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January, 16, 2011
• LTE requirements & features
• OFDMA Frame and Resource Block Structure • Protocol Architecture
• Physical Channel Structure and Procedure • UE Measurements
• RSRP, RSRQ, & RSRP Ês/Iot • Conclusion • Appendix
• Peak bit (not data) rate
– 100 Mbps DL/ 50 Mbps UL within 20 MHz bandwidth (i.e., SISO) • Up to 200 active users in a cell (5 MHz)
• Less than 5 ms user-plane latency condition (i.e., single user with single data stream) • Mobility
– Optimized for 0 ~ 15 km/h – 15 ~ 120 km/h supported with high performance
– Supported up to 350 km/h or even up to 500 km/h
• Enhanced multimedia broadcast multicast service (E-MBMS)
• Spectrum flexibility: 1.25 ~ 20 MHz
• Enhanced support for end-to-end QoS & QoE
Open loop. Diversity.LTE Enabling Technologies • • • OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) for Down Link Frequency domain equalization SC-FDMA (Single Carrier FDMA) for Up Link • • Utilizes single carrier modulation and orthogonal frequency Multiplexing using DFT-spreading in the transmitter and frequency domain equalization in the receiver A salient advantage of SC-FDMA over OFDM/OFDMA is low PAPR..g. Close loop. • Efficient transmitter and improved cell-edge performance • • • MIMO (Multi-Input Multi-Output) • e. Spatial multiplexing Multicarrier channel-dependent resource scheduling Fractional frequency reuse • Active interference avoidance and coordination .
mobility support. and 64QAM • Convolutional code and Rel-6 turbo code • Advanced MIMO spatial multiplexing techniques • (2 or 4)x(2 or 4) downlink and uplink supported • Multi-user MIMO also supported • • Support for both FDD and TDD H-ARQ. rate control. security.. . and etc.. 16QAM.LTE Key Features • Multiple access scheme • DL: OFDMA with CP (Cyclic Prefix) • UL: Single Carrier FDMA (SC-FDMA) with CP • Adaptive modulation and coding • DL/UL modulations: QPSK.
4xx TS 36. radio link control.3xx Physical layer Layers 2 and 3: Medium access control.5xx Infrastructure communications (UTRAN = UTRA Network) including base stations and mobile management entities Conformance testing . and repeaters TS 36. and radio resource control TS 36.1xx Description of contents Equipment requirements: Terminals. base stations.2xx TS 36.LTE Standard Specifications Specification index TS 36.
Frequency-time representation of an OFDM signal .OFDM (1/3) Figure 1.
OFDM (2/3) OFDM essential concept: Subcarrier spacing ( f) = 1/Tu Figure 2. OFDM useful symbol generation using an IFFT .
but of more signiﬁcance .OFDM (3/3) • High spectrum efficiency • Inter-OFDMsymbol-interference caused by Multipath Delay Spread • Inter-carrier-interference caused by Doppler Frequency Spread • High Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR) caused by multiple frequency harmonics • UL SC-FDMA reduces PAPR.particularly for the ampliﬁer – is the Cubic Metric (CM) .
OFDMA FDD Frame Structure (Type 1) Frame structure type 1 .
OFDMA FDD Frame Structure (Type 2) Frame structure type 2 .
OFDMA Resource Block Structure .
OFDMA time-freq multiplexing .
Protocol Architecture .
PSS and SSS frame and slot structure in time domain in the FDD case .
Physical Channel Structure • DL – PBCH: Transmit Broadcast channel – PCFICH: Indicate PDCCH symbol – PDCCH: Assign PDSCH/PUSCH – PHICH: Indicate HARQ-ACK for UL – PDSCH: Transmit Data – PMCH: Transmit Multicast channel – Synchronization Signal: UE synchronization • UL – PUCCH: Transmit ACK/NACK. SR – PUSCH: Transmit Data – PRACH: Transmit Random Access Preamble – SRS: For UL CQI measurement . CQI.
Physical Channel Procedure (1/2) MIB: Master Information Blocks SIB: System Information Blocks .
Physical Channel Procedure (2/2) MIB: Master Information Blocks SIB: System Information Blocks .
Cell Search • Cell search: UE acquires time and frequency synchronization with a cell and detects the cell ID • Based on BCH (Broadcast Channel) signal and hierarchical SCH (Synchronization Channel) signals. • P-SCH (Primary-SCH) and S-SCH (Secondary-SCH) are transmitted twice per radio frame (10 ms) for FDD • Cell search procedure • • 5 ms timing identified using P-SCH Radio timing and group ID found from S-SCH • • Full cell ID found from DL RS Decode BCH .
UE Measurements (1/4) • In cellular networks. it has to measure the signal strength/quality of the neighbor cells. . when a mobile moves from cell to cell and performs cell selection/reselection and handover. • • In UMTS. a UE measures Carrier RSSI. CPICH RSCP. In LTE network. and CPICH Ec/No on preamble. a UE measures two parameters on reference signal: RSRP (Reference Signal Received Power) and RSRQ (Reference Signal Received Quality).
0 Definition Reference signal received power (RSRP). Applicable for RRC_IDLE intra-frequency.211  shall be used. RRC_CONNECTED intra-frequency.214 V9. The reference point for the RSRP shall be the antenna connector of the UE.2. is defined as the linear average over the power contributions (in [W]) of the resource elements that carry cellspecific reference signals within the considered measurement frequency bandwidth. If receiver diversity is in use by the UE.UE Measurements (2/4) 3GPP TS 36. diversity branches. For RSRP determination the cell-specific reference signals R0 according TS 36. RRC_IDLE inter-frequency. If the UE can reliably detect that R1 is available it may use R1 in addition to R0 to determine RSRP. the reported value shall not be lower than the corresponding RSRP of any of the individual diversity branches. RRC_CONNECTED inter-frequency .
If receiver diversity is in use by the UE. RRC_CONNECTED intra-frequency. where N is the number of RB’s of the E-UTRA carrier RSSI measurement bandwidth. comprises the linear average of the total received power (in [W]) observed only in OFDM symbols containing reference symbols for antenna port 0. thermal noise etc. Applicable for RRC_IDLE intra-frequency. The measurements in the numerator and denominator shall be made over the same set of resource blocks. RRC_IDLE inter-frequency. RRC_CONNECTED inter-frequency . adjacent channel interference. in the measurement bandwidth. over N number of resource blocks by the UE from all sources. including co-channel serving and non-serving cells. E-UTRA Carrier Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI).UE Measurements (3/4) Definition Reference Signal Received Quality (RSRQ) is defined as the ratio N×RSRP/(EUTRA carrier RSSI). the reported value shall not be lower than the corresponding RSRQ of any of the individual diversity branches. The reference point for the RSRQ shall be the antenna connector of the UE.
CPICH_Ec/No: The received energy per chip divided by the power density in the band.UE Measurements (4/4) • For example. 35. 19. 38.e. Iot: The received power spectral density of the total noise and interference for a certain RE (power integrated over the RE and normalized to the subcarrier spacing) as measured at the UE antenna connector. 40 and RSRP Ês/Iot -4 dB. 34. assume that only reference signals are transmitted in a resource block. An intra frequency cell is considered to be detectable if: RSRP|dBm > -124 dBm for Bands 1. UMTS FDD carrier RSSI: The received wide band power.133 to determine the intra frequency cell delectability. • • Ês: Received energy per RE (power normalized to the subcarrier spacing) during the useful part of the symbol. at the UE antenna connector. the received power on one code measured on the Primary CPICH. 10. 21.79 dB. 36.…). excluding the cyclic prefix. 6. i. and that data and noise and interference are not considered. If reference signals and subcarriers carrying data are equally powered. We use RSRP and Ês/Iot measurement defined in TS 36. including thermal noise and noise generated in the receiver. 33. CPICH RSCP: Received Signal Code Power. . 37. the ratio corresponds to (1/12) or -10. RSRQ is not suitable for LTE measurement. If receiver diversity is not in use by the UE. 11. within the bandwidth defined by the receiver pulse shaping filter. the CPICH Ec/No is identical to CPICH RSCP/UTRA Carrier RSSI. In this case RSRQ is equal to (1/2) or -3 dB. 18. 39. 4.
Reference Signal with 6 frequency-shift predefined pattern D D A C B C E F F E E A B C A B D D F D F E C B F E A C F B C A B A D E .
Conclusions • LTE Requirements and Key Features • OFDMA Frame and Resource Block Structures • Physical Channel Structure and Procedure • UE measurements • RSRP & RSRQ .
Polaris Wireless internal report. “LTE for UMTS OFDMA and SC-FDMA Based Radio Access”. Technical Overview of 3GPP LTE.al. Feasibility Study for Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) for UTRAN enhancement (Release 6)  S. John Wiley & Sons Ltd. et.from Theory to Practice”.al. Wang.org/ftp/Specs/html-info/36-series.com/scfdma.pdf  P. John Wiley & Sons Ltd.892. (Good book on System Architecture concept)  H.G.3gpp. Sesia. April 17.htm. Holma. 2010.Reference  3GPP LTE http://www. Al. “LTE-The UMTS Long Term Evolution. “RF Pattern Matching Performance in LTE”. (Good book on PHY layer concept)  H. . Myung.googlepages. et. http://hgmyung. et.  3GPP TR 25.
5 ms (i. if 64 QAM is used as modulation scheme Radio resource is manage in LTE as resource grid.8 Mbps * If 4x4 MIMO is used. * If 3/4 coding is used to protect the data..e 1 Sub-frame = 1 ms) -1 Time-slot = 7 Modulation Symbols (when normal CP length is used) -1 Modulation Symbols = 6 bits.LTE bit rate calculation • From the 3gpp specification: -1 Radio Frame = 10 Sub-frame -1 Sub-frame = 2 Time-slots -1 Time-slot = 0. -1 Resource Block (RB) = 12 Sub-carriers Assume 20 MHz channel bandwidth (100 RBs).75 x 403 Mbps = 302 Mbps as data rate. we still get 0. normal CP Therefore.. data rate = 100800 bits / 1 ms = 100. then the peak data rate would be 4 x 100.. number of bits in a sub-frame = 100RBs x 12 sub-carriers x 2 slots x 7 modulation symbols x 6 bits = 100800 bits Hence. .8 Mbps = 403 Mbps.
increased speeds and general improved performance. WCDMA (UMTS) Max downlink speed bps HSPA HSDPA / HSUPA HSPA+ LTE 384 k 14 M 28 M 100M Max uplink speed 128 k bps Latency round trip time approx 3GPP releases Approx years of initial roll out 5.3G LTE specification overview (1/2) LTE can be seen for provide a further evolution of functionality.7 M 11 M 50 M 150 ms 100 ms 50ms (max) ~10 ms Rel 99/4 Rel 5 / 6 2005 / 6 HSDPA 2007 / 8 HSUPA Rel 7 Rel 8 2003 / 4 2008 / 9 2009 / 10 Access methodology CDMA CDMA CDMA OFDMA / SCFDMA .
172 (2x2 MIMO). No circuit switched.120 km/h (high performance) Mobility Latency Spectral efficiency Idle to active less than 100ms Small packets ~10 ms Downlink: 3 . 3.15 km/h (optimised). 326 (4x4 MIMO) 50 (QPSK). 1. 15. 10. 5. 15 .3G LTE specification overview (2/2) Parameter Peak downlink speed 64QAM (Mbps) Peak uplink speeds (Mbps) Data type Channel bandwidths (MHz) Duplex schemes Details 100 (SISO). 20 FDD and TDD 0 . 57 (16QAM). 64QAM (Uplink and downlink) Access schemes Modulation types supported .4.4 times Rel 6 HSDPA Uplink: 2 -3 x Rel 6 HSUPA OFDMA (Downlink) SC-FDMA (Uplink) QPSK. 16QAM. 86 (64QAM) All packet switched data (voice and data).
• OFDM channel equalizers are much simpler to implement than are CDMA equalizers. • OFDM is better suited to MIMO. By sampling the received signal at the optimum time.OFDM offers distinct advantages compared to the CDMA technology When compared to the CDMA technology upon which UMTS is based. The frequency domain representation of the signal enables easy precoding to match the signal to the frequency and phase characteristics of the multi-path radio channel. as the OFDM signal is represented in the frequency domain rather than the time domain. . the receiver can remove the time domain interference between adjacent symbols caused by multi-path delay spread in the radio channel. • OFDM can be made completely resistant to multi-path delay spread. This is possible because the long symbols used for OFDM can be separated by a guard interval known as the cyclic prefix (CP). The CP is a copy of the end of a symbol inserted at the beginning. OFDM offers a number of distinct advantages: • OFDM can easily be scaled up to wide channels that are more resistant to fading.
OFDM is also sensitive to Doppler shift. For the same reason. • • . some form of frequency planning at the cell edges will be required. It is known that OFDM will be more difficult to operate than CDMA at the edge of cells.OFDM does have some disadvantages • The subcarriers are closely spaced making OFDM sensitive to frequency errors and phase noise. which causes interference between the subcarriers (ICI). and that is why a modification of the technology called SC-FDMA is used in the uplink. Therefore. CDMA uses scrambling codes to provide protection from inter-cell interference at the cell edge whereas OFDM has no such feature. Pure OFDM also creates high peak-to-average signals. SCFDMA is discussed later.
2. It consists of the Master Information Block (MIB) and a number of System Information Blocks (SIBs). 1. SIB2 and other SIBs are carried by "SystemInformation (SI)" message. An SI message can contain one or several SIBs. The Physical Hybrid ARQ Indicator Channel carries the HARQ ACKs and NACKs for uplink transmissions The SFN (System Frame Number) which helps with synchronization and acts as a timing reference The eNB transmit antenna configuration specifying the number of transmit antennas at eNB such as 1. or 4. while SIBs are sent on the Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH) through Radio Resource Control (RRC) messages.LTE system information (1/3) • LTE system information is one of the key aspects of the air interface. which indicates the minimum required Rx Level in the cell to fulfill the cell selection criteria The transmissions times and periodicities of other SIBs • • • • • • • • • • • . SIB1 is carried by "SystemInformationBlockType 1" message. It includes information related to UE cell access and defines the schedules of other SIBs. It includes: The downlink channel bandwidth The PHICH configuration. such as: The PLMN Identities of the network The tracking area code (TAC) and cell ID The cell barring status. which is carried by CRC mask for PBCH 2. SIB1 is carried in a SystemInformationBlockType1 message. The MIB is broadcast on the Physical Broadcast Channel (PBCH). to indicate if a UE may camp on the cell or not q-RxLevMin. The MIB carries the most essential information that is needed for the UE to acquire other information from the cell. The MIB is the first thing a UE looks for after it achieves downlink synchronization.
such as preamble information. n50) The Random Access Channel (RACH) configuration. which helps a UE start the random access procedure. . and powerRampingParameters which indicates the initial Tx power and ramping step. The paging configuration. and CQI reports The Physical Uplink Shared Channel (PUSCH) configuration. scheduling requests. for example n25.LTE system information (2/3) • • • • • • • • SIB2 contains radio resource configuration information common for all UEs. such as P0-NominalPUSCH/PUCCH The Sounding Reference Signal configuration The Physical Uplink Control Channel (PUCCH) configuration to support the transmission of ACK/NACK. including: The uplink carrier frequency and the uplink channel bandwidth (in terms of the number of Resource Blocks. transmit time in terms of frame and subframe number (prach-ConfigInfo). such as hopping 3. such as the paging cycle The uplink power control configuration.
please refer to 3GPP TS 36. t-ReselectionEUTRA and qHyst can be configured to trigger cell reselection sooner or later. the broadcast of LTE neighbor cells is optional. the UE may choose not to perform measurement in order to save battery life.) • • • • • . such as neighbor cell list. The basic parameters include: s-IntraSearch: the threshold for starting intra-frequency measurement. inter-frequency. such as neighbor cell list. carrier frequency.304 for the details.e. black cell list. Since the UE can do blind detection of neighbor cells in LTE. and Physical Cell Identities (PCIs) for Closed Subscriber Group (CSG). cell selection criterion for serving cell) is higher than s-IntraSearch. threshold used by the UE when reselecting a higher/lower priority frequency than the current serving frequency. s-NonIntraSearch: the threshold for starting inter-frequency and IRAT measurements q-RxLevMin: the minimum required Rx level in the cell Cell reselection priority: the absolute frequency priority for E-UTRAN or UTRAN or GERAN or CDMA2000 HRPD or CDMA2000 1xRTT q-Hyst: the hysteresis value used for calculating the cell-ranking criteria for the serving cell.LTE system information (3/3) • • • • • 4. When s-ServingCell (i. based on RSRP. SIB5 contains the neighbor cell related information for Intra-LTE inter-frequency cellreselection. 6. 5. (Note that 3GPP states that LTE neighbor cell search is feasible without providing an explicit neighbor list. cell reselection priority. and/or inter-RAT cell reselection. t-ReselectionEUTRA: the cell reselection timer value for EUTRA. SIB3 contains information common for intra-frequency. CSG can be used to support Home eNBs. SIB4 contains the intra-frequency neighboring cell information for Intra-LTE intrafrequency cell reselection.. This information does not necessarily apply to all scenarios. etc.
RSSI=12*N*(Ês+Iot) and RSRP=Ês.‘RSRQ reporting range’ and ‘RSRQ relationship to Es/Iot’ • “R4-081419_RSRQ_reporting_rang” gives an idea on how to calculate RSRQ and how to define RSRQ reporting range. The unit is in Watts. – (where RSRQ =[(N*RSRP)/RSSI].) . • “R4-103007_Relay RSRQ Reporting Range” gives a relationship between RSRQ and Ês/Iot . The unit is in dB. • RSRQ(dB) = 10*log10[Ês/(12*(Ês+Iot)]. • After a simple manipulation from this contribution.
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