$ #!$ Q-#$ .#$%#$2&#$%#$.#)$ 70&/)G$ E($ #_#!A$ 7.l0..01*($ #(!/#7/#(#-/&0.#$ #!$&.`s!-%#A$ .#)$ %&)7*)&1*()$ /sO.1*($.#)$ #(!/#7/#(#-/&0.!#'#(!$ #(!/02s$ 70/$ %#)$ +0.*($ .`&(2#)1))#'#(!$ .0.#)$.#)$ #(!/#7/#(#-/&0.*'7s!#(.$ #)!$ %*(.#$ !#//0&($#!$ .*(O$%-$.#)$#(!/#7/#(#-/&0.9.#)$ .#)$ 7#/)*((#)$ 090(!$ .#)$ *77*/!-(&!s)$.-)$^#-(#$ „O#$ ."#/$ .l#()#&O(#'#(!$ 0/1)1Q-#G$ .#-WN.#)$ )7s.*9s)$ 7*-/$ )1'-.#)$ #W7#/!)A$ %#)$ '#)-/#)$ '0.1*()$ #(!/#$ .#$ 7.-)$!}!$ 7*))&8.l#(!/#7/#(#-/&0!$ =Q-#$ .)$ #!$ .#$ !/020&.*/#$ .l077/#(1))0O#$ )-/$ .*($ .*''-(&../s012#)A$ 7*-/$.#$ '0(Q-#$ %#$ ...&1Q-#)$ '0.#$ %ls20.*()#&.*'7s!#(.0(&S./s01+)$*(!$ 8#)*&($%`-($ #()#'8.01*(A$ .-1*()$ &(!#/'s%&0&/#)$#!$ .$ )#/0&!$ (s.*'7.*77#'#(!$ %#$ .0/$ .A$ (#$ )#'8.#)$ #(!/#7/#(#-/&0.#$ 70)$ 0%07!s$ 0-W$ YIIA$ 7*-/$ Q-&$ ./s01+$ *-$ .#$ )*-1#($ 0-$ %s2#.#$ 0-W$.$ &'7*/!0(!$ %#$ +*-/(&/$ -($ ./*&))0(.#/!0&()A$ .#)G$ 5G3g$ Y(2#/)#'#(!A$ %`0-!/#)$ #W7#/!)$ 0r/'#(!$ Q-`&.#$ )#/0&!$ %#$ +02*/&)#/$ .12&!s$ #!$ .*()&%x/#(!$ 7.*'7s!#(.#)$)#.&0.&.$ #($sQ-&7#$ !*-!$ 0-$ ./s01+)$ #!$ .-)$ |$ '~'#$ %#$ %s!#/'&(#/$ .#$'0(Q-#$%#$.*((0&))0(.#)$ %#$ 80)#$ #($ '01x/#$ %#$ 7.0$ 7#/+*/'0(.#)$ %/*&!)$ /s'-(x/#(!$ .-))&*($ /s.`#(!/#7/&)#G$ 5G3h$D#)$#(!/#7/#(#-/)$.#$ %s2#.!-/#.*'7!#$ %#)$ O*-2#/(#'#(!)$ *-$ (*(@$ 70/$ .*/7*/s)$%0()$.*'7s!#(.012#'#(!$ 7#-$%#$ %*((s#)$*-$%ls20..-.*77#/$ .&'&!#(!$ .*''#/.-//#(!$ 0-$)#&($ %#)$ YIIG$6*-/$ .#.&SQ-#)$ Q-&$ 20$ %#)$.*-/0O#/$ %x)$..#$ '0(Q-#$ %`&(+*/'01*($ )-/$ .#)$#(!/#7/#(#-/&0.*()!0!#$ -($'0(Q-#$Os(s/0.#)$ 2*.#)$ .#)$%0()$!*-)$..*'7s!#(.0$ +*/'01*($70/$ .$ (#$ )#/!$ |$ /&#($ %#$ .*''#/.#$ %s2#.-/)-)$0S($%#$70.*'7s!#(.!#-/)$%#)$ YIIG$ E($ %s7&!$ %l-(#$ +*/!#$ 0-O'#(!01*($ %#)$ 7/*O/0''#)$ %#$ +*/'01*($ |$ .!#-/)$ %#$ )-.#-/$ 0.-/)-)$ %#$ +*/'01*(A$ -(#$ 0-!/#$ )*.x)$.#$ (&2#0-$ %l#(!/#7/#(#-/&0!G$ 5G4f$ I#a#$ !#()&*($ #(!/#$ &(&1012#)$ '&.#)G$ 5G3i$ D0$ %&_s/#(.0$ O#)1*($%#)$J6Y$ #)!$ 7*-/$ .#)$)9)!x'#)$/#)!#(!$#(.x)$ 0-$ '0/.#G$ Y.0/O#$ '#)-/#$ .-01*($ %#)$ 7/*O/0''#)$ #($ Q-#)1*(A$ &.s'#(!0&/#)$ Q-&$ ..0%/#$ %#$ .*''#$ .#)$ YII$ -(#$ Q-#)1*($ .#)$7/*O/0''#)$%#$ )*-1#($ 0-W$ YIIA$ +0&)0(!$7#(.0(.$ 0//&2#$ 0-$ 8*($'*'#(!G :..-)$ #r.0.#$ .*(%&1*((#$ %0()$ -(#$ ."s$ y$ %#$ '~'#$ Q-#$ %`0-!/#)$ +0.$ 0-W$#(!/#7/#(#-/)$.&)01*($/#.#/$ .#))0&/#$ %#$ '&#-W$ .#/!0&()$#W7#/!)$ &(!#//*Os)$ %0()$.$ /#))*/!$ %#)$Q-#)1*((0&/#)$ #(2*9s)$ 0-W$ #W7#/!)$ Q-#$ .&!#/$ ./*s.&(0&/#)$ #(!/#$ #(!/#7/&)#)$ #!$ &()1!-1*()$ %l#()#&O(#'#(!$ 7*-//0&#(!$ .1%&).#$ #!$ &(+*/'#.*()#&.*'7s!#(.*(ON!#/'#$ 7*-/$ /#(+*/.

#)$ %#$ .`&(!sO/01*($ %#$ ..*()-.*77#'#(!$ %#$ )*.*(.#)N'~'#)$ (`*(!$ 70)$ )-r)0''#(!$ .0$ +-!-/#$ 7*.!#-/)$%#$.#)$*-1.#)$ &(%-)!/&#)$ .$ .#$%9(0'&Q-#$ Q-&$ )`&()!0-/#$ #(!/#$.#$ z$J#)&O($ #($ !0(!$ Q-#$ '*!#-/$ %l-(#$ &((*201*($ 0Ws#$ )-/$ .*''#$ -($ &()!/-'#(!$ Q-&$ 7#-!$ .&x/#$ #!$ -(#$ )*-/.*77#/$ %#)$ '0/Q-#)A$ 7/*%-&!)$ #!$ )#/2&.*'7s112&!sG$ I#a#$ ..!0!)$%#$ .&1Q-#$ %#$ .#)$ 7*.*''#$ %#)$'*!#-/)$%l-(#$&((*201*($.#$/#.#)$.0$%#'0(%#G$ :.#)$ #!$ ./s01+)$)*(!$ /#)7*()08..&#()$ 02#."(*.lE-/*7#G$D#$ %*."(*.l&((*201*($%&!#$ z$)*m$ {$*-$%#)$7/*.!#-/$ )7s.0$ +*/'01*($ %#$ .#)$ (*-2#0-WG$ <.`#)!"s1Q-#$ %#)$ 7/*%-&!)A$ .)$0%sQ-0!)$#($..#)$)`#($!/*-2#$ +0.#)$/#.&x/#)G$ D#)$ '*%x..!#-/$ .*(O$ %#$ .#$'*(%#$%#$.-'#(!$ %#$ !/020&.#/$ .$ #)!$ 2&!0.s%s)$.#$ %`0_0&/#)$ Q-&$ )*&!$ 0%07!s$ 0-W$ 8#)*&()$ %#)$YIIG$ D`s%-.0$ I*''&))&*($ #-/*7s#((#$ ./*ƒ!/#$.*'7s!#(.$ .!#-/)A$ !#..!#-/)G 5G4k$ D0$ ./#012#$&(%-)!/&#)$ $ $ $ 4e .`-1.&!sG$I#)$!/0()+#/!)$#(!/#$ %&_s/#(!)$0.#$ (-'s/&Q-#A$ 0$-(#$ &(n-#(."0/Os$ %`0's.*((0&))0(.0.s%s)$ %l&((*201*($ *-2#/!#$ #!$ %s2#.#-/G$ J-$ +0&!$ %#$ ..#$ %`020(!0O#$ .&s)$0-$ %#)&O($.!-/0.$ %#$ ./s01*(G 5G43$P#.#)$#(!/#7/#(#-/)$.!-/#.#)$#!$.&*/#/$ .#$ 70/!0O#$ %#)$ ..&#/$ y$ 7/~!)$80(.0$ .0$ '01x/#G$Y.#$ '*(%#$ 0.#'#(!$ %-$7*!#(1#.#))0&/#$ %#$ 7/*'*-2*&/$ .*()&%s/s$ 70/$ .#$(l*_/#$ 70)$.!-/#)$%#$ .s%#/$|$."(*.&!#/$ .$ %#)$)#/2&.#$ )-/$ .01*($%#)$'s!"*%#)$ #!$ %#)$ ./s012#)$ #!$ .#-/)$ &((*201*()$|$%l0-!/#)$)#.*(.&70.#-/$ .*'7.#)$ .#'#(!$ )-/$ .#)$ 0&()&$ Q-#$ .$ %`02*&/$ .0$ ./s012&!s$ %0()$..#-/)$ '*%x.#)$ )#.*O&#$ 7*-20&#(!$ /#..&#(!)A$.08*/01*($ #(!/#$ %&_s/#(!)$ )#.-./01+A$ .-.$ %#)$ YIIA$ #($ .#$ !#.#)$ #!$ .-//#(1#./s012#)$|$0.&(OA$ 0&%#)$ #!$ )-82#(1*()$y$ ..!#-/)$ 7#-2#(!$ &(.*(.-.&!s$ |$ 0.!#-/)$ !#(%#(!$ |$ )`#)!*'7#/A$ .!*/&#.#)$ 0S($ %#$ 7/*'*-2*&/$ %#)$ 7/*.#)$ %l0_0&/#$ %#)$ YIIG$ Y.$ %#$ 7#/'#a/#$ |$ %#$ !#./*B%N)*-/.s%#/$ |$ -($ )02*&/$ #W!s/&#-/G$ Y.#)$ '*%x.#(!/#(!$ 7/&(.*(!#(-)A$ #($70/1.&)0!#-/G$ Z&#($ Q-`&.Q-&)&1*($ %#$ (*-2#.01*()$02#.`0.!-/#./s012#)$ %s7.#$ 7*!#(1#.*…!)$ #!$ .0&)$#!$*_/&/$-($)*-1#($|$...&)0!#-/$ %0()$ .#)$ O*-2#/(#'#(!0.0$ PHJ$ !#.#)$ 6CE$ .0$ %&'#()&*($ .#)$ #!$ .0$ I*''&))&*($)-/$ .#)$ &(%-)!/&#)$ .0$.l&((*201*($.0$2&#$7#-2#(!$#()-&!#$7/#(%/#$.*/)$ Q-#$ .*O&Q-#$ y$ -($ +0.-..#))-)$ %`&((*201*(G$D0$ !/&0(O-.0&/#)A$ 7/~!)$ O0/0(1)$ 70/$ %#)$ 0O#(./-.#)$ %l0_0&/#)$ )#$ .01*($!*-!$ 0-$..-)$ 7#/€-$ .l&((*201*($ 0Ws#$ )-/$ .0$ 7/*%-.#)$%#$ .*(O!#'7)$ s!s$ 2-$ .-)$*-$'*&()$.#)$ #!$ .#)$)!/-.$ (s.1*($%#$20.)$#!$ .)$ #(2&/*((#'#(!)$ #W7.#)$ %l0_0&/#)$ #!$ %#$ .*Q-#/$ .#)$ .-//#(1#.#$'*(%#$%#)$0_0&/#)$#!$.#)$ 7.0%s'&Q-#A$ .0$ .#-/A$.#)$%#$ %&)!/&8-1*($#!$.$.*(*'&Q-#$#!$%#$.&#(.*(S/'s#$ 70/$ .#$ /#(+*/.-.0.*-/&/$ 7*-/$ 0-O'#(!#/$ .*77#/$ -($'*%x./s012#)$ 7#-!$ !"#$!"#$!%$!"!&$'()$%&'#()&*($*+$!"#$.s'#(!)$.l&((*201*(G$ 5G4e$ J#$ (*'8/#-)#)$ #(!/#7/&)#)$ .#)$'*%x.-)$ &'7*/!0(!)$ /s)&%#$ %0()$ ..0($s.&!0(!$ |$ &((*2#/$ 7-&)$ |$ s!#(%/#$ .*'7s!#(.&1Q-#)$ #!$ ..$ #)!$ #))#(1#.l-1.`#()#&O(#'#(!G$D#)$7/*O/0''#)$%`s%-.#'#(!$ %#$ )0$ .#)$ #(!/#$ .*&#(!$ %#)$ )!/0!sO&#)$ 0Ws#)$ )-/$ .#$ %*.#-/)$ /#))*-/.l#(!/#7/#(#-/&0!$ #!$ .#$ '*(%#$ 0.$%-$%#)&O($)-/$.*''#$ -(#$ +*/.0%s'&Q-#A$ ...#)$2&)&!#-/)$#!$ .$ %`&((*201*($ %#$ .#)$ 6CE$ .#)$ .$ 7*-/$ .+""<$%A%7.$ 0&!$ .#$7.!-/#.-.A$ Q-&$ 0$ 08*-1$ |$ .-.*''#$ -($ )#.*.-)$ #($ 7.#)$ #!$ %#$ )1'-.#W#)$ %#$ )*-1#($S(0(.#)$ YII$ |$ )`#(O0O#/$ %0()$ %#)$7/*.#$ +0&!$ Q-#$ .#$ '*(%#$ %#)$ 0_0&/#)$ 0&()&$ Q-#$ .)**'4+5'*% 5G44$D0$/#.#$%-$7*!#(1#.)$ Q-#$ .#A$ &.*O&Q-#$ s!0&!$ y$ 0-$ '~'#$ 1!/#$ Q-#$ .-.$ #)!$ %*(.*()*''0!#-/)$#!$ 7/*%-.#)$ /#)7*()08.0$ PHJ$ (*($ !#."0ƒ(#)$ %#$ 20.0$.!*/&#.#$ 70/1.#)$ S(0(.!-/#.#(!/s#$ )-/$ .$#)!$&'7*/!0(!$ %`&(!sO/#/$!/x)$!}!$ .#$ |$ ^*-#/$ %0()$ .*.#$ 7#/'#a0(!$ %#$ %s2#./s012#)$ #.#$ %#)&O($ #)!$ '0&(!#(0(!$ .#$ '*(%#$ %#)$ 0_0&/#)$ #!$ .*(!/&8-#/$ 0-$ %s2#.#$ !/0()+#/!$ &(!#/)#.l-1.0(.1*()$#(!/#$.-1*()$ #!$ %#$ 7/*%-&!)$ &((*20(!)G$D0$ (*-2#.-'#(!$ %#$ !/020&.*()&%s/08.*'7s112&!s$ %l-(#$ #(!/#7/&)#$ %s7#(%$ .&0.&.!-/#.&SQ-#$ .A$ 0-Q-#.070.&)0!#-/)$%*((#$ |$7#()#/$Q-#$ .#)$&(!#/0.#)$ &(.&#/$02#.-.*-/0(!$|$%#)$+*/'#)$ 7.!01*($.!-/#.#)$ .`&((*201*(G$ 5G45$ D#$ %#)&O($ #)!$ %#$ 7.-."s#A$ %#$ .*/0!*&/#)$ %ls'#/O#/$ 0S($ %#$ %s8.#)$ #(!/#$ .`E-/*7#G$ J#)$ 's!"*%#)$ %l&((*201*($ *-2#/!#$ Q-&$ &(.#)$-1.l-($ %#)$ *8)!0.#$ %#$.*()!0!01*($0$ s!s$ .s#$ 70/$ .#)$YII$ 7*-//0&#(!$ 02*&/$ -($ /}.$0(%$.#$ .#)$/s)-.08*/01*()$ &(!#/)#.!#-/)$ 7#-2#(!$ 0-))&$ 0&%#/$ .01*($+*/'#.$ %`0-!/#)$ )#.&)0!#-/$ {$ 0$ '*(!/s$ Q-#$ .*().!-/#.#)$ 6CE$ |$ +0&8.#)$ %&_s/#(.-#(!$ .#)$ s.-.#)$ *-$ |$ 8-!$ (*($ .*((0&))0(.&s)$|$.l&((*201*(G$ L*-!#+*&)A$ .*((0&))0(.*((0&))0(.

&#(!#)$ %#$ .#))-)$7#-2#(!$ ~!/#$ .#$ )#.*((0&))0(.#A$ '0&)$ y$ %0()$.$0(%$.!-/#.&#/$ 0-W$ ^#-(#)$#(!/#7/&)#)$Q-&$*(!$ 8#)*&($%#$ .l&((*201*($ 2&0$ %#)$ +0..*O&Q-#)$ .0%/#$ %9(0'&Q-#$ #!$ *•$.0&/#'#(!$ %`#(.#$ )#.*()!0''#(!$ s20.l#(!/#7/#(#-/&0!G$ 5G4g$ Y.12#$ %#$ ..#$|$*/&#(!01*($7/01Q-#$#!$|$7#1!#$s.-.*.#)$#!$)*-/.`s.#$ /#."#/.#)$ (*-2#.0$ 7#/)7#.#-/$ %*((#$ -($.#)A$ ..s)G$ 5G4i$ I*.&x/#)$0-W$6CE$#!$#(!/#7/#(#-/)$%#)$YIIG$ 5G53$Y.$.0$ 7#/)7#.$ /&)Q-#$ |$ %#$ !#.`#)!$0-$%s8-!$%#$ )*($0.*()#&.!#-/)$ #!$ .#$ 7.12&!s$ #(!/#7/#(#-/&0.&#/$ .0$ /#.#$ %#$ 8s(sS.#(!/#/$ %#)$6CE$ .#))0&/#$ 7*-/$ .*(2&#(!$ .-)$%&r.#$ )*&!$ )-/$ .!#-/)$ (*($ !#.*(!/&8-#(!$%#$ +0€*($ #))#(1#.0$ .ls%-.l&((*201*($ 7*-//0&!$ ~!/#$ #(./s01+$ #)!$ #($#_#!$ )-).#-/)$ 7/*.#$ %-/08.&#/$ %#)$)!/0!sO&#)$%#$ .#G$$ :#$%D-+@@#$%8.#)$ 6CEA$ |$ %l0-!/#)$ )#.&Q-s#G$I#7#(%0(!A$ .#))-)$ .ls!-%#$ Q-#$.s%s)$ &((*20(!)A$ '0&)$ .*-/0Os$ 70/$ .0's.*..&Q-#/$ #!$ |$ &%#(1S#/$ 70/$ %#)$ 077/*.-.l#(!/#7/#(#-/$ ./*ƒ!/#$ !*-!$ #($%&)7*)0(!$%#)$.&$ %*&2#(!$ 7*-2*&/$ +0&/#$ 077#.!#-/$ 7/&2s$ !/020&.`#)!N|N%&/#$ |$ .01*($ #(!/#$ .&(0&/#)$*•$.&.*'7s!#(.*().&0.#)$8*()$ |$ .#$ .#)$S(0(.$ .#)$0-!*/&!s)$(01*(0.#$ 7*!#(1#.0708.*''#$ .07&!0.#)$ #!$ |$ .0%s'&Q-#)G$ D0$ .#/!0&($(&2#0-$%#$ )!08&.!#/(012#)$ ./s012#)$ %#$ 8s(sS..&x/#'#(!$ .&!s$ 0&()&$ Q-#$ .#$ Q-#$ .#)$#!$ /sO&*(0.A$ %#)$ )#/2&.-.$ /#))*/!$%#)$)!01)1Q-#)$%#$ .$#)!$ (s.1*()$ 02#."#)$ 0.`s..#)$ !"#$!"#$!%$!"!&$'()$%&'#()&*($*+$!"#$.!)$0%'&(&)!/01+)A$ S(0(."#$ 077.#)$7/*.#)$ .)$../s012#)$ %0()$ -($ '~'#$ #(%/*&!$ 7#-!$ .&!)$%#$ ."0(O#$ 7*/!#$ 0-))&$ )-/$ %#)$Q-#)1*()$ 7/01Q-#)$ Q-&$ )*(!$ -1.*(2#/O#(.`&((*201*(G$I*(.#))&!#$ Q-`-(#$ 7.#)$ 0-!/#)A$ ."0(O#'#(!)$ 70/$ ..#A$ 02#.*'7s!#(.&#/$ *-$ %#$ .#-/$ #)70./*&))0(.#.*''#/.*((#."#$ 077."#/.#-/)$ /#))*-/.0!#+*/'#)$#!$ 7/*.&Q-s#$ #!$ &(.#)$ /s.)$)-/$ %#)$ 0)7#.)$7/*./s012#)$%#$ /s-))&/$ |$ #W7s/&'#(!#/A$ &((*2#/$#!$ ."#$ 077.&#/$ %#$ .!#/$ .#))-)$ .#)$7/*%-&!)$#!$.#)$ #!$ .*(*'&Q-#G$ I#.`s2&%#(.#))0&/#$ %#$ +02*/&)#/$ -($#(2&/*((#'#(!$ Q-&$ .&.#)$ *(!$ 8#)*&(G$ <$ .*(...&.-.#)$#!$.&#/)$ *-$.0$ /#.!-/0.08*/01+)$ 7#-!$ #(!/0ƒ(#/$ -($ /#!*-/$ )-/$&(2#)1))#'#(!$#!$+*-/(&/$%#)$/#))*-/.#)$ 6CEG$<S($%#$ 7#/'#a/#$ 0-W$ 6CE$ %l&%#(1S#/$ %#)$ .&SQ-#)$ 7..$ |$ %#)$ .`s'#/O#(..#)$ 8#)*&()$ )-/O&))#(!A$ .`0..0($ S(0(.&!s$ #!$ %`0-!/#)$ !97#)$%#$)*-1#($|$.01*($ #!$ %#$ .0$ /#."(*.#$ 08*-1!$ 0-))&$ |$ %#$ (*-2#.#$ '*(%#$ 0.&Q-s#$ #!$ .!#-/)$ 0%07!#(!$ .$ %#)$&(!#/'s%&0&/#)$%#$ )*/!#$ |$ .08*/01*($ #!$ /s)#0-W$ 7#/'#a#(!$ 0-W$ 6CE$ .*-/)$ |$ %#)$ )*..-)$ *-$ '*&()$ 0-$ '*'#(!$ *•$ .08*/01*($ #!$ ./#012#$&(%-)!/&#)$ $ $ $ 4k .$7*-//0&!$~!/#$)&(*($%&r.&s)$|$ .&#/$ %l-($ )*-1#($ =Q-#$ .*()*''0!#-/)A$ #!$ %&_s/#(!)$ )#.ls'#/O#(.#)$7/*.#)$#(^#-W$#!$ .0)$ %#)$ 7/*..-)$O/0(%#$0a#(1*($)*&!$0.)$.1%&).#$ 7#-!$ '#(#/$ |$ .#)$|$ #W7.!#-/)$ #($ 2-#$ %#$ +02*/&)#/$ ..*-/0O#/$ .#$%`077/s"#(%#/$%#$+0€*($)01)+0&)0(!#G 5G5f$ Y.s%s)$&((*20(!)G 5G4p$ .#)$YIIA$ .*((0&))0(."#.0$ 7*-//0&!$ )#$ +0&/#$ )-/$ 80)#$ /sO&*(0.*"s/#(!#G$:($(&2#0-$&(!#/'s%&0&/#$ %#$ 's%&01*($ #)!$ |$ .#-/$ 7#/'#a/#$ (*($ )#-.#!$ sO0/%A$ .#)$#W7/&'#/$ %#$ +0€*($.#)$ 7/*%-..!-/#.A$ .#$ (s..12#$ s.0$ +*/'01*($ #!$ .#)N'~'#)$ )*-2#(!$ &(.#$ |$ .*/%s#$ 0-W$%sS.s%s)$ 0S($ %l&(!sO/#/$ .#)$ %*(!$ #.#)G$ D#)$ /sO&*()$)*(!$ #(.#/$ 02#.-.&7/*Q-#)$ '0&)$0-))&$ %#$ 70/!0O#/$ .-.#)$)#.#)$#!$ .0%s'&Q-#$ #!$.#$ %#)$ YII$ #)!$ %#$ 70/2#(&/$ |$ !/0()+*/'#/$ %#)$ ."0(O#$ %l&(+*/'01*()A$ &.#))-)$."#'&()$ %#$ ."#/.`&((*201*($.#)$ #!$ %#)$ #W7s/&#(.*''#$ .#$ %#$ 7.#)$%#$ .#)$%#$ S(0(.s%s)$ #!$ 7/*%-&!)G$ <))*.!-/#.#'#(!$ 077/*7/&s#)A$ &.#'#(!$ %#$ 8s(sS.-1*()$ 0.*.0$ '&)#$ #($ /s)#0-$)*(!$%#)$*-1.#$ %#$ 7/*./s01+)$y.#)A$Q-`&.*'7s!#(.08*/01+)$ )&$ !97&Q-#)$ %#)$ #(2&/*((#'#(!)$'-.#)$YIIA$ #!$ 70/1.*((0&))0(.#$ /#."#@G$ J0()$ )#)$ &(!#/0.*-/0Os#)$ |$ !/020&.#)$ .!#-/$ %#$ .#$ %#$ !/020&.#*&-#@-)$#$%#&%7+%"'77+9'-+5'*% 5G4h$<S($%#$ 7#/'#a/#$ 0-W$ #(!/#7/&)#)$.#-/)$ 8#)*&()$ #($ /#.-.#718.&7.x)$ 0-W$ &(+*/'01*()$ #!$ .*-/)$ 0-W$ 7/*.#))-)$%`0%07!01*($%#$.$ -($ )*-1#($ 7*-/$ .l#(!/#7/#(#-/&0!$ (s.#)N.#))-)$ %#$ +*/'01*($ #!$ %l077/#(1))0O#G$ :(#$ O/0(%#$ +*/.&*/#/$ .#(!$ %0()$-($.$ #W&)!#$ 0-^*-/%l"-&$ -(#$ .#)$ )7s.*'7!08&.#)$0-W$ #(!/#7/&)#)A$ #($ 70/1..!-/#.-.&!0(!$.!#-/)$)*(!$7.&.#$ #(!/#$ .!-/#$ %#$ .0$ %#'0(%#G$ D#)$ 6CE$ )*(!$ #.-s)$#!$ 7#-2#(!$ 8s(sS.`#W7s/&#(.&#/$ %`-($ O&)#'#(!$ %l&(+*/'01*()G$E($+0.&#/$ %`-($ 7/*.l#W7s/&#(.0$ /#.."#/.$ %l&((*201*(G$ <-$ (&2#0-$ (01*(0.#)$ #($ (*-2#0-W$ 7/*.*((0&))0(.*-!#(&/$ -(#$ .#)$ .#)$%#$ .$ #!$.

"0'7$ s.!/0!sO&#$ E-/*7#$ 4f4f$ %#2/0&#(!$ !#(&/$ .*77#'#(!$!#.&$ 8s(sS.*''0(%01*()$ Os(s/0."#(!$ |$ .**/%*((#/$ .!-/#.012#)G$ J0()$ .!-/#.0$ %#'0(%#A$ .#)$ 6CE$ Q-&$ )#/*(!$ 7/*7*)s#)$ %0()$ .#-/$ .#-/$ )!/-.*77s$ %#)$ 's.-)$ 077/*7/&s#)$0-W$ #(!/#7/&)#)$ ..!-/#.#$ |$ -(#$ O/077#$ %`#(!/#7/&)#)$)*(!$ 7.#)$ &(%-)!/&#)$#!$ .#)$ .0$ '#)-/#$ *•$ .&1Q-#$ %#$ .&!sG eGe$J#)$7*.#)$/sO&*()$7*-//0&#(!$ %#2#(&/$ .#))0&/#$ %#$ %&)7*)#/$%#$ %020(!0O#$ %#$%*((s#)$)!01)1Q-#)$)-/$..!0!)$ #($ '01x/#$ %`&((*201*(A$ .&1Q-#$ %#$ .#&(#'#(!$ /s7*(%/#$ 0-W$ 8#)*&()$ )7s.#$ %#)$ 7*.#)$.`#(2&/*((#'#(!$ /sO.#G$ E!0(!$ %*((s$ Q-#$ .$#!$)-/$.!#-/)$Q-&$.0$ .-#(!G$ D0$ 7/*%-.*''0(%01*()$ 7*/!#(!$ )-/$ .`#W#'7.#-/$ !#//&!*&/#$ |$ )#$ !/0()+*/'#/$ #($ 7.$ .#$ %#)$ 709)$ Q-&$ *(!$ %s2#.#/$ .#)$O/077#)G$$ eGk$Dl:E$ %#2/0&!$%020(!0O#$!#(&/$ ..#)$ #!$ ./s01+)$)#/0&#(!$ #(.01*($)*(!$(s.$Q-#$ /sO&*(0.-($%#)$)#.#$ %0()$ %#$ (*'8/#-W$ )#.#$ %`-(#$ )&!-01*($ %`sO0."#/.s%-/#)$ /sO.0$ %#'0(%#$ %-$ !97#$ z$ '0!.1*((s)$7*-/$ .0$ +*&)$ %-$ .0O#$ #!$ -(#$ 7.&0&#(!$ %`#W*(s/01*()$%`&'7}!)A$ .`0770/!#(0(.&1Q-#)$%#$ )1'-.#)$ (&2#0-W$ %#$ O*-2#/(0(.#)$ YII$ s2*.08*/01*($ #(!/#$ '&(&)!x/#)A$ (*!0''#(!$ #(!/#$ '&(&)!x/#)$ %#$ .#)$ '#)-/#)$ 2&)0(!$ .-)$ &(!s/#))s#)$ 70/$ .*'7s112&!s$ #!$%#$./s01+A$ !0(%&)$Q-#$ %0()$.#$ .99("<(/.#)$ #!$ .0$ .0$ /#.*(*'&#A$ 0&()&$ Q-#$ %#$ /#(+*/.0%/#$ %#)$ &(&1012#)$ 7"0/#)$ %#$ .#)$7"0)#)$)-&20(!#)A$.`s'#/O#(.$0(%$.$ #!$ .#)$ 7.G$ E.*(Q-s/&/$ %#$ (*-2#0-W$ '0/../s012#)$=#!$ 70)$-(&Q-#'#(!$ !"#$!"#$!%$!"!&$'()$%&'#()&*($*+$!"#$.&#/$ %#)$ &(&1012#)$%#)$70/!#(0&/#)$Q-&$.-."(*..08*/01*()$ #!$ /s)#0-W$ +*/'#.*//#)7*(%/#$ 0-W$ .-)$O/0(%#$ #r.0/0.**/%&(01*($ #!$ .#)$ 6CE$ .-..&.08.#-WN.&(0&/#$ #!$ Q-`#.0$ .#)$ /s)#0-W$ )#.-)$ -1.#/0&!$ .#$ +0&!$ 7*-/$ 7..*O&Q-#$=6IPJL$h$#!$6IPJL$ i@$*-$%#$.0$ .#)$ YII$ #!$ #(/#O&)!/#(!$ %#$ 8*()$ /s)-./-#$ #($ +0.)$ )#/*(!$ .&SQ-#)$ %#)$ '&.0$ )#'8.&7.0%/#)$0.#)$#!$ )7s."&(O$ {$ $ )*(!$ )-/!*-!$ 20.l&((*201*(G$ eG3$<S($%#$ /s7*(%/#$ 0%sQ-0!#'#(!$ 0-W$8#)*&()$%#)$YIIA$ &.#)$ YII$ 7.#$ 7*-/$ .*0.&x/#$ %#)$ 0/1)!#)$ 7*-//0&!$ ~!/#$ 0.&!#(!$ .*'7*)#(!G$ eG4$ L*-!$ )*-1#($ .!-/#.!-/#.#)$ 7*-//0&#(!$ #(.l&((*201*(A$ 0&()&$Q-#$ %0()$)0$ 7*.$ ."2 eGf$ .*(!#W!#$ Os(s/0.#Q-#./s012#)$|$)l&(!sO/#/$%0()$.#/$ .#)$ O/077#)$ %`#(!/#7/&)#)$ #!$ .-)$ #(.0$ .0$ '*8&.1*()$ s!/*&!#)$ #!$ .#)$ &(!#/'s%&0&/#)$#(!/#$ .#)$ &(!#/0..$ Q-&$ 0$ s!s$ '#(sA$ -($ .0$ .0$ .#))0&/#)$0-W$(&2#0-W$ !0(!$ #-/*7s#(A$ (01*(0.!-/#.-.#)$ +*/'#)$ %#$ )*-1#($ 7#/)*((#.!-/#."(*.`#(!/#7/#(#-/$ .s$ %*&!$ .&!0(!$ .0(&)'#)$ %#$ )*-1#($ 7#/+#.#)$.#)$ &(%-)!/&#)$ 7#/'#!$ -($ '#&.0$ 80)#$ %-$ !/020&.#)$*-2/0(!$ 0-W$7/*^#!)$%l&((*201*($(*($!#.*.$ #!$ %-$ .$ %#))&(#$ .-.#)$ |$ .*O&Q-#$%#$.*''#$ .$#)!$ (s.#$ '*(!/#$ .*()*.#)$ (&2#0-W$ %#$ O*-2#/(0(.#$ .*.&1Q-#)$'#(s#)$0-W$%&_s/#(!)$(&2#0-W$%#$ O*-2#/(0(.0$ 7*..#)$ /#.*'7!#$ %#)$8#)*&()$%#)$YII$%0()$)#)$7/*O/0''#)$.*(*'&#$ #!$ †-2/#/$ |$ .#$ 8#)*&($%#$ )1'-.#)$7"0)#)$%#$.."#$ #!$ %-$%s2#./s012#)$ )#/*(!$ 7..0$ .-.*-/0O#/$ .-.0!#+*/'#)$ %l&((*201*($#!$.0.#/!0&($ (*'8/#$ %#$ /#.#$ )-OOs/#/$ Q-#$ .*(2&#(%/0&!$ %`#(.*'7!#$ %#)$ 8#)*&()$ )7s.#-/$ 0.#)$#(!*-/#(!G$ =!2*%$'"4'%()!2*$!4.*"s/#(.#)$&(%-)!/&#)$#($Os(s/0.)$#!$.x2#(!$ |$ .*.*-/0O#/$ .!-/#$ #!$ '&(&)!x/#)$ %#$ .*''#$.*(!/&8-1*($ %#)$ YII$ |$ .#$ 7*.&%01*($#!$%`#W70()&*(A$ ."0.l#(!/#7/#(#-/&0!$ #($ !0(!$ Q-#$ '*!#-/$ (*($ !#.!s/&)1Q-#)$ %#)$ YII$ #!A$ 7.#)$.#$ s.l&((*201*($0&()&$ Q-#$ .ls.!-/#G$ L*-!#)$ .&8.08*/012#)$ 7.$ #!$ |$ .#)$ &(%-)!/&#)G$ D#$ (&2#0-$ (01*(0.!*/&#.s8&).)$ %#$ .!-/0.$ #-/*7s#(A$ .#$ )*-./#012#$&(%-)!/&#)$ $ $ $ 4p .&1Q-#$ %#2/0&#(!$ /#.-.&SQ-#)$ #)!$ 7/*7*)sG$ I#)$ /#.&1Q-#$ %0()$.&$ %`-(#$ 7."s)$ *-$ |$ 8s(sS.1*($ #($ +02#-/$ %#$ ./*N #(!/#7/&)#)G$ eG5$ I*''#$ .*-/0Os#)$)&$ .#$ Q-&$ )1'-.!-#./s012#)$ Q-&$ .0$ (*-2#.-/$ .-)&#-/)$ '&(&)!x/#)$ %#$ .)$ #!$ 7#/)*((#.$ 0S($ %#$ 7.1*($ #!$ .*O&Q-#$#!$ 0-W$ 6CE$ .&!s$ !/0()+/*(!0.*/#A$ |$ .#'#(!0&/#$ %0()$ .#)$#!$ .*(.-..&SQ-#)$ %#)$ YIIG$ L*-)$ .*"s)&*(A$ (*!0''#(!$ #($.&!s$ %#$ .#'#(!0&/#)$ 9$ /#.*"s/#(."(*./*&))0(."&(O$ {$ $ *-$ z$ .-.#$ #-/*7s#($ #!$ (01*(0.&8.#)$ 7/*.-//#(.-)$ +*/'#.."#/.-)$ O/0(%#$ .#)$#!$.)$#!$ +-!-/)$#($+02#-/$%#$."0'7$ .#$ 7*.*((0ƒ!/#$ .#)$ O/077#)$ %`#(!/#7/&)#)G$ I#.*(*'&Q-#A$ &.0$ %&)!/&8-1*($%#$7/*%-&!)$#!$ )#/2&.!#-/)G$J#$ '~'#A$ ..#$ )*-1#($|$ .#)$ 7/#'&#/)$ !#'7)$ !0(%&)$ Q-#$ %#)$ +*/'#)$ .#)$6CE$.#)$ YII$ *(!$ )*-2#(!$ -(#$ %&'#()&*($ &(!#/%&).

"0ƒ(#$ %#$ 20.0&/#)G$.$ #)!$/#.&8.#-/$ /#(+*/.#)$ '&.*O&Q-#G$ Y./s012#)$70/$ ..#)$ 7/*%-&!)$ #!$ )#/2&./#012#$&(%-)!/&#)$ $ $ $ 4h .#)$*-$/sO&*(0."s$ $/#)!#$ %&r.#$ 7*-/$ .#)$#!$ 7/*%-&!)$ .0$ %#'0(%#$ +-!-/#$ #!$ %`*_/&/$ -($ !#//0&($ %#$ ^#-$ #W7s/&'#(!0.0$ ZEY$#!$ %-$REYA$ Q-&$ 7/*'#-2#(!$ 0-))&$ .#)$%#)1(s#)$|$ %s2#.&.$ .#$ 8&0&)$ %#)$ '0/.x'#$ /s.x)G$ D#)$ 7/*O/0''#)$ #W&)!0(!)$=6IPJLhA$ IY6@$%#2/0&#(!$ .#)$ 's."s)$ 7*-/$ .*''#$ .)$ #-/*7s#()$ %0()$ ..-/$ .#)$ &(2#)1))#-/)G$ <S($ %#$ '&#-W$ .*O&Q-#$ #!$ |$ .&.#)$ )#./s012#)A$ #($ 70/1..0(&)'#)$S).0(&)'#)$ %#$ S(0(.0.!#-/$ 70/1.$ ."(*./*N#(!/#7/&)#)A$7*-//0&#(!$)#$7*/!#/$.`:EA$ &.)$.G$E(S(A$ &.&S#/$ .#)$ )#/2&.$ /&)Q-#A$ .-..0(0.*''0(%s$|$.#)$ %&_s/#(!#)$ 7"0)#)$ %-$ .#$ %#)$ YII$ 0S($ %#$ /#(+*/.#$ #!$ .*//#)7*(%/#$ 0-W$ 8#)*&()$ %#)$ 6CEG$<S($ %`0))-/#/$ -($ )*-1#($ 8&#($ ./*.0(&)'#)$ %`&(Os(&#/&#$ S(0(.`:EA$ .*(.#)$ #!$ .1+$ #)!$ %#$ '&#-W$ .*-2/&/$ .#-/$.0&/#$ #($ +02#-/$ %-$ )#.!-/#.!#-/)$ %#)$ YII$ #!$ 7*/!#/$)-/$.*'7.&!01+)$ #($+02#-/$ %#)$)#/2&.#)$.#)$ #!$ .*77#'#(!$ %#$ +*(%)$ =70/$ #W#'7.)$ 0&()&$ Q-#$ ./-..#/$ .*77s#)$ 7*-/$ %l0-!/#)$ )#.#)$ YIIG$ <-$ (&2#0-$ %#$ .*/#$ &()-r)0''#(!$#W7./*N#(!/#7/&)#)G$ D`*.&.#)$#($2-#$%`#W7.$ {$ $ 7*-/$ %l0-!/#)$ )#.&0.!s/&)1Q-#)$%#)$6CE$.*-/&/$ 0-W$ /sO&*()$ 7*-/$ .#'#(!$ #)!$ -($7/*8.l&((*201*(A$ 7*-//0&#(!$ )#/2&/$ |$ S(0(.#)$%&_s/#(!#)$7"0)#)$%#$ .#'#(!$ )*-!#(&/$ %#)$ &(&1012#)$ (01*(0.!-/#.&x/#$ %#2/0&!$ ~!/#$ 7*/!s#$ |$ .&#/)$.$ Q-#$ .*&!s)$ 7*-/$ )*-!#(&/$ ./s%&!G$ J#$ '~'#A$ %#)$ 's."s)$ 7-8.$.-...#W#)$ 7*-/$ .#/$ .#)$ &(2#)1))#-/)$ 7/*2&%#(1#.l&((*201*($ )*(!$ !/*7$ .)$ 7*-//0&#(!$ sO0.*-/0O#/$ .*((0&))0(!$.12&!s)$Q-&$ )*(!$ '#(s#)$%0()$.#)$ 8#)*&()$ )*.#'#(!$ 0-O'#(!#/$ .#$ %s2#.**/%&(01*($02#.0&/#)$ $7*-//0&#(!$ ~!/#$ #(.07&!0.0$ (-'s/&)01*($ %-$.&.#'#(!$ 0.#$ %-$ +*(%)$%#$ O0/0(1#$ 80(.#/!0&()$'*'#(!)$.$ 7*-/$ .s%s)A$ 7/*%-&!)$*-$)#/2&.&8.#a#$ &(&1012#$ |$ .07&!0.!-/#.-.-./s012#)G eGh$ D#)$ O/0(%)$%&)7*)&1+)$%#$ S(0(.*(2&#(%/0&!$ %`#(./s012#)$ 9$ 0&#(!$ 7.&.)@$ %#$ .!#-/)$ #!$ )*-!#(&/$ .0-W$ 6CE$ %-$ )#.0$ .!#-/$ 0-%&*N2&)-#.0&/#)$ %#2/0&#(!$ ~!/#$ %s2#.#-/G$J#)$ 7*))&8&.#)$ O0/0(1#)$ 80(.!#-/)$ *•$ -($ 7#1!$ (*'8/#$ %`#(!/#7/&)#)$ *(!$ -(#$ 7*)&1*($ %*'&(0(!#G$ Dl:E$ %#2/0&!$ #(2&)0O#/$ !"#$!"#$!%$!"!&$'()$%&'#()&*($*+$!"#$.*&!#/$./#)88"50"D)59(.#$ 7/*O/0''#$ CEJY<$ 7*-/$ ./%"DE/9(L(%G"##M9("$(J5"5#/8/5& eGp$D#$ '0(Q-#$ %#$ S(0(.#)$ %l&((*201*($(*($ !#.&.&!s$ %#)$0.l:E$ %#2/0&!$ #(2&)0O#/$ %`*-2/&/$ ."0ƒ(#$%#$20.#$ '&.&O(#$ *-$(*(G$ eGg$ D#)$ ‡!0!)$ '#'8/#)$ 7*-//0&#(!$ #(2&)0O#/$ %#)$ '#)-/#)$ %-$ !97#$ z08/&$ S).)A$ Q-&$ )*(!$#(./#)88"50"D)59(.&!#/$ .`&()!0-/01*($ %`0-!/#)$'s.x)$ 0-$'0/.#)$6CE$ ..*77#/$ %#)$)9)!x'#)$%#$ O0/0(1#)$80(.!#-/$ %#)$LYI@G$D`:E$ %#2/0&!$ sO0.#'#(!$ %#2/0&!$ )#$ +0&/#$ #($ 0%sQ-01*($ 02#.#4N eG3f$Dl:E$ %#2/0&!$+0.0$ SW01*($ %#$ !0-W$ %#$ L\<$ /s%-&!)$*-$ .#$ %#$ 2&#$ #(!/#7/#(#-/&0.#/$ %#)$ 7/~!)$ *-$ ~!/#$ &(2#)1)$ #($ .sA$ &.l:E$ #($4ffi$ 2&)0&!$ |$ &%#(1S#/$ %#$ (*-2#0-W$ 8#)*&()$ #!$ %#$ (*-2#0-W$ '0/.0$ 2&)&8&.$ .#)$‡!0!)$'#'8/#)A$&.*(2&#(%/0&!$ %#$ )&'7.#'#(!$ 0S($ %#$ 7#/'#a/#$ Q-#$ .#'#(!$ #($ +02#-/$ %#$ .*/#$ .l&((*201*($ (*($ !#.12#G$ eGi$<-$ (&2#0-$ %#$ .x)$ 0-$'0/.$ /&)Q-#$ 7*-/$ .*O&Q-#A$ #!$ .#/$ .9./%"DE/9(L(%G"##M9("$(8".#'#(!$.`:E$ %`#(2&)0O#/$.#/(#/0&#(!$ %#)$ 7/*.s#$ 70/$ .l&((*201*($ (*($ !#.#)$+*(%)$ 0&()&$ Q-`|$ %#)$ &(!#/'s%&0&/#)$S(0(.&!s)$ %#$ )*-1#($ )&'&.$0(%$.&(s'0G$E($.&#/$%0()$.l&((*201*(G$D#)$'0/.#)$709)$#!$.$ #)!$ #))#(1#.&#/$#($+02#-/$%#)$7.-.#)$ +*(%)$%#$ .&0.&8.#$7*!#(1#.0/0.#)$#!$ ."s)$ 7-8.#)$ YIIA$#!$!*-!$)7s.-.$ %#$ /#.#)$/sO&*()$#($+02*/&)0(!$.#$ 7*&(!A$ -(#$ 0a#(1*($70/1.0!#+*/'#)$#!$%#)$&(&1012#)$%#$'&)#$#($/s)#0-$/sO&*(0./s01+)$|$ +*/!#$ &(!#()&!s$ %#$ !/020&.#)G K/9(.#-/$/#)7#.#)$#!$.-)$ +0."s$ %#)$#(!/#7/&)#)$..-.#)$YII$ #!$ !*-!$ )7s.#)$6CE$ .`#W#'7.!-/#.-//#(!$ 7*-/$ .&)#/$ .`0.&0-W$%#$.&s!0-WA$ .#$ )*&!$ #($.&#/$ %0()$.0-W$ &(.&x/#$ .!/*&$ %#$ S(0(.$ Q-&$ )#/0$ 8&#(!}!$ &(!/*%-&!$%0()$."(*.*-/0Os)$0-$ (&2#0-$ (01*(0.!-/#.#)$ &((*20(!)G$ D`*8^#.#$ 7-8.&SQ-#$ |$ -($)#.0(%&%0!#)G$ eG33$Dl&(&1012#$ #($+02#-/$%#)$'0/.#)$ YIIA$ #($ 70/1.#)$'&.-."(*./s012#)G$D#$7/*O/0''#$CEJY<$*_/#$ -($)*-1#($)7s.#'#(!$ *-$#(.#'#(!$ 7*-/$ .#)$#!$.#-/$'&)#$#($/s)#0-G$ K/9(.!-/0.#$ 8s(sS.#)$ 6CE$ ."s)$7*/!#-/)$=z$D#0%$C0/F#!$Y(&1012#${@$.-.l&((*201*($ %0()$ .!-/#.$&((*20(!$%#)$YIIG$ eG34$Dl0.0(.l&(2#)1))#'#(!$ %#)$ R*(%)$ )!/-.-.

#)$ 0&%#/$ |$ '&#-W$ #W7.&$ #!$ %#)$ +/*(1x/#)$ (01*(0.#$ #!$ .#(!/01*($ #W.0.0$ /sO&*($ #($ ./s01+G$$$ eG3k$ D#$ R*(%)$ )*.#$ %#$ .&Q-s#$ 7*-//0&#(!$ ^*-#/$ -($/}.$0(%$.0$ 7*./%"DE/9("$(0NE/%)>>/8/5&(0/(#)8>N&/5#/9(/5&.#$ Q-&$ .*'7/&)$ #($ .&0.-1*($ (-'s/&Q-#G$ eG3p$D#)$YII$)*(!$0-))&$ %#)$7/*%-."(*."#G$ K/9(.#)$%l0-!/#)$/sO&*()$#!$ /s)#0-W$ %`&(%-)!/&#)$ .&0.*((#.*.0$.#/(#$ .#)$#!$."#/.#$ #($ .#)$ 7*-//0&!$ %9(0'&)#/$ .&Q-s#G$ D&#/$ ."*&WG$ eG35$ D#)$ YII$ #!$ 70/1.-/)-)$ %#)$ s!08./5/$.#)$0-$)#&($ %#$ !*-)$.&x/#'#(!$ %0()$ .#)$#!$ 7/*'*-2*&/$ 0&()&$ .#)$ 6CE$ .#$ 70))0O#$ |$ .#)$ 7/*+#))&*((#.0$2&)&8&.!-/#."#/.#$ 7/*O/0''#$ +0))#$ %-$ %s2#.!-/0.$Q-#$ %-$ )#./*N#(!/#7/&)#)$ (#$ %&)7*)#(!$ 70)$ %`-(#$ &(+*/'01*($ )-r)0(!#$ )-/$ .12&!s)$ %`-(#$ /sO&*($%*((s#$ |$ .*O&Q-#G$ E.#$ %#)$ 7.#)$%#$ .&..0$ 2&#$ #)!$ ./s012#)$ #($ E-/*7#G$ $ C&#-W$ .#)$ .0$ Q-#)1*(A$ *($.#)G$ D#)$ /sO&*()$ %#2/0&#(!$ 7/*'*-2*&/$ ."s$ #($ '#a0(!$ #($ 7."0(O#$ %#$ 8*((#)$ 7/01Q-#)$ )-/$ %#)$ Q-#)1*()$ %`*/%/#$ !#.!-/#.!0(!$ .G$D0$ +*/'01*($ 0-W$ LYI$%#2/0&!$ ~!/#$ &(.0."#$ 077."(*.*(!/&8-#/0&!$ 0-))&$ |$ '#a/#$ |$ ^*-/$ .#)$ 077/#(1))0O#)$ .(0G155)E"D)5( 5)5(&/#45)%)61O$/ eG3h$ <S($ %#$ )1'-.0$/#.!#-/$ 7-8.*(.&#-$ %#$ !/020&.!#-/$ 7/&2sA$ 9$..`s%-.l:E$ %0()$ .#)$ 6CE$ .0$.*((0ƒ!/#$ .#$ %#)$ .|$ %#$ .`-(#$ %#$ )#)$7/&*/&!s)$#!$ )*-1#((#$ .*()!0!#$ !*-^*-/)$-($ '0(Q-#$ %l&(!sO/01*($ %#$ .0$ +*/'01*($ |$ .#))&2#G$I#.#.&))#'#(!)$0/1)1Q-#)$0S($ %l#(.#A$ .#))-)$%#$ /#.s%s)$!97&Q-#)$%#)$ YIIA$ .!-/#.0$ %sS(&1*($%#$ .ls./#)88"50"D)59(.0.*77#'#(!$%#$ .&)0(!$ %#)$ +*(%)$ 7*-/$ .$ #-/*7s#($ 7*-//0&!$ )#/2&/$ |$ /#(+*/.!#-/$.0$ 7/*'*1*($%#$ .0$ /s2*.#/$ ./#012#$&(%-)!/&#)$ $ $ $ 4i ..#/$ .!#-/)$ %#$ )02*&/$ 70/$ .0$ .l#(!/#7/#(#-/&0!$ .0%/#$ %#$ .-.1"&(#)88/(*"#&/$.l#(!/#7/#(#-/&0!A$.&!s)$%l&((*201*($ %#)$ /sO&*()G$D#)$ -(&2#/)&!s)$ %#$ ).#)$ #(!/#7/&)#)$ %#)$ YII$ #!$ .#.#)$%0()$ .1"%/9 eG3e$Y.l077/#(1))0O#$ )-/$ .x)$ '&(&'0."#$%#$(*-2#0-W$!0.#)$/xO./s012#)$7*-//0&#(!$ #W7*)#/$.#)$ .`#(!/#7/#(#-/&0!A$ 9$.&!#/$ .0$ +*/'01*($ |$ .#$ )!0!-!$ %#$ PHJ$ $|$ ..*'7/&)$ ./%"DE/9("$(0NE/%)>>/8/5&( 0/( %G/5&.-.#)$+*/'#)$%l&((*201*(A$ !0(!$ %-$)#.l&'7*/!0(.$ 0-$ '0/.#$ 7*!#(1#.$ &((*20(!$ %#)$ YII$ #!$ %#$ %s2#.ls%-./s012&!s$*-$#(.*8#/$ !*-!#)$.-.#)$ &()1!-1*()$ %#$ /#.*()*''0!#-/)$ -(#$ 2s/&!08.*''#/.#$ %&2#/)&!s$..#$ 7/*O/0''#$ 7*-/$ .*(.$ .&!$Os(s/0.#)$ #!$ .#$ 077.s#$ %0()$ ..-.*O&Q-#A$ &."#/.#$ 7*!#(1#.0(0-W$ %#$ %&)!/&8-1*(A$ 9$ .0$ 7*-//0&!$ 7#/'#a/#$ |$!*-)$.0$ 7/*.#-/$ /sO&*($ '0&)$0-))&$ 0-N%#.$ #)!$ )-OOs/s$ Q-#$ .*(.#)$ .*/#$.`#(!/#7/#(#-/&0!$ %0()$ .*.!-/#.#$%#)&O($*-$.*''#$.*77#/$ .$ 9$ 0$ -($%sS./5/$.0!#+*/'#)$ *•$ ...#)$0.$ .*O&Q-#$ #!$ (*($ !#.!#-/)$ %#)$ YIIG$E($ %s7&!$ %#$ .-)#$ *-$ /#(+*/./#)88"50"D)59(.&70.#N.&#-W$ #($.*'7s!#(.#$ 0-W$ ./s012&!s$ .%`0%07!#/$ .#$ 7/s.-//#(.&Q-s#$ .&8#/!s$%#$.l&((*201*($ 7/*+#))&*((#.!#-/)$.0$ %&))s'&(01*($ %#$ ..$|$ .!s/&)1Q-#)$ %#)$ YII$ 0S($ %ls2&!#/$ !*-!#$ .*-/0O#/$ -($ 0.&!s$ %#)$YII$/sO&*(0.#)G$ K/9(.*-/0O#/$ .*((0&))0(.*&$ %0()$ .$ &()!/-'#(!$ %#$ .&O(#A$ #!$ %`*_/&/$ 0-W$ ."#$ #!$ %l&((*201*($ 0S($ %l9$ #(O./>.*''#$ '*!#-/$ %l&((*201*($ (*($ !#.#$ .&#(.#)$ &(+*/'01*()$ 0-$ '*9#($%#$ /s)#0-W$/sO&*(0-WG$D#)$/sO&*()$7#-2#(!$ )#/2&/$ %#$ 7.`#()#'8."#/.#$ 8-!$ %#$ +0.#$ 7/&(.070.08*/01+$ #(!/#$ &()1!-1*()$ %#$ .01*(G$ Y.#)$)#.x)$'&(&'0.*'7/&)$%0()$.#$ %*'0&(#$ %#$ .#$0&()&$Q-`-(#$2/0&#$.#)$ 0.l#()#&O(#'#(!$ 0/1)1Q-#G$ J*!s$ %`-($ 8-%O#!$ %#$ wh$ '&.-.#$ .#)$ .-.0$/#.0/O&/$ .#)$ %#)$ 6CE$ %#$ .0$ +*/'01*($ #!$ %#$ .."#$ 077.$ %`&((*201*($ %#)$YII$ #!$ %#$ ..0$ 2&#$ 0.#)$ #(!/#7/#(#-/&0."s#A$ #!$ %#$ /#.&#/$ ./>.0/0.0(0.&)s$ %#$ .#/!0&()$7/*.l&((*201*($ %&!#$ z$)*m$ {$ $*-$.#-/)$7/*%-&!)$#!$ )#/2&.*&!#/$ .#)$ YIIA$ 70/$ #W#'7.*(2&#(%/0&!$ %`s.&.01*($ !*-!$ 0-$ .l#'7."#/.0!#+*/'#)$7*-/$ .#$ !/020&.#$ 8&0&)$%#$ 7/*.&0/%)$ 7*-/$ ..#)$*77*/!-(&!s)$."(*.#(!)G$ !"#$!"#$!%$!"!&$'()$%&'#()&*($*+$!"#$.#)$ *77*/!-(&!s)$ *_#/!#)$ 70/$ .#)$ '&.0$ 7s/&*%#$ 4ffhN4f35A$ ."0&(#$ /s2&)&*($ %#$ .&1Q-#$ %#$ /#./s01+)$ %0()$ .#$)#..*'7s!#(.&x/#'#(!$ .-/)-)$ %l#()#&O(#'#(!A$ #!$ 70/1.l&((*201*($ %0()$ .-.12#$ 70/$ .#)$ 7*-//0&#(!$ #(.)$%`02*&/$-($0.*(O$ %#$ .

#)$#(!/#7/#(#-/)$.#$ %#$ 7/*S!#/$ 0-$ /#)!#$ %#$ .#)$7/*7/&s!0&/#)$%#$ %/*&!)$!*-!$ #($ O0/0(1))0(!$ -(#$.&!s$0&)s#G$ eG3g$D0$ /s2*.&*/#/$ .!-/#.#.`s%-.#)$ YIIA$ &.0$ 7/*!#.x)$%#)$6CE$ 0-W$ &()!/-'#(!)$%#$ .l-1.&#/$ 0-W$6CEA$ 0S($%#$/#(+*/.#G$Y.#/$ .#)$&(!#/%&).-1*()$.0$ .#$ 0&()&$ Q-#$ .1N&N(15&/%%/#&$/%%/ eG3i$Dl:E$ %#2/0&!$ 0's.&)01*($%#)$*-1.#a#$ s!-%#$#)!$.#$ /#."(*.0$ 7/*%-.*.-1*($(-'s/&Q-#$ )`0.#))&!#$ -(#$ .1*($ %-$ %/*&!$ %#$ 7/*7/&s!s$ &(!#.#)$ .$0(%$.&!sA$ .)$ %s7#(%#(!$ +*/!#'#(!$ %#$ .0($ %#$ ."#/$ 0-$ (&2#0-$ #-/*7s#($ %#)$)*./%"DE/9("$(9)$D/5("$H(159&.&..12&!s$ #(!/#7/#(#-/&0.&SQ-#)$%#2/0&#(!$ ~!/#$ 0..!-/0.#)$ 0&%#/$ |$ #($ 1/#/$ 7/*S!G$ J#)$ +*(%)$ )7s.#$ 7.#.#-/$ 077*/!#/$ -($ )*-1#($ 077/*7/&s$ 7*-/$ .$ #)!$ (s.*(*'&#G$ <S($ %#$ )*-!#(&/$ .&)01*($ %#$ /s)#0-W$ %0()$ %#)$ #(2&/*((#'#(!)$ !/x)$ &((*20(!)$.08*/01*()$ #!$ .0/0..l*/O0(&)01*(A$ %-$)-77*/!$ %#$ .#)$ /s)#0-WG$$ !"#$!"#$!%$!"!&$'()$%&'#()&*($*+$!"#$..*.#-/$ -1.*-s)$0-W$ YIIA$ #($70/1.*O&Q-#$ )-).)>.#/!0&(#$n#W&8&.$ .*(2&#(!$ %*(.*(2&#(%/0&!$ %#$ /#.ls."#/.$ .*'7#()#/$ .0$ 7/*7/&s!s$ &(!#.#-/)$*7s/01*()$ *-$ %#$ .&!s$#!$-(#$077../s012#)$7#/'#a0(!$%#$ /s.-.&(0&/#)$ Q-&$ 7#-2#(!$ 0-))&$ ~!/#$ -($'*!#-/$ %`&((*201*($(*($ !#.-.#))0&/#$ %#$ .!-#.$8#)*&($%#$ (*-#/$ %#)$+*/'#)$%#$ .01*($ 0-W$ 's%&0)$#!$./s01+)$ #!$ .0($%#$ .$8/5&9(0/(%"(>.-)&*()$%#$ .-1*()$|$/&)Q-#$ 0&()&$ Q-#$ %#)$.`-1.$ .#/!0&(#$ n#W&8&.$ %#$ +02*/&)#/$ .*(!#W!#$ (s..*'70O(#$ 7*-/$ ./#)88"50"D)59(.08*/01*($ )-/$ .#)$YII$%`*77*/!-(&!s)$ #!$ %#$ %sS)$ (*-2#0-W$ #!$&.08&.#2sG$D#)$6CE$ %#$ ..K/9(.!-#.#718.*()!0!01*($Q-#$ ..#)$&(%-)!/&#)$*(!$%*(..)$(-'s/&Q-#)$0-$)#&($%#)$#(!/#7/&)#)G$ eG4f$Dl-(#$ %#)$O/0(%#)$.*77#/$ -(#$ 0.l0..1*(G$ Js2#.*-/)$ |$ %#)$)*.!s/&)s)$70/$ -($(&2#0-$%#$ /&)Q-#$ s.*'7s!#(.-.&)01*(G$ Dl#(2&/*((#'#(!$ (-'s/&Q-#$ )`#)!$ !/0%-&!$ 70/$ %#$ (*-2#0-W$ %sS)$ )-/$ .#$ %0()$ -($ !#.*(./#012#$&(%-)!/&#)$ $ $ $ 4g .#$ 7.&7.

-.!"#$!"#$!%$!"!&$'()$%&'#()&*($*+$!"#$.!-/0.$0(%$./#012#$&(%-)!/&#)$ $ $ $ 5f .

#($-(%$F/#012#($Y(%-)!/&#( !"#$!"#$!%$!"!&$'()$%&'#()&*($*+$!"#$.J&#$&"#!$"!-9!$'24-!*J&'#()&*($%#/$ F-.-./#012#$&(%-)!/&#)$ $ $ $ 53 .$0(%$..!-/#.!-/0.

&.!-%&#A$ 8#0-m/0O!$ 2*($ %#/$ E-/*7ˆ&)."$ 0."#$ Y((*201*(#($ +Œ/$ 6/*%-F!#$ -(%$ 6/*[#))#$ '&!#&([-8#[&#"#(A$B0)$[-$#&(#/$\#/8#))#/-(O$%#/$$E/S(%-(O)F/0m$&($E-/*70$+Œ"/!G 3G3$ J0)$ ]&#."#$ %#/$ F/#012#($ -(%$ F-.-(O)7"0)#($%#/$^#B#&.&.&)&#/-(O$ [-$ 7/*S1#/#(G$ 3G4$ J&#)#$ .1'-."$ 8&#!#(%#($ C‹O.O#'#&(#($L/#(%$[-/$ J&O&!0.&O#($:(!#/(#"'#($8#/Œ.#$ >#/0-)+*/%#/-(O#($&%#(1S[&#/!A$ B#..O#'#&(OŒ.!-/$ -(%$%#/$ ?/#012&!ˆ!A$ *%#/$8#))#/$ %&#$ %#/$ ‰F-.&."F#&!#($ #&(#/$ E-/*7ˆ&)."#($Z&((#('0/F!#)$ -(%$ %#'$ 0.."#($ ‰F/#012#($ V&/!).!-/N80)&#/!#($?/#012&!ˆ!ŠA$ "0!$ )#"/$ 2&#.)$0-."!$ [-$ 8&#!#(A$ )*(%#/($ #)$ O&.$ 2#/)!0(%#(A$ )*(%#/($ &($ #&(#'$ 2&#."/&aA$ -'$ 0-."&#%.."#$ %&#$ :(!#/(#"'#($ &($%#/$ ??Y$%02*($08"0.)!ˆ(%&)."0m)[B#&O[-!/&_!G$ EO0..-(O#($ %&#)#/$ Z#!/&#8#$ 8##&(n-))#(G$ <-•#/%#'$2#/'&a#.."#($ E(!B&.&.)$ .")7#[&S)..&.$ <-+'#/F)0'F#&!$ "&()&.O#'#&(#$-(%$ 8#/-n&.01*($ %#/$ Y((*201*($ 8#).#$ >#/0(O#"#()B#&)#($ +Œ/$ #&($ +‹/%#/.!-%&#$ 8#)."1O!$ C(2*D$!(/0!*E"#!$"!-9!$#&9 4Gf$Z&)$^#![!$#W&)1#/!$(*."!#$0($O#&)1O#'$E&O#(!-'A$ 0.%$0.")#(%#$ Z#%#-!-(O$ %#/$ F/#012#($ V&/!)."."#$ Z&."$F#&(#$ 0.F."#($ R*/!).!-%&#$#&($\#/)!ˆ(%(&)$%#/$ '0•O#8."$ #&(&OA$ &(B&#B#&!$ %&#)#$ J#S(&1*($ &'$ Z#[-O$ 0-+$ %#($ F-."1O!$ (01*(0."#($R0F!*/#(A$ %&#$ $%&#$."/#&8#($ -(%$ (*."#($ ?*''&))&*(A$ #(!"Œ."$)7#[&S)."!.&1F$ )*B&#$ %#/$ -(!#/(#"'#/&).#($ -(%$ F/#012#($ Y(%-)!/&#($ -(%$ 8#/Œ.#$ R0F!*/#(A$ B#."&#%#A$ %&#$ -(!#/)."!N!#."#($ #&(#($ 8#0.."/#&8!$ %&#$ >0-7!F/&!#/&#($ %#/$ F-.!-/#."$ %#/$ .[-)0''#(+0))-(O A&2(99!"-("B 3Gf$J&#$ Z#%#-!-(O$%#/$?-.#O#($ -(%$ D‹)-(O)2*/).!-/#.)$ /&)&F*!/0O+ˆ"&OA$ -(!#/(#"'-(O)O/Œ(%-(O)+ˆ"&O$ *%#/$ 0-.#$ %0/O#)!#.$ O/‹•#/#($ ]-)0''#("0(OT$ J&#$ F-.-(O#($ *_#([-.-.-(O#($+Œ/$ ^#%#($&(%&2&%-#.#($ -(%$ F/#012#($ V&/!).!ˆ/F-(O$ -(%$ )&.#'8#/#&."(*."1O!A$ #&(#$ [-)0''#(+0))#(%#$ Ž8#/)&.!-%&#$ &)!$ #)A$ #&(#$ 2#/8#))#/!#$ V0"/(#"'-(O$ -(%$ #&($ \#/)!ˆ(%(&)$ +Œ/$ %&#$ <-+O08#($ -(%$ Z#%Œ/+(&))#$ 2*($ :(!#/(#"'#($ &((#/"0.8$ %#/$ ??YA$ )7#[&#.#($ %#)$ #-/*7ˆ&).%-(OA$ Y((*201*($ *%#/$ F*."#$ %&#$ E(!B&.#&(#($ -(%$ '&a#.."0m."$ (&."F#&!#(A$ C0/F!#&(!/&a)80//&#/#($P#..!#($F‹((!#(A$ 2*($ %#($ \*/!#&."!.&."#$ E'7+#"..!$ %&#$ B0.!$ 6/*8."#$ %0[-$ 8#&!/0O#($ F‹((#(A$ E-/*70)$ %#/[#&1O#$ -(%$ $ [-FŒ(m&O#$ 6/*8.‹)#(G$ $.$ O#(#/#..#($ Y(%-)!/&#$ Z#&)7&#.*O&).!-%&#$ )*B*"."#/$ *%#/$ B&))#().F)&."#($ :(!#/).!-/N$ -(%$ ?/#012B&/!)."0_#(G$ E)$ &)!$ (&."&#%.#'#$ [-$ .&."!$ '#"/$ (-/$ 0.&.!-/0.08*/012#$ 6/*[#))#G$ <-)O#"#(%$ 2*($ %&#)#($ >#/0-)+*/%#/-(O#($ B&/%$ %&#)#$ .*$ B#/%#($ )7#[&#.#$ %#/$ F-..&.#($R0F!*/$#/0/8#&!#(G$J&#)$O0/0(1#/!$ %&#$ 8#)!'‹O..)$ !#."!$ 8#08)&.&.!G$ ..."#$ :(!#/)!Œ![-(O$ +Œ/$ :(!#/(#"'#($&($%#($??YA$ %0$ %&#)#/$ <()0![$%&#$ +0.."0mA$ &()8#)*(%#/#$ %&#$ %#/$ P*.ˆO#$ [-$#/8/&(O#(G$>&#/+Œ/$ B#/%#($-(!#/)..$ B&#A$ B#(($ '0($ %#($#(*/'#($ Z#&!/0O$ %#)$ !"#$!"#$!%$!"!&$'()$%&'#()&*($*+$!"#$."(*."$ B#(&O#/$ &)!$ '0($ )&."0mŠ$ O#B*((#(G$ J&#)#$ .#')!#.O#O#(Bˆ/1O#$6/*8...#($ -(%$ F/#012#($ Y(%-)!/&#($ #/'‹O.$0(%$."#)$ :'+#."#$ 0.F..1O#$ J#S(&1*($2*($:(!#/(#"'#/!-'G$$C0($F0(($#)$0."#/$ V0(%#.!$%&#)#$ .&."0m$ 8##&(n-))#(A$ B&#$ [GZG$ %#/$ ]-O0(O$ [-$ R&(0([&#/-(O)'‹O.$ %&#)#/$ .!-/#."#($ E8#(#($ %#/$ RŒ"/-(O)7*.!-/#.F)&."#($ :(!#/(#"'#($ =?C:@A$ [-$ ).#($ -(%$ F/#012#($ Y(%-)!/&#($ =??Y@A$ B#.*$ B&/%$Y((*201*($ "#-![-!0O#$ (&..*O&).!-/#./#012#$&(%-)!/&#)$ $ $ $ 54 .$ %&#$ %#/$ F.!ˆ/F-(O$ %#)$ :(!#/(#"'#/!-')$ %#/$ ?-.

0OO#8#(%$ +Œ/$ %&#$ E/+*."0m)[B#&O#)$ &($ Z#[-O$ 0-+$ %0)$ ZY6)$ &($ %#($ L#&.!-/G 4G4$ ??Y$ :(!#/(#"'#(A$ )7#[&#.0(."F#((!(&))#$ +#".."#($ E(!)."!A$ %&#)#$ 8#&%#($ V#."#($ %#/$ "#/F‹''.#($ <)7#F!$ 0))*[&&#/!$ B&/%A$ 0()!#."$-'$ 0.!$ )&."#$ Rˆ"&OF#&!#(A$ C0/F!8#%&(O-(O#(c?*(^-(F!-/."#&%#(G$ 4Ge$ J#/$ Z#O/&_$ ‰:(!#/(#"'#/Š$ B&/%$&($ %#/$ F-.."/#&8#(A$ )*$ O#8#($ 0-."#($ %#/$ F/#012&!ˆ!)8#[*O#(#($ <-)Œ8-(O$ -(%$ %#/$ F*''#/[&#.&1F#(G 4Gk$ K#(0-$ B&#$ ?Œ()!."&#%#(#($:(!#/(#"'#($ B&#%#/G$J08#&$ "0(%#.L<L$ :(!#/(#"'#/!-'$ Y(%&F01*()7/*^#F!$ "0!$ )#.."!$ #&(+0.#($ Z/0(..!-/#.$ 2*.#($]-)0''#()."$ &($ %#/$ 8/#&!#($ <(O#8*!)70.")$ Z#/#&.#($ <-)%/-..1N(01*(0.#&.#($ V#/!#(G$<(%#/#/)#&!)$&)!$%0)$?."#($ </!#($2*($:(!#/(#"'#($ N$2*($'-."#$ P0"'#(8#%&(O-(O#($ -(%$ %&#$ -(!#/(#"'#/&).#$ -(%$ F/#012#$ :(!#/(#"'#(G$$.-(OA$ -(!#/(#"'#/&)."0m)[B#&O$ &($ )#&(#/$ <-)Œ8-(O$ -(!#/)!Œ![#($ $ *%#/$ 8#"&(%#/(G$ J0)$ bEIJcE:Pb.Œ))#($8&)$"&($[-$Z/0(."‹7+#($[-$F‹((#(G$J#/$Z#O/&_$ F-.#/$ ).F#(A$ B*"&(O#O#($ %#/$ :(!#/(#"'#/$ %#($ $ B&/!)."##$ %#)$?Œ()!."$0F[#71#/!A$ %0$ %&#)#/$ Œ8#/'ˆ•&O$ '&!$ %#'$ S(0([&#.."#$ %&#)#$ 2*'$ ‰O#'#&(#(Š$ :(!#/(#"'#/!-'$ -(!#/)..$ &"'$ %&#$ (‹1O#($ S(0([&#..-''#/(%#($ -(!#/(#"'#/&).!$ -(%$ O..."#$ 0-))."*($ 2*'$ :/)7/-(O$ "#/$ ‰F-..#$ '‹O.&1F$ -(%$ F-."#$ 6/&([&7&#($ (-![!A$ -'$ %&#)#$ F/#012#($ <F12&!ˆ!#($ &($#&(#/$ F*''#/[&#.#$ F-.-."-(O$ -(%$ E(!B&."#$ E&O#().#(A$ A8#&$ B&/!).!-/#..!)8#[*O#($0."0m)7*.*O&#A$ R*/).70((-(O#($ [B&).O#'#&(#($&($ )#"/$F."#$?-.#$ [B&).!$#)$)&."#($F/#012$ Lˆ1O#($ $ -(%$ :(!#/(#"'#/($ &)!$ !97&)."B#/1O$ 0()&#"!A$ #/F#((!$ '0(A$ %0))$ '0($ 8#&%#)$ F*'8&(&#/#($'-))$-'$%0)$ F/#012#$ 6*!#(10.&.F."#$ K#&)!#)A$ )*B&#$ %0)$ F/#012#$ 6*!#(10.#/%&(O)$ &)!$ #)$ (&.F)&.'ˆ•&O$ -(!#/$ )7#[&#."#$ &%#(1S[&#/!A$ B#..!-/0."."$ :(!#/(#"'#/$ (-/$ B&%#/B&.+ˆ."1OF#&!G 4G3$ Y($ %&#)#'$ ]-)0''#("0(O$ )!#..."$*m$%-/."#($ <)7#F!$ Œ8#/$ %#($F-.&."#(A$&($B#.."$%#))#($Z#%#-!-(O$-(%$V&.!-/#.$ $ #&(#)$ :(!#/(#"'#/)G 4Gp$ .#($V#/!$)!#.1OF#&!$ $ %#/$ F-.F)7/*[#))$ [-$ 8#)..!-/#.!-/#.!#(A$ %0$ )&."$%#)$?Œ()!.."#&%-(O$-(%$ :(!#/!#&.#/)A$ %#/$ (&.".O)Q-*!#$ )&(%G$ J&#)#$ )&(%T$ ]-O0(O$ [-$ ?07&!0.A$ L#.."$ !"#$!"#$!%$!"!&$'()$%&'#()&*($*+$!"#$."#(A$%&#$%-/.&#$ #/O#8#($$)&.#($ -(%$ )*[&0.)$ ^#'0(%$ 2#/)!0(%#($ B#/%#(A$ %#/$ F/#012#$ *%#/$ &((*2012#$ 6/*%-F!#$ *%#/$ J&#()!#$ #(!B&../#012#$&(%-)!/&#)$ $ $ $ 55 ."!$[&#"!A$*_#(80/!$)&...!G 1'B!"24-(F!" 4Gh$ J&#$ \&#.#&.0O#A$ /#.."#$ R0F!*/#($ %&#)#($ V&/!).&.&).#($ </!$ -(%$ V#&)#$ [-$ */O0(&)&#/#($ -(%$ 0-)[-Œ8#(G$ <.&1)."#&%#!G$ .!-/#.#($ :(!#/(#"'#/7*.F-."$ %&#$ R/0O#A$ B#..#($ V#O$ %#/$ Y((*201*()O#B&((-(O$ 8#F0((!G$ Y(%#'$ '0($ 8#&%#$ 6/*[#))#$ 0.#&(#($?C:$='&F/*N?C:@$0-+$%#/$Z0)&)$2*($7#/'0(#(!#($M#![B#/F#($0O&#/#(G 4G5$ E&($ F-.-(O$ [B&)."1O-(O$ %#)$ &($ #&(#'$ ?Œ()!."(*.&O$ &"/#($ &(%&2&%-#.#($ -(%$ F/#012#($ V&/!)."#&%-(O)!/ˆO#/($ &''#/$ (*."0m#(A$ B#.#($ R0.)$ O.(#"'#/)!00!#($ &($ Z#!/0."[#&1O$ -(!#/(#"'#/&)..#/$ -(%$ F/#012#/$ :(!#/(#"'#/$ F0(($ 0.."!-(O$ [-$ "0..&.!#($ [-$ 2#/#&(#(T$ %&#$ Z#/Œ.&."$ :(!#/(#"'#/$ )!0/F$ &($ &"/#($ C*1201*(#($-(%$Z/0(."#($ :(!#/(#"'#/7*.$ 0-)).!-/#.!-/#.#($ -(%$ F/#012#($ Y(%-)!/&#$ )7&#O#.#($ C0/F!8#%&(O-(O#(A$ )&#$ 7/*%-[&#/#($ KŒ!#/A$ %&#$ )."0m."$+Œ/$ 2&#.!-/#.*$ 0/8#&!#($ %&#)#$ /#O#.#/$ "ˆ-SO$ [‹O#/(A$ &"/#($ &(%&2&%-#.".$0(%$..!-/#.)$ '0/F*/&#(1#/!$ 2*/O#"#($-(%$&'$<.."$ B#&!$ 2#/8/#&!#!G$J&#)$ $8##&(n-))!$ )*'&!$ %&#$ :(!#/)."!$&($ %#/$ D0O#$ &)!A$ )#&($:(!#/(#"'#($ [-$ '0(0O#(A$ B#&.!$ )&."A$ %&#$ Z0.#($ <-)/&."#($)&#$!ˆ1O$)&(%A$-(!#/)."$%#($V-().#$-(%$ F/#012#$ :(!#/(#"'#($ 2#/)-.Š$ )&(%A$ )&#$ 0/8#&!#($'&!$6#/)*(#(A$ %&#$ #"#/$ &("0.!-/#.#$ 2*($ F-..$ ?C:A$ "08#($ )7#[&S).#a#$ %#/$ 2#/)."#$ (-/$ [‹O#/.F#."!.#($V#/!$ &($ %#($ \*/%#/O/-(%$ [-$ /Œ.#/)A$ %#($F-..

$ 2*($ B#(&O#/$ 0.!/0!#O&#($0(B#(%#(A$ %&#$ 0($ &"/#$ O#/&(O#$K/‹•#$0(O#70))!A$ "*.!-/#."#$ R0.1O#$V0."Š$ [B&)."(#.#$ .")$ B&/%$&'$ P0"'#($ %&#)#/$ \#/ˆ(%#/-(O#($ 0F12$ (#-$ O#)!0.#/#($ ?*''-(&F01*()F0(ˆ.$ %#/$ K#)0'!#&((0"'#($8#&)!#-#/(A$ &)!$ #)$ (&.!01)1F#($ 8#)!ˆ1O#($ #&(#$ B&.#($ )&(%$ #)$ %&#$ ?C:$ %#/$ F-."ˆm&O!#($ 2#/+ŒO#(G$ L0!)ˆ.-.#a#$ -(%$J&#()!#$ 0([-8&#!#(G$ J&#$ !/0%&1*(#."!$ [-$ #W&)1#/#(G$ :(!#/$ Z#/Œ.)$ eft$ %#)$ X0"/#)-')0![#)$0-)G$J&#)#$ .&."0(..#($ 0-)O#."$ "‹"#/#($ <(!#&."0mA$ B&/%$ "ˆ-SO$ %&#$ ‰+#".!-/N$ -(%$ ?/#012B&/!)."1O-(O$ %#/$ )!01)1).09#/)Š$ [-$ O#B&((#(G$ E&(#$ O#/&(O#$ <([0"."#/#$ >0.#&(#/#$ :(!#/(#"'#($(#&O#($ %0[-A$ #&(#$ n#W&8.)$ 3tA$ 08#/$ )&#$ '0.!#!$ -(%$ &($ 2&#./#012#$&(%-)!/&#)$ $ $ $ 5e ."$ O&8!$ #)$ $&((#/"0."&#%."!$ %#($ V0.#W&8&.#($ 6/*^#F!#$ 0(O#(*''#($ *%#/$ %#/$ ]-)0''#().&.!#G 4Gg$ J&#$ <([0".&.#($ Rˆ.$ 2*($ K/*•8#!/&#8#($ 2#/+ŒO!$ Œ8#/$ %&#$ $ Y(+/0)!/-F!-/A$ %&#$ %&#$ V#&!#/#(!B&."0mA$ %&#$ \#/8&(%-(O$ 2*($ K/‹•#$ -(%$ ]-)0''#()#![-(O$ %#/$ ?-.#'$ +Œ/$ F.#($ 6/*%-F!B#/!).#."$ %#($ \#/!#&.)$ 3f$ Z#).#(%#$ C&a#Š$ O#(0((!T$ C&a#.."#$ R*/!).#&(#/#$ :(!#/(#"'#(A$ 0-)$ %#/$ #/)!#($ Y(&1012#$ [-$ #&(#'$ '&a.!/#--(O$ 2*($ O/*•#($ -(%$ F.-(O$ -(%$%&#$ !/0%&1*(#.#($#&([-(#"'#(G$."ˆm&O!#(@$ #&(#($%#-!.")!-')7#/)7#F12#$ +Œ/$ #&($ :(!#/(#"'#($ [-$ 8&#!#(G$ ?."#($ \#/8#))#/-(O#($ 8&#!#($ (#-#$ C‹O.."(*.""0."#&(#($ +0)!$ O0/$ (&."#&%#(#($ 6/*[#(!)0![$ %#)$ K#)0'!-')0![#)$ %#/$ ??Y$ /#7/ˆ)#(!012$ =3it@G$ J&#$ '#&)!#($ C&F/*N ?C:$"08#($)*O0/$(-/$#&(#($$8&)$%/#&$$<(O#)!#.$ %#/$ K/*•8#!/&#8#$ &)!$ O#/&(O#/$ 0."O#+Œ"/!#($ Z#+/0O-(OA$ #W&)1#/!$ #&($ B#)#(!."#A$8#&$%#($\#/.#&."#($ Z#*80.*O&).*$B#/%#($ P#))*-/.#/%&(O)$ F#&(#$ %&/#F!#$ V0.!$ )*$ 2&#.&)&#/-(O$ 0-.#/#($ :(!#/(#"'#($ [-$ B0.#&)!-(O#($ 2#/ˆ(%#/!G$J#/$ ‰%&O&!0."F#&!#(A$ -'$ #&($ O/‹•#/#)$ -(%$ B#&!$ #(q#/(!#)$6-8."-(O$ -(%$ E(!B&."[#&1O$ %&#$ 6/*8."#)$ 6/*8."‹7+-(O)F#a#$ %#/$ E/)!#.#'01FA$ #&(#($ "‹"#/#($ C0/F!0(!#&."F*'7#!#([$7/*S1#/#($ [-$F‹((#(G 4G34$]-)ˆ![..#&(#/#($ :(!#/(#"'#(A$ &()8#)*(%#/#$&($%#/$.")#(G$ J0)$ ‰D*."$-(%$ /&)&F*8#/#&!$ )&(%A$ -'$'&!$%#($#W&)1#/#(%#($:(!#/(#"'#($F*(F-//&#/#($[-$ F‹((#(A$ %&#$ B#(&O#/$ 0-+$ R.&.0O#($-(%$C#%&#(0(8&#!#/(G$ 4Gi$ J&#$ C#"/"#&!$ %#/$ ??YN:(!#/(#"'#($ O#"‹/!$ 0."$ [-$%#/$ :()&.!/-F!-/$ %#/$ \#/!#&.&.F.."!$2#/B-(%#/.")!-'$ +Œ/$ C&/F*N:(!#/(#"'#($ )."!-(O#($ -(%$ %#/$ %-/.-(O$ %-/."(&).8$ %#/$ ??Y$'#"/$ 0.$0(%$.O/*•#$ :(!#/(#"'#($ )."#(A$ )*B&#$ 0-.!-/#.".8)!)!ˆ(%&O#A$ B&#$ &($ 0(%#/#($V&/!).)$ %*77#.!-/0.-))$ 2*($ -(!#/).&.*mB0/#8/0(."!G$ J&#)$ +#".$ 7."$ R*/).&."A$%0))$%&#)$0-.&!ˆ!$ 0(O#B&#)#($ )&(%G$ G$ J&#$ )!/-F!-/#."A$B#(($%&#$ Œ8#/B&#O#(%#$ C#"/"#&!$%#/$ ??Y$:(!#/(#"'#($C&F/*N :(!#/(#"'#($ )&(%$ ='&!$ #&(#'$ 6#/)*(0."$#&(#$ O/‹•#/#$6/*%-F!70.-(O$ -(%$ %#)$ \#/8/0-.#($ -(%$ F/#012#($Y(%-)!/&#A$%&#$%08#&$0($2*/%#/)!#/$R/*(!$)!#"#(G$G !"#$!"#$!%$!"!&$'()$%&'#()&*($*+$!"#$."1O#$ E/F#((!(&)$%#/$ ??YT$ J0%-/.#($ -(%$ F/#012#($ 6/*%-F!#($ -(%$ J&#()!.!$ %#($ C&F/*N :(!#/(#"'#(A$B0)$B&#%#/-'$%0)$(0.$ 2*($ ?C:$ =[GZG$ </."&!#F!-/A$ C*%#A$ ?-()!"0(%B#/F@$ O#F#(([#&.09#/)Š$ -(%$ %#($ C&F/*N:(!#/(#"'#($ '0.."#($b/O0(&)01*(#($ O#(-![!A$ -'$ 2*($%#/$ F*([#(!/&#/!#($ $R0..F.".)$ kf$Z#)."‹7+-(O)F#a#(G$ J&#$ [-(#"'#(%$ ).#/%&(O)$ [-$ %#/$ ?0!#O*/&#$ %#/$ )#"/$ F.&1F$"0!G 4G3f$ J&#)#$ E&O#()."#$ (-/$ Œ8#/$ #&(#$ O#/&(O#$ <([0"."#&(#($ 0."(#!$ )&(%G$ $ <(%#/#$ B&#%#/-'$ /#7/ˆ)#(1#/#($ #&(#$ 8/#&!#$ .&."$<-)B&/F-(O#($0-+$%&#$6*.$ 2*($ Z#).Š$ 8##&(n-))!$ $ %&#$ .-(O)7/*[#))$ 2*($ F-.$ $ %#/$ ‰)'0.0O#/!A$ 2&#.-(!#/(#"'#/($ *%#/$ C&F/*N?C:A$ B#."ˆm&O!#(@A$ )&(%$ )&#$ (-/$ +Œ/$ #&(#($ 8#)."B&#/&O$ -(%$ #/"‹"!$ O."#/"#&!$ -(%$ %#/$ O/*•#($?*(F-//#([$ "0!$ %#/$ !#."0m)[B#&O#(G$<-.#$ -(%$ !#."F#((!(&))#$ 2*/0-)A$ )."A$ %0))$ %&#$ '#&)!#($ :(!#/(#"'#($ ?C:$ -(%$ C&F/*N:(!#/(#"'#($ )&(%A$ 08#/$ %&#$ O/‹•#/#($ Z#!/&#8#$ ='&!$ '#"/$ 0.#&(#($ :(!#/(#"'#(G$ :(O#+ˆ"/$ ift$ %#/$ :(!#/(#"'#($ %#/$ ??Y$ )&(%$ ?C:$ '&!$ '#"/#/#($ E&([#.#$ V0(%#."$ %9(0'&).&F-'$[-$#//#&."#($ '#"/$ 0.-(O$ #/'‹O."/&a$-(%$ %&#$ J&O&!0.!-(O$ 8#&$ %#/$P#0F1*($0-+$ C0/F!.#($ <(+*/%#/-(O#($ #&(#)$ C&F/*N :(!#/(#"'#($ )#![#($ %9(0'&).")!-'$8#"&(%#/!G$ 4G33$C&F/*N:(!#/(#"'#($'Œ))#($....#$ V#/!)."#($ %#($ ‰8&O$ 7.#&(#($ "*"#($ <(!#&.#/#$ -(%$%9(0'&)..F)&...

"!..#&.#/%&(O)$ F‹((#($ &''0!#/&#."1O-(O$ %#/$ )7#[&#.&.."!$0."!$ &($ Z#/&.#$ :(!#/)!Œ![-(O$ %#/$ F-..#($ ."$B&/%$2*($ %#'$ -(&N.#$ Z#/0!-(O$O#(-![!$"08#(G 5Ge$ E&(#$ E&O#().#)&#* 5G4G$ J0)$ 2&#.&..#$ +Œ/$ ??Y$8&#!#!A$ )*$ %0))$ %&#)#$ 8#)!'‹O..#&.#($ R&/'#(A$ [B&).!-/#.!-/#."$)."#($ %#(#($ #&($ O#O#()#&1O#/$ <-)!0-).*$ 'Œ))#($ )&#$ #(O$ $ '&!$ %#/$ ]&#."$ &($ M#![B#/FNI...!$ 8[BG$0(O#+Œ"/!$ B#/%#(T$ R&(0([&#.!G$ J0%-/."!#($%0/O#)!#.!-/0.0(A$ %#/$ )&.*$ F*((!#($ F#&(#$ (01*(0.$ #&($O/-(%)ˆ![."F#&!#($+Œ/$ Y"/#$\*/"08#($[-$S(%#(G$J&#)#$ +#"."1O-(O$ %#/$ M*!B#(%&OF#&!A$ 0%'&(&)!/012#$ <-+O08#($ '&!$ %#/$ F/#012#($ </8#&!$ 2#/8&(%#($[-$F‹((#(A$ %0))$hkt$ %#/$ 8#+/0O!#($ :(!#/(#"'#($ %&#)#$ 6.$ $ #/)."#$ %#/$ Y((*201*(A$:(!#/(#"'#/!-'$-(%$%#/$?-.#($ -(%$ F/#012#($ Y(%-)!/&#A$ -(!#/$ Z#/Œ.'#"/$%&#$Y%##$2*($‰'#"/B#/!)..."A$ &($ %#'$ '&!$ P&)&F#($ 8#"0m#!#$ >0(%.-)!#/($ 0/8#&!#(G$ G$ >ˆ-SO$ )!#"#($ $ F-.!-/#..!01)1F#($ [-$ \#/O."#)$6/*8.!-/7*.0($2#/+ŒO#(A$ B*"&(O#O#($ k5t$ &''#/"&($#&(#$ X0"/#)7/*O(*)#$ #/)!#..$ 2#/B#(%#(A$ B0)$ B&#%#/-'$ 8#%#-!#!A$ %0))$ $ #&O#(#$ J0!#($ O#)0''#.$ 2*($ n#W&8.#(%#$ S(0([&#.#$ ?*([#7!$ %#/$ 6/*%-F1*()F#a#$ B&/%$ '&!$ %#/$ :'O#"-(O$ %#/$ ]B&)."!$ O/‹•!#$ >&(%#/(&)$ +Œ/$ :(!#/(#"'#/($ -(%$ :(!#/(#"'#($ %#/$ ??Y$ &)!A$ R‹/%#/-(O)'‹O."$ &($ #&(#'$ Z#/#&.."$&($ %#/$ Z/0(.#$ \#/'‹O#()B#/!#$ B&#$ M#-"#&!A$ Y((*201*(A$ :/"#8#//#.&(#0/#($6/*%-F1*()7/*[#))$ <8)!0(%$ O#(*''#($-(%$ 2&#.1OF#&!$-(%$V0.!#($ *%#/$ C#%&#(&("0.!-%&#$ 0-)O#+Œ"/!#($ Z#+/0O-(O#($&((#/"0."B#/!#$ $ ]-O0(O$ [-$ R&(0([&#/-(O)'&a#.#'$"&()&."0m)7."0_#(A$ B#."(#..#($ 6/*%-F!#(o$ F-.O/-77#$ [-)0''#(0/8#&!#(A$ -'$ L/#(%)$ B0"/[-(#"'#($ *%#/$ +/Œ"[#&1O$ 0-+$ P#0F1*(#($ 2*($ ?ˆ-+#/($&"/#/$#&O#(#($6/*%-F!#$/#0O&#/#($[-$F‹((#(G 4G3e$ Y($ <(8#!/0.$0(%$."!$ %#/$ )7#[&S).!$#)$)&...!$ B#/%#($'-))!#(G E)#%()*+*F)#-2*D$3GD7)">.#$Y()1!-1*(#($B&#$Z0(F#($#/F#((#($%&#)#$*m$(&.8$E-/*70)$%#-!#!#$ )&.."#)$(#-#$ C*%#."0m#($ %#/$ F-.$ -'+0))!$ 0-.#$ -(%$ F/#012#$ :(!#/(#"'#($ &'$ %&/#F!#($ ?*(!0F!$ $ '&!$ \#/8/0-..")!-'$8&#!#!G C'!*G'4-/B2#!"*1$B!H"'22! 5Gf$ :(!#/$ Z#/Œ."#)$ J0!#('*%#.#($ Y("0."."$ 2*($ V#/!#($ 8#)!#"!$ -(%$ %&#$ "0-7!)ˆ.F)&.#$ ??Y$ [-!/&_!A$ &)!$ %#/$ #/).#(G$ <-•#/%#'$ 8#B#O#($ )&#$ )&..&(#$ R/0O#8*O#($ *_#(80/!#A$ %0)$ 44t$ %#/$ ??Y$ Œ8#/$ O0/$ F#&(#($ R&(0([N$ *%#/$ V&/!)."0m)OŒ!#/$0(G !"#$!"#$!%$!"!&$'()$%&'#()&*($*+$!"#$."0_#(%#($•F*)9)!#'#(Š$2#/+*."!$ -(%$?/#012&!ˆ!$ *m$ (&.-(O)B#&)#($ (&.!$ "08#(G$ M-/$ et$ "08#($ #&(#($ R&(0([7.#/$ &($R/0O#$ O#)!#.-(OA$ 'Œ))#($)&.#($ E&O#().&."$ %&#$ Z#/#&./#012#$&(%-)!/&#)$ $ $ $ 5k .8)!$ 0-+O#)!#.!$ -(%$ (-/$ 4ft$ #&(#$ 7/*+#))&*(#.."!$ &''#/$ O#+/0O!$ )&(%A$ %#/$ %0+Œ/$ 08#/$ B#&!#/#$ ?*'7.&."#("ˆ(%."0mA$ %&#$ '#"/$ *%#/$ B#(&O#/$ $ 0-+$ 0.4G35$ J0)$ !/0%&1*(#."ˆ/mG 5G5$ J&#$ '#&)!#($ 8#+/0O!#($ ??Y$"08#($ #&(#($ R&(0([7..0($ +Œ/$ %&#$ F*''#(%#($ k$ X0"/#G$ J0[-$ F*''!A$ -(!#/$ Z#/Œ.&1FG 5G3$<("0(%$ %#/$ +Œ/$ %&#)#$ ."$ (-/$ Œ8#/$ #&(#$ F-/[#$ ]#&!)70((#$ #/)!/#.."1O-(O$ %#/$ K/‹•#A$ ]-)0''#()#![-(O$ -(%$6/*%-F!"#/)!#.#($-(%$F/#012#($Y(%-)!/&#$B-/%#$%-/...#$ %#/$]-)0''#(0/8#&!$ -(%$V#a8#B#/8)2*/!#&.F)&..ˆ(#$ )#."#($ E&O#().(A$ %0$ '0($)&.F)&."$%&#$^Œ(O)!#$R&(0([F/&)#$B#&!#/$2#/).O!G$$J08#&$"0(%#.&.#($ >#/0-)+*/%#/-(O#($ )!#."$-'$%0)$ ]-)0''#()7&#..&F01*(#($ 0-+$ %#($V#O$[-/$M0..!-/#."#$ *m$ 0-+$&''0!#/&#.-."0m#($ %#/$ ??YA$ B-/%#$ #&($ P0"'#('*%#.F#($ O#(-![!$ B#/%#(A$ %0$ %&#)#$ F#&($ #&("#&!.")[B#."$ -(!#/)!Œ![!$ B#/%#(G$ J&#)#)$ C*%#.)$V&/!).&."$%&#$ ??Y$2&#.#$ V#/!#$ 8#/-mG$ J#/$ F/#012#$ :(!#/(#"'#/$ F*'8&(&#/!$ F*(F/#!#$ Y(+*/'01*(#($ '&!$ &''0!#/&#."$%#/$ F*()&)!#(!#($J0!#(O#B&((-(O$&'$Z#[-O$0-+$%&#$ ??Y$0(G$ ."#/($ &G$ .!#(G$ $ <.F!G$ J#/$ *(.""0..

"#($-(%$*m$ -(O."!$ +0."$ "ˆ-SO$ #/)!$0-+$ .-(O)7"0)#($ %#/$ #&O#(!.O)O0/0(!#($[-$R.*/O#$ 2*($ C&F/*N$ ?C:$ 8#[&#"!$ )&.#($ :(!#/)!Œ![-(O$ B0/G$ <(%#/#$ C&a#..&F2D+*D 5Gg$ $ J#/$ %&/#F!#$ ]-O0(O$ [-'$ C0/F!$ &)!$ #&(#$ M*!B#(%&OF#&!$ -'$ #&($ :(!#/(#"'#($ [-$ O/Œ(%#($-(%$ #&(#$ B#)#(!."Œa-(O$ )7ˆ!#/$ 8#(0.A$ B&#$ &(%&2&%-#..-."#/#$E/+*.#($ F0-'$ &()$ K#B&."$ #&(#)$ :(!#/(#"'#()$[-O#).8$ O/-(%)ˆ![."/#&8-(O#($ (&.!-/0..#$ Y()!/-'#(!#$ "&(O#O#($B-/%#($0.8$ #&(#/$ 6/*%-F1*()N$ 8[BG$ E(!B&.)$#&(#$8#))#/#$\0/&0(!#$%#/$R‹/%#/-(O#($#&(O#)!-mG ."+/0O#)&!-01*($0-)$ G$:(!#/(#"'#($ 'Œ))#($ $-(8#)!ˆ(%&O#$ -(%$ *m$ B#.!-/#."#$ 0-)O#..#$ F‹((#($-(#/B0/!#!#/$V#&)#$ [-$ >&!)$B#/%#($-(%$!*%)&./#&."$B&#$ 2*/$ %&#$ Oˆ(O&O)!#$ $C#!"*%#A$ %&#$ (‹1O#($ S(0([&#.!#-#/O-!)."#$ -(%$7/&20!#$ ]-)."/&m#(A$ .&."F#&!#($ -(%$ %#'$ B#a8#B#/8)*/&#(1#/!#'$ :'+#.&.")!-'$-(%$$M0.-O#($ %&#$ \#/B#(%-(O$ 2*($ .#'#$ !0-."1O)!#($ R*/'$ %#/$ ?C:$ R&(0([&#/-(OG$ 5Gp$ <-+$ K/-(%$ %#/$ R&(0([F/&)#$ -(!#/)!Œ![#($ 0.."#)$ !97&)..."Œ))#$ "08#($#&(#$ #/Oˆ([#(%#$ R-(F1*(A$ B*"&(O#O#($ 0(%#/#$ ‚-#.$ -(%$ Y((*201*()O-!).&#$ )&(%$ *m$ [-$ F*'7."!#($ )&.F.#($ Z/0(.."#&(#$ B-/%#($ 0-.&#8!#)!#$ C&a#.!$%&#$D0(O[#&!7#/)7#F12#G$ 5Gi$ \&#.."!#&."#$\*/0-))#![-(O$+Œ/$ V0."!$ 0-+$ %#($ Z#/#&."#$ V#/!$ %#)$ E(%7/*%-F!#)$ #&(#)$6/*^#F!#)$'&!$ .!-/#..8)!$ "ˆ-SO$ (&.#($V#/!#$ O&(OG$ J&#)$ /#)-."#$ ]-).#($ $ ?#/(-(!#/(#"'#($ &($ %#/$ F-."#$ <-))."$ $ "ˆ-SO$ %-/.%A$ B#.&..".!-/#.&[&#/!A$ (&.$0(%$.#&8#($ %&#$ B&.(%#$ 6/ˆ+#/#([#($ $ 8#/Œ.."!$ %#($ Z#%Œ/+(&))#($ 2*($ :(!#/(#"'#/($ %#/$ F-.&.#$ F-."!$ B#&!$ O#(-O$ #(!B&.&..#$ Œ8#/$ %&#$ R&/'0$ [-$ 2#/."B&#/&OA$ ]-O0(O$ [-$ )!/0!#O&)."#/(GG$•_#(!.#$ -(%$ F/#012#$ :(!#/(#"'#/$ 60/!(#/)."(#!$B#/%#($F0((T$6/*8.)$Y(2#)11*(#($&($ "#/F‹''.&.#"#($ &()O#)0'!$ %0)$ 8#...&.#/%&(O)$ &''#/$ B#(&O#/$ Z0(F#($ /&)&F*8#"0m#!#$ \*/"08#(A$ B&#$ %&#$ %#/$ ??YG$Y(2#)11*(#($ &($%&#$ F-.+-.$ [-/$ S(0([&#.""0.)$ #_#F12#$ R&(0([&#/-(O)-(!#/)!Œ![-(O$ O#(0((!G$ K/‹•#/#$ \#/)!ˆ(%(&)7/*8.#O!A$ 0.&O!$ [-$ B#/%#(G 5Gh$ <-.".5Gk$ b8B*"..$[-$)&.O/*•#($ :(!#/(#"'#($ &)!$ #)$ %#)"0.!-/#."#$ 6/*^#F!#G$G$RŒ/$ %&#$ '&F/*NA$ F.#$ Y(2#)!*/#(A$ P&)&F*F07&!0.O/-77#($ -(%$)&(%$+Œ/$ %&#$ ?C:$ B#&!#)!O#"#(%$ -(O##&O(#!G$ D0-!$ $:'+/0O#$ &)!$ E&O#(S(0([&#/-(O$(0."Œ))#$ %&#$ K/Œ(%-(O$ 2*($ (#-#($ ?C:$ -(%$ %#/#($ </8#&!$ &($ %#/$ <(+0(O)7"0)#$ -(!#/)!Œ![#(A$ )&(%$ %&#)#$ !/*![%#'$ #"#/$ +Œ/$ %&#$ !/0%&1*(#.*"(#($)&."1O#(G$ J&#)$ 8#%#-!#!A$ %0)$ $ [-$ F#&(#'$ ]#&!7-(F!$ &((#/"0."!#($ 8#&$ F*(F/#!#($ R‹/%#/-(O)'#."0m#($ '&!$ Y(2#)!*/#($ '&!$ .&."$ O/*•#($?*(F-//#(!#($ $&)!$ #&($B#&!#/#/$ >&(%#/-(O)+0F!*/G$ J&#$ O/‹•!#$ ."#($ >Œ/%#($ &'$ C0/F!#&(!/&a)7/*[#))$ $ 8#O/Œ(%#($ )&.#($ C&a#.#'+ˆ.)$+Œ/$ %&#$ %#/$ ??Y$&'$ <."1O!$ B#/%#(G$J&#$ B#)#(!.F)&..0(O#$ ."$ %&#)#$ <(O#8*!#$ "0-7!)ˆ.!$ &)!G$ P#O&*(0.)$\#/'&a.#($ -(%$ F/#012#($ Y(%-)!/&#$ 0(O#70))!$ )&(%G$ $."!$$-(%$!/0O#($#&($"‹"#/#)$P&)&F*$0..-)&2#($ <8F*''#($'&!$%#($>0-7!2#/!/#&8#/($-(%$%#($8#O/#([!#($]-O0(O$ [-$'0/F!/#.#$ EW7#/!#($ ).&."#/"#&!$8#/#."(&a#($-(%$#)$+#"."$ B#(($ ‹_#(!.#"#($ 8.&."(#($ )&.F#7)&)A$ %0$ %&#$ K#+0"/$ %/*"!A$ %&#$ ?*(!/*."$ #&(#$ -(8#)!ˆ(%&O#$ -(%$-(2*/"#/)#"80/#$ M0.*7)G 5G3f$Y($%&#)#'$?*(!#W!$'-))$%&#$ 6*)&1*($%#)$C&F/*N?C:$:(!#/(#"'#/)$8#/Œ."$ O/‹•!#(!#&.#$ -(%$F/#012#$ Y(%-)!/&#$ ."#($ Y(2#)11*(#($ [-$ 8#F*''#(G$ <-•#/%#'$ )#"#($ 2&#./#012#$&(%-)!/&#)$ $ $ $ 5p .F#."$ +Œ/$ %#($ !"#$!"#$!%$!"!&$'()$%&'#()&*($*+$!"#$.&#/#($ *%#/$ 8#&$ %#/$ K#B&((0-))."$ 0($0(%#/#$ ]&#."0(&)'#($ %&#)#/$ </!$ &($ $ E-/*70$ O&8!A$ /&.#/$ S(0([&#.&.#(G$ J0/..#$ A:(!#/)!Œ![-(O)'#.1OF#&!$ %#/$ F/#012#($:(!#/(#"'#(G$J&#$ Cˆ/F!#$ %#/$ F-.1#/!$ %0/0-)A$ %0))$%&#$ P#O&*($ $0.$ #)$ 2&#."$ $ 0.O#'#&(#(G$ <-•#/%#'$%#-!#($ EW7#/!#($ 0(A$ %0))$ ‹_#(!.F)&."0(&)'#($ 0-+A$ B#(($ #)$ -'$ %&#$ <(#/F#((-(O$ %#/$ &''0!#/&#."$ 0.!#-#/#/'ˆ•&O-(O#($ 2*/A$ B*8#&$ Z0(F%0/.)$ 0-+$ $ %&#$ #WF.#/%&(O)$ 0-+$ %0)$ V&))#($ Œ8#/$ (#-#$ #W!#/(#$ \#/'0/F!-(O)'‹O.#/$ :(!#/)!Œ![-(O$ )#.#&.#/%&(O)$0.#&($ -(%$ )*O0/$ +Œ/$ %&#$ '&a#."$ ).!#-#/8#+/#&-(O#($ -(%$ .")#..#20(!#'$V&))#(G$J&#$ 6/ˆ)#([$2*($ [0".&.!-/#.#($ -(%$ F/#012#($ 6/*%-F!#$ -(%$ J&#()!#$ [#&.

#($V#.."$ :(!#/)!Œ![-(O$ %#/$ C0/F!#/)."#($ R0F!*/#($ +Œ/$ &"/#$ </8#&!#($ [-$ S(%#(G$ <-+$ %#/$ 0(%#/#($ .&."!#/(A$ %0$ %&#)#$ &''#/$ (*.&1F$ 8#[ŒO."#$ >#/0-)+*/%#/-(O$ ."#($ L#.F)&."(*.."1O$ -(%$ %#/$ C*'#(!A$ &(%#'$ %&#)#$ O#O#8#($ B&/%A$ #(!).&.$ 0($-(!#/(#"'#/&).$ %#)$ !/0%&1*(#.$ %#/$ ?C:$F#&(#/."#($ Rˆ"&OF#&!#($&($ 0."$F*'7.!$ B#/%#(A$ B*%-/.!-/#.-(O$ %#/$ ?-."$%#/$C0/F!8#%&(O-(O#($#&([-8#[&#"#(G$J0)$Oˆ([.#&$C#.1O#$ ."#($%#($8#&%#($ EW!/#'#($ &)!$ -(2#/F#((80/G$ J&#)#$ :(O.#$ Y("0.+0.#$ 8#/Œ.)*$%#/$ ."."#$ R#".)$ #&($ <(/#&[$ +Œ/$ F-.&.#$\&#.!$ B&#$ O#B‹"(."$%#/$ Y6P)$2*/$ %#/$K/Œ(%-(O$ &"/#)$:(!#/(#"'#()G$<-•#/%#'$(-![#($#&($J/&a#."F#&!#($ &)!$ 0."#(G$J&#$ <)9''#!/&#$ &($%#/$C0/F!7*)&1*($[B&)...#&."#&%#(%G E)#%N#)&#-9)782*D%2*8%8+$%O-+)*)*D%CP-%Q*&#-*#>3#5G3p$ E)$8#)!#"!$ #&($ 0.0OO#8#(%#/$ R0F!*/$ +Œ/$ %#/#($ :(!#/(#"'#()O/Œ(%-(OA$ %0$ #)$%&#$ C‹O.(%#($ Y6N:'+#.O#'#&(#/$ C0(O#.&.")#.F#$ [B&).#&.&.*O&#@$ #&(#$ [B&#)7ˆ.!#($F#&(#$ Z#/0!-(O$ 8#[ŒO.%$-(%$ %&#$ )&.&."-!['#."-![$%#/$ Y6P)G$ Y(+*/'#."0(&)'#($ 2#/%#-!."F#&!$8&#!#!A$ +Œ/$ %&#$ Y("0."(#!$[-$B#/%#($-(%$ 0.)$%#/$E/).."F#&!$#&(#/$ Y6P$Z#/0!-(O$ +Œ/$ F-.!-/#.#$ [-$ S(%#(G$ J08#&$ #/O&8!$ )&."0_#/$ +Œ/$ %&#)#$ <F12&!ˆ!$0-)O#B&#)#($[-$B#/%#(G$J&#$ C‹O.")!-')A$ 08"ˆ(O&O$ 2*($ %#/$ K/‹•#$ #&(#)$:(!#/(#"'#()A$ 8#"*8#($ B#/%#(G$<-+$%&#)#$V#&)#$B&/%$0-...*"(-(O$ +Œ/$ %#/#($ E/[#-O(&)G$ <-•#/%#'$ )*.#&!#$ #/'‹O."#($ Ž8#/#&(F*''#($ B-/%#($ (-/$ 2*($ #&(#'$ RŒ(m#.#$ -(%$ F/#012#$ ?C:$"#-![-!0O#$F#&(#$Y6P)$8#)&![#(G 5G3k$ J&#$ /#.F-."#$ 2#/%#-!..!#G$ J&#$ K#+0"/$ 8#)!#"!A$ %0))$ F-.012$B#(&O#$ <(O08#($-(%$<-)B#/!-(O#($ Œ8#/$ %&#$ E/+*.$ [-$ #&(#'$n*/&#/#(%#($C&F/*N:(!#/(#"'#(G 5G33$J&#$ "*"#$ <([0"."(*."F#&!#($ +Œ/$ ?/#012#A$ #&(#($ O/‹•#/#($ <8)0!['0/F!$ -(08"ˆ(O&O$ 2*($ !#.$O#(-![!G 5G3e$ $ ]-FŒ(m&O#$ C0•(0"'#($ [-/$ R‹/%#/-(O$ %#/$ E(!B&.&.".&..!-/#.#$ -(%$ F/#012#$ Y(%-)!/&#($ &)!$ #&($ 0-)).!-/#.#$ -(%$ F/#012#$ :(!#/(#"'#($ &)!$ B&.&.&1F#($ 8#"&(%#/($ %#($ C0/F!$ +Œ/$ #&([#.&.&..!-/#.#($ Z#/#&.*O&#($ (#-#$ C‹O."F#&!$ 0'$8#)!#($ +Œ/$ &"/$ :(!#/(#"'#($ (-![#($F‹((#(A$ %0$ 2&#."#($ *%#/$ O#*O/07"&).!#$ O#F.#$ -(%$ F/#012#$ ?C:$[-$ #/.ˆ/!$ B#/%#(A$ B&#$ )&#$ %&#)#$ C‹O.#$ -(%$ F/#012#$ :(!#/(#"'#/$ )*B&#$ %&#$ Z#.!-/N$ -(%$ ?/#012B&/!).!-/#.&#O!$ 0.!#$ &($%#/$ 2&/!-#.!#!$ %&#$ Y?L$ !/0%&1*(#."!$ %&#$ M*!B#(%&OF#&!A$ 0-+$ %&#$ M-![-(O$ 2*($ Y6P)$0-+'#/F)0'$ [-$ '0."#($ ]-(0"'#$ 2*($ :(!#/(#"'#()O/Œ(%-(O)N$ -(%$D#/(7/*O/0''#($ &($%#($2#/O0(O#(#($X0"/#(A$ #W&)1#/#($ /#.""#&!$ F0(($ %-/.!$&($%#/$Z/0(.&!-01*(T$ <-+$ %#/$ #&(#($ .&#/#(G E)#%/01%H/*&#77#"&2+7%0-'@#-I%1)D>&$%J%1#">&%+3%K#)$5D#*%L)D#*&23M%N#-."$ 2#/ˆ(%#/(%#($ K#).Œ))#.!-/#.F.O/*•#($ :(!#/(#"'#($ 2#/O/‹•#/!$ %&#$ DŒ.-.$0(%$."0(&)'#($[-'$..012$ O#/&(O#$ M-![-(O$ 2*($ ."#$O0/0(1#/!G$ 5G34$ E&(&O#$ 0F!-#.$ %#/$8#+/0O!#($?C:$#/"&#.F#2D# 5G35$E&(#$ \&#.#($-(%$F/#012#($C0/F!$ &)!G$J0)$ V&))#($ Œ8#/$ C0/F!'‹O.#($ 2*($ '&a#.."#($ %#($ C&F/*N:(!#/(#"'#($ -(%$‰%#($K/*•#(Š$&($%&2#/)#($Z/0(.O#$ %&#)#/$ 6/*O/0''#G$J0)$ 8#O/#([!#$ C*%#....#$ F-.$ %#/$ ?C:$&($%#/$F/#012#($Z/0(.&.."1O#(A$ O#(0-$ B&#$ %&#$ Z#%#-!-(O$ %#)$ O#&)1O#($ E&O#(!-')$ 0.."ˆm)'*%#.(#$ ?Œ()!.!-/0.#/G$ J&#$ B#)#(!."$+Œ/$ %&#$ Y?L$ =Y(+*/'01*()N$-(%$?*''-(&F01*()!#."!$ %&#$ M*!B#(%&OF#&!A$ %&#$ K/‹•#$ 2*($:(!#/(#"'#($'&!$ &($%&#$ 6*.#$ Y6P)A$ &($ %#/$ R*/'$ 2*($ 2#/!/0-.."$)&#$&"/#($#&O#(!.&.!-/#.&.#$ Y("0."$%&#$F-.[0"."ˆm)'*%#.&."#($ %#/$ ??YG$<8O#)#"#($ 2*($%#/$ %#-!."0m$ 'Œ))#($%0)$ B#.."#($ -(%$ %#($ ]-O0(O$ [-$ %&#)#($ +Œ/$ F-..!#$0-)O#[#&.."(&).#$ V#a8#B#/8)7*."#($V#/!$2#/.&#•-(O$ +Œ/$ )!0/!N-7$ ?C:)$-(%$%#/#($V0.#($ :(!#/(#"'#/!-')$&)!$ "ˆ-SO$ 0-+$ %#($ !"#$!"#$!%$!"!&$'()$%&'#()&*($*+$!"#$.&.#&!#$ )70."#$ KŒ!#/$ 0(O#)#"#($-(%$O#"0(%#..)*$ %0/&(A$ 70))#(%#$ (#-#$ K#)./#012#$&(%-)!/&#)$ $ $ $ 5h .".#W$ )&(%G$J0)$C0(0O#'#(!$ 2*($O#&)1O#'$E&O#(!-'$ +Œ/$ F-.

"#($0."$ 2*/$ 0.")!-')N$ -(!#/)!Œ![#(%#$ <."#($ ?*'7#!#([#($)*$+/Œ"$B&#$ '‹O.)$0-."$ &($ %#($ :(!#/)!Œ![-(O)7/*O/0''#($ +Œ/$ %&#$ ??YG$ J&#)#$ F*([#(!/&#/#($)&."$0-+$D#"/7.."F#&!#($ 8#/#&!G$ J#)B#O#($ &)!$ #&(#$ +/Œ"[#&1O#$ Y(!#O/01*($ %#)$ F/#012#($ :(!#/(#"'#/!-')$ &($ %&#$ <-)N$ -(%$ V#&!#/8&."$+Œ/$%&#$?*''-(&F01*($[B&).8$%#)$-(!#/(#"'#/&).&.#0/(&(O$ 89$ %*&(OŠ$-(%$‰7##/$ !*$7##/ŠG$Y($%#/$ L0!$F‹((!#$ %&#)A$ 0()!0a$)&.")!-'A$ C0/F!*/&#(1#/-(OA$ PŒ.70((-(O$ [B&).#$ -(%$ F/#012#$ :(!#/(#"'#/$ &)!$ )#.ˆ(#$#&(8#[*O#($B#/%#($)*..!-/#."1OG$ Y'$ <().!-/#..1OF#&!$ -(%$ V0."$&'$\#/."#/(A$ ?*)!#()!/-F!-/#($ -(%$ %&#$ V#/!).F.%-(O$&((#/"0.".&.-))$ %0/0($ F‹((#($ 6/*O/0''#$ %#)$ ."#($%#/$‰8-)&(#))NŠ$-(%$‰F/#012#(Š$V#.F*''#/[&#."."#($ J&'#()&*($ %#/$ ‰&(!#/2#(1*(&)1).-)$[-$#//#&."$ 0-.#'#(1#/-(O$ %0)$:(!#/(#"'#/!-'$8##&(n-))#(G 5G4f$ J&#)#$ .-(O$ 2*($ (0."$ 0-+$ %&#$ E(!B&."#$ P#O.%-(O$ -(!#/)!Œ![!$ $B#/%#($ )*."!#!$ -(%$ 70))!$ %#'(0..#($"&#/+Œ/$F#&(#$ O##&O(#!#($C‹O."#($<-)8&."#&%-(O$ [B&)."#($[-$F‹((#(G 5G3g$ Y'$ K#O#()0![$ %0[-$ 8#"0-7!#($ #&(&O#$ EW7#/!#(A$ %0))$%&#)#$ &(%&2&%-#."B#/!#$ C0/F!#&(!/&a$ O#(0-$ B&#$ 0(%#/#$ >Œ/%#($ 0-+$ %#'$ V#O$ [-'$ F*''#/[&#."#($ ?(*BN>*B)$ &)!$ 8#&$ %#($ ??Y$ #&(#$ &''#/$ B&#%#/F#"/#(%#$ J#80a#G$ RŒ/$ #&(&O#$ Z#+/0O!#$ '0(O#.!-/#.#($ -(%$ F/#012#($ :(!#/(#"'#(G$ J#/$ EW7#/!#(NR/0O#8*O#($ "0!$ #/O#8#(A$ %0))$ %#/$ #/).#($ -(%$ F/#012#($ Y(%-)!/&#A$ +Œ/$ %&#$ %&#)#$ </!$ 2*($ E/+*.O$ *m$ B#(&O#/$ B&."ˆm)'*%#.$0(%$.".#($ E/+*."#($ )&.#($ D#"/7.."#($ %#($ F-.ˆ(#$ [-$+*F-))&#/#(A$ #&(#$ M0."!GG$ V#&!#/#$ +*/%#/(A$ %0))$ %&#$ Rˆ.#$ -(%$ R&(0([&#/-(O)'#!"*%#($ B&#$ Z0(F%0/.#(A$-'$%&#)#)$J#S[&!$0-)O."#($ %#/$ +*/'0.#$ )&(%$ "0-7!)ˆ.#(%#($?(*BN>*B$8#[ŒO..*$ BŒ()."#($<)7#F!)$%#/$ FŒ()!.#'$%0/0-+A$ %0))$ O#/0%#$ '0F/*‹F*(*'&).""0.!-/0.17#(%&#($*%#/$ .%-(O)7/*O/0''#$ B&.%-(O)-(!#/(#"'#($ F‹((!#($ "&."G$J&#$ K#).+/&)1O#$-(%$-(!#/)!Œ![#(%#$ C0•(0"'#($$$B&#$ [GZG$‰.."$%#/$ :(!#/(#"'#/&).O$ &($ %&/#F!#'$]-)0''#("0(O$ [-'$+#"."0m.0OO#8#(%$+Œ/$ %#($E/+*.#O#(%#($ :(!#/(#"'#()7."#($ '0/F!*/&#(1#/!#($ -(%$ <-)8&."#(G 5G3h$ Z#)1''!#$ Rˆ"&OF#&!#(A$ 2*($ %#/$ O/-(%.O$ 0-)O#/&.&.%-(O$ %#)$ -(!#/(#"'#/&).#&.&."#(Š$ Y(&1012#$ [#&O!$ )&."$#"#/$ 0-+$'&a#."#$ $ C0•(0"'#($ B&#$ Z#)!#-#/-(O$ -(%$ )!00!."$7/&20!#(@$R‹/%#/-(O#($+Œ/$ C&F/*N:(!#/(#"'#($&($ R‹/%#/-(O#($+Œ/$ D0(O[#&!2*/"08#($+Œ/$ ?C:$ -'[-)!/-F!-/&#/#(G$ .&.#(A$ -'$ V0.&..&."ˆm)'*%#.#G$R*/'0."#($ ?*'7#!#([#($&($%#'$]-)0''#("0(O$ &//#..$ %&#$)!00!.!-/#."‹7+-(O)F#a#($ F*([#(!/&#/!G$ J&#$ E&(8#[&#"-(O$ 2*($ $ F-.#($ -(%$ F/#012#($ :(!#/(#"'#/($ -(%$ 6/&20!7#/)*(#($ '&!$ E/+0"/-(O$ )!Œ![#(G$ C-...!-(O)'0(0O#'#(!$ '&!$ &($ %&#$ D#"/7.)$ %&#$ E/O#8(&))#$ 0-+$ %#/$ F/#012#($ -(%$ F-.#($ V#/!#($ &)!$ #&($ B#)#(!."0m$ -(%$ \#/B0.1%&)[&7.O$ %#/$ F-.&.0O#($ )&#$ 2*/A$ %&#$ 2*/"0(%#(#($=)*B*".1O#'$ C#"/B#/!A$ Z#[&#"-(O#($ [-$ ?-(%#($ -(%$ Z#)-.!-/#.."$(0.#/&).#$ Z&.-82#(1*(#($2#/0(!B*/!.&(OA$ ..#20(!$ )&(%G$:'$ %0)$J#S[&!$ [-$8#"#8#($).#/%&(O)$ '-))$ '0($ %&#$ -(!#/(#"'#/&).""0./#012#$&(%-)!/&#)$ $ $ $ 5i .&.#"#(A$ O0/0(1#/!#$ ?/#%&!#$ 2*($ )!00!."#(%#$:(!#/)!Œ![-(O$8&#!#(G !"#$!"#$!%$!"!&$'()$%&'#()&*($*+$!"#$.-.#($ E/+*.#($ E8#(#$ &($ %#/$ V#&!#/8&.#8#()..+/#&."#($ R#/1OF#&!#($ )."$ #&(#/$ :(!#/(#"'#()O/Œ(%-(O$ 8#)!#"!$ *%#/$ (&."#/$ R&(0([B&/!)."#($D#8#()[9F.&..."#($Rˆ"&OF#&!#($ )!#"!G$ 5G3i$ J&#$ :(!#/).".&#$ 8#/-+#($ )&."#($ %#/$ C&F/*N$ -(%$ %#/$ C0F/*‹F*(&'&).#($ -(!#/(#"'#/&).0-+$ %#/$ $ <-)8&.!$ $#)$0($%#/$Y(!#O/01*($%#)$B&/!).0(O#($ D#/(#()$#(!)7/#.0(-(O$ Œ8#/$ 6/ˆ)#(!01*()F*'7#!#([#($8&)$ "&($[-$C0(0O#'#(qˆ"&OF#&!#($)&(%$0-))."#($ *%#/$ O#'#&((Œ![&O#($b/O0(&)01*(#(A$ I/*B%)*-/.%-(O$ &($ (01*(0.."ˆm)'*%#.ˆ(#(G$ $ .%-(O))9)!#'#$ )!#.#'#(!$ $ %#/$ K#)."$ (&.!#/(012#$ )#&(A$ -'$ %&#$ \#/8&(%-(O#($ [B&).&(ˆ/#$ 6/*^#F!#$ [B&)."#)$ E.!$)#&(G 5G43$ J#/$ F-.8)!$ +Œ/$ )#&(#$ #&O#(#($ K#).ˆ/-(O$ %#/$ R/0O#$ *8$%#/$ V-().#($ -(%$ &(+*/'0."!$ [-$ %#/$ F-."-.FO#B&((-(O$ 2*($ ?/#012&!ˆ!A$ ?*''-(&F01*()+ˆ"&OF#&!#(A$ \#/(#![-(O$-(%$L#0'8&."1O$ &)!$ 0."$ #&(&O#A$ %0))$ %#/$ E/B#/8$ 2*($ -(!#/(#"'#/&).#($ E8#(#G$ <.!#A$ O#(0-$ )*$ B&#$ %&#$ ?.!-/#.

"&#%."0m$ -(%$ ?/#012B&/!)."$ %&#$ *_#(#$ ?*()-."$#&(#$ >&."F#&!#($ %0/A$ &"/#$ Y((*201*(#($ 0-+$ B#&!#/#$ Z/0(.)$ (&.Œ.-(O$ O#(0-)*$ #/+*."#($ %#'$ 6-8."!N!#.$ %-/.")!-')F-/)$ #&()."#($ V#a8#B#/8)2*/!#&. . " # ( Œ 8 # / O / # & +# ( % #$ ]-)0''#(0/8#&!)'‹O.&SF01*().#/%&(O)$ 2*/0-)A$ %0))$ #&($8/0(..$ 2*($ J#)&O($ (*."#$ [-FŒ(m&O$ &($ %&#$ Y((*201*()7*."a#.&."$ %&#$ ??Y$ )#.#&.#($ *%#/$ (01*(0.!/-F!-/#($0-‘0-#(G 5G4p$ J&#$ .)$L/&#8F/0m$ +Œ/$ (-![#/*/&#(1#/!#$ Y((*201*($&)!$ #&($ Y(%&F0!*/$ +Œ/$%#($'‹O.0..."F#&!#($ %#/$ <-)N$ -(%$ V#&!#/8&."#($ -(!#/).&.#$ %#/$ ??YG$J&#)#$ (#-#($C‹O.$0(%$.#'#(!$ $ %#)$ #-/*7ˆ&).&F-'$ -(%$ %#($ ..!$ 0.&.&[&#/!$ $B#&!/#&."&#%..-.!#($0.#($-(%$ F/#012#($?C:$2#/8/#&!#!$B#/%#($-(%$%0[-$+Œ"/#(A$B#&!#/#$Z-)&(#))8#/#&.!-/#."#($0F0%#'&)."$ [B&)."$ %0)$ (#-#$ ]-)0''#()7&#."$ %0%-/."#($6#/)7#F12#$ [-$2#/'&a#.O/#&.#'01FA$ %0))$?C:$)&."#(A$ F-.$ %#-!."(*.$ 2*($J#)&O($0.( O A$ V# & ! # / 8 & .)$ \#/'&a..( O ) ' 0 • ( 0 " ' # ($ .&."-(O$ -(%$ E(!B&.O#($ (-![-(O)*/&#(1#/!#$ ."#($ Z#/#&.."#(%#$ <-)B&/F-(O#($+Œ/$ %&#$ \#/!/&#8)N$ -(%$ K#).*O&#80)&#/!#$ R*/).)*$ #&(#$ Ž8#/8/Œ."$ M&.)$0(O#)#"#(G$G$J0)$</8#&!)%*F-'#(!$ %#/$ E-/*7ˆ&).F#(G$ E)$ +#"."-(O$ -(%$ %#($ ?C:$ O#).F."#)$ E.)$ #&($ B#)#(!.&."1O-(O$ %#/$ ‚-0."#&(#$ 2*($%#/$ /#O&*(0.!01*($ Œ8#/$ •J#)&O($ 0."$ 2#/ˆ(%#/(%#$ J9(0'&F$ [B&).#($Y("0."#/•$ Y((*201*($)*B&#$ J#)&O(N$*%#/$ 6/*[#))8&.#/$ +Œ/$ ]-)0''#(0/8#&!#($ &((#/"0.&."#$ ?*''&))&*($ %0)$6*!#(10.F!#/•$ *%#/$ •B#&."$%&#$ 2#/)!ˆ/F!#$ ]-(0"'#$ 2*($ %&O&!0.&."."!#(%#/$ R0F!*/$ %#/$ %&#$ $ V#a8#B#/8)+ˆ"&OF#&!$ #&(#)$ :(!#/(#"'#()$ 0-)'0."#($E&(n-))A$ %#($%&#$ ??Y$0-+$ %&#$ R‹/%#/-(O$2*($Y((*201*($&($E-/*70$ "08#($ F‹((!#G$ Y((*201*($ #/'‹O.!-/$ %-/."#($?*''&))&*($[-'$ L"#'0$ •J#)&O($ 0."0m."(*."-(O$ -(%$E(!B&.&.(G$. % .F-(O)#8#(#A$ -'$ %&#$ C‹O.&.F)&.#($P#O&#/-(O$ #/O/&_#($ B#/%#(G$ Dˆ(%#/$ )*."A$ %0))$ %0)$ J#)&O($ 0."!$ 8#B-))!$ )&(%$ 8[BG$ $ )&#$ F‹((#($ %&#$ Z#%Œ/+(&))#$ (&.&."#($ %#/$ 0(O#B0(%!#($ R*/).+)+*/'$F‹((!#$ 0-+$ !"#$!"#$!%$!"!&$'()$%&'#()&*($*+$!"#$.)$#&($ '‹O.!#/(012#$ C0•(0"'#($B&#$[GZG$Y((*201*()O-!).*."(*."0m$ F0(($ %0)$ Y((*201*()7*!#(10.F.."!$B#/%#(A$ )&#"!$ $ %&#$ E-/*7ˆ&)."‹7+#/(A$ )7#[&#.!#($0."#(A$ V0."#$ B&/!)."!G$ E)$ 8#)!#"!$ %#)B#O#($ #&($ Z#%0/+A$ V & ) ) # ( ) 2 # / ' & a ."#$[-$&(!#O/&#/#(G 5G45$ J#)&O($ B&/%$ &''#/$ )!ˆ/F#/$ 0."!$ #/F0((!$"08#(G 5G4e$ \&#.)$ #&(#$ D‹)-(O$ +Œ/$ B#(&O#/$ L#...*O&#N80)&#/!#$ R*/)."!$ [-)0''#("ˆ(O#(%$ 0-)%/Œ.( %$ Z /0 ( ."$ )!#&O#/(G$ <-+$ (01*(0."!$ &($ %#'$ .$ -(!#/).&1F$ &(!#O/&#/!$ B&/%G$V&#$0-."F#&!#($ )!#.!-/#."#/$ C0/F!NZ/0(."#&%-(O)!/ˆO#/A$ )*B&#$ 0-.*$F‹((#($ (#-#$ C#!"*%#($-(%$V&))#($[B&).F#$ -(%$ %#/$ Z#[&#"-(O$ [B&)."0mA$ V&/!)."$ (&.&.!#(A$ &'7./#012#$&(%-)!/&#)$ $ $ $ 5g ..#($ +Œ/$ %&#$ ??Y$ B#&!#/#$ C‹O.#($Rˆ"&OF#&!#($2#/+ŒO80/$O#'0."!$ [-$ 2#/0.."A$ %0))$E(!).0O#($ F‹((#(A$ 'Œ))#($ %&#)#($ )7#[&#.!/0!#O&#(G$ <8O#)#"#($%02*(A$ %0))$%&#$ ??Y$ "ˆ-SO$ '&!$ ‰6/*%-F!ˆ)!"#1FŠ$ &($ \#/8&(%-(O$ O#8/0.&."$%&#$ 6/*8.&."!$B#/%#(G$J08#&$ #/O&8!$ )&.%-(O$0."#$ *m$ (&.)$ 8#(-![#/*/&#(1#/!#$ Y((*201*(•A$ B#.."0m."$&''#/A$ %&#$ O/‹•!#$ >Œ/%#$ #/O&8!$ )&.8)!A$ %0)$ #&O#(!.#$ -(%$ F/#012#$ :(!#/(#"'#($ 2#/+*.!-/0."#($ 0-)B#&!#($ [-$ F‹((#(G 5G4k$ J#/$ ]-O0(O$ [-$ #W!#/(#'$ V&))#($ &)!$ #&($ #8#(+0.*O&#8#!/#&8#/$ B&#$ :(!#/(#"'#/$ 8#(‹1O!$ B#&!#/#$ :(!#/)!Œ![-(OG$ J&#)$ '-))$ 0."#(G$.*O&#N80)&#/!#$ ?C:$ &'$ C0/F!B#a8#B#/8$ )#&($ F0((G$ Z#)!ˆ1O!$ B-/%#$ %&#)$ %-/.)$ C*!*/$ +Œ/$ (-![#/*/&#(1#/!#/$ Y((*201*(•$ [#&O!#A$ %0))$ (&..-(OG$ J&#)$ [#&O!$ 0-.&.E#-%R2D+*D%F2%/**'4+5'* 5G44$ J&#$ <(#/F#((-(O$ %#)$ 6*!#(10."(*.!ˆ/F-(O$ %#/$ Y((*201*()F-."#"#(G$ J0'&!$ ?C:$ %#($ 8#)!'‹O."$ %&#)#/$ .)$ +Œ/$ %&#$ Y(!#O/01*($ 2*($ •2#/)!#."#$ -(%$ &((*2012#$ 6*!#(10."$ B0/$ B&#$ %&#$ L#.#/$ E8#(#$ "&(O#O#($)*.%-(O$ )*B&#$ %#/$ B&/!)."#($ B&#$ V&))#().&.&((#$ 0-."#(Œ8#/O/#&+#(%#/$ V&))#()!/0()+#/$ #/.8$%#/$??Y$+-(O&#/#($$-(%$"&#/+Œ/$%&#$(‹1O#($."ˆm)'*%#.#$ F-."#)$ $Y()!/-'#(!$ +Œ/$ &((*2012#$ D‹)-(O#($ -(%$ 6/*%-F!#$ 0(G$ J&#$ )&."F#&!#($ [-$ -(!#/)!Œ![#(A$ -'$ B#&!#/#$ C0/F#(A$ 6/*%-F!#$ -(%$ J&#()!#$ 0(8&#!#($[-$F‹((#(G$ J&#)$)#![!$ 0.#/%&(O)$ -(!#/$ Z#/Œ."!#/!$ B&/%G$ J#/$ V&))#()0-)!0-).

/#O&*(0.#/$ E8#(#$ #&(O#)#![!$ B#/%#(A$ -'$ 7/0W&)*/&#(1#/!#$ V&/!),"0m)NY((*201*(#($ &'$ F.#&(#($ P0"'#($[-$#/'‹O.&,"#(G 672$&#-%2*8%R2$+33#*+-9#)& 5G4h$ :'$ F-.!-/#..#$ -(%$ F/#012#$ :(!#/(#"'#/$ '&!$ %#'$ (*!B#(%&O#($ V&))#($ -(%$ %#($ R&(0([&#/-(O)'‹O.&,"F#&!#($ 2#/)*/O#(A$ )*$ %0))$ +Œ/$ %&#)#$ B#&!#/#$ EW7#/&'#(1#/NA$ V0,")!-'N$ -(%$ Y((*201*()'‹O.&,"F#&!#($ #(!)!#"#(A$ '-))$'0($ #&($!/0O+ˆ"&O#)$:'+#.%$),"0_#(A$ &($%#'$F-.!-/#..#$ -(%$ F/#012#$ Y(%-)!/&#($ '&!$ #&(#/$ O#B&))#($ ;&,"#/"#&!$ %#($ ]-O0(O$ [-$ Y(+*/'01*(#($ -(%$ V&))#($ 0 - ‘ 0 - # ($ F‹ ( ( # ( G$ : '$ 0 . .$ % & # ) #$ Z # /# & , " #$ 0 8 % # , F# ($ [ -$ F‹ ( ( # ( A$ 8 & # !# ($ ) & , "$ ?**7#/01*()'0•(0"'#($-(%$%&#$\#/(#![-(O$'&!$0(%#/#($60/!(#/($0(G 5G4i$ ]-)0''#(0/8#&!#($ -(%$ M#![B#/F#$ #/'‹O.&,"#($ F-.!-/#..#($ -(%$ F/#012#($ ?C:A$ ]-O0(O$ [-$ #&(#($ ‰V&))#()7**.Š$ [-$ 8#F*''#($ -(%$ \#/(#![-(O$ #/.#&,"!#/!$ #&(#($ 2#/)!ˆ/F!#($ V&))#()0-)!0-),"A$ B#.,"#/$ #&($O/-(%.#O#(%#/$ Z#)!0(%!#&.$ 2*($&((*2012#($6/*[#))#($&)!G$<..#/%&(O)$ #/'‹O.&,"!$ %&#$ ]-)0''#(0/8#&!$ 0-,"$ %#($ <-)!0-),"$2*($ 7/0F1),"#($ Y(+*/'01*(#(A$ )7#[&#..$ '&!$ (#-#($ :(!#/(#"'#(A$ %&#$ 0%'&(&)!/012#A$ S(0([&#..#$ -(%$ &((*2012#$ Z#/0!-(O)'0•(0"'#($ 8#(‹1O#(G$ V#(($ )&,"$ ?C:$ %#/$ ??Y$ [-)0''#(),".&#•#(A$ #/'‹O.&,"!$ %&#)$ (&,"!$ (-/A$ 2*($ %#($ O#'#&()0'#($ P#))*-/,#($ [-$ 7/*S1#/#(A$ )*(%#/($ #)$ B#/%#($ 0-,"$ 8#(‹1O!#$ </8#&!#(A$ Z#/0!-(O)08.ˆ-+#$-(%$Z-,""0.!-(O)0-+Bˆ(%#$O#8Œ(%#.!G 5G4g$>#-![-!0O#$2#/),"'#.[#($E/[#-O#/$ -(%$\#/8/0-,"#/$ &''#/$'#"/$ 0-+O/-(%$%#/$ $0(O#B0(%!#($ R*/),"-(OG$<..#/%&(O)$&)!$ #)$'#/F.&,"$),"B&#/&O#/A$ %&#$ 8#/#&,")8#[*O#(#($<(.&#O#($-(%$ 6/*[#))#$ 0($ %&#$ B&))#(),"0m.&,"#($<()ˆ![#$ 0([-70))#(G$V&))#($F0(($[-$ E/+0"/-(O$ "#/0(/#&+#(A$ 0..#/%&(O)$F0(($ +Œ/$ %&#$ F-.!-/#..#($ -(%$ F/#012#($ 6/*[#))#$ E/+0"/-(O$ 0-,"$ [-$ (#-#'$ V&))#($ +Œ"/#(A$ $ B0)$ )&,"$ 0..#/%&(O)$(-/$),"B#/$$#r[&#(!$O#)!0.!#($$.ˆ))!G 5G5f$ J&#$ ]-)0''#(0/8#&!$ 2*($ '-.1N%&)[&7.&(ˆ/#($ :'+#.%#/($ %#/$ ??YA$ V&))#(),"0m$ -(%$ %#'$ 7/&20!#($ ;#F!*/$ &($ #&(#'$ %9(0'&),"#($ R/0'#B*/FA$ 8#&$ %#'$ 6/*%-F!#$ -(%$ 6/*[#))#$ F*()!0(!$ #20.-&#/!$ -(%$ 2*($ B#&!#/#/$ :(!#/)!Œ![-(O$ =8#[ŒO.&,"$ %#/$ R*/),"-(O$ B&#$ 0-,"$ %#/$ R&(0([&#/-(O@$ 7/*S1#/#(A$ )*..!#$ -(8#%&(O!$ O#+‹/%#/!$ B#/%#(G$ J&#)$ "&.m$ :(!#/(#"'#/($ %#/$ ??YA$ 2*($ 0(%#/#($ 60/!(#/($ [-$ .#/(#(G$J&#$ ??Y$ )&(%$"*,"$ %9(0'&),"$B#(($ #)$ %0/-'$ O#"!A$ %#($ ?/#01*()7/*[#))A$ %0)$ V&))#($ -(%$%&#$ E/+0"/-(O$ 8#[ŒO.&,"$ (#-#/$ 6/*[#))#$ -(%$6/*%-F!#$ [-$ 2#/#&(&O#(G$ $J&#)$ O#),"&#"!$ %-/,"$ %&#$ K#)!0.!-(OA$ E(!B&,F.-(O$ -(%$<-)0/8#&!-(O$ (#-#/A$#r[&#(!#/$C#!"*%#($-(%$Y()!/-'#(!#G$ V#(($ '0($ P&)&F*F07&!0.$ '&!$ %&#)#/$ </!$ %#/$ ]-)0''#(0/8#&!$ 2#/8&(%#!A$ F‹((#($ )*B*".$ #&(#$ ?07&!0./#(%&!#$+Œ/$ %&#$ Y(2#)!*/#(A$ 0.)$0-,"$#&(#$ )&,"#/#$ R&(0([&#/-(O$ +Œ/$ %&#$ :(!#/(#"'#($-(%$?C:$ %#/$??Y$O#8*!#($B#/%#(G 5G53$ J&#$ ;!01)1F$ %#/$ Z#+/0O-(O$ [#&O!A$ %0))$ %#/$ F-.!-/#..#$ -(%$ F/#012#$ :(!#/(#"'#/$ 0'$ <(+0(O$ #&(#/$ -(!#/(#"'#/&),"#($<F12&!ˆ!$'#&)!#()$2*($%#($&(+*/'#..#($-(%$7#/)‹(.&,"#($M#![B#/F#($-(%$ ]-)0''#(0/8#&!#($ 08"ˆ(O!A$ B*"&(O#O#($ [-$ #&(#'$ )7ˆ!#/#($ ]#&!7-(F!A$ B&#$ %#/$ <-+N$ -(%$ <-)80-7"0)#A$ %&#$ ?C:$ %#/$ ??Y$ #&(#$ )!ˆ/F#/#$ M-![-(O$ 2*($ I.-)!#/NY(&1012#($ (-![#(G$ J&#)$ .ˆ))!$ %0/0-+$ ),".&#•#(A$ %0))$7#/)‹(.&,"#A$ 0-+$ \#/#&(80/-(O$ 80)&#/#(%#$ :(!#/)!Œ![-(OA$ B&#$ %&#$ >&.+#$ 8#&$ %#/$ ]-)0''#(S(%-(OA$ &($ %#/$ <(+0(O)7"0)#$ (‹1O$ &)!G$ $ R*/'0.#$ ]-)0''#(),".Œ))#$ )&(%$ %0(($ &($ #&(#/$ )7ˆ!#/#($6"0)#$ B&,"1O#/A$ B#(($#)$ %0/-'$O#"!A$ %#($0..O#'#&(#($C0/F!$ 2#/O/‹•#/($[-$B*..#($ -(%$2*($%#($Y(&1012#($%#/$$0(%#/#($60/!(#/($[-$7/*S1#/#(G I!"!$!))!*19%5!-)&"B!"

!"#$!"#$!%$!"!&$'()$%&'#()&*($*+$!"#$,-.!-/0.$0(%$,/#012#$&(%-)!/&#)$

$

$

$

ef

eGf$ <-+$ %#/$ Z0)&)$ %&#)#/$ ;!-%&#$ )&(%$ #&(&O#$ O#(#/#..#$ 08#/$ 0-,"$ )7#[&S),"#$ E'7+#".-(O#($ #(!)!0(%#(G$ J&#)#$ 8#[&#"#($ )&,"$ )*B*".$ 0-+$ %#($ #-/*7ˆ&),"#($ P0-'$ 0.)$ 0-,"$ 0-+$ O#(#/#..#$ <()&,"!#(A$-'$:(!#/(#"'#($0.)$#&(#($(&,"!N!#,"(*.*O&),"#($<(!/#&8#/$+Œ/$Y((*201*($[-$)#"#(G eG3$ :'$ %&#$ F-.!-/#..#($ -(%$ F/#012#($ Y(%-)!/&#($ (*,"$ 8#))#/$ #&(),"ˆ![#($ [-$ F‹((#(A$ )&(%$B#&!#/#$ J0!#(#/"#8-(O#($-(%$<-)B#/!-(O#($(‹1OA$)7#[&#..$+Œ/$^#%#$#&([#.(#$Z/0(,"#G eG4$ K#[&#.!#$ :(!#/)!Œ![-(O$ '-))$ 0-+$ %&#$ $ #&([#.(#($ E&O#(),"0m#($ %#/$ ??Y$ 08O#)1''!$ B#/%#(A$ )7#[&#..$ 0-,"$ 0-+$ &"/#$ &(%&2&%-#..#($ ;!/-F!-/#(G$ :'$ ?C:$ -(%$ C&F/*N?C:$ &((#/"0.8$ %#/$ K.*80.&)&#/-(O)7*.&1F$ E-/*70$ 4f4f$ O#[&#.!$ +‹/%#/($ [-$ F‹((#(A$ 'Œ))#($ %&#$ C0•(0"'#($ %&/#F!$ 0-+$ %&#$?C:$-(%$C&F/*N?C:$0-)O#.#O!$B#/%#(G eG5$ \*//#&!#/.ˆ(%#/A$ %&#$ +*/!O#),"/&a#(#$ :(!#/)!Œ![-(O)'#,"0(&)'#($ +Œ/$ %&#$ ??Y$ 8#)&![#($ -(%$ )!0/F#$ Y((*201*()/#)-.!0!#$ 0-+B#&)#(A$ [#&O#(A$ %0))$ %-/,"$ %&#$ ?**/%&(01*($ 2*($ 2#/),"&#%#(#($ C&(&)!#/&#(A$ B#.,"#$ +Œ/$ %&#$ <-)0/8#&!-(O#($ %#/$ ??Y$ :(!#/)!Œ![-(O)'0•(0"'#($ [-)!ˆ(%&O$ )&(%A$ !0!)ˆ,".&,"$%&#$0(2&)&#/!#($]&#.#$#//#&,"#!$B#/%#(G eGe$:(!#/)!Œ![-(O)'0•(0"'#($)&(%$0-+$ /#O&*(0.#/A$ (01*(0.#/$ -(%$#-/*7ˆ&),"#/$ E8#(#$ (*!B#(%&OA$ -'$ %&#$ )7#[&S),"#($ Z#%Œ/+(&))#$ %#/$ ??Y$ 0([-)7/#,"#(G$ J0+Œ/$ 'Œ))#($ 0..#$ 7*.&1),"#($ E(!),"#&%-(O)ˆ'!#/$ %&#$ ??Y$0.)$#&(#$ (#-#$ V&/!),"0m)+*/'$ 0(#/F#((#($ -(%$ &"(#($ #&(#($O#B&))#($ ;7&#./0-'$[-O#)!#"#(G$M01*(0.#$ ’'!#/$ 8&.%#($%08#&$ %#($/#,"!.&,"#($P0"'#(A$ &($%#(#($)&,"$%&#$ ??Y$ 8#B#O#(G$;!#-#/8#+/#&-(O#($ $+Œ/$ %&#$ 6/*%-F!#$ -(%$J&#()!#$ %#/$ ??Y$F‹((#($ %#/#($6/*%-F1*($-(%$ %#($\#/!/&#8$+‹/%#/($-(%$)*'&!$ %0)$V0,")!-'$ Œ8#/$ 2#/),"&#%#(#$ Z/0(,"#($#/'‹O.&,"#(G$’"(.&,"#$ C0•(0"'#($ +Œ/$ O/#([Œ8#/),"/#&!#(%#$ Y(&1012#($ F‹((#($ ?Œ()!.#/$ +‹/%#/(G$ J0$ %&#$ ??Y$ %&/#F!#$ <()7/#,"70/!(#/$ 8#(‹1O#(A$ F‹((#($"&#/8#&$ %&#$ K#'#&(%#(cDˆ(%#/$0.)$\#/'&a.#/$ [B&),"#($%#/$ ??Y$ -(%$ %#($ (01*(0.#($-(%$ #-/*7ˆ&),"#($ E(!),"#&%-(O)!/ˆO#/($ "#.+#(G$<-,"$F‹((#($ %&#)#$ /#O&*(0.#$ I.-)!#/$-(%$)#F!*/Œ8#/O/#&+#(%#$M#![B#/F#$%-/,"$\#/(#![-(O)7.0“*/'#($-(!#/)!Œ![#(G eGk$ J&#$ E:$ )*..!#$ Y"/#$ [-FŒ(m&O#($ :(!#/)!Œ![-(O)7/*O/0''#$ B&#$ %0)$ R6hA$ R6iA$ %0)$ ‰I*'7#112#(#))$ 0(%$ Y((*201*($ 6/*O/0''Š$ =IY6@$ )*B&#$ %&#$ ?*"ˆ)&*()7*.&1F$ '#"/$ 0-+$ %&#$ ??Y$ 0-)/&,"!#(A$ &(%#'$ -(!#/$ 0(%#/#'$ (&,"a#,"(*.*O&),"#$ Y((*201*()7/*^#F!#$ '&!#&(8#[*O#($ -(%$ %0%-/,"$ %&#$ F-.!-/#..#($ -(%$ F/#012#($ ?C:$ 8#))#/$ &(!#O/&#/!$ B#/%#(G$ <-,"$ )*..!#$ %&#)#$ %&#$ /#O&*(0.#($-(%$(01*(0.#($<F12&!ˆ!#($-(!#/)!Œ![#($$-(%$%&#$\#/(#![-(O$+‹/%#/(G 78>*/4%$56/5(P$,(!15"5P1/,$56 eGp$6/*8.#'#$ '&!$ %#/$ R&(0([&#/-(O$&)!$ #&($B&#%#/F#"/#(%#)$6/*8.#'$%#/$??YA$ )7#[&#..$8#&$%#($C&F/*N ?C:)G$ J#)B#O#($ )*..!#($ &($ %#($ -(!#/),"&#%.&,"#($ E(!B&,F.-(O)7"0)#($ R&(0(['&a#.$ +Œ/$ #&($ :(!#/(#"'#($8#/#&!)!#"#(G$>&#/+Œ/$)*..!#($%&#$ Dˆ(%#/$#&(O#)#![!$B#/%#(A$ -'$:(!#/)!Œ![-(O)O#.%#/$ -(!#/$Z#/Œ,F)&,"1O-(O$%#/$Z#%Œ/+(&))#$%#/$?C:$%#/$??Y$[-$2#/!#&.#(G$ eGh$ J&#$ O/*•#($ R‹/%#/7/*O/0''#A$ %&#$ 8#/#&!)$ #W&)1#/#(A$ )&(%$ [-$ F*'7.#W$ +Œ/$ %&#$ ??YT$ <-+$ #-/*7ˆ&),"#/$ E8#(#$ )*..!#($ %&#)#$ B#(&O#/$ F*'7.#W$ -(%$ %#'(0,"$ +Œ/$ %&#$ ?C:$ .#&,"!#/$ [-Oˆ(O.&,"$ O#'0,"!$ B#/%#(G$ J&#$ #W&)1#/#(%#($ 6/*O/0''#$ =R6hA$ IY6@$ )*..!#($ %&/#F!$ 0-+$ %&#$ ?C:$ %#/$ ??Y$ 0-)O#.#O!$ B#/%#(G$ J0)$ CEJY<$ 6/*O/0''$ #/'‹O.&,"!$ :(!#/)!Œ![-(O)*71*(#($ &((#/"0.8$ %#/$ -(!#/),"&#%.&,"#($ E(!B&,F.-(O)7"0)#(G$ ’"(.&,"#$ C‹O.&,"F#&!#($ )*..!#($ +Œ/$ B#&!#/#$ E(!B&,F.-(O)7"0)#(A$%&#$+Œ/$%&#$??Y$#(!),"#&%#(%$)&(%A$8#/#&!O#)!#..!$B#/%#(G

!"#$!"#$!%$!"!&$'()$%&'#()&*($*+$!"#$,-.!-/0.$0(%$,/#012#$&(%-)!/&#)$

$

$

$

e3

eGi$ <-+$ #-/*7ˆ&),"#/$ E8#(#$ )*..!#($%&#$ EYZ$ -(%$EYR$ K#.%#/A$ %&#$ #8#(+0..)$ $ Y((*201*($ +‹/%#/(A$ +Œ/$ (&,"a#,"(*.*O&),"#$ Y((*201*(#($ 0.)$ R/#'%S(0([&#/-(O$ *%#/$ P&)&F*F07&!0.$ 8#/#&!O#)!#..!$ B#/%#(G$ J&#)#$ F‹((!#($0-,"$%&#$ E(!B&,F.-(O$ 0-+$(01*(0.#/$ *%#/$ /#O&*(0.#/$ E8#(#$ O0/0(1#/#(G$E&($\*//#&!#/$ "&#/+Œ/$ B&/%$%&#$ O0/0(1#/!#$ R‹/%#/-(O$ 2*($0-%&*2&)-#..#/$ J&O&!0.&)&#/-(O$ +Œ/$ %0)$?&(*$ &((#/"0.8$ %#)$ CEJY<$ 6/*O/0'')$ )#&(G$ Y($ <8)7/0,"#$ '&!$ %#($ C&!O.&#%).ˆ(%#/($ )*..!#$ %&#$ E:$ C#"/B#/!))!#-#/)#(F-(O#($ *%#/$ )!#-#/.&,"#$ \#/OŒ()1O-(O#($)*B*".$ +Œ/$ &(!#()&2#$ *(.&(#$ 0.)$0-,"$ *”&(#$</8#&!#($%#/$F/#012#($J&#()!#$-(%$6/*%-F!#$#/'‹O.&,"#(G eGg$ C&!O.&#%))!00!#($ )*..!#($ ;!#-#/2#/OŒ()1O-(O#($ +Œ/$ B#&!#/#$ Z#/#&,"#$ B&#$ =‹_#(!.&,"#)@$ P&)&F*F07&!0.A$ 6/&201(2#)!*/#($ -(%$ F.#&(#$ ?/#%&!#$ +Œ/$ %&#$ ??Y$ #/'‹O.&,"#(G$ <-,"$ )*..!#($ 0-+$ (01*(0.#/$ E8#(#$ O0/0(1#/!#$ Z0(F%0/.#"#($ 8#/#&!O#)!#..!$ B#/%#(G$ E-/*7ˆ&),"#$ ;!/-F!-/+*(%)$ )*..!#($#/'‹O.&,"#(A$ %0))$ /#O&*(0.#$ :(!#/)!Œ![-(O$ )*B&#$ M#![B#/F&(&1012#($ -(%$ 6.0“*/'#($ +Œ/$ %&#$??Y$#/)!#..!$B#/%#($F‹((#(G 78>*/4%$56/5(P$8(.",:&/15&,1Q eG3f$ J&#$ E:$ )*..!#$ %#($ C0/F!#&(!/&a$ %-/,"$ %&#$ \#/O08#$ 2*($ ‹_#(!.&,"#$ <-m/0O)2#/+0"/#($ 0F12$ -(!#/)!Œ![#($ -(%$)*'&!$ $-(O#(-![!#)$6*!#(10.$ [-/$ R‹/%#/-(O$ 2*($Y((*201*($+/#&)#![#(G$•_#(!.&,"$ <-m/ˆO#$ $)*..!#($)7#[&#..$ $0($&((*2012#$ -(%$(&,"a#,"(*.*O&),"#$6/*[#))#A$6/*%-F!#$ -(%$J&#()!#$ 0($ %&#$??YA$)7#[&#..$%&#$C&F/*N?C:A$2#/O#8#($B#/%#(G eG33$ J&#$ ‰D#0%$ C0/F#!$ Y(&1012#Š$ =DCY@$ B-/%#$ 4ffi$ 2*($ %#/$ E:$ &()$ D#8#($ 8#/-+#(A$ -'$ (#-#$ Z#%Œ/+(&))#$ -(%$ (#-#$ Cˆ/F!#$ +Œ/$ &((*2012#$ 6/*%-F!#$ -(%$ J&#()!#$ [-$ #/'&a#.(G$ J&#)$ F0(($ 0.)$ #W7#/&'#(!#..#)$ ‰;7&#.+#.%Š$ +Œ/$ Y((*20!*/#($ 0(O#)#"#($ B#/%#(G$:'$ O#)#..),"0m.&,"#$ Z#%Œ/+(&))#$ 0([-)7/#,"#(A$ )*..!#$ %&#$ E:$ %&#$ DCY$ +Œ/$ (&,"a#,"(*.*O&),"#$ Y((*201*(#($ -(%$ &((*2012#$ J&#()!#$ #/B#&!#/(A$-'$(#-#$C‹O.&,"F#&!#($2#/+ŒO80/$[-$'0,"#(G eG34$J&#$ C0/F!NE&(!/&a)7"0)#$ O#)!0.!#!$)&,"$+Œ/$ %&#$ ?C:$%#/$??Y$0.)$),"B&#/&OA$ )7#[&#..$ B#(($%&#)#/$ 2*($#&(&O#($B#(&O#($ O/*•#($R&/'#($8#"#//),"!$ B&/%G$J&#$ E:$)*..!#$ &"/#$ $V#a8#B#/8)7*.&1F$ 0($%&#$ %&#$ Z#%Œ/+(&))#$ %#/$ ??Y$0(70))#(A$ -'$ #&(#$ [-$ "*"#$ C0/F!F*([#(!/01*($ [-$ 2#/'#&%#(G$ J&#)$ )*..$ #/'‹O.&,"#(A$%0))$%&#$$F-.!-/#..#($<F!#-/#$[-'&(%#)!$ '&(&'0.#($]-O0(O$[-$0..#($\#/!/&#8)B#O#(A$ %G$ "G$ 0-,"$ %#'$ *(.&(#$ C0/F!A$ 8#)&![#(A$ -'$ F-.!-/#..#$ \&#.+0.!$ [-$ #/'‹O.&,"#($ -(%$ %#($ ?-(%#($ #&(#$ O/‹•#/#$<-)B0".'‹O.&,"F#&!$[-$8&#!#(G eG35$ J&#$ ??Y$ -(%$ )7#[&#..$ %#/#($ C&F/*N?C:$ 8#)&![#($ F#&(#$ $ 0-)/#&,"#(%#($ Y(+*/'01*(#($ Œ8#/$ C0/F!'‹O.&,"F#&!#($ B#%#/$ 0-+$ /#O&*(0.#/A$ (*,"$ 0-+$ O/#([Œ8#/),"/#&!#(%#/$ E8#(#G$ J&#$ P#O&*(#($ )*..!#($ %#)B#O#($ Z#/#&,")N$ -(%$ O/#([Œ8#/O/#&+#(%#$ C0/F'‹O.&,"F#&!#($ Œ8#/$ #&($ /#O&*(0.#)$ M#![B#/F$ 2#/8/#&!#(G$ ;*'&!$ F‹((#($%&#$ P#O&*(#($ $0-,"$ 0.)$#&(#$ <-)!0-),"7.0“*/'$ +Œ/$ 8#Bˆ"/!#$ C#!"*%#($ +-(O&#/#(G$ <-,"$ F‹((!#($ P#O&*(#($ $ B#(&O)!#()$ #&(#($ '&(&'0.#($ C0/F![-O0(O$ #/'‹O.&,"#(A$ &(%#'$ )&#$ %&#$ 6/*%-F!#$ -(%$ J&#()!#$ %#/$ ??Y$ 0-+$ #&(#/$ )7#[&#..#($ 6.0“*/'$ 7/ˆ)#(1#/#($$-(%$)*'&!$0-+$/#O&*(0.#/$E8#(#$0(7/#&)#(G 78>*/4%$56/5-($8(01/(R$"%1J:"D)59%S#:/(18($5&/,5/48/,19#4/5(T/,/1#4(P$(9#4%1/U/5 eG3e$ E)$ O&8!$ #&(#($ O/-(%)ˆ![.&,"#($ C0(O#.$ 0($ -(!#/(#"'#/&),"#($ Rˆ"&OF#&!#($ &($ 0..#($ Z#/#&,"#($ %#/$ ??YA$ B#.,"#/$ )&,"$ 0-)$ %#/$ $+#".#(%#($ E&(8&(%-(O$ $ &($ %&#$ <-)8&.%-(O$ y)7#[&#..$ 8#&$ ?Œ()!.#/(N$ #/O&8!G$ C&!$ #&(#'$ Z-%O#!$ 2*($ wh$C&..&0/%#($ $+Œ/$ %&#$ X0"/#$ 4ffh$ y$ 4f35$&)!$ %0)$ D&+#$ D*(O$ D#0/(&(O$ 6/*O/0''$ #&(#)$ %#/$ >0-7!7/*O/0''#$ %#/$ E:$ +Œ/$ <-)8&.%-(O)N$ -(%$ L/0&(&(O)7/*^#F!#G$Y($ %&#)#'$

!"#$!"#$!%$!"!&$'()$%&'#()&*($*+$!"#$,-.!-/0.$0(%$,/#012#$&(%-)!/&#)$

$

$

$

e4

)*..!#$ %#/$ ;,"B#/7-(F!$ 0-+$ %&#$ E(!B&,F.-(O$ -(%$ :(!#/)!Œ![-(O$ 2*($ F/#012#($ 6/*%-F!#($ -(%$ J&#()!#(A$)*B&#$%&#$F0-+'ˆ((&),"#$V#&!#/8&.%-(O$+Œ/$%#($F/#012#($;#F!*/$0(O#8*!#($B#/%#(G eG3k$ E-/*7ˆ&),"#$ ;*[&0.+*(%)$ F‹((#($ %0)$ </8#&!)2#/"ˆ.!(&)$ -(!#/)!Œ![#($ &($ %#'$ [GZG$ F/#012#$ D#"/)!#..#($ 0(O#8*!#($B#/%#(A$ %&#$ %#($ Ž8#/O0(O$ 2*($%#/$ <-)8&.%-(O$ &($%&#$ </8#&!)B#.!$ #/.#&,"!#/($ -(%$ )*'&!$ %0)$D#/(#($ 0'$ </8#&!)7.0![$ +‹/%#/(G$ Y?L$ ‚-0.&S[&#/-(O#($ )*..!#($ &($ %#($ D#"/7.ˆ(#$ 8#&$ Y()1!-!#($ 0(O#8*!#($ B#/%#(A$ )*$ %0))$ %0)$ &((*2012#$ 6*!#(10.$ %#/$ ??Y$ O#)!ˆ/F!$ B&/%$ -(%$B#&!#/#$ I"0(,#($&'$P0"'#($%#)$%&O&!0.#($V0(%#.)$#/‹_(#!G eG3p$ ??Y$ )&(%$ %-/,"$ 0(O#B0(%!#$ R*/),"-(O)7/*[#))#$ 0-,"$ V&))#()7/*%-[#(!#(G$ J-/,"$ %&#$ ]-)0''#(0/8#&!$ 2*($ $ V&))#()&()1!-1*(#($ $ -(%$ .*F0.#($ ?C:A$ F0(($ %0)$ &((*2012#$ D#&)!-(O)2#/'‹O#($ #&(#/$ P#O&*($ O#)!ˆ/F!$ B#/%#(G$ R0,""*,"),"-.#($ F‹((#($ #&(#$ #(!),"#&%#(%#$ P*..#$ 8#&$ %#'$ ]-)0''#()7&#.$ 2*($ /#O&*(0.#($ <F12&!ˆ!#($ '&!$ 0(%#/#($ #-/*7ˆ&),"#($ P#O&*(#($ )*B&#$ &($ %#/$ \#/(#![-(O$ 2*($ ??Y$ )7&#.#(G$ J-/,"$ %#/#($ \#/(#![-(O$ BŒ/%#($ #8#(+0..)$ %&#$ 7/*+#))&*(#..#($Rˆ"&OF#&!#($%#/$/#O&*(0.#($?C:$#/B#&!#/!$B#/%#(G eG3h$ :'$ %0)$ &((*2012#$ 6*!#(10.$ %#/$ ??Y$ [-$ 2#/8#))#/(A$ )*..!#$ '0($ %&#$ J#S(&1*($ %#)$ Z#O/&_#)$ Y((*201*($ &($ %#($ +*.O#(%#($ &((*201*()N$ -(%$ +*/),"-(O)7*.&1),"#($ E(!),"#&%-(O#($ 0-+$ 0..#$ R*/'#($%#/$ Y((*201*(A$%G"G$%&#$%#)$‹_#(!.&,"#($-(%$7/&20!#($;#F!*/)A$ %#/$ B#&,"#($-(%$2#/)!#,F!#($ Y((*201*(A$#/B#&!#/($-(%$J#)&O($6/*[#))#$)*B&#$L0.#(!)-,"#($%#/$??Y$'&!#&(8#[&#"#(G eG3i$ J&#$ E:$ )*..!#$ %#($ ]-O0(O$ [-$ Y()!/-'#(!#($ %#)$ :/"#8#//#,"!)$ #/.#&,"!#/(A$ %0$ %#/$ %&O&!0.#$ V0(%#.$ (#-#$ $>#/0-)+*/%#/-(O#($0($%0)$Y6P$)!#..!G$?/#012#$ D‹)-(O#(A$%&#$%&#$ :/"#8#/$0-)[#&,"(#($ 08#/$ O.#&,"[#&1O$ R.#W&8&.&!ˆ!$ -(%$.#&,"!#/#$ <(B#(%-(O$ #/'‹O.&,"#(A$ )*..!#($ 0-+$#-/*7ˆ&),"#/$ E8#(#$ 0(O#)!/#8!$$B#/%#(G$ eG3g$??Y$'Œ))#($)&,"$%-/,"$%#($%&O&!0.#($V0(%#.$ %#($(#-#($C‹O.&,"F#&!#($-(%$>#/0-)+*/%#/-(O#($ )!#..#(A$ B*+Œ/$ )&#$ 0(O#'#))#(#$ :(!#/)!Œ![-(O$ 8#(‹1O#(A$ -'$ %0/0-)$ \*/!#&.#$ [&#"#($ [-$ F‹((#(G$ J#)B#O#($ )*..!#($ )7#[&#..#$ R*(%)$ #&(O#/&,"!#!$ B#/%#(A$ %&#$ %&#$ ??Y$ -(%$ O#/0%#$ %#/#($ ?C:$ &'$ Z#/#&,"$ $ C#%&#(F*'7#!#([$ -(!#/)!Œ![#($ -(%$ %&#$ V#&!#/#(!B&,F.-(O$ $ %&O&!0.#($ V#/F[#-O#$ &($ :(!#/(#"'#($#/'‹O.&,"#(G eG4f$ E&(#$ %#/$ B#)#(!.&,"#($ E/F#((!(&))#$ %#/$ Z#+/0O-(O$ &)!A$ %0))$ F-.!-/#..#$ -(%$ F/#012#$ :(!#/(#"'#/$ &($ #&(#/$ &((*2012#($ -(%$ /&)&F*/#&,"#($ :'O#8-(O$ )!0/F$ 2*($ %#/$ \#/(#![-(O$ 08"ˆ(O#(G$ J&#)$ )7&#O#.!$ )&,"$ &($ %#/$ M0,"+/0O#$ %#/$ ?C:$ %#/$ ??Y$ B&#%#/A$ %&#$ (0,"$ '‹O.&,"#($ $ ?**7#/01*()'‹O.&,"F#&!#($ $&($ R*/'$ 2*($ b/O0(&)01*(#(A$ :(!#/)!Œ![-(O$ %#)$ :(!#/(#"'#()$ *%#/$ %#/$ 6/*%-F1*($ )-,"#(G$ E&(#$ -(!#/(#"'#/&),"#$ <F12&!ˆ!$ #/+*/%#/!$ &($ %&#)#'$ ]-)0''#("0(O$ #&($ O#B&))#)$ C0•$ 0($ R.#W&8&.&!ˆ!A$ P&)&F*8#/#&!),"0m$ -(%$ 8/0(,"#(Œ8#/O/#&+#(%#$ ‚-0.&SF01*(#(A$ B0)$ .#![!#(%.&,"$$&($#&(#/$Y((*201*()+‹/%#/-(O$$+Œ/$ %&#$/#)!.&,"#$ V&/!),"0m$ /#)-.1#/#($F0((G$:'$%&#$ ??Y$ [-$ -(!#/)!Œ![#(A$ 'Œ))#($ ]-)0''#(0/8#&!)N$ -(%$ \#/(#![-(O)'‹O.&,"F#&!#($ 0-+O#80-!$ 8[BG$ #/B#&!#/!$B#/%#(G

!"#$!"#$!%$!"!&$'()$%&'#()&*($*+$!"#$,-.!-/0.$0(%$,/#012#$&(%-)!/&#)$

$

$

$

e5

!-/0.!-/#$*+$!"#$)!-%9$ep 3G4G$<77/*0.$/#.$0(%$./#012#$&(%-)!/&#)$ $ $ $ ee .0!*/9$+/0'#B*/F)$gk 4GkG$.-%&(O$/#'0/F)$3hp 4-(%#!$*5.)$*+$!"#$.*7&(O$#(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7$0)$(*(N!#.*(*'9$kf 4-(%#!$*#G.#))$!*$S(0(.-77*/1(O$-)#$*+$%&O&!0.#$334 5G4G$<..*O9$eg 3G5G$L"#$I/#012#$E.#))$!*$&((*201*($3k5 5GpG$I.!*/)$hp 4GeG$I/*))$.)$0(%$!/0&(&(O$35g 5GkG$<.$)F&.$0(%$.!-/0.01*(A$)F&.!-/0.!#/&)1.#))&(O$S(0(."#!"#2 4-(%#!$*.9!2 5G3$<..<&4/.12#)$0(%$)!/-.*.$0(%$.99!"<(/.9)&)$*+$/#O-.$%/&2#/$*+$&((*201*($3i4 eGpG$.$0(%$.#))&(O$!"#$'0/F#!$3if eGeG$Z/&%O&(O$!"#$#(!/#7/#(#-/&0.."(*..-%&(O$/#'0/F)$3fi 4-(%#!$*#-$!!J*9('"*#-!9(/4*.*O&.&#4..J*4$!(/0!*!"#$!%$!"!&$2-'% 4G3G$J#S(&(O$#(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7$&($!"#$.)$O07$3i3 eGkG$J#2#.#))$!*$'0/F#!$34k 5G5G$Y6P$&()!/-'#(!)$0(%$IIY$.&$J*$!4.*-(!/9$0(0.08*/01*($3pk 5GhG$I*(.-.-.*''#(%01*()$3hi eG4G$<.4.0.!-/0.CE)$355 5GeG$E(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7$#%-.."$0(%$'#!"*%*..-..#$3hg eG5G$<."!J*'"#$./#012#$#(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7$3f5 4GpG$I*(.." 3G3G$b2#/2&#BA$*8^#.-77*/1(O$.-)!#/)$0(%$.."2 eG3G$L/0()2#/)0.&)01*($3i5 H!2#*4(2!2 !"#$!"#$!%$!"!&$'()$%&'#()&*($*+$!"#$./#012#$&(%-)!/&#)$ke 4G4G$I"0/0./#012#$&(%-)!/&#)$p5 4G5G$R#0!-/#)$*+$!"#$IIY$)#.-.

$0(%$.-../#012#$&(%-)!/&#)$ $ $ $ ek .!-/0.1*( !"#$!"#$!%$!"!&$'()$%&'#()&*($*+$!"#$."07!#/$*(#T$&(!/*%-.

/#012#$7*7-.!#%$ '-.)."!$L/#0!9$=!"#$ E:$D&)8*($7/*.!-/0.*B#%$!"#$ '*2#$ !*$ /#./#012#$ &(%-)!/&#)$&($ .)8)D56( 155)E"D)5( "50( :5).$ .1*($ 0(%$ 6/*'*1*($*+$!"#$J&2#/)&!9$ *+$I-.$ '0.91&'( "50( 4$8"5( 0/E/%)>8/5&X( 3419( 19( .-.&O"!#%$ !"#$ (##%$ +*/$ *-/$ ..IbA$VY6b$0(%$YLI@T$ V34/( 15&/."&#2#'#(!$*+$ !"#$ D&)8*($ b8^#.#$ 3$EI$I*''-(&.!/0!#O9$+*/$.01*(A$=C0/.9$ 7-8.!-/0.*(*'9A$:MIL<JcJYLIc4ffic4$A$7G$&&& k $E: I*-(./5/$.9)#/)$ *+$ E-/*7#l)$ &((*2012#$7*!#(10.$ 0(%$ I/#012# .!-/#N80)#%$ .$ 0.12#)Ak $ 0.%/06/( &./#012#$ )#.*(*'9lG$ $ L"#$ &(.G$.)*$ +*.6156( #.#(!#%$0(%$%&2#/)#$.HN!4/0!2*("<*2#$&4#&$!*.-.!-/#$*($.*."0.)8)D56( 9)#1"%( 15#%$91)5-( #$%&$.156(&4"&( 155)E"DE/( 10/"9(#"5(A/( &$.E1#/9( &4"&( #.*(*'&.12#)$ N$ $ $ $ $ <%*71*($*+$!"#$I*-(.#(O#)A$ )-.*(*'&.!-/0."59*/."$ 0a#(1*($ &($ +*)!#/&(O$ 0(%$ -(.)0$#&9( "50( 9/.41%/( "&( &4/( 9"8/( D8/( >./#0)&(O$ +*.$ #W7/#))&*()G$ >*B#2#/A$ &($/#.$ O/*B!"$ &($ E-/*7#@A$ 0)$ B#.$ 0)$ &($ !"#$ :ME...$ 0(%$!"#$ .8"D)5( "50( #)88$51#"D)5( &/#45)%)61/9("50( /59$.#(O#)G$L"#$ E-/*7#$ 4f4f$./&)&)$0(%$ 0$ )!/*(O#/$ O."0.*O(&)#%$ 0)$ "02&(O$ 0$ /&.*(*'9$ &($ 4ffiA$ B"&."&/( 15#)8/-( I)A9( "50( /H>)./56&4/5156( )$.4"&( &4/( /8/../"DE/( /#)5)8'( 4"9( "%.)./#012#$ #.!*/$ "0)$/#)-.&( /"./9/"."$0)$!"#$ :M$P#7*/!$*($I/#012#$ E.$ *+$ 0$ E-/*7#0($ u."$ %&2#/)&!9$ &($ &!)$ .!#%$&($'0(9$ )!-%&#)A$ )-.$ 0)$&(!#/(0.)$64)$&( &4/( Y51)5-( 8":156( *$%%( $9/( )*( 15*).!$ *+$.$ .$ .-../#012&!9A$?E<$E-/*7#0($<_0&/)T$Z/-))#.5/0(15&)(5/.!*/)$ !*$!"#$ <.$ */O0(&)01*()$ =:MIL<JA$ :MJ6A$:ME.F&(O$ !"#$ 7*!#(10.*(*'&.) e$:MIL<JA$=4ffi@A$L"#$I/#012#$E./9(18>./"&/( 6.&.#.&( 6.%/06/( "50(155)E"D)5("9(0.( .-.#))$+*/$)!/#(O!"#(&(O$!"#$ #.-)!0&(08.&4X(3419(.9$ /#.%&(O$ -7*($*(#$ *+$ E-/*7#l)$ F#9$ )!/#(O!")o$&!)$ !0./( 6./99/0( 15( &4/( "A1%1&'( &)( #..!-/#$ 0(%$ .0!0./-( /#)5)81#9( "50( &/#45)%)6'-( "9(/H>.&4-( O$"%1&'( I)A9( "50( 4/%>( "00.*(.$ *+$ !"#$ .01*(T3 $ VW8".!-/0.$ 0(%$ .&.$ .*"#/( "8)56( #.-.1&4( /5&."$ B0)$ .&*N #.$ip5kc4cfh$I:DL$4k$PE\$4 p$L"#$E-/*7#0($I*''-(&!9$&)$70/!9$!*$!"&)$I*(2#(1*(G !"#$!"#$!%$!"!&$'()$%&'#()&*($*+$!"#$.)>/"5( "50( 6%)A"%( 9)#1/&"%( #4"%%/56/9X( T$&-( &)( 9$##//0-( &419( 8$9&( A/( #)8A15/0( .#(O#)$ 89$ 8-&.0/.."07!#/$*(#T$&(!/*%-.!/0!#O9$ "&O".-./99( 7$..&4-( /8>%)'8/5&-( &.9()*()$.#4( >/.-)$ *($ !"#$ .12#.$0(%$./*N#.&.( &4.&$51D/9ZX[ L"#$ &'70.5*#-!*2#&<O E-/*7#$ &)$ B&%#.&)"#%$ 89$ S2#$ &(!#/(01*(0.#.*(1(#(!$ !*$ !0F#$ 0($ &((*2012#$ 70!"$!*$/#)7*(%$!*$!"#)#$ .$ "#/&!0O#$ 0(%$ .-)&*()A$ =4ffh@A$ I*(!/&8-1*($ *+ !"# I-.51569( .&4(8/"59(9&.-.1E/./56&4/5156( :5).*(+/*(!#%$ B&!"$ )#2#/0.( /0$#"D)5-( 9&.1*( KLKL*:0!$0'!GM*."0/-( 155)E"D)5( "50( 9)#1"%( #)4/91)5( 15( 8)9&( "0E"5#/0(/#)5)81/9ZX\ Y($ /#..( >.$.Ib$I*(2#(1*(@Ap $!"#$/*.&'&.*'7#11*(A$ 0)$B#.#(!$ 9#0/)A$ !"#$ E:$I*-(."%( 01E/.Ib$ I*(2#(1*($ *($ !"#$ 6/*!#.(5//09("50(8".!-/0.&0./"&/( "50( #1."$ 0)$ !"#$ S(0(.#$0(%$Y(.*(!/&8-1(O$ !*$ !"#$ D&)8*($ *8^#.)E156(&4/(O$"%1&'( )*()$.*).).#$%"&/( 15&/%%/#&$"%( #">1&"%-( 4"9( &4/( >)&/5D"%( &)( 6/5/.#(!$ 9#0/)$ E-/*7#$ "0)$ 8##($ .$ )*.( *$&$./O$1.-)&2#$K/*B!"A$IbC$=4f3f@$4f4fA$7G$hG 4$Y8&%GA$$7G$3fG 5$?E<A$=4ffg@A$L"#$&'70.*.*80."0../#012&!9l5 $"0)$ 0a/0./>./#012#$&(%-)!/&#)$ $ $ $ ep .:/&()>>).!$*+$.$EW7/#))&*()$="#/#0m#/$ (0'#%$:ME.8"5#/-( >.'0/!A$.*O(&)#$ !"#$ 7*!#(10.-./#012&!9$ */$ u.!-/0."$4f3f8@A$E-/*7#$4f4fT$<$.)./"DE1&'-( #$%&$.-)&*()A$gf43cfhA$JKYN4<A$J*.941>-(J5"5#/-("50("(*)#$9()5($9/.$ I*(.!-/0.9A$ &($!"#$ C00)!/&./"0'( A/6$5( &)(0)("9( "(%/"0156( #)8>)5/5&( )*( /#)5)81#( 6.1(O$ 0)$ ..

$ %&2#/)&!9$ 0(%$0/#$ %/&2#/)$*+$ +-/!"#/$ %#2#.F&(O$!"#$6*!#(10.&#(1S.*(*'9o$+*/$ #W0'7."%("50(=.#$ *+$ !"#$ .$ 0(%$ .!*/$P#7*/!T$ I-.'T$ E-/*7#0($I.0//9$ *-!$ !"#&/$ 0.#(!/#%$077/*0.F"*..08.$0(%$I/#012#$Y(%-)!/&#)A$IbC$=4f3f@$3i5 g $?E<$ =4ffp@A$L"#$ E.#))#)A$ 7/*%-.0q*/'A$ 0(%$!"#$ EW7#/!$ V*/F&(O$ K/*-7$ *($ IIY)34 $$ =)#!$ -7$0)$ 70/!$ *+$ !"#$ E-/*7#0($ <O#(%0$ +*/$ I-.0.L<A3f $ !"#$ E-/*7#0($ I.*(!/&8-1(O$ !*$E-/*7#l)$ )!/#(O!")$ &($ 1'#)$ *+$ .-)!#/$b8)#/20!*/9A$ =C0/.!)$ 0(%$)#/2&.F(*B./#012#$ #.*(!#W!$*+$0$ O.-)&*(A$ IIY)$ . 3h$EI$K/##($607#/A$=<7/&.#(!/#%$ &((*201*(lA$33 $!"#$ /#7*/!)$ 7/*%-.!0_$V*/F&(O$J*.!*.$ZGA$.#%O#%$ !"#&/$ O/#0!$ #."0.)>/"5(@%"]).!*8#/$4f3f@A$IbC$=4f3f@$kep$S(0.#)$ +*/$ &(.*.9$ 89$ !"#$ E-/*7#0($ 6.$ &'70.&.*7'#(!c%*.!-/#c*-/N7*.$ %&'#()&*($ *+$ IIY)G$ R*)!#/&(O$ #(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7$ &($ !"#$ IIY)$ '#0()$ )!/#(O!"#(&(O$ E-/*7#l)$ .*(*'&.0.."$4f3f8@A$*7G$.!-/0.$ &(.&0.!/0!#O9G$ $ V&!"$ &'0O&(012#$ )*.!-/#$0(%$I/#012#$Y(%-)!/&#)$&($K#/'0(9A$:ME.$ 0(%$ .F&(O$ !"#$ #(!/#7/#(#-/&0.$ .-.#A$ 4ffg$ B0)$ %#)&O(0!#%$ !"#$ E-/*7#0($ •#0/$ *+$ I/#012&!9$ 0(%$ Y((*201*($ 0(%$ !"#$ /#.#(O#)$&($!"#$ .-.#$ *+$ )!-%&#)$*($!"#$ IIY)A$ )-.&)#%$#./#012#$ #(!/#7/#(#-/)$ !*$#r.12&1#)$0(%$ 7/*7*)#$ (#B$ 7/*%-.$ &((*201*($ +*/$ 7/*%-.&(#$ B&!"$ !"#$ E:$ 4f4f$ .*.-."$ 0)$O.$ 0(%$ )."#)A$ !"#$%#2#.&.)*$ *-!)&%#$ !"#$ IIY$)#.#)$ 0(%$ 7/*.*(*'&.#(O#)$ 0(%A$ 0)$ )-.&(O$ !"#$ 08&..Ib$Z*(( i$EI$K/##($607#/A$=<7/&.*(*'9$ 0(%$ '*/#$ )7#.1/9$0(%$!"#$ _>/5(.$ ./&4)0()*( =))./#012#$&(%-)!/&#)$ $ $ $ eh .!*/)$*+$ !"#$ #.01*($•E-/*7#$4f4f$R.:156( a.#(!/#%$&((*201*(A$."0.*(*'9$ 0)$B#.#)A$ 0(%$ !"&)$.#%$O/#0!#/$ .*'70))&(O$ '*/#$ !"0($ ^-)!$ !#.*80.$0(%$./&1.&%&S#%$!"&)$/#.*(*'9G3i$ h$R#)#..015"D)5(7H>/.#%$/#.*.!$ 0)$ &'7*/!0(!$ %/&2#/)$ *+$ u#.#.$4f3f@A$*7G$./#012#$ #.&O"!#%$ !"#$ ."0(O#$ &($ (*(N !#.*(!/&8-1(O$!*$8/*0%#/$.*()&%#/01*($ !*$ #W0'&(#$ .1E/.0O)"&7$Y(&1012#$Y((*201*($:(&*(•A$=b.G$ $ IIY$ 0.-.8( )5(&4/( @)&/5D"%()*( &4/( =$%&$.!-/0.F&(O$ !"#$ 7*!#(10.&!GA$7G$5G 3i$EI$I*''-(&.$ *+$ !"#$ .!*/$ 8-!$ 0.$ +0.!*/)$"02#$ !*$ 8#$ !0F#($ &(!*$ .‹(%#/'0((A$CGA$=4ffh@A$I-."(*.*O&.*7'#(!$0(%$-)#$*+$YILA$ !"#$ %#)&O($*+$(#B$)#/2&.!-/0.$ 0(%$ )*.&)01*($0(%$ !"#$ u%&O&!0.&#(!.!)A$ )#/2&."0(O#)A3p $ !"#$ IIY)$ *_#/$ !"#$ *77*/!-(&!9$ !*$ 8/&(O$ #))#(10.&0.0.!-/0.##$"a7TccBBBG(#)!0G*/OG-Fc7-8.$ 0(%$.$%&2#/)&!9G V&!"$(#B$ 7/*.#))#)A$ .$0(%$I/#012# $ Y(%-)!/&#)A$.9$ ./#0)#%$)*.*(!/&8-!#$ !*$ %/&2#$ %9(0'&.F(*B."$4f3f@A$ 6/&*/&!9$ .CE)G$ P#7*/!)$ 020&.0($0.#)A$ IIY)$'09$7/*2&%#$ &((*2012#$ &(7-!$+*/$ *!"#/$ )#.#.!$ *+$ I-.-)!#/$ b8)#/20!*/9A$ !"#$ B*/F$ *($ uJ#)&O($ 0)$ 0$ %/&2#/$ *+$ -)#/N.$ 0)$ ..&0.1/9A$ &($ 70/1.-.0/$ !"0!$ *+$ .-.!*/)$)-.!-/0.#$ 0!$ "a7Tcc #.&!9$ *+$ ./#012#$ %&2#/)&!9$ 89$ /#&(+*/.!-aO0/!T$EIIE$Y((*201*(A$7G33G 3p$EI$I*''-(&.9$ !*$ !"#$ /*.$ 0(%$ &((*2012#$ 7*!#(10./#012#$ &(%-)!/&#)$"0)$ O0&(#%$ O/#0!#/$ 0a#(1*(Gh $Y($ 70/0.&!GA$$7G$5G 3k $EIIE$ Y((*201*(A$=X-.A$ )#2#/0."$ 0)$ !"#$ &(!#O/01*($*+$-)#/N.!-/#$ *($I/#012&!9A$ Z/-))#.01*() 33$EI$.-1*()$ )-.!-/0.A$ )*.&S.$*+$I-.-.F.!*/A3e $ .$ 0(%$ .44efj#(G"!'G$ 35$E-/*7#0($I./"DE/( ^50$9&.#(!.01*(A$=C0/.EI$=4ffg@$kf3 34$ 7$.08*/01*($8#!B##($ I/#012# Y(%-)!/&#)$ 0(%$ $ b!"#/$Y(%-)!/&#)A$.-)!#/$ b8)#/20!*/9A$7G$35G 3e$EI$K/##($607#/A$=<7/&.-.$ &((*201*(l$ B&!"&($ !"#$ )#."0(O#$ &($ !"#$ #.()*(155)E"D)5X L"&)$ )!-%9$ /#)7*(%)$!*$ !"#$ O/*B&(O$ &'7*/!0(.$ +0.!-/0.*9'#(!A$35 $ 0(%$ 0.!-/0."A$ 0/#$ &($ .!-/0.#$ +-!-/#$.9$ 4ffg@A$ C077&(O$ Y((*201*($b77*/!-(&1#)$ .*80..A$ ."$ 0)$!"*)#$ -(%#/!0F#($ 89$ ?E<Ag $ME.$4f3f@A$*7G$.0.#%O#%$ 0)$#(.!-/0.*(*'9$ *+$ I-.!#''&(O$ R/*'$ I*./#012#$ &(%-)!/&#)l$ ="#/#0m#/$ /#+#//#%$ !*$0)$ !"#$ IIY)@$ )*.)T$ ?E<$ E-/*7#0($<_0&/)o$ ?E<A$ =4ffg@A$ L"#$ Y'70.-'#(!A$=4ffg0@A$J#)&O($0)$0$%/&2#/$*+$-)#/N.!-/#$ &($E-/*7#A$ Z/-))#.$ .&2#$ #(2&/*('#(!)$ +*/$ -(."%( "50( =.*7'#(!$+*/$ !"#$ IIY)G3h $<%%&1*(0.-.&(`).12&1#)$ 0.*+$ !"#$ .$ E-/*7#0($ &(&1012#)$"02#$ 8##($-(%#/!0F#($ !*$ 7/*'*!#$ !"#$ &%#0$ *+$ !"#$ ./"DE/( ^50$9&.G#-/*70G#-c."H1819156( &4/( @)&/5D"%( )*( =$%&$.$ )"&ml$ "02#$ *7#(#%$*77*/!-(&1#)$0(%$ #(08.$4f3f@A$:(."(*.!$0)$0$5)5C&/#45)%)61#"%(0.*(*'9G3k $<)$&((*201*($&)$(*B$ 0.)$>( )5( .*O&.9N%#2#.&!GA$7G$4G !"#$!"#$!%$!"!&$'()$%&'#()&*($*+$!"#$.!-/#@A$ "02#$ "&O".#(!$ K/##($ 607#/$ *($ u:(.#$ *+$!"#$ IIY)$0)$0$ '#0()$!*$!0.!$ *+$ IIY)$ *($ O/*B!"$ 0(%$ #'7.*O(&1*(Gi L"#$ 08-(%0(.*(%-.*(!/&8-1(O$ !*$ 0$ '*/#$ &(2#(12#$ E-/*7#G$EW!#/(0.!)$0(%$)#/2&.)T$?E<$E-/*7#0($<_0&/) 3f$..-.

01*($0(%$!/0&(&(Oo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o$0.-))&*($ *+$ !"#$ .#$ B0)$%#2#."0/0.&'&.*(!#W!$ &($ B"&.#%O#N&(!#()&2#$7/*%-..*/#%o$0(%$&($ I"07!#/$ e$!*$ 7/*2&%#$)*'#$7*.#o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m#/$ !"&)$ *2#/2&#BA$ !"#$ )!-%9$ )-/2#9)$ !"#$ F#9$ %#!#/'&(0(!)$ !*$ )!/#(O!"#(&(O$ #(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7$+*/$ IIY)$ )-.."#)$ +*/$ %#2#.$ #(2&/*('#(!0..-))$ )-77*/!$ +*/$ %#2#.$ 077/*0./#012#$&(%-)!/&#)$ $ $ $ ei .*-.$ '0/F#!$ 0(%$ (#B$ !#.%$ "0'7#/$ &((*201*($ 0(%$ 7/#2#(!$ IIY)$ +/*'$ 8#(#S1(O$ +/*'$ !"#$ &(!#/(0.01*($ 0(%$ !/0&(&(Oo$0.#))$ !*$ '0/F#!o$ &(!#.$ 7/*7#/!9$ /&O"!)$ =Y6P@o$ #%-.!-/0..$ 0(%$ '#%&-'N)&[#%$ #(!#/7/&)#)$="#/#0m#/$ /#+#//#%$!*$0)$ .0/.*()&%#/)$ (01*(0.-)$ *($ '&..*/#$ +0.#)$&($)7#.)$*+$ !"#$ IIY)$ 0(%$ .-.!*/)$+*/$ %#!#/'&(&(O$#(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7$&($!"#$ IIY)A$ (0'#.&O"!$ *($ !"#$ 0/#0$ *+$ ..)$ *+$ 0-!"*/&!9o$0(%$!"#$ %&_#/#(!$.."$!"#$ IIY)$S(%$ !"#')#.CE)@G$Y!$ B&.9$ -(#W7.&2#$ #(2&/*('#(!$ +*/$ IIY)$ 0)$B#./&8&(O$!"#$ O#(#/0.$0(%$.*'7/#"#()&2#$ *2#/2&#B$8-!$/0!"#/$ !*$*_#/$ 0$ )(07)"*!$*+$!"#$ ..#)$ 0(%$ !0F&(O$ &(!*$ .$ 0)$%#).L"#$ +*.*''*($ !*$ 0.**F)$0!$ !"#$ )&W$..&0.!*/)$ !"0!$ &(n-#(.08*/01*(A$ (#!B*/F)$ 0(%$ .-)$*($.9$)-OO#)1*()G$ L"/*-O"*-!$ !"&)$ /#7*/!A$ 0/*-(%$ ef$ Z#)!$ I0)#)$ &.*-(!/&#)$ 0.$ 7/*7#/!9$ /&O"!)o$ #%-.$.&S.012#.#$ %#2#.#.#$ !"#$ %#2#.-//#(!$ )&!-01*(o$!*$)"#%$)*'#$ .#)o$ !"#$ %&_#/#(!$ .!$+#0!-/#$ +/*'$!"#$ O#(#/0./#012#$ #(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7$0)$0$%&)1(.#2#..$ )#.A$ /#O&*(0.$4f3f@A$*7G$.%$ +*/$ #(!/#7/#(#-/)$&($ IIY)$B0)$7-!$ +*/B0/%$ &($!"#$ /#.$/#."$!"#9$ *7#/0!#G$ Y!$ S/)!.#))$!*$&((*201*(o$0(%$./#012&!9$ 0(%$&((*201*(G 3g L"#$ )!-%9$ 0&')$!*$7/*2&%#$ 0$ 8#a#/$ -(%#/)!0(%&(O$*+$!"#$ *7#/01*()$0(%$ )7#.9A$ 0(*(9'&)#%$ .#))$!*$S(0(.."$ !"#$ IIY)$ *7#/0!#G$ Y($ */%#/$ !*$ %&)..&.0!#$ )7#.F0O#$ *+$/#.#')$ .*7'#(!$ 7"0)#)$&($B"&.&O"!$ !"#$ !/0()2#/)0.*.#(O#)$ !"0!$ ..-.9$ %#S(#)$!"#$ .#))$ !*$ &((*201*(o$ 0(%$ .."0/0.#$*($&((*201*($0(%$!"#$IIY)G L"#$ )!-%9$ 0&')$ !*$ 7/*2&%#$ 0$ 70.#))$ !*$'0/F#!o$&(!#.*''*($.--'A$ !"#$ )!-%9$ 7/*2&%#)$ 0($ *2#/2&#B$ *+$ !"#$ .0.*(2#/O#(.#')$*+$IIY)$..$ 0(%$ .$ &%#0$ *+$ #(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7G$L"&)$8-&.$)#.-)!#/)$ *+$ .!#/&)1.#$0(%$&!)$&(n-#(.0($8#$+*-(%$0!$!"#$#(%$*+$!"#$/#7*/!G$ 3g$EI$K/##($607#/A$=<7/&.%)$ -7*($ !"#$ %&)."#)$ 0(%$ &(&1012#)G$ .-)!#/)G$ .*''*($ +#0!-/#)$ *+$ 0.*''#(!)$+/*'$!"#$ '0(9$ #W7#/!)$ &(!#/2&#B#%$ %-/&(O$ !"#$ )!-%9$ 0/#$ 7/#)#(!#%$B"#/#$ 077/*7/&0!#G$<$8&8.*7&(O$ #(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7$ &($ !"#$ IIY)A$ 0$ +/0'#B*/F$ *+$ 0(0..!*/)$ *+$ !"#$ IIY)$ 0(%$!"#$ %&_#/#(.$ 0a#(1*($ &)$ O&2#($ !*$ !"#$ #_#.0!*/9$ +/0'#B*/F$ !"0!$ )"07#)$ !"#$ ..9.*..9.9$ )'0.#)$0(%$!"#$ (##%$!*$.!*/)G$Y($*/%#/$ !*$0%%/#))$!"#$ .08*/012#$7/*.*()&%#/01*($ )#.&+#.&S.*/%&(O$ !*$ !"#$ O#(#/0.!-/0./#012#$ #(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7$ !"0!$ /#'0&()$/#.2#)G I"07!#/$ 4$7/*2&%#)$)*'#$ -(%#/)!0(%&(O$ *+$ !"#$ .$0(%$E-/*7#0($0-!"*/&1#)G I"07!#/$ 5$.!*/)A$ 0)$B#.#o$ 0./*N.#(!$ K/##($607#/$ !"/*-O"$ 0$ +*...$ 7.&S.!-0.#)$.&O"1(O$ 8#)!$ 7/0.

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ŠE-/*F.9$ +/*'$ C&(&)!/&#)$ *+$ I-.*(%$ B0)$ "#.$ /#..$ S#.!*/0.!-/0..-%#%$ 8*!"$SO-/#)$+/*'$ !"#$ *(.*''#(%01*()G$ 60/0.#."$=X0(-0/9$4f3f@A$ 0m#/$ O0!"#/&(O$ !"#$ IIY$ )!01)1.#$ !"#$ SO-/#)$ +/*'$ !"# *(.#.(4-*("<*9!#-.*'70(&#)$ /#O&)!#/#%$ 0)$ 0.&(#$ $ )-/2#9$ =IIY)@G$ L"# SO-/#)$/#+#//&(O$ !*$!"#$ +*/'#/$0/# )*-/.$!"#'#)A$ #W7#/!$*7&(&*()$B#/#$ 0.$ +0.%$ /#)#0/.0()A$ Q-0(1!012#$ )!01)1.<.0%#'&0A$ .#.$0(%$.0."$7/*.0))&S.#&2#$ '*/#$ #W!#()&2#$ *7&(&*()$*($)7#.$ 0(0.#!#%$ !"#$ Q-#)1*((0&/#G$$$ Y($*/%#/$ !*$/#.#$ %-/&(O$ !"#$ )#.!#%A$ B"&.*-(!/9$.#%$ 0.&(#$ Q-#)1*((0&/#$ !0/O#!#%$ !"#$ )#.!*8#/$ 0(%$ M*2#'8#/$ 4ffg@A$ *(#$ *(.-)&*($*+$!"#)#$ !B*$)#.-)!#/&(O$&($B"&.*'7/#"#()&2#$ 7*.-'#(!G$ L"#)#$ Q-*!#)$ 0/#$ /#+#/#(.0)#$ )!-%&#)$ 0(%$ 20.&(#$ )-/2#9)A$ .&%01*($ B*/F)"*7)$!**F$ 7.#$ &($ !"#$ E:N4h$ +*/$ 4ffhG$ .)*$O0!"#/#%$ !"/*-O"$ )#'&N)!/-."$*+$!"&)$)!-%9$ "0)$8##($ !*$077.0.$ #W7#/!)$ +/*'$ '0(9$ %&_#/#(!$ .$ 4f3fG$ L"&)$ Q-#)1*((0&/#$ !0/O#!#%$ IIY)$ !"#')#.!-/0.!#%$ 0(%$ B0)$ *7#($ +/*'$ '&%NR#8/-0/9$ -(1.$ #.*-(!/9$!*$.@$ B#/#$ )#.#%$0)$Š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ffp4f $B0)$-)#%$8-!$ B&!"$)*'#$0%^-)!'#(!)G Y($ !"#$ S/)!$ 7"0)#$ =%-/&(O$ b.9$ .!#/&)1."$*-/$ 0(0.9)#)$ *+$ IIY)A$ #W7#/!$ *(.*%#@$ &)$ *(#$ *+$ !"#$ M<IE$ .$ 0(0.&S.*-(!/9$ 0(%$ -(%#/$ !"#$ /#0.$ 7*.9)#)$ &($ 4ffgG$ L"#$ B"*.*(!0&()$35$ '&.$ 0)$ )#.BO L"#$ O#(#/0.&0.-%#%$ 0)$70/!$ *+$ !"#$ IIY)$ &($!"&)$ )!-%9G$ <.#$ 0!$ !"#$ 1'#$ *+$ !"#$ )!01)1.0."0/0.*7#A$ !"#$ 7#/+*/'&(O$ 0(%$2&)-0.&.$0(%$E-/*7#0($/#7*/!)$0(%$.*(%-.*-(!/9$0(%$!"#9$ 0/#$ 4f$?E<A$=4ffp@A$*7G$..2#)G$ phf$ /#)7*(%#(!)$ 70/10.!*/0.0.$0(*(9'&)#%$Q-*!#)$0/#$ -)#%$ !"/*-O"*-!$ !"&)$ %*.*'70(&#)$ &($ E-/*7#G$R/*'$ !"&)A$ .*%#)$ 077*&(!#%$ +*/$ !"#$ IIY)$ B#/#$ 077/*0.12#$ 0(%$ /#)&%&(O$ &($ *(#$ E:$ .*'&(O$ '*)!.9$hf$EW7#/!)$+/*'$!"#$%&_#/#(!$.&(#$ )-/2#9@$ B0)$ .$ 0)$ #W7#/!)$ +/*'$ 0.%$ 0m#/$ !"#$ *2#/0.#m$ 0$ %0!080)#$ *+$ hG33hGkkg$ #(!#/7/&)#)G$R/*'$ !"&)$ .#A$ 0)$ B#..#&)$4ffg–A$B"&.&(#$ )-/2#9$/#)-.#&)$4f3f–G !"#$!"#$!%$!"!&$'()$%&'#()&*($*+$!"#$."$!"#$*/O0(&)01*($*7#/0!#)G LB*$ 20..*."$ &()1!-!#)G$ L"&)$ *(.$ 0(%$ %&2#/)#$ #W7#/!)@ 0(%$ !"#$ *(.0.&(#$ Q-#)1*((0&/#$ =/#+#//#%$ !*$ 0)$ *(.9$ .$ 0(0.9)&)$ B&!"$ 7/&'0/9$ Q-0.*%#$80)#%$*($!"#$ .9$0$ 8.&!#/0!-/#$B#/#$-(%#/!0F#(G Y($ !#/')$*+$ ).%#/)$ *($ !"#$ &(&10.)$ +*/$ 4ffi$ B#/#$ (*!$ 020&.&!GA$7G$kpA$7G$peA$7G$5fiG 43 $Y($!"&)$ /#7*/!A$ B# $ "02#$ &(."$4f3f@$!*$O0&($0$%##7#/$ -(%#/)!0(%&(O$*+$!"#$ &))-#)$0(%$)#2#/0.#!#%$ !"#$ Q-#)1*((0&/#$ 0(%$ 53f$ +-..*(!#W!-0.).12&!9$ =7/&'0/9$ ."$ .&*O/07"&..&(#$ Q-#)1*((0&/#)A$ #W7#/!$ &(!#/2&#B)A$ *(.$ */O0(&)01*()$ 0(%$ /#)#0/.)$0(%$ #W0'&(&(O$ !"#$ #(2&/*('#(!0.$0)$!"#$.!*/)$B&!"&($!"#$IIY)$20/&#)$+/*'$ .9$ ).-.)A$ !"#$ %0!080)#$ -7*($ B"&./#012#$&(%-)!/&#)$ $ $ $ eg .*-(!/&#)$*+$!"#$E:G43$ Y($ !"#$ )#.*(%$7"0)#$ =R#8/-0/9$ 0(%$ C0/.$ .&!012#$ 0(%$ Q-0(1!012#$ S#.$ 0))*.!#/&)1.#$ %0!080)#$ *+$ !"#$ E-/*7#0($ :(&*($ .%B*/FG$J&_#/#(!$ '#!"*%)$ *+$ %0!0$ ."$ 4f3f@$ &($ */%#/$ !*$ /#.0.

@A$ B"&.-%#%$7#/+*/'&(O$ 0/!)$ B&!"&($!"#$.!-/#A$ C#%&0$ 0(%$ .9$ ."0((#.*(*'&.#7!$ *+$ !"#$ u.&(0/9$ 0/!)A$ 0)$ 70/!$*+$!"#$.*(*'9$B#/#$ .*((#..#%/9( 8)0/%–$ 0(%$ !"#$ %&_#/#(!$(01*(0.!-/0.$ .F(*B.&!GA$7G$kG 4e$:MIL<JA$=4ffi@A$L"#$I/#012#$E.7*/!$&($!"#$ :?A$ &(.$ 077/*0.$ 0)7#.*'#$ *+$ !"#$ %#S(&1*()A$)-."(*."$ 0)$ 0%2#/1)&(OA$ 7-8.)$+*/$ !"#$ .#(!)$+*/$!"#$ M#B$E.#!#G$ 4p J&_#/#(!$ '*%#.$ #'8/9*(&.*)#/$ !*$ !"#$ '0/F#!A$ )-./#012#$&(%-)!/&#)$ $ $ $ kf ..12&!9$ "02#$ /0%&.-.9$ 607#/A$ L"#$ >0O-#T$ M#!"#/.&O"1(O$ %&_#/#(!$ .!-/#A$ C#%&0$ 0(%$ .7*/!$ =JIC.9O K.9&(O$ 0))-'71*()$08*-!$ !"#$ 7-/7*)#$ 0(%$'*%#$ *+$*7#/01*($*+$!"#$ IIY)G$6#/"07)$!"#$ S/)!$ -)0O#$ *+$ !"#$ !#/'$ u.*(.!-/#$ 0(%$E.#(!$ K/##($607#/G 45 KLRL*8-!*+$!(/0!*14.*(&$ :(&2#/)&!9$ E%o$ JIC.#.!-/0.$ 7/*%-.#)G4e $ L"&)$ .#$#.#$ !"#$ $ I/#012#$ E.-.F$ 0)$ 3gghG$ Y($ !"#$ :?$ 077/*0.0/$ /01*(0.-.!-/#$ 0(%$C&(&)!/9$ *+$ E..1*($.) 4h$JIC.'*)!$.!-/0.-%#%$ B&!"&($!"#$ ).&!GA$77G$34N3kG 4g$.*/#l$ 0/!)$ */$ #2#($./#012#$ #.*7&(O$ &!)$ ."$8#O0($ %#2#.0(!0O0!0AVG$ A$ =4ffg@A$ V"&!#$ 707#/$ *($ I/#012&!9$ T$ L*B0/%)$ 0($ Y!0.( .o$ M#!"#/.*(*'&.0(T$ $ Z*.)$ #W&)!$ !*$ #W7.12&1#)l$ =!/0%&1*(0.$4f3f@A$*7G$.*7'#(!$ 6/*O/0''#$ =:MJ6@$ 0(%$ !"#$ Y(!#/(01*(0./#012#$ &(%-)!/&#)$ )!/0!#O9$ 0)$ +0/$ 80..*)!)$0(%$#0)9$!/0()+#/$!*$*!"#/$ #.&0.$ .*7'#(!A$ C&.7*/! 4i$:MIL<JA$=4ffi@A$*7G$.9$ .*(.*(.$ 0)$#./#012#$ &(%-)!/&#)$ 0/#$ !"*)#$ /#Q-&/&(O$ VXXX#.( 15&/%%/#&$"%(>.IbA$ !"#$ V*/.!-/0.-#N$ I-."&(O$ !"#$.!-/0."#)$"02#$ %#S(#%$ !"#$ IIY)$&($ '0(9$ B09)A$ &(.&.*()-'#$ .*(!#W!A$ !"#$ ./#012#$ &(%-)!/&#)A$44 $ !"&)$ )!-%9$ &(.9$ #(2&/*('#(!G$ I/#012&!9$ &)$ (*B$ 0.$ 0/!)@$ 0(%$ u%*B()!/#0'$ 0.*(2#/O#(.&'XZPS* L"#$ /#7*/!$ uI/#012#$ E.-%&(O$ !"#$ u.#)$ 0(%$ !"#$ %9(0'&.#$ 0(%$ .$ #_#.*(*'9$ 6*.!)$ "0)$ +*/O#%$ .0(%)$ C&(&)!/9$ *+$ I-.0."$ '*%#."(*.$%*'0&()G$b!"#/$ 077/*0.01(O$!"#$-(%#/."0(O&(O$ !#."$0)$!"#$ *(#$ +/*'$ !"#$ J#70/!'#(!$ *+$ I-.##$ !"#$ VY6b$ '*%#.*()&%#/#%A$ "&O".*(*'9A$ D*(%*(T$ JIC.*O&#)$ 0(%$O.&0($ '*%#.01*($ )9)!#')G :MIL<J$ '0F#)$ 0$ %&)1(./#012#$*/$#W7#/&#(.#$ *+$ )#/2&..*''-(&.9&(O$./"DE1&'( "50( &"%/5&-( .$0(%$."#)$ !*$ !0.!-/#$0(%$C&(&)!/9$*+$E.*(*'&.!)$ 0(%$ )#/2&.-#$ +/*'$.$O0&()G4k $Y($!"&)$."$ 0)$ 7#/+*/'&(O$ 0/!)$ */$ 2&)-0.&)"&(O$ */$ '#%&0$ /#.#))#)A$ +0)!#/$ .*(*'9A$ )-.!-/0.-'#(!$4ff3$=4$#%G@A$D*(%*(T$J#70/!'#(!$*+$I-.$ 0)$ B#.12&1#)@$ 0(%$ 0/O-#)$ !"0!$ !"#$ )#.$ *+ %#2#.$ L/0%#$ I#(!/#$=YLI@A$ B0)$0.#7!)$&(!*$"&O"N.12&1#)$ )-.9$ 0.-.0))&S.1#( #1.)$64( /H>%)1&"D)5( )*( &4/1.*/#$ 0/!)$ )#."A$ !"#$ .01*($.*(*'9G4g 44 $.#7!G4i$Y($!"&)$/#7*/!A$ +*-/$%&_#/#(!$'*%#.%$ Y(!#.*/(#/)!*(#$ &($#(!/#(.*7#$ *+$ !"#$ /#.9$&)$(*B$0./#012#$#.*/7*/0!#)$!"#$ 7#/+*/'&(O$ 0(%$ 2&)-0.-.*(*'9l$ &)$ (*B$ 8/*0%..*(*'9lA$ 7-8.$ 0.*(*'9A$:MIL<JcJYLIc4ffic4$A$7G$&&& 4k$?E<A$=4ffg@A$*7G$..0($8#$ +*-(%$Y($!"#$ :?l)$J#70/!'#(!$ *+$ I-.$ 0(%$ .!-0.&.*m#($ /#O0/%#%$ 0)$ 70/!$ *+$ !"#$ .*80.)A$ /07&%..)$ =4ffg@A$ I/#012#$ \0.A$ #./#012#$ &(%-)!/&#)l$ .&0.$*/O0(&)01*(A$8-!$(*!$0)$70/!$*+$!"#$.A$ )*."0(O#)$ !"0!$ 0_#.$ 6/*7#/!9$ b/O0(&)01*($ =VY6b@A$ !"#$ :(&!#%$ M01*()$ J#2#.1*($ 8#!B##($ u-7)!/#0'$ 0.*(*'&.12&1#)l$ =!"*)#$ .!-/0."0(O#%$ *-/$ #(2&/*('#(!$ 0(%$ !"#$ B09$ B#$ 7/*%-.*O&.*''#/.F.)*$0$ .#A$ %#7#(%&(O$ *($ -(%#/.$ 20.A$=4ff3@A$I/#012#$Y(%-)!/&#)$C077&(O$J*.&0.A$ )*.*(*'&.0))&S..*'7./"D)5( &4./#012#$&(%-)!/&#)G$ 45$EI$K/##($607#/A$=<7/&.$ "0)$ 0$ 70/1.&!GA$7G$5fG !"#$!"#$!%$!"!&$'()$%&'#()&*($*+$!"#$.#%O#%$0)$+*)!#/&(O$ .!$ *-/$ %0&.)>/."$ 0)o$ .0(!0O0!0A$VG$A$=4ffg@A$*7G$.#$ 8#!B##($ !#.$ 0(%$.*/#$0/!)$*/$..0!#%$ 0.$ )!0O#$ *+$ !/0().$ =4ffi@A$ I/#012#$ Z/&!0&(N$ M#B$L0.$ 0/!)A$ 0)$ !"#9$ B#/#$ &(.-.-.!)$ *+$ !"#$ IIY)G$ E0.".0&($!"#$ .*(*'9A $8-!$ '*)!$ 0/#$ 80)#%$-7*($!"#$ /#.*O(&1*($ *+$ !"#$ &'7*/!0(.*(%$ O/*-7$ %#/&2#)$ &!)$ .#2#.-.!*/$ 8-!$ (*!$ !"#$ .0(%)$ C&(&)!/9$ *+$ I-./"%&4( "50( I)A( #.0.$7*./#012#$ #.*80.&)"#%$ &($ 4ffi$ 89$ :MIL<JA$ :ME.01*(A$ !"#$ Š#)5#/5&.&)01*($ 7/*.1&4( >)&/5D"%( *).*B$/#7/*%-.#7!#%$ 0(%$-(%#/)!**%G$L"#$ &(&10.-.A$ !"# :?$ I.&!GA$7G$55G$7G$eeG 4p $ .!-/#A$C#%&0$0(%$.

-..!*/o$ 0(%$ !"#$ .$ &(.!-/0.$ 20.!*/$ +*/$ !"#$ E:l)$ 7*./>.$ 0/!)A$ 0)$B#.#)A$ .0.#W&!9$ *+$ IIY)$ 0(%$ !"#$ B09$ !"#9$ 0/#$ &(n-#(./#012#$&(%-)!/&#)$ $ $ $ k3 .09$ 0($#2#/N&(.( /#)5)81#( "50( 9)#1"%( #4"%%/56/9Z55 $ /#Q-&/#)$ -)$ !*$ /#0.$ 0)$ S.*/#$ 0/!)$ )-."$ #'8*%9$ */$ .#)$0(%$&((*2012#$)7&.*7$E-/*7#l)$ .-.*()&%#/#%$ 0)$ 0$ )7#.!-/0."$P#7-8."0/0.&70.&!GA$7G$5kG 53$EI$K/##($607#/A$=<7/&.L"#$ )!-%9$uL"#$ E.-.!#/#%$ 89$ !"#&/$ #(2&/*('#(!G$ R*/$ !"#)#$ /#0)*()A$ !"&)$ )!-%9$ )##F)$ !*$ 7/*2&%#$ 0$ .$ 0a/&8-!#A$ -)#$ */$ 7-/7*)#A$ B"&.!*/G$ Y($!"&)$ )!-%9A$ `I-.*()&%#/08.$0(%$.1"%( "50(15&/.#0/.-01*($*+$ !"#$ IIY)$&($ E-/*7#$ 0(%$&!)$'#'8#/$ )!0!#)G5f $Y!$ '0F#)$0$ %&)1(.&1.*9'#(!G$ C*/#*2#/A$ IIY)$'0&(!0&($0(%$%#2#..*(!/&8-1(O$ !*$ 0/*-(%$4Gpt$ *+$ !"#$ E:$ KJ6$&($ 4ffi$0(%$ .A$D&!"-0(&0A$I[#.9A$6*/!-O0.'A$ J\J$ 0(%$2&%#*A$ L\$0(%$ /0%&*A$ O0'#)A$ (#B$ '#%&0A$ '-)&.0(%)A$ J#('0/FA$.$ &(%-)!/&#)`$ 0/#$ %#S(#%$0)$!"*)#$ &(%-)!/&#)$7/*%-.*2#/)G 54 L"#$ -)#$ *+$ !"&)$...$ /#20.$/#Q-&/#'#(!)$+*/$)-77*/1(O$#(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7G$ 5f$?E<A$=4ffp@A$*7G$.!-/0./#012#$ #.1*($8#!B##($u.&.*(*'9A$ &!$ &)$ /#'0/F08.!0!#)l$ (01*(0.!-/0.*(*'9ll$ 0(%$0/O-#)$!"0!$0.#./9>)50( &)( 5/.#$ &($!#/')$*+$7/*2&%&(O$ .-#$ !"#9$ '09$ "02#G53 $L"#)#$ &(.9$!"#$)0'#$.$ 0(%$ )*.1%%( 4/%>( A/Q/.*7#%$ .#$0(%$K#/'0(9$8-!$0.*.9$ /#.A$ #."%( 9:1%%9( &4"&( .$ #'7.*'7.$4f3f@A$*7G$.&.# *+$ IIY)$ &)$...)*$&($Y!0./"DE/-( /5&.( .O0/&0A$E)!*(&0$0(%$Y/#.$%&2#/)&!9$ &)$0($&'7*/!0(!$ +0.$ )#.#0/$ 7&./#0)&(O$ /*./#012#$)#.$ )!/#(O!"G$ Y!$ '0F#)$ 0$ %&)1(.!"*-O"$!"#$ E:$ B0)$+*/'#%$ *($!"#$ 80)&)$*+$ #.*(2#9$.&#)$&($!"#$ :?A$ M#!"#/."$ &)$0./5/$.*(!#(!$ 0)$ B#.&(O$ 0(%$ %&)!/&8-1(O$ O**%)$ */$ )#/2&.0))&S.!#/&)1.0.A$Z-.!*/G$ M*!B&!")!0(%&(O$ !"#$ %&2#/)&!9$ *+$ !"#)#$ '*%#."&!#.-%#$ !"#$ .)$ *+$ !"#$ .!-/0.$0)$)#/2&.$7*.#0%$!*$8/*0%.&S.A$ 8**F)$0(%$7/#))G$`I/#012#$ &(%-)!/&#)`$0/#$ !"*)#$ &(%-)!/&#)$B"&.*O(&)#%$ &($ (01*(0.-)&*(G$D**F&(O$0!$ !"#$ 7.*''&))&*(#%$89$ !"#$E-/*7#0($I*''&))&*($&($4ffpA$ B0)$!"#$ )!0/1(O$ 7*&(!$ +*/$ 0$ 7*.!-/#l$ 0(%$u#.)$*+$IIY)$0(%$!"#$7/&(.)*$&'7*/!0(!$ &($!#/')$*+$)*.-%#)$%#)&O(A$+0)"&*(A$0%2#/1)&(O$0(%$0/.&0.1*(0.&!GA$7G$3iG !"#$!"#$!%$!"!&$'()$%&'#()&*($*+$!"#$.1*($ 8#!B##($ !"#$ .-.$%&2#/)&!9A$ B"&."$ 0)$ 7#/+*/'&(O$ 0/!)A$ 2&)-0.!-/0.-."$-)#$ ..#)$ B"&.$ )#.#$ *+$IIY)$&($ C#'8#/$ .12#$ *+$ !"#$ ./#01(O$ )-8)!0(10.$7*.1*($*+$&(%-)!/&#)$'0F&(O$-7$!"#$.#%$ 0(%$ 0.&1.01*($ &(.*(*'&.0(%A$ $ R/0(.-)!/01*(A$ !"# $ /*.!-/#$ *+$ !"#$ '0&($ .&0..0.B#%#(A$R&(.&.&!GA$7G$kG 54$Z9$ B09$ *+$ &..-.9$ *2#/$ !"#$ 70)!$ 9#0/)A$ ./#012#$ )#.!*/A$ )-8%&2&%#%$ &(!*$ 0($ &(%-)!/&0.!-/#G$ L"#$ IIY)$"02#$ %#2#.&0.*(*'9$*+$ I-.#$%&$."$ 0!$ !"#$ 1'#$ !"#9$ 0/#$ %#2#.*''#/.!-/#$&($E-/*7#lA$.-.$ #W7/#))&*()A$ &//#)7#.$0(%$'0/F#!$+*/..&#)A$ !"#9$7.$ 0(%$ (*(N&(%-)!/&0.#$ !"0!$ !"#$ 20/&*-)$%#S(&1*()$.-.!-/#$0(%$E-/*7#0($.*(*'&."$ 0$ %##7#/$ -(%#/)!0(%&(O$ *+$ !"#$ .9$+-(./#012&!9$!*$ +*)!#/$ VXXX#.$4f3f@A$*7G$.0(%G 55$EI$K/##($607#/A$=<7/&.!-/#$ 0)$0($&(7-!$ 8-!$ B"*)#$ *-!7-!)$0/#$'0&(.*7#%$ 0/#$ ..G$L"&)$.

!-/0.$0(%$.!"#$!"#$!%$!"!&$'()$%&'#()&*($*+$!"#$./#012#$&(%-)!/&#)$ $ $ $ k4 .-.

!-/0./#012#$#(!/7/#(#-/)"&7 !"#$!"#$!%$!"!&$'()$%&'#()&*($*+$!"#$.$0(%$."07!#/$!B*T$./#012#$&(%-)!/&#)$ $ $ $ k5 .-..

#))&!9$ +*/$ 0$ )7#.$ #(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7l$ "0)$ O0&(#%$ /#.$0(%$.*(.-./"DE/( 15&/.9$.#(O#$ *+$ .*()#Q-#(.!/*(O$L/0%&1*(0.$7-/7*)#)G PLKL*C!T"'"B*!"#$!%$!"!&$2-'%*'"*#-!*4&)#&$()*("<*4$!(/0!*'"<&2#$'!2 V75&./E/.&(O$ 0)$0$ /#)-.&.*()&%#/#%G$ Z#0/&(O$ &($ '&(%$!"#$ ."07!#/$ !"#$ %&'#()&*()$ *+$ #(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7$ &($ !"#$ IIY)$ 0/#$ .)$*+$ !"#$ IIY)$0(%$&($)*$%*&(O$ !/9&(O$ !*$+*/'$ 0$.!-/0.2#)$ #W0'&(&(O$ !"#$ .!$ *+$ !"#$ *(O*&(O$ #.0'#/A$<GA$=4ffp@A$I-.!#/&)1.!)$.-( &4/( >.)J&X(b).*(*'9@ <.$ 0(%$!"#/#0m#/$ !"#$)7#.0)!$ %#./"DE/( 10/"9( "50( &)( >$."$ #(2&/*('#(!0.0%#G5i$ J&_#/#(!$ '*%#.$ +#0!-/#)$*+$IIY$)#.0($8#$)-77*/!#%$0(%$!*$#W0'&(#$ !"#$20/&*-)$+0./#012#$&(%-)!/&#)$ $ $ $ ke .$ )-77*/!$ !"0!$ !"&)$ #(!0&.%)$ 0(%$ -(%#/)!0(%&(O$ !"#$ )7#.!"*-O"$ !"#/#$ &)$ 0$ (*$ O#(#/0./#012#$E-/*7#0($&((*201*($0(%$.#."0.-.!-/0.( ).#7!$ *+$ u.$b/O0(&)01*(A$.-))$!"#$ .0($ 8#a#/$ 8#$ %#)&O(#%$ !*$ )-77*/!$ '*/#$ .0($ 8#$ %#S(#%$ B&!"&($ !"#$ ..$ %&'#()&*($ *+$ !"&)$)#.*''*($%#S(&1*($ *+$.$ 0(%$ ./#012#$ #(!/#7/#(#-/G$ V&!"$!"#$ .9$/( ')$.5( #.91.-.*(*'&."!$4ffh 5k$?**9'0(A$PGA$=#%@A$=4ffg@A$6/#."$4f3f8@A$*7G$.!-/0.!-/0.&S.$ ."0(O#)$ !"0!$ !"#$ E:$ &)$ #W7#/&#(.*'7...*()&%#/#%G$ L*$ !"&)$ #(%A$ &!$ &)$ (#.!-/0.!-/0.!*/$ !*$ KJ6$ &($ C#'8#/$ .01*($*+$ &((*201*(A$ !"#/#$ &)$#2#($.0./#012#$ #(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7G$ L"&)$ &)$ 0$ %&r.9.$ #(!/#7/#(#-/&0.!-/#$ $ X-(#$pA$:!/#.-.!*/G5e 5k $ >*B#2#/A$ O&2#($ !"#$ )!/*(O$ #.#$ .&#)A$ !"#/#$ &)$ 0$ (##%$ !*$ #W0'&(#$ "*B$ .&S./( 19( "( 81H(A/&.1&4(&4/( >$.&!GA$7G$34G 5h$EI$I*''-(&.*(./>.#))0/9$ !*$8/&#n9$%&)./#012#$ )#.)$*+$!"#$ IIY)$&($O#(#/0.0%#'&0$\&!0# !"#$!"#$!%$!"!&$'()$%&'#()&*($*+$!"#$.$./&8#%$+*/$0(0.9$/( &4/8(15("(#)88/.!*/0."0/0.#)$ +*/$ #'#/O&(O$ &((*201*($ 7*.*O9$.01*(A$=C0/.*(*'&.-.#))$0O/##'#(!$*($"*B$ !"&)$ .*O(&1*($ %-/&(O$ !"#$ .&S.!*/)G$Y($0%%&1*(A$ !"#$ B09$ &($ B"&.$ 0(%$ .$ !#/'$ )-."$ 0)$ u.$ ./#012#$#(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7 Y($ !"&)$ .-.( A/156("A%/( &)( >$.!0!#)A5p %#S(&(O$ !"#$ #(!/#7/#(#-/&0./*))&(O$ ./5/$./#012#$ #(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7lG$ L"&)$ &(2*.$D#.!/-.1E/.!*/)$ &(n-#(./&)&)$ 0(%$ !"#$ %&O&!0.!$ !#/'$ 89$ !0F&(O$ .$ E(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7G$b($!"#$ R/##%*'$ !*$ I/#0!# </!$0(%$!"#$ R/##%*'$ *+$ E(!#/7/&)#A$ Y(0-O-/0./9&9X(34/.*'8&(#)$ !#/')$ !"0!$ 0/#$ )##'&(O.)$"02#$ 8##($7-!$+*/B0/%$0)$0$ '#0()$*+$7/*2&%&(O$ 0$)9)!#'01.$ 0(%$ .*(!/&8-!#$!*$E-/*7#l)$+-!-/#$O/*B!"G5h $ PLKLKL*+$!(/0'#O*("<*!"#$!%$!"!&$2-'%* L"#$ .>)9/(&)(8":/( "(>.$ )"&m$ 0(%$ &!)$ .)G$ 5e $>0O**/!A$ KGA$ =4ffh@A$ I-.$E(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7A$P*a#/%0'T$E/0)'-)$:(&2#/)&!9A$<.#(O&(O$ .$ .9$ &'7*/!0(!G$L"&)$ &)$(##%#%$ &($*/%#/$ !*$.$ %&).*(!#W!$ *+$ !"#$ IIY)A$ !"#$ O#(#/0.!-/0.-.#$+/0'#B*/F$-)#%$+*/$!"&)$)!-%9$&)$%#).*(*'&.$ +0./#012#$ #(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7$ 0(%$ %#!#/'&(0(!)$*+$ #(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7$&)$ .$ -(%#/)!0(%&(O$ *+$!"#$ )!/-.c( 1&( 19(&4/( #."07!#/$!B*T$.&'&(0/9$D&!#/0!-/#$P#2&#BA$>?: 5p$:?$L#.//5(&4/(/5&.!$ !0)F$ 0)$ &!$ .941>( 15( &4/9/( 9/#&)..#0/./"DE1&'( "50(&4/( >)991A1%1&'( &)( A$1%0( 9)8/&4156-( &4/( 9/%*C*$%J%8/5&( )..!#/&)1.$0(%$.!*/$ &)$ ."(*."'-( ./>.*-/)#$ !*$%#S(#$ 0$ %&)1(.$ 0O/##'#(!$ *($ "*B$ !*$ %#S(#$ #(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7A$ B"#!"#/$ 0)$ /&)FN 8#0/&(OA$ #(!#/7/&)#$ .1"%(910/("50(&4/(#.-.!-/0.$ 0(%$#.!-/0."0/0."0.!/0!#O9$Z*0/%A$=4ffg@A$*7G$./5/$.*(!/&8-1*($ '0%#$ 89$ !"#$ IIY$ )#./"DE/(910/ZX$ =.&!GA$7G$gN3fG 5i$?.#W$ ..-.#7!$ *+$#(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7A$ &!)$%#!#/'&(0(!)$0(%$!"#$ (#.!*/)$8#0/&(O$-7*($!"#$ ./#01*($*/$ )1'-.$ 0(%$ .9( 8/"59( &)( 4"E/( #.)J&( "%)5/( 19( 5)&( &4/( 0.#1"%( .$E.*'7*(#(!)$ +/*'$ 8*!"$ B*/./#012#$ #(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7$ .!-/0.&+#.!-/0.9$ %&2#/O#(!$ 0(%$ 7*)#)$!"#$ .*()&%#/$ "*B$ 8#)!$ !"#)#$ 0)7#.!-/0.

!-/0.0($%*$!"&)$&($'0(9$B09)T$ VXXXA'(/H>%)1D56("5(15E/5D)5()..-.*/&(O$(#B$'0/F#!) — Y(!/*%-.#(!-/9A$ !"#$#.( >.-./5/$."$!"#9$ 0/#$ *7#/01(OG$L"#$ !#()&*($ 8#!B##($ !"#$ .!-/0.$ 0)7#./#01*($ B&!"$ .$0(%$.$ O/*B!"A$ 7/*%-./.&)'A$.&0!#%$B&!"$)!0/1(O$ 0$ 8-)&(#))A$ 8-!$ !"&)$&)$0$ 2#/9$ .1"%9( ).&#1#)G$ Y($ "&)$ B*/%)A$ Š34/( *$5#D)5()*( /5&.-#G Y($!"#$ 4f!"$./#0)&(O./#012#$ #(!/#7/#(#-/$ B&.( 9)$.*(*'9G$ Z9$ )#/2&(O$ (#B$ '0/F#!)$ */$ ./#0!#$ 20..*9'#(!A$ 0(%$ &!$ &)$ B&%#.0.!*/$ &($ B"&.01*($ *+$ 0$ !#/'$ !"0!$ "0)$ 0$ /&.$8#"02&*-/T — J#2#.."-'7#!#/A$XG<G$=3ghk@G$I07&!0.12#l$ 7/*./#012#..-.&./5/$.-.-."$#.-#$ =.$ 20.!$ */$ 0."-'7#!#/l)$ #(!/#7/#(#-/)$ 0/#$ !"#$ .!) — 6/*7*)&(O$(#B$+*/')$*+$*/O0(&)01*( — EW7.9( 19( &)( .$ 0$ )!/*(O$ %&2&%#$ 8#!B##($.&S.6"519156("5(150$9&.#A$ 8#&(O$ 0($#(!/#7/#(#-/$ &)$0))*.-#$ 0(%$ '*2#$ !"#$ #."-'7#!#/Gef$ >#$ %#).0/$ '#0(&(O$ &)$X#0(NZ071)!#$ .)0$#DE1&'("50(6.0(.!*/)$#'8*%9$#(!/#7/#(#-/&0."%%'-("5($5&.!-/0.*''*($70/.*(*'&.#$ '*1201*($+*/$ O#(#/01(O$ #.)0$#156("5()%0()5/(15("( 5/.$ 0(%$./"&/.."&(O$+*/$(#B$)*-/.9$ +*/$ u0/!l)$)0F#l$ &)$ .&0!#%$B&!"$!"#$ !#/'$ B0)$X*)#7"$.*.#.9$ &((*201(OA$ !"#9$ .9A$ &!$ .( >.0./>.)0$#&9-( A'( .9$ .9$0))*..0(!$ 7/*^#.$ 0(%$...!-/0.*&!01*($ *2#/$ &!)$ ./#01(O$ )*.( 941d9( /#)5)81#( .!)$*($!"#$ *!"#/G$ $L"#$ '*1201*()$*+$!"#$ .( )$&%/&( *).9$ /#.1/0(&/#45)%)61#"%( >)991A1%1&'( *)./5/$./#012#N%#)!/-."$"&)!*/9$ 0(%$0$ '-.'("50(9)()5ZX( .#7!#%$ 0)$ 0$ F#9$ 0)7#./).( #)88)01&'().( "( 5/./9)$.0$ '0(&x/#$ %*(!$)# +*/'#(!A$)#$ %&)!/&8-#(!A$#!$)#$.&0.!*/$&($B"&.)$ B"*$)1'-.$ 20.9$ 0)$!"#$ 3h!"$.0(!$'#0(&(OG$L"#$ !#/'$ u/5&.#0/.)0$#D)5ZX$L"#9$.*''*(.*(*'&.( >.( >.*/%&(O$!*$.$ )*.#/9( )$&( )*( "5( ".09A$ XN$ ZGA$ =3if5@A$L/0&!s$%`s.$ B*/F$ 0(%$!"#$ #(!/#7/#(#-/A$ !97&.-#$ =O/*B!"N*/&#(!#%@G$L"#)#$ !#()&*()$)-OO#)!$ !"0!$ %&_#/#(!$ F&(%)$*+$ )-77*/!$(##%$!*$8#$ #.( "50( 15&)( "5( ".(.$ 20.*(*'&#$7*.$ .*(*'&.)0$#156("(5/.)$ 0)$#0/.09G$V/&1(O$0/*-(%$!"#$ !-/($ *+$!"#$ 3g!"$.1*($'#!"*%) — .08*/0!#%$%#7#(%&(O$*($!"#$(0!-/#$*+$!"#$*/O0(&)01*($0(%$!"#$)-8N)#./"( )*( 4164/..$ 7/&*/&1)#$ !"#$ #.*/%&(O$ !*$!"#$ &(%&2&%-0./#01*(N*/&#(!#%@A$ B"&."'-( A'( )>/5156( $>( "( 5/.#)$*+$)-77./#0!*/$ *+$0$ .&F#.-.( .!#%$&($!"#$ %#)&/#$ !*$7/&*/&1)#$ !"#$ ..-#$ *+$!"#$ .9A$M#B$•*/FT$>0/7#/ !"#$!"#$!%$!"!&$'()$%&'#()&*($*+$!"#$."$ '*/#$ )&O(&S./>./#012#$&(%-)!/&#)$ $ $ $ kk ./( 6/5/.*(*'&)!$ '*)!$ .5()*(>.#$ !"#$ #(!/#7/#(#-/$ B&.9$ 0.#(!-/9A$ .#)$/&.*'7*)#(!$ $ $ .$%9(0'&)'T$!"#$8&/!"$0(%$%#0!"$*+$S/')$0(%$!"#&/$O/*B!"$*/$%*B()&[&(OG$ <.*(*'&)!$'*)!$.*(*'&.# $ #W7*)&1*($%# .) 5g$.!-/0."0(O&(OA$ !"#/#$ &)$ )1../#01(O$ (#B$ B09)$ *+$ %*&(O$ !"&(O)$ 89$ .-( 8).#/( )*( 9$>>%'( )*( 8"&/.**)#$ 077.$ #W7.*O(&)#%$0)$ 0($&'7*/!0(!$ %/&2#/$ *+$#.12&!9G$ C*/#$ )7#.&)'A$0(%$J#'*.!-/0.('1/%0–G$5g $Y($*!"#/$B*/%)A$#(!/#7/#(#-/)$./#%&!#%$ B&!"$ O&2&(O$ !"#$ !#/'$ !"&)$ 70/1.0!#%$#.$ 0(%$!*$!"#$ IIY$)#."-'7#!#/A$0$(-'8#/$*+$+0./#0!#$20.*(*'&.&#)$0(%$'0!#/&0.&(O$(#B$7/*%-./"( )*( %)."$ #./0.-./*).$7/*O/#))$89$ S(%&(O$ (#B$ 0(%$8#a#/$B09)$*+$ %*&(O$ !"&(O)G$L"#$ R/#(.09$ 7-!$ &!$ !"&)$B09A$ Š34/( /5&./E)%$D)519/( &4/( >"Q/."0(O#$ 0O#(!)$ &($ !"#$ #./#012#$ 0)7#.*)#.9$ %&_#/$ 0./&8#%$ #(!/#7/#(#-/)$ 0)$ !"#$ &((*20!*/)$ B"*$ %/&2#$ !"#$ u."$!"#9$*7#/0!#G PLKLPL*1"#$!%$!"!&$2-'%* Y($.*(*'&.&a.*(*'9$ +*/B0/%G$E(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7$&)$&(..#))$ *+$ #.*7&(O$(#B$0(%$&((*2012#$7/*%-.!)$ *($ *(#$ )&%#$ 0(%$!"#$ #(!/#7/#(#-/&0./>.E2#($ !"*-O"$ !"#$ &'0O#$ *+$ 0/1)!)$ .8( ).G$ */&O&(0!#%$&($R/#(."#))#)A$60/&) ef$.#(!-/9$ !*$'#0($ )*'#*(#$ B"*$ u-(%#/!0F#)l$ 0$ )&O(&S.$ *+$'0(9$IIY$#(!#/7/&)#)A$ &)$*m#($/#n#.12&!9A$ &((*201*($ 0(%$ #'7.*(*'&.!$ *+$ #.0'#$ !*$ 8#$ -)#%$ !*$ &%#(1+9$ !"#$ 2#(!-/#)$*+$)*'#$ &(%&2&%-0.&1Q-#A$*-$)&'7.

*))$ *+$ 8-)&(#))$ .12&1#)A$!"/##$!*7&.12&!9A$ 89$ &%#(1+9&(O$ 0(%$ #W7.-77*/1(O$ $ R/0'#B*/F)$ +*/$J0!0$ I*.#$ 0(%$ .#A$ !97&.$ )#.#/!0&(!9A$0(%$6/*S!A$Z*)!*(T$>0/!A$.*&1(O$(#B$7/*%-.$ *+$ $ .!)A$7/*.*'8&(01*()$*+$!"#)#$/#)*-/.9$ 8#$ 8*-O"!$ 0(%$ )*.$ Z-)&(#))A$ \*.*&1(O$ (#B$ 7/*%-../5/$.$ 7/*7#/!9$ */$ !#.#2#/0O#$ 0$ S/'l)$ /#)*-/.*.9( *..**F#%$ */$ O*(#$ -(%&)./#0!#$20.0.0!#O*/&)#%$ 0)$ u8-)&(#))$ *B(#/)lo$ !"#9$.$ ..#A$ /&)F)$)-.*&!$ '0/F#!$ *77*/!-(&1#)$!"0!$ "02#$ 8##($*2#/.-.-'#$ 34A$ M-'8#/$ eA$77G$33N54G ep$<"'0%A$ MGA$0(%$.$ #(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7$ '*(&!*/$%0!0–A$..12&!9T$ J#S(&(O$ .17..-%#)$0.$ 7#/)7#./>.0(!$ 0(%$ #Q-&7'#(!A$ =&&@$ S(0(.&#(!)A$ ."0(O&(O$ .0.#/!(#))$ 0.#$ */$ #Q-&!9A$ 0(%$ =&&&@$ &(!0(O&8.-%#)$!"#$ "-'0($0(%$)*.$-(%#/!0F&(OGe4$ L"#9$ 0.&F#$ 0$ uO#(#/0.$ #W7#/1)#$ /#Q-&/#%$!*$ ../#0!*/$*+$#."$&(.0O*A$YDT$:(&2#/)&!9$*+$I"&..#)A$ B"&.01*()$ +*/$ S/'$ 7#/+*/'0(.$ S(0(.12&!9$ &)$ #(!#/7/&)&(O$ "-'0($ 0.0($ X*-/(0.$ .0708&.!-0.#9'*-/A$PGA$=4ffi@A J#S(&(O$ E(!/#7/#(#-/&0.*B&(O$ )#/&#)$*+$ %#S(&1*()$ *($!"#$uO#(#/0.*(!#(!G$ L"&)$ 0.1*($ *+$ #(!/#7/#(#-/&0.*(*'&.&0!#%$B&!"$!"#$-(.$ .*O9G$ L"#)#$ /#)*-/.*'7#1!*/)A$ .&)"#%$ !"#$ +*.&1#)A$ B"&.$ <.&0.*2#/#%$89$ *!"#/)Ge5$D&F#$ *!"#/$#(!/#7/#(#-/)$!"#9$)"0/#$ !"#$ .#.$ 0.*B)$ !"#$ #(!/#7/#(#-/$ !*$ #W7.&0!#%$B&!"$#(!/#7/#(#-/&0.!-/0.12&!9A$ 89$ &%#(1+9&(O$ 0(%$ #W7.!#/(8#/OA$ PG$ 0(%$ V#((#F#/)A$ .#.#/!(#))$ *+$ *77*/!-(&!9o$ !"#$ +*./>.$0(%$-(&Q-#$.*(*'&.9)&(O$ !"#$ &(n-#(..#)G — E(!/#7/#(#-/&0..07&!0.1*($ &($ 7-/)-&!$ *+$ !"#$ O#(#/01*($ *+$ 20./#012#$ #(!/#7/#(#-/)$*B($0(%$ '0(0O#$ !"#&/$ 8-)&(#))$ #(!#/7/&)#$ .#))#)$*/$'0/F#!)G — E(!/#7/#(#-/&0.!)$ *+$ (#B$ 8-)&(#))$ ."$ 0)$0$ 7*))&8.$20.)A$\*.$0.1(O$ +/*'$ =&@$ ..#$ .9(9//(#4"56/( "9( &4/(5).)*$ )"0/#$ !"#$ 0."$0)$ 7/*7#/!9$ */$ 7...#)$ 0(%$ 8/&(O$ !"#'$ !*$ '0/F#!G$ Y($ 0($ #(!/#7/#(#-/&0.!)A$7/*.*(!#W!A$ e3 $ .&0.12#G$u75&.07&!0.*2#/9A$*/$=&&@$-(-)-0.&0.!01)1.#0O-#)A$ #!.-#G$Y($#))#(."0_(#/$H$C0/W e5$?&/[(#/A$YG$CGA$=3gh5@A$I*'7#11*($0(%$E(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7A$$I"&.l$#(!/#7/#(#-/T$ep — E(!/#7/#(#-/)$0/#$ !"*)#$ 7#/)*()$=8-)&(#))$*B(#/)@$B"*$)##F$!*$O#(#/0!#$ 20.G$ B`4"&( 01e/.07&!0.$ 7/*S!A$ */$ +*/$ )0F#$ *+$ (#B$ .$ 0.#)$ ./>./#012#$ &(2#(1*()$*/$%&).0.9(0)(5)&GGek $ Z0)#%$ -7*($ 0($#W!#()&2#$ .#))#)$*/$'0/F#!)G — E(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7$&)$!"#$7"#(*'#(*($0))*.)$0/&)#T$ — b/O0(&)&(O$ /#)*-/.#)$ .#$ /#)*-/.#/!0&($*-!./>.l$ #(!/#7/#(#-/G$ L"#9$ ../5/$.&0.$Z-)&(#))$E.#$ *+$-(.GA$ =4ffk@A$ ŠJ#!#/'&(0(!)$ 0(%$ #_#./5D"&/9( /5&.*(*'&.9( 19( &4"&( /5&.'0.-)$ *($ !"#$ %#!#.2#%$ &($ (#!B*/F)$ *+$ '-."$ 0)$ &(!#.&(O(#))$!*$0))-'#$ /&)F)$&($!"#$+0.$ 0.)$V*/F&(O$607#/ !"#$!"#$!%$!"!&$'()$%&'#()&*($*+$!"#$../5/$.-'#$4eA$M-'8#/$5A$77G$3g5N44fG e4$?(&O"!A$RG$>GA$=3g43@A$P&)FA$:(.9$ /#)-.%$ 89$ S/')$ */$ &(%&2&%-0.#)$!"0!$ %#!#/'&(#$ !"#$ 7#/+*/'0(.0($ !97&./#01*($ */$ #W70()&*($ *+$ #.-/&!9A$ */$ /&)F)$ 0))*.$ 0(%$.9( #.8("50("9(4/"%&4'GGee$ E(!/#7/#(#-/)$ 0/#$ &(2*./#012#$#(!/#7/#(#-/$&)$0$./#01*($ */$ #W70()&*($ *+$ #.0($ 8#$ ..*80./>.$ )-./"&/( )."$ 0)$ %#8!$ S(0(."0(O#$ 7#/)7#.12#A$ .&.#/!0&(!9G$ R*/$ #W0'7.!-/0.*(*'&.#))$ !*T$ =&@$ 7"9)&.F#/A$6G$RGA$=3gik@A$Y((*201*($H$E(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7A$M#B$•*/FT$>0/7#/$0(%$P*B ek$K0/!(#/A$VGZGA$=3gii@A$ŠuV"*$&)$0($#(!/#7/#(#-/•l$&)$!"#$ B/*(O$ Q-#)1*(–A <'#/&.-#$ !"/*-O"$ !"#$ ./5/$.$ ."$ &(.12&!9G V"#($0(0.$ )-.#)$ )-.6"519"D)59-(.0O*$6/#)) ee$J/-.-.$ &'7..1*(A$60/&)T$ $ kp bEIJ$.0./#012#$&(%-)!/&#)$ $ $ .##($+/*'$ 0($*./5/$.)G$ I"0(O#)$ &($ !"#)#$ /#)*-/.'0.-#Ge3 L"#9$)"0/#$ B&!"$!"#$O#(#/0."(*.&!#/0!-/#$ /#2&#BA$ !"#$ bEIJ$ #)!08./#01*($ -)&(O$ O.#$ *+$ 0($#(!#/7/&)#A$ &($0%%&1*($!*$!"#$ (0!-/#$*+$#(!/#7/#(#-/&0.$ */$ 7#/)*(0.41%/(5)5C/5&.$ *77*/!-(&1#)$ #&!"#/$ +*/$ S(0(.$0(%$.$0..$#(!/#7/#(#-/$ !"#$ B&.-#$ !"/*-O"$ !"#$ .0($ "02#$ %/0'01.*'#$*+$0($#(!/#7/#(#-/&0.#A$!"#$.-701*(0.)8( 5)5C/5&.

*O(&1*($ *+$ 0$ '0!.0(%).!)$ */$ 7/*."0)#%A$B"#!"#/$%&/#.$ b77*/!-(&!9$Y%#(1S.j#(G7%+ k3$bEIJcE:Pb.#))#)G$ L"#$ PHJ$ &($ !"&)$ .&1#)$0)$B#.$0(%$.0.!$ &%#(1S#%$)&W$!"#'#)$=R&OG$3G@$!"0!$ %#)..9$*/$&($0($#'8*%&#%$*/$%&_-)#%$+*/'G — E(!/#7/#(#-/&0.!*/)T$*77*/!-(&1#)A$ )F&.!-/#G$ L"#$ bEIJcE:Pb.$ 0_#.0($8#$%#).:W8Q8*U$(9!G.#))$!*$!"#$)!*.*-/0O#$ .$D*5.0/O#.$ 7"0)#)$ *+$ 8-)&(#))$ .-%#$ !"#$ 7#/.!.0!*/9$+/0'#B*/F$0(%$.$ #(!/#7/#(#-/)A$ '0/F#!$#(!/9$0(%$'0/F#!$%&)!*/1*()G$eh L"#/#$ 0/#$ 0$ (-'8#/$ *+$u%#!#/'&(0(!)$*+$#(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7l$ !"0!$ ..&1#)$ *+$ )-.$7#/+*/'0(.#)$=./&8#%$0)$+*.01*()$B"#($%&).#%$ 7#*7."$ &(.#)$ 0(%$ '0/F#!$ *77*/!-(&1#)G$ L"&)$ '09$ &(.-%#$ !"#$ 7#/..)$*+$!"#)#$!"#'#)$.1(O$#(!/#7/#(#-/&0.$Y'7#/012#A$M#B$•*/FT$>0/7#/I*.1*()G$ — C0/F#!)$ 0(%$ '0/F#!$ .12&1#)G$k3 $ U'B&$!*KJ*8-!*:1+CV1E../#0!#%$89$ 0$ .!-/0.&1#)$ &(.#)$ 8#!B##($ 20/&*-)$ )!-%&#)$ *($ !"#)#$ 0/#$ *m#($ .*B)T — I07&!0.*'8&(01*($ *+$ !"/##$ +0.$ 8-)&(#))#)$ ./#0!#%$*/$7-/.#$ &($*/%#/$ !*$#(.08."(*.-'#$3iA$77G$3fkN45G ei$?**9'0(A$PGA$=#%@A$=4ffg@A$J#!#/'&(0(!)$*+$E(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7$&($!"#$IIY)A$>?: eg$.0($ 8#$ .$*C!#!$9'"("#2*.*O&#)$0(%$.9$ )##%$+-(%)$!*$0.A$ 020&.# $ 0!T$ "a7Tcc#.*O9$./&1.0708&..*2#/9$ *+$ '0/F#!$ *77*/!-(&1#)$ 0)$ *(#$ *+$ !"#$ '*)!$ &'7*/!0(!$ 08&.*(!#W!$ )"*-./#0!#)$(#B$ &(2#(1*()$ !"0!$ !"#$ #(!/#7/#(#-/$ 0(%$ #(!/#7/#(#-/&0.&)"#/) kf $E-/*7#0($I*''&))&*($ K/##($ 607#/A$=4ff5@A$ E(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7$ &($E-/*7#A$ IbC$=4ff5@$ 4h$ S(0./&8#$ !"#$ %#!#/'&(0(!)$0_#.#%$.*(!#W!)T$!"#$)-//*-(%&(O$/#O-.*-(!/&#)$!*$-)#$ !"#$ )0'#$%#S(&1*()A$'#!"*%*.9$ )#'0(1.7$*/$"&(%#/$ #(!/#7/#(#-/)$&($ !"#&/$ *7#/01*()Aei $0(%$ %#!#/'&(#$ !"#$ .#71*($ 0(%$ %&)."$ H$J#2#.-%#$ !"#$ "-'0($ 0(%$ )*..!#/&)1..F$'0/F#!)G — L#.$ 8#&(O$ !"#$ $'*)!$ .$0)$-(&Q-#$*/$-(-)-0.$ ..#$ 0(%$/#)*-/.#))$ !*$ #0/.&A$ <GA$ I0/%*[*A$PG$ H$.$ *+$Z-)&(#))$\#(!-/&(OA$\*.&0.#$ !"0!$ #(!/#7/#(#-/)$ 0(%$#(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7$0/#$ .-%#$ (*2#.$.07&!0.&+#A$ +/*'$ 0.$*+$!"#$#(!/#7/#(#-/)G$ eh$</%&.$0.01*($0(%$J#2#."0/0.$ 0(%$ <.$)*.5*1"#$!%$!"!&$2-'%* fW)$...*(%&1*()A$ B"&.0!*/$ 6/*^#.$(#!B*/F)$0(%$./#012#$ /#)*-/..#/g(_7=<h7Y?_W3+3-([iijk L"#$'0&($..0708&..#))+-.0708&.*-/02A$PGA$=4ff5@A$Š<$L"#*/9$ *+$ E(!/#7/#(#-/&0.*((#.@Gkf $L"#)#$ !"/##$ +0.L<LA$=4ffi@A$C#0)-/&(O$E(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7G$<$%&O#)!$*+$&(%&.&1#)T$ L"#$ #(!/#7/#(#-/&0.#71*($ 0(%$ /#...0($"#.-))&(O$#(!/#7/#(#-/&0.#))$ !*$ S(0(.$ 0(%$ )F&."(*.*7'#(!T$ PHJ$ 0(%$!#.0!*/)A$K#(#20c60/&)T$E-/*)!0!cbEIJ !"#$!"#$!%$!"!&$'()$%&'#()&*($*+$!"#$.0))&S.#$ !"0!$ .-.o$ '*)!$ 0O/##$ +*/$ #W0'7.G#-/*70G#-c #(!#/7/&)#c#(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7cO/##(j707#/cO/##(j707#/jS(0..!#%$ 89$!B*$&'7*/!0(!$.*7'#(!–A$ X*-/(0..#T$ I*2#/)$ 0.07#$ *+$#(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7G$eg $>*B#2#/A$ !"#$ %&_#/#(.&0."$ 8#!B##($ .07&!0.L<L$ E(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7$Y(%&.&1#)$ &(.$ .-.%$ 8#$ -(%#/)!**%$ 0)$ 0$ /#)*-/."2&.!"#)#$ &((*2012#$ .0($ !-/($ &(!*$ (#B$ 7/*%-.0708&.!*/)$0/#$ 0.*O9$ 0(%$P#)#0/."/0''A$IGA$=4ffp@A$L"#$E(!/#7/#(#-/&0./#012#$&(%-)!/&#)$ $ $ $ kh .&()$6-8.

l$ #(!/#7/#(#-/$./"DE/(."A$XG$ CGA$ ?*(*70)F#A$ PGA$ 0(%$C0a#)*(A$ CG$ LGA$=3ggp@A$b/O0(&[01*(0.!$ '0/F#!$ .&0.— C0/F#!$ .!-/0.$ .0($8#$%#S(#%$0)T k4 $Y20(.-)G$ >*BF&()$=4ff3@k5 $.$/-..-.#$ &!$ &)$ !"#$ .&.*()&%#/08.*-(!/9G$ L"#)#$ '0/F#!$ .$*(#)G PLKLRL*+&)#&$()*("<*4$!(/0!*!"#$!%$!"!&$2-'% I-.#G$ <$ .*'8&(01*($ *+$ *77*/!-(&!9A$ .$8#"02&*-/$ 0(%$ '0(0O#'#(!G$ I"&./#0!#%$ 89$ !"#$ '0/F#!$ ."-'7#!#/l)$%#S(&1*(A$ B"#/#0)$!"#$ uO#(#/0.#))0/&.-.-.*'8&(#%$./#012#$ #(!/#7/#(#-/$ '09$ %&2#/O#$ +/*'$ !"#$ O#(#/0.*(%&1*()o$ 7/*%-.u)$ 0))-'71*()A$0%07!01*()A$7#/.-.*B&(O$ +*/$ !"#$ .2#'#(!$ &($ '0/F#!)A$ .$ .0O*T$:(&2#/)&!9$ *+$ >*-)!*( k5$>*BF&()A$XGA$=4ff3@A$L"#$I/#012#$E..!-/0./>.#0%$!*$ #(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7$ &+$ *77*/!-(&!9$ .-.&S.*(O)&%#$ !"#$ #(!/#7/#(#-/&0./"%&4( &4"&( %1/9( .#)$0(%$&()1!-1*()$0_#./#012&!9G$ V&!"$ !"&)$ 80)&.*(*'9T$>*B$6#*7.$ #(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7$.)T$ !"#9$ *7#/0!#$ &($ %&r..1&4( "5( 18>).12#(#))$ 0(%A$ '*/#*2#/A$ &)$ *m#($ -((*1.$ 70/!)$ *+$ !"#$ '*%#.*(%&1*()T$b77*/!-(&1#)$ 0/#$ ./#012#$ #(!/#7/#(#-/A$ 0.9$ */&#(!#%o$0(%$ -)-0.0!#)$!*$ #(!/#7/#(#-/&0.&S.!$ 077/*0.#$ '#/&!G$ I-.-./(.*''#/.0!*/9$ +/0'#B*/FA$ B"&.!-/0.!-/0.-.#(!$ /#7*/!$ *($ !"#$ Y'70.#2&.( A$&( .&#!0.9$ .$ !0W#)A$ /#O-./#012&!9$ 8#&(O$ -)#%$0(%$"*B$ &!$ /#.#0/(&(OG$k4 E0.!*/$ &($ !"#$ +/0'#B*/FG$ I-."0/0.$ +0.*(*'&./#012&!9A$ !"#$ .-%#)$ 0.$ 0(%$ &)$ &(.-%#$ 7-8.!-/#N80)#%$ .$0(%$.#$ +/*'$ O#(#/0.#@$ 0(%$)!0/!N-7$.#%$ 89$ !"#$ #(!/#7/#(#-/$ )&(.$ %/&2#G$L"#$ -)#$ *+$u.$ 8#(#S!)G$Y($!"&)$ +/0'#B*/FA$ !"#$ /#O-.#)$ 0($ #(!/#7/#(#-/u)$ 8#"02&*-/A$ 0v!-%#)A$ 0(%$ *2#/0.9( 15( &4/( #.0!*/9$ +/0'#B*/FT$ E(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7$ "077#()$ B&!"&($ 0$ /#O-.!-/#$ .*(%-./#012&!9$ &)$ B"0!$ ?E<$ (0'#%$ u./"DE1&'( &)( $5%)#:( &4/( .-%#%$ 0)$ !"#$ S(0../"%&4-(1*(8"5"6/0(.9$ 0(%$ &(.#$C0F#$C*(#9$R/*'$Y%#0)A$M#B$•*/FT$6#(O-&(A$7G$34gG ke$?E<A$=X-(#$4ffg@A$*7G$.#))$!*$+*/#&O($'0/F#!)A$7/*./"%&4mX( L"&)$ !97#$ *+$ .*(!#(!N%/&2#($!"0($.1&415( &4/89/%E/9X( K1:/( &./#012#$ %/&2#)$ 0.*'8&(#)$&((*201*($0(%$ ...&.!-/#$ &(n-#(.$ 20./#012#$ #(!/#7/#(#-/$ '09$ "02#$ 0$ %&_#/#(!$ +*.01*(A$0(%$)!0(%0/%&)01*(G — P#O-.)$ 0$ (-0(.$ .*'8&(01*($ *+$ .$0(%$..*()&%#/#%$&($ I"07!#/$ 5$ 0(%$ 0%07!#%$!*$ !"#$ )7#.$ 0(%$ )*.$ 0(%$ .*)!)$*-!B#&O"$!"#$ 7*!#(10./>."$ #(!0&.!-/0.!#/&)1./#0!#$ 2#/9$ )'0.!-/0.$ #(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7$0)$0$%&)1(.#$ !"0!$ 0/#$ *m#($ '*/#$ .1(O$#(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7G$ — I-.*(%&1*()$ &(.&(F#%$!*$!"#$ .#71*()$0(%$."$ *+$ !"#)#$ !"#'#)$&)$ .1%%(/56/50/.#$ O**%)$ !"0!$ 0/#$ `.$/( #">1&"%19&9-( &4/'( A/%1/E/( &4"&( &419( #./5/$.0708&./#012&!9l$ &($ &!)$ /#.$ -(%#/)!0(%&(O$ *+$ #(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7A$ !"#$ !#/'$ .$ #(!/#7/#(#-/&0..$ #_#.01*()$0(%$*!"#/$7-8.-#$ "0)$ )*'#$ .`$ 89$ (0!-/#o$ B*/F$ B&!"$ 7#*7./5/$.&"5&( 01e/.-/#'#(!$/#O-.!-/#N80)#%$./#012#$&(%-)!/&#)$ $ $ $ ki .!"$ &()-/0(.!-/0.*)!)$ =#GOG$ +*/O*(#$ )0.$ 0(%$ .&!GA$7G$53G !"#$!"#$!%$!"!&$'()$%&'#()&*($*+$!"#$."$ +*/$ %#/&2&(O$ #.(8)./#012&!9l$ .&2#$ #(2&/*('#(!G$ Y($ !"&)$ +/0'#B*/FA$ .!-/#T$ 0_#./#012#$ #(!/#7/#(#-/)$ "02#$ )7#.*'7/&)#)$ #0."$ 0_#.9$ .!$ *+$ I-./5#/l&4/'( $9/( #.$ !#/'$ %-#$ !*$ !"#$ !97#$ *+$.!-/0.1615"%( 8)0/%( /5&.-.$ &(2*.-.0/9$ 0(%$.0!*/9$ +/0'#B*/F$ &)$ %#S(#%$ 2#/9$ 8/*0%.*(%&1*()$&($ !"#$ .!)$ 7#/+*/'0(.09`)$%#S(&1*($B&!"$!"#$I/#012#$E.$ 0(%$ ..*'7#11*($ &($ !"#$ '0/F#!)A$0.*))$*+$ "#0./#012#$ 0&'$ *+$ !"#$ .-.&1#)$ 0(%$ /#)*-/..*(*'9T V75&.!)$ 0..164&-(.#)$ %*#)$ (*!$ (#.0($8#$ .-./"DE/( /#)5)8'l)>/.!-/0.!-/#$ *($ I/#012&!9Ake $ B"&."$ &(%&2&%-0.*(!#W!$ *+$ !"#$ IIY)G$ P#!-/(&(O$ !*$.$ #(!#/7/&)#)$ !"0!$#W&)!$ *($ !"#$80)&)$*+$'*/#$7#/'0(#(!$(#!B*/F)G </&)&(O$ +/*'$ !"#$0/!)$'0(0O#'#(!$ 0/#(0A$ !"#$ #W0'&(01*($*+$.$ 0(%$ .."&/( %1:/( W"'G9( ).

$II$."%( >./>.)$%0("00(&4/( &/./"DE/-( A/#"$9/( &4/( /5&.9(4"E/( "( %)&( )*(9>/#1J#1D/9(&4"&( ".$ )*.*(*'&.DE/( &)( 188"&/.>.*O(&)&(OA$ */$ 7/&*/&1)&(OA$ !"#$ .1&4(&4/( )&4/../( *)#$9156()5( &4/( #$%&$.$ )-77*/12#$ ).)#)T$ V=.!-/0.-)!#/A$.&(O$ .&O"!)$!"#$ 7*!#(.>)9/( )*( 9)8/( 9>/#1J#( >)%1#1/9-( &4"&( ".$20."D56(&.$E."'9(#.-.$ 0(%$ ./( "./(#$%&$.(9/#&).$&'7-.F$ *+$ %&_#/#(101*($ 8#!B##($ !"#$ %&2#/O&(O$ '*12#)$ *+$ .!-/0.&.!$#(2&/*('#(!G R*/$ '*)!$ *+$ !"#$ #W7#/!)$ &(!#/2&#B#%$ +*/$ !"&)$ )!-%9A$ !"#$ .!#%$ 0.12#$ !#/'G$ L"#/#$ &)$.&#!0./>.)0$#&9-( A/#"$9/( )*(.!-/0../(9>/":("A)$&(&4/(#)5&/5&ZX$ =P#O&*(0./0$50"5&( 018/591)5156X( ^5( &4/( &/."$ !"#$IIY)$*7#/0!#T V.&!$ )!/0!#O&.!*/A$!"*-O"$(*!$#2#/9*(#$0O/##%T$ VB=.#7!$ *+$ /-((&(O$ 0$ .8( )*( W#4$8>/&/.1"%(f#$%&$."%( "50( #.-.//0)8( "9(188"&/./( "0">&/0( &)( &4/( #.9( 15(&4/( #$%&$./"DE/( 150$9&./>.( 19( "( $9/*$%( n&/.!-/0..!-/0."./"DE/X(^5( &4/( ==^9-( ./( 01e/.!$ !"0!$ )-.-.$&(+/0)!/-.0(./5&(.!/*(O$L/0%&1*(0.*(%-.8(19( 18>)..8( #$%&$.&#(!.:/&-( )*( A$915/99( 8)0/%9-( "50(%"A9XXX1&( #"5(A/( $9/*$%( &)(4"E/( "0">&/0(>)%1#1/9(%15:/0(&)(&4/(&/.//0)8( "9( 8"&/.)(*.VXXX&4/( >.:/&9(".-.#%O#$ !"#$ %&_#/#(!$ #(2&/*('#(!$ &($ B"&.$ )#.1/9-( &)( &4/( #4".!-/0.&.#/!0&(.&0./( &)&"%%'( 01e/..!-/#$&($&!)$%&/#.$ '&))&*(o$ !0F&(O$ /&)F)$&($ 80.$E./#012#$ */O0(&)01*(o$ %/&2#($ 89$ 0($ #W7.*(%&1*()A$ !"#$ (##%$ +*/$ .!-/0.)$ *+$ .-77*/!$.9$ )-77*/!#%$ !"#$ -)#+-."$ 0$ %&)1(./#012#$ 0(%$ '0(0O#'#(!$20./#012#$ 0(%$ #.08*-/$ '0/F#!A$ '0/F#!$ .-.#(!/#A$./#012#$&(%-)!/&#)$ $ $ $ kg .!#/&)1.*'8&(01*($8#!B##($ .!-/0.#(%$ !"#$ !#/'$ B&!"&($ *!"#/$ #W&)1(O$ %#S(&1*()$ *+$ #(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7G$ L"#/#$ B0)A$ "*B#2#/A$ O#(#/0.*(./#012#$ #(!#/7/&)#)G$L"#$ !#/'$&)$ *m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b/O0(&)01*(@ J&)0O/##'#(!)$08*-!$ !"#$ !#/'$B#/#$ '*)!.9&(O$ 0$ ."%( 9/#&).$.$ 0(%$ .!/*(O$L/0%&1*(0."%( "50( #.*N *7#/01*($0(%$(#!B*/F&(OA$ 0(%$!"#$ %&_#/#(.#$ (*!$ )-r."0/0.#$ *($!"#$ *!"#/$)&%#A$)*'#$ 7/#+#//#%$!*$8.9$ 0))*.!/-.-.9$ /#.$ 0O/##'#(!$ !"0!$ !"#$ !#/'$-)#+-.!*/)$ 0)$ &!$ &)$ )1.( "./>./#012#$ #(!#/7/&)#)$ )-.CE$.$ */$ ./&8#%$ 0)$ !"#$ .#7!$ *+$.-#)o$0(%$.1"%( *./"DE1&'-(.19D#9( )*( &4/( /5&/.9$ %-#$ !*$!"#$ +0.D9D#(*.)0$#&9( "50(&4/( #$%&$.!-/0.#7!#%$ &($ !"#$ .!$ !"0!$&!$ B0)$ 0$O#(#/0.( >.9$ "&O"."%X( =$%&$.-.&!G !"#$!"#$!%$!"!&$'()$%&'#()&*($*+$!"#$.9$.!$ %&_#/#(101*(A$ !"#$ .&0!#%$ B&!"$ 0$ S(0(.9$.F(*B.//0)89g(".9XXX(A/#"$9/( &4/."$ 0)$7/*%-.-( /5&.8o-( ^( .$ %&'#()&*($ B"&.941>G( 19( "( .0."s$ kk$>0O**/!A$KGA$=4ffh@A$*7G$.*/%&(O$ !*$!"#$ O#(#/0.&"5&ZX$ =E-/*7#0($.$/#)7*()&8&.!-/0.&S./( &"%:( "A)$&( #."#'#)$ 0%07!#%$+*/$!"#$IIY$)#.1"%(#)5&/5&( ).&)01*($0(%$ %&%$(*!$ %&_#/#(10!#$ !"#$ 20/&*-)$ )#.9$ *+$ !"#$ .1"%( E"%$/-( 9$>>)./"0(X^( &415:( &4/( &/.8ZX$ =Y((*201*($I.*(!/&8-1(O$!*$0$2&!0.&!9$ *+$ #(!/#7/#(#-/)A$ .$0(%$.19/9-( )*( &4/( 8"./*))$ E-/*7#$ +*/$ !"&)$ )!-%9A$ !B*$ '0&($ *7&(&*()$ #'#/O#%$ B"#($ 0a#'71(O$ !*$ %#S(#$ !"#$ !#/'G$ L"#$ '0^*/&!9$ )!/*(O./5/$.!-/0./5/$."#&/.#."%( 9/#&).&0./5/$."%k(E"%$/9–Gkk$ V&!"$!"&)$+*-(%01*($&($'&(%A$ 0(%$0.#)$&($7/*%-.-#)$8#"&(%$ !"&)G$b($!"#$ *!"#/$ "0(%A$ !"#$ .0($ 8#$ %#).&"5&( &)( 4"E/X( =.

&0.$0(%$.*9#%$*2#/$ k$ '&.*O(&)#%$ 0(%$ !/0().&!GA$7G$pA$0(%$E-/*7#0($I*''&))&*($K/##($607#/$=4f3f@A$*7G.*/#$ 0.!$ */$ )#/2&..*'70))#%$ 0$ %&2#/)#$ /0(O#$ *+$ )#.#)$ !"#$ *(O*&(O$ %&)1(./( 94)$%0(A/( "( #)88)5(0/J51D)5( *).0($ "02#$ 0$ )-8)!0(10.&!GA$7G$4G !"#$!"#$!%$!"!&$'()$%&'#()&*($*+$!"#$.-."$B&.&.#7!$ *+$ u.-.$ 80)&)$ *+$ .-.-#$ *+$ .&#)G$ P#O0/%.0($ 8#$ 8#a#/$ -(%#/)!**%$ -)&(O$ !"#$ %#!#/'&(0(!)$ *+$ #(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7$ 0%07!#%$ !*$ !"#$ ..0(/."A$ *71'&)&(O$ "-'0($ /#)*-/.9$ "#..$ )F&.&!GA$7G$ifG ki$Y8&%GA$7G$e4G kg$?E<A$=4ffp@A$*7G.!-/#N80)#%$ ./#012#$ #(!#/7/&)#)$ *7#/0!#G$ >02&(O$ +/0'#%$ !"#$ %&)1(.$ !#/'A$ !"#$ #(!/#7/#(#-/&0.$ )F&."$ !"#9$ *7#/0!#G$ L"#$ !#/'$!"-)$ /#+#/)$!*$!"#$ +0.*B$ &($ L08.*/%&(O$ !*$!"#&/$ '*1201*()$ 0(%$ !"#$ )#.!$ #)1'0!#%$ !"0!$ &($4ffi$&!$ O#(#/0!#%$ eGkt$ *+$ !"#$ !*!0.)$*+$IIY)$=)##$I"07!#/$5$8#./#012#$ #(!/#7/#(#-/$ .&.$ 7/&(.!/*(O$L/0%&1*(0.01(O$ /#)#0/.*()-.9$ /#.0!#(!$ #(!/#7/#(#-/&0.*(.*(*'9$ O#(#/0!#%$0/*-(%$ 4Gpt$ *+$ !"#$ E-/*7#0($KJ6$ &($4ff5$ 0(%$#'7./#012&!9$ 0(%$ *+$ !"&)$ !97#$ *+$ #(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7G$ <.*/%&(O$!*$!"#$ ?E<$/#7*/!$*+$4ffpA$ !"#$ .12#)A$ !"#/#$ &)$0$ (##%$ +*/$ 0$ )7#.$.1*($4G4$ 8#.&0.01*(A$=C0/.!-/0.!$ !#/'$ &($ .-."$ &.( 5)&( &4/.-.!-/#$C&(&)!/9A$..!-/0./#012#$ 0.0.$ 0(%$ .!-/0.$ E-/*7#0($KJ6G$Y($!"#$ )0'#$ )!-%9A$ !"#9$#)1'0!#%$!"0!$&($R/0(.9&"50( &4/( &415:156-( &4/( >./#012#$&(%-)!/&#)$ $ $ $ pf .0)#$ &($ O#(#/0.%)$ !*O#!"#/T$ /#.&#(!.$ '0((#/G$ >*B#2#/A$ 0.*+$ !"#$ 0/1)!$ B"*$ .4/&4/./#012&!9u$ /#.!$ *($ )1'-.*O(&)#$ !"#$ .12&!9$ &($ 0$ .*O(&)#%Aki $ $0)$ )##($8#.0("(8).#(!$E-/*7#$4f4f$.$I-.$ 0(%$ .$ !-/(*2#/$ *+$IIY)$&($)#2#/0.$ .!-/#A$ ."$4f3f8@A$*7G$./#012#$ 7/*%-.-.0/$ #(2&/*('#(!)$ &($B"&.-./-( .$0.*O(&)&(O$ !"#$ .*''*(.$ */$ .&./#012#$ #.F)$S(0(.&.-./#012#$ #(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7$ !"-)$ 0a#'7!)$ !*$ %/0B$ !"#)#$ B*/.9H'"'"B*4$!(/0'#O*("<*!"#$!%$!"!&$2-'%*5.-.( ).!-/#N80)#%$ .".#))$ *+$ !"#)#$ %&_#/#(!$ 7#/)7#.-)!/0!#)$!"#$ !*!0.)$ 0(%$ )*.&!G kh$?E<A$=X-(#$4ffg@A$*7G$.$ 0(%$ .12&1#)$*+$!"#$ kp$E-/*7#0($I*''&))&*($I*''-(&.-.&S.&0.$ 20.!*/)A$ '*)!$ /#)7*(%#(!)$/#.!/-.*(*'&.1*(A$ 0$ )7#.*(*'&.1*($ 8#!B##($ #(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7$ 7*.$0_#."0/0.0(."(&.0((*!$ '0(0O#$ 0$ 8-)&(#))$ 0(%$.12&!9G L"#$ !#/'$ .$E.$ 0(%$ ./( #./#0)&(O.!/0!#O9Tkp V34"&F9( "(A16( 019#$991)5g( .!-/0.*'8&(01*($ *+$ 7#/)*(0.&S.( &4/(==^9X(.)A"A%'( /E)%E/0(&).-#$ *+$ !"&)$u.&*($ 7#*7.$ 08&.$ 7*.*-(!/&#)G$<."&#2&(O$ 0$ 80.)$ &)$)1.!$!"#$'0(0O#'#(!$*+$!"#&/$#(!/#7/#(#-/&0.$ +*/$ .-.$ )7&/&!$ *+$ 0($ 0/1)!A$ !"#$ ."$ 89$ L#//0.#$ 8#!B##($ u.#$ 3G$ B"&."$ .!#/&)1./#012&!9l$ 0(%$ #(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7$ &)$ (*!$ )!/0&O"q*/B0/%$ 0(%$ 0)$ (*!#%$ #(!/#7/#(#-/)$ %&_#/$ 0."$0)$!"#$/#.!-/0.!-/0.!-/0.!-/#N80)#%$ ./#012#$ &(%-)!/&#)$ "0)$ (*!$ 9#!$ 8##($ )-r.!"*-O"$ &!$ #(.!#/&)1..$ 0(%$ .*B@G PLKLXL*+.#)$ 0(%$ &()7&/&(O$ 7#*7.0/O#/$.$ #(2&/*('#(!)$ ..&1#)A$ ."0/0.1/9oX( ^5( &4/( *$&$./"DE/( /#)5)8'( "50( #.9N'0F#/)$ 0(%$&(n-#(..)$ =)##$ )#.$7*.*B@$B"&.*O(&)#)$ !"0!$ !"#$ ./#0!#)$ */$ &((*20!#)$ 0$ ..!-/0.)8(&4/()&4/.%$ 0'*(O$ #.9$ /#.0($ 8#$ -(%#/)!**%$ 0)$ )*'#*(#$ B"*$ .!*/)$ &($ B"&./#012#$ )7&/&!$ *+$ !"#$ #(!/#7/#(#-/$ 0(%$ !"#$ 70/1.-.#/!0&($./( 4"E/( >.-./"DE/( 9)#1/&'-( &419( 019D5#D)5( .$!#/'$ !*$ /#.&#)$ 0(%$.( 1&( 19($9/*$%( &)( A/( "A%/( &)( $50/.-.( &)( 9$##//0X( ^&( 19( "%9)( $9/*$%(15().)#/99( "50( 4).4/5( .)5G&( A/( $9/*$%( "5'8).$ %&)1(.#)$ !*$ */O0(&)#$ 0(%$ '0(0O#$ "&)c"#/$ .!$ !"0!$!"#)#$ #(!#/7/&)#)$"02#$ ./#012&!9l$ "0)$8##($&(."'A/(5).." L"#$ .( 150$9&.#Gkg $L"#$ ./#012&!9A$ !#.0.!-/0.0!#%$ &($ !"#$ 7*.#$ 0(%$ B"*$ -)#)$ #(!/#7/#(#-/&0.#A$ 0$ .#Gkh $L"#$ #.$ %&'#()&*($ *+$ IIY)$ .&7.#A$ !"#$ .*O(&)#%$!"#$ (##%A$ 0!$ !"&)$ 1'#A$ !*$ '0F#$ 0$ .$ &'70.(1&( 19($9/*$%( &)(019D56$194(n&4/( ==^9(*.0!#(!$ .*''#/.0/.9$.0!#)!$ /#)#0/.(&)(4"E/(1&()5(&4/(>)%1D#"%("6/50"ZX$ =P#O&*(0.9$ 0/#(0A$ %#)7&!#$(#B$&(&1012#)A$)-.!-/0.*(*'9@ Y($ #))#(./X(p)./#012#$ #(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7$ 0)$ !"#$ 20.$*'"".*'70/&)*($!*$!"#$ O#(#/0.

!-/#N80)#%$ .-.&.#$ '*)!$ *+$ !"#$ E:$80)#%$ S(0(.0B9#/)@$O#(#/0!#%$eGgt$*+$!"#$ KJ6A$&($K#/'0(9$ eG4t$A$5Git$&($Y!0.9$+*.$!/0()7*/!01*(A$!#. However.7 1.8% 2.6% 2.0($ !"-)$ 8#$ .$ &((*201*(A$ !"#$ ?E<$ /#7*/!$ -(%#/.!-/#N 80)#%$.-)&*()A$ =C09$ 4ffg@A$ I*(./#0)&(O./#012&!9l$ 0.1% 5.*7&(O$ 0(%$+*)!#/&(O$ 0$.F&(O$IIY)l$7*!#(10.8% 9.$ 70/!$ results.9% 2.*O&./#0)&(O.#)$ &($ (*(N!#.$ 0(%$ .0.&(F$ 8#!B##($ u. these results shall be considered with caution./#012#$&(%-)!/&#)$ $ $ $ p3 .&.$'##1(O !"#$!"#$!%$!"!&$'()$%&'#()&*($*+$!"#$.#2#.01*(A$)0.!-/0.#%O&(O$ !"&)$(##%$ B&!"$!"#$ 7."0(O&(O$ #.*.4% 9.1% VA 3.#$ importance of these sectors to Europe’s economy.0% 5.-77*/!$&(. and 6.#))#)$#))#(10.#(12#)$ +*/$ .-)#%$ *($ !"#$ #W7#/&#(.*(.&(OA$O#(#/0.$B"*.*0%#%R&..-.#$ *+ .5*#-!*++6*%!$*4. The creative industries’ economic contribution is comparable to other key traditional industries./#012#$ #(2&/*('#(!$ *_#/&(O$ 0$ /&.4% 3.&.&"#$'!2p3 Our analysis of the weight of the creative fW)$.0!#%$!*$+0.$&((*201*(G$ L077&(O$ &(!*$ !"#$ 7*!#(10.*O&.*7&(O$ #W7#/&#(.$ +*/$ 0$ .7% 2.$ 0(%$ )*. and with /#)*-/.#)$*+$ B*/FG$ L"#9$ &(.6% 7.-1*()$ !"0!$ 0/#$ (*!$ (#.$ 0(%$ (*(N).7 2.3% 6.$ &((*201*(Gp5 $ </!)$ 0(%$ .$ %/&2#A$ .4 1.70&(Gpf Table 5 – Weight of the creative industries in UK.#.G >*B#2#/A$ )&(. This major European economic area is being challenged by the threat of piracy.2% VA 4."0(O#)$ 0!$ E:$ .-)&*()$ +*/$ ŠI-.".-.&!01(O 8/*0%."(*.$ I*(.#$0(%$/#!0&.*(*'9T$ L"#$ $ Y'7*/!0(.#Gpe $ L"#$ /#.9% VA 3."$&)$ &(.-.9$%#S(#%$89$#W7#/&#(.9% 2.6% 2.*B$ #(!#/7/&)#)$ !*$ -(./#012&!9l$ 0)$greater weight than utilities or chemical industries.%&(O0J&O&!0."(*.!-/#$ 0(%$ !*$(*(N!#.9)!$ +*/$ I/#012&!9–A$ 4ge3)!$ E%-.9$ !0/O#!#%$ !*$.12&1#)$/#.*(O)&%#$ !"#&/$ #(!/#7/#(#-/&0."$ 14 million jobs. which form the basis of the calculation.0. To overcome this limitation we Given this procedure.!-/#$ 0(%$ u.-.!-/#$ 0/#$ !"-)$)##($0)$#))#(10.#0)"$&((*2012#$ )*."0(O&(O$ #..#7"*(9$0(%$!"#$Y(!#/(#!G p4$Y8&%GA$7G$efG p5$Y8&%GA$7G$34kG pe $ E-/*7#0($ I*-(.&(#%$!"0!$ E:$#_*/!)$"02#$ (*!$ 8##($ )-r. corresponding to *+$ 0$ 7*)!N&(%-)!/&0."(*.9$ .*O&.4% 5."$ ..0)!A$.$ +*/$ -(.$ major European economic force.#(!/#%$revenues and &)$'*/#$ 6.#))0/&.-.$ #.$ &($%#2#.6% 62 Jobs 3. there is a technical difficulty in determining the weight of the non-core industries on a country level because of gaps in the Eurostat data. #(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7$0(%$&((*201*(A$/0!"#/$!"0($)*.B8*G*/Oc-7.&.7 1. like automotive."#)59$%&([iqik industries based on the KEA findings and the WIPO Guidelines provides L"#$ &(!#/2&#B)$+*/$ that the creative industries represent a0(%$.*(*'9$!"0!$ &)$ &(.&(F#%$ !*$ 0%20(. IIY)$=(*!$ &(.#/g(3/. Italy and Spain (2008) UK FRANCE GERMANY ITALY SPAIN Creative Industries Core Interdependant & support TOTAL creative industries Creative GDP (billion €) Creative employment (million) VA 6..I<6c60O#)cZ-&.*O&.-.&!9$*+$.&#(1S.0($0.$ *+$ .3./#012&!9A$ (##%$ !*$ +*.&0.*(*'&.methodology as at the European level.5% 142 Jobs 3.-)#%$ *($ +-(.5% 2..#$ +*/$ .*()-.0/O#.-%#$ 0$+/0.*(*'9NLEP<=3@G7%+ p3$Y(%#7#(%#(!$H$."$4f3f@A$ Z-&.1*(0.!-/#$I*-(..0()$!*$/#2&#B$ &((*201*($7*."$0)$.#)Gp4 $ b(#$ *+$ !"#$ F#9$0/O-'#(!)$ &)$!"#$ +*.%&(O$ 0$J&O&!0.5% 6.*(*'9$ B"&.-)$ *($ &(. our assumptions remain valid since the objective is to provide orders of magnitude of the weight of creative industries in order to portray the economic ecosystem at risk from widespread piracy.8% 6./-.F(*B.-.1% 2. Germany. France.&.$ %&2#/)&!9A$ 0)$ B#.#/()G$$ a more complete assessment of the true scope of these industries in Europe.01*(A$ •*-!"$ 0(%$ I-.$ )-77*/!$ +*/$ &((*201*($ /#'0&()$ .6% 6.-%&(O$!"#$ )-77*/!$#(!#/7/&)#)$)-. reinforcing the !0F#($ *-!$ *+$ 7/*%-.*''-(&.-)&(O$*($!#.5% 162 Jobs 4.#A$(*(N!#. ! ONCLUSION C 8(H)!*KJ*Y!$4!"#(B!*.-.5% of the European workforce.9$A$0(%$5Gpt$&($.0!$*.&#(!.!-/#$ 0)$ 0$ I0!0.2% 2.$ #(2&/*('#(!$ 89$ %#2#.!-/#N80)#%$ .!-/0.%!("*4. This translates into €860 billion 0(%$B"&.*O(&)&(O$ !"#&/$ u.*O&.$0(%$."(*.9% of European GDP.02&(O X*8)$&($!"#$ E:l)$ I/#012#$ Y(%-)!/&#)A$7G$3hA$)##$ $ $ "a7TccBBBG&.9$ +*.&0.$ 0)$ 7/*2&%&(O$ &((*2012#$ 7/*.$ 0/#$ 0.!-/0.2 Source — TERA Consultants analysis 1.&0. Regarding the non-core creative industries.-%# $ 0.#)0. We estimate !"&)$)!-%9$)"*B#%$ !"0!$ ."(*.*O9N80)#%G$ E(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7$ &($ !"#$ IIY)$ ./#012#$ #(!/#7/#(#-/)A$ 0(%$ /#.#)cZ<. exceeding previously reported pf$L#/0.9$&($ 0$ .$ 0(%$ !#.6% 175 Jobs 5.9$ %#'0(%N%/&2#(A$ -)#/N.0.!-/0.#(!$ 7*.&"#$O* '"*2!0!$()*1&$.."(*.$&((*201*($0(%$Q-0.0.!0(!A =C0/.9% 93 Jobs 3.-..$E../#012&!9lA$ !"#$ %#!#/'&(0(!)$ *+$ #(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7$ 0(%$ (#B$ +*/')$*+$ &((*201*($ &)$ !"-)$ .1*($*+$ $ O#(#/0.9$ !#.*O(&)&(O$ !"#$ .E.&+#$.2% 3.$ &((*201*(G$ P#./#012#$ #(!/#7/#(#-/)$0/#$ 0($#))#(10.9'4*#&$".!)$0(%$)#/2&.5*!4.2% VA 4.0.

9$ 0(%$ 6/0."0!$B!"4!* 8 .#$ ! *$ % / 0 B$ ..&7.&(F#%$ B&!"$ 0($ G'#-*($/2#2*'"*4.)$0(%$F(*B.A$ &($ !-/(A$ /#)-.0(!0O0!0AVG$A$=4ffg@A$*7G$./#012&!9lA$ #(./#012#$&(%-)!/&#)$ $ $ $ p4 .&'0!#$ B&.9O*4. .*2/9&)(#!*(* !*O#!"#/$ !"#$ 0/1)1.*(*'9$ 8/&(O)$ !"#$!%$!"!&$2*4("*9!!#L*Q$#!4.*''-(&1#)$ #(^*9&(O$ 0$ "&O"$ Q-0.0!0.1'0!#.."B*#!$9*%$."L*8-!O*.&#*#-!*4.$ !#/')A$ !"#$ !#()&*($ 8#!B##($ !"#$ 7/*..$/*.#%O#$ !*$ %#0.-'#$ 33A$ M*$4A$ $ 77G$35iN3ehG pp$.$ 0(%$.#!2*!"#$!%$!"!&$'()*4$!(/0'#O*'"*#-!*$!B'.$*("<*9(#4-'"B* "&O".-.&2#$ #(2&/*('#(!$ +*/$ 0$ O#(#/0. ! .#$!*$B"&.&0.!-/0.)$ B&.##$Z#)!$I0)#$4@ Z#)!$ I0)#$ 4@G$ .$ 0.N!4#2* /#Q-&/#'#(!)$ .!-/#N80)#%$ .Y($!"&)$ /#)7#.!)G$Y!$ &)$ (*!$ 0($ #(%$&($ &!)#..9$ %&r.+A$ 8-!$ 0$ 7/*.0..%)!*#.$ 0.*H.$ 0/#0)$ 0(%$ %&).&(O$(#B$&%#0)Gpp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–$ &($Y((*201*(T$ C0(0O#'#(!A$ 6*.-."*'"*.*'70))&(O$ 8*!"$ 0)7#."./#012&!9$ .."..".5*%!.$*#-!*5(2-'.0($)#/2#$ 0)$&(7-!$ !*$!"#$ &((*201*($7/*.9.))(H.$ 0(%$ H$.)G$ I/#012#$ &(%&2&%-0.*#-'"D*(H.&!9$ *+$ .#(%$ U)("<!$2*C+*'2*(*U)!9'2-*B.9$ .!$ +*/$ !"#$ IIY$#(!/#7/#(#-/G$L"#$0/1)!$*/$.9$.$ 0(%$ .Z!$* O#(#/0!#$ 0(%$ #W7. / # 0 1 2 #$ #(!/#7/#(#-/)"&7$ '#0()$ (*!$ *(.$ B&!"$!"#$ . % )$ 8 9$ H!#G!!"*($#*("<*#-!*!4.&!GA$7G$3h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pk $6*a)A$ XGA$ =4ffg0@A$ ŠI/#012# Y(%-)!/&#)$0(%$Y((*201*($6*.9$/#Q-&/#$ #("0(.&.*7#%A$ +0&/$ 0(%$ .12&1#)A$ 0(%$.$0(%$.&(#)$ 0(%$ !*$ '*2#$ #r.#))Gpk $L"#/#$&)$0$ (##%$+*/$O/#0!#/$ +*. .$ '0/F#!)G$ L"#$ G'#-*H&2'"!22*9("(B!$2L .9O*G("#2*#.