Universal Precautions

Professional rescuers practice universal precautions when providing medical care to victims. Universal precautions are steps used to reduce the potential for victims to infect rescuers. Practicing universal precautions requires personal protective equipment, such as gloves or eye protection. To better protect yourself, you should make sure your first aid kit is adequately stocked with the personal protective equipment necessary to practice universal precautions.

Staying Safe
Safety is an ongoing concern that must never leave your thoughts. There is a primal instinct in many people to dash to the rescue of those in need. Regardless of the dire circumstances of whatever terrible accident or injury you may witness, it's urgent that you keep your wits about you and stay safe. Safety is an awareness of your surroundings and a healthy fear of unstable situations. By it's very nature, an emergency is an unstable situation. If everything were truly under control, nothing bad would've happened in the first place. If, for example, you see a person struck by a car in a crosswalk, do not rush headlong into the street to see if they're injured. You will no doubt find yourself lying next to them after being struck by the next car barreling down the road. In its 2010 CPR Guidelines, the American Heart Association changed the order of ABC's. ABC is still the best way to remember the beginning, so here is a new way to think of the ABC's and still follow the CPR Guidelines:
• • • • • •

A: Awake? B: Breathing? C: Continue Care

Determine if the Victim is Awake
A is for Awake. Is the victim awake, yes or no? If our victim is not awake, try to wake him. Give him a brisk shake of the shoulders or rub your knuckles on his breastbone and shout something. Anything will work. Try "Hey you!" or "Yo, dude!" or "Go Giants!" It doesn't matter what you say, as long as you say it nice and loud to give him a chance to wake up. Not waking up? Make sure someone is calling 911 (if no one else is there to help, then you should call 911 before you do anything else). Now, move on to B: Breathing. If she is awake, let's talk to her. If the victim can't talk, is she choking? If she is choking, do the Heimlich Maneuver. If the victim wants an ambulance or wants to go to the hospital, make the call. If she's talking but not making sense and she's confused, call 911 immediately and start thinking about why she might be confused.

• • •

Here are the steps to help you remember: • • • Adult CPR Child CPR (before puberty) Infant CPR (under a year old) But the Victim Is Breathing! Think your victim is breathing? Take another look. If the victim has fluid. start CPR just like if he wasn't breathing (how to do CPR on gasping victims). start CPR. blood. Click on these to learn what to do: . If the 911 operator tells you what to do. at least 2 inches deep and at least 100 times per minute (sing Stayin' Alive or Another One Bites the Dust in your head and push with the beat).Is the Victim Breathing? B is for Breathing. Some conditions have special considerations. so you can) and move on to C: Continue Care. Start CPR by pushing on the middle of his chest. Someone called 911 when you realized your victim wasn't waking up (nobody's calling 911? Call now). Gather the victim's medications if available and lock up any dogs they may have. If you're on your own. followed by two rescue breaths. So you've decided that your victim is breathing fairly normally. here are some tips to follow until the ambulance gets there: • • • • • If the victim is face down and unconscious. You have a victim who won't wake up (unconscious) but is breathing. If your victim is not breathing. Remember to tell someone to call 911 if you haven't already. and repeat. If you feel comfortable with CPR.or you don't remember all the steps that well -.then just keep pushing fast and hard until somebody shows up to help (Hands Only CPR). then follow the steps: 30 chest compressions. Push hard and fast. roll her on her back. If the victim stops breathing. face up. Take a breath (your victim is. follow the operator's instructions and stop reading this. roll him on his side with his arm under his head (see the illustration). vomit or food in his mouth. start CPR. right between the nipples. Is he gasping for air kind of slowly. Continue to Care for the Victim C is to Continue Care. If you've never taken a CPR class -. 911 has been called and an ambulance is on the way. Stop any bleeding by putting pressure on the wound. like a fish out of water? If so.

If you've never been trained in CPR and the victim collapsed in front of you. however. use the following guidelines: • • Infant CPR for kids under 1 year. If that's the case. These instructions are for conventional adult CPR. little things can wait). now's the time to treat simple injuries. Injuries that need immediate care: • • • • • • Amputations Bee stings Bleeding Burns Head Injuries Snake bites Exposure injuries (too hot or too cold) that need immediate treatment: • • Heat illness (heat exhaustion and heat stroke) Hypothermia Injuries that can wait. use hands-only CPR. Cpr There is no substitute for learning cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).• • • • Seizures Low blood sugar Anaphylaxis Shortness of breath When the Ambulance Isn't Coming The ABC's up to this point assume that an ambulance is on the way or the hospital is not far. but emergencies don't wait for training. unless you absolutely have to treat them: • • Frostbite (do not thaw unless no chance of being frozen again) Broken bones (only splint if you have to move the victim) Dress wounds as needed (focus on the big stuff. Sometimes. Child CPR for kids 1-8 years old. These are the steps to perform adult CPR: Difficulty: Easy Time Required: CPR should start as soon as possible . For kids. you're on your own for much longer.

If you don't feel comfortable with this step. call 911 immediately and go to step 2. Repeat rescue breaths. If not. continue to do chest compressions until help arrives or the victim wakes up. Do 30 more chest compressions just like you did the first time. Perform 30 compressions at this rate (should take you about 18 seconds). place the heel of your hand in the middle of his chest. Give 2 more breaths just like you did in step 3 (unless you're skipping the rescue breaths). reposition the head and try again. Begin chest compressions. Repeat steps 4 and 5 for about two minutes (about 5 cycles of 30 compressions and 2 rescue breaths). After 2 minutes of chest compressions and rescue breaths. If the chest doesn't rise on the first breath. Whether it works on the second try or not. stop compressions and recheck victim for breathing. then repeat the rescue breath once more. If you are not trained in CPR. If the victim is not breathing (or is just gasping for breath). Keep going. Compress the chest at a rate of at least 100 pushes per minute. just continue to do chest compressions at a rate of at least 100/minute. If you have been trained in CPR. chin-lift method. If the victim is still not breathing. Repeat chest compressions. 5. after 30 compressions. . If you saw the victim collapse. If someone else is there to help. 6. see the Tips section at the bottom of this page for what to do. attach it after approximately one minute of CPR (chest compressions and rescue breaths). Pinch the victim's nose and make a seal over the victim's mouth with yours. Let the chest fall. Use a CPR mask if available. Begin rescue breathing. one of you call 911 while the other moves on to step 2. 7. If you have access to an automated external defibrillator (AED). 4. If the victim is breathing. open the victim's airway using the head-tilt. 3. Give the victim a breath big enough to make the chest rise. 2. Allow the chest to completely recoil before the next compression. continue to do CPR until you can attach it to the victim and turn it on.DON'T STOP! You're not going to make the victim worse. If the victim is not breathing. continue CPR starting with chest compressions.Here's How: 1. go to step 4. Put your other hand on top of the first with your fingers interlaced. It's normal to feel pops and snaps when you first begin chest compressions . put the AED on right away. Attempt to wake victim. Compress the chest at least 2 inches (4-5 cm).

What You Need: • • • Nothing. If the victim wakes up. Chest compressions are extremely important. et al. checking for breathing every 2 minutes (5 cycles or so). but is confused or not able to speak. 2. make sure the class is right for you. call 911. still perform chest compressions! It's called Hands Only CPR. A mouth-to-mouth CPR barrier is optional. You can do CPR without any special tools. If the victim does not wake. 3. If the victim is breathing. Before you take a CPR class. 4.8. Rea TD. Not every CPR class is the same. Repeat the process. If the victim wakes up. Watch the Hands Only CPR Video. For more information on these steps go to the Emergency Cardiac Care (ECC) Guidelines from the American Heart Association.122(suppl 3):S676 –S684. call 911. Source: Travers AH. An automated external defibrillator (AED) may be available. you can stop CPR. "Part 4: CPR overview: 2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care. This is not a substitute for actual CPR training. 2010. If you are not comfortable giving rescue breaths. until help arrives. briskly rub your knuckles against the victim's sternum. . Find a CPR class and get proper training. There are CPR classes for healthcare professionals as well as CPR classes for the layperson. Tips: 1." Circulation.

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