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LEARNING PACKAGE IN SCIENCE-I Prepared by: Mariel San Juan

SUBJECT MATTER Phases and Properties of Matter COMPETENCIES 1. Understand matter, phases and properties of matter. 2. Give the different phases and properties of matter. 3. Value the contribution to environment and its benefits for our daily living. THRUSTS At the end of the lesson, the students should be able to: a. identify matter as anything that occupies space and has mass b. clarify the solid, liquid, gas and plasma phase of matter c. examine the significant differences between the general and specific properties of matter d. distinguish physical property from chemical property e. calculate the density of the given measurement of an object f. give evidence why an object floats or sinks on water g. form sound judgments about the phases and properties of matter in our daily life CONTENT Everything around us and everything about us is matter. Including the sun, earth, air, oceans and man are all in different forms but fall to a common characteristic which is they are all made up of matter. Matter is anything that has mass and volume. We perceive our surroundings with the objects sizes, shapes, weight and textures that lead us to our curiousness and investigate the different properties of matter and different phases. PRIOR KNOWLEDGE 1. Matter is everywhere.

2. Materials that we see in our surroundings are matter. 3. Knowing matter has less significant in our studies specially in our daily life. NEW KNOWLEDGE 1. Matter is not only the object we see physically but also the air and other invisible substances. 2. Matters are clarified not only by the different phases but also with the individual properties unique to each object. 3. The phases of matter are not only the solid, liquid, and gas but also plasma and Bose-Einstein Condensate. 4. Plasma is of high energy and has electrical charge mixture of ions and electrons. It is mostly found on outer space. 5. A fifth state of matter is distinguished with the research articles of great scientists Albert Einstein and Satyendra Nth-Bose. 6. The existence of every object is valued as the students become aware of the physical and chemical properties of matter. RESOURCES References: Worktext in General Science for First Year High School. Santos, Gil Nolato and Alfonso Danac. Pages 70-83. Integrated Science Textbook. Follosco, Gloria. Pages 28-33. Science High School Com. General Science. Villamarin, Nenita. Pages 50-68. Materials: Boxes, marbles, CD player, manila papers and visual aids, marker STRATEGIES TEACHER S ACTIVITY Introduction STUDENTS ACTIVITY

I.

Good morning class!

Good morning Ms. San Juan! Good morning Sir Familaran! Good morning classmates! It is nice to see you again.

Before you take your seat, kindly check if your chairs are properly aligned.

(Students will follow.) Please take your seat. Today, we ll be having a new lesson but before we finally proceed, let us first have a game. Kindly read the direction and mechanics of the game. Direction and Mechanics As the music start to play, pass the three boxes to your classmates at the back. When the music suddenly stops, the students holding the boxes will go in front and cite their guesses about what s inside the boxes and write some of your observation on the board. Yes Ma am. None Ma am. (The boxes are being passed by the students.)

Is that clear? Any question? Ok then, let us start the game. Now class, let us open these boxes and find out what are inside. Any volunteer to open these boxes? (Three students will come infront.) Ok in a count of three, one two three. And now what do you see?

The first box has marbles, the second one has water and the last is empty.

That is correct. From your observations written on the board, how did you come up in to these? We use our senses and weigh the box if it is heavy or light. We shake the box also if there is anything inside. In our observations, mostly when an object is unknown, we use different ways to describe it, how it looks like and its mass. We call these objects as MATTER.

II.

Interaction

Class, matter is anything that occupies space and has volume. Mass is the amount of matter in an object. What is mass? It is defined as the space occupied by an object. How about volume? Very good! It is matter that makes everything on earth. As you look around we see matter. Chair, desks, textbooks and all around you are all matter. Even the air we breathe is made up of matter. Matter also has to fulfill two conditions. Kindly read. Matter has mass. It is the amount of matter an object has. If you have more mass, you have more matter and vice versa. Weight is the effect due to mass angd gravity. As a measurable quantity, this also implies that matter can be described in terms of mass and weight. Matter occupies space. Space is expressed in our universe in three dimensions length, width and height. It means matter can be measured in terms of these three quantities. It is by volume. With these conditions, we then distinguish matter with its mass and space occupies. Now class, with the objects on the table we have a They are in different state. while ago, what do you observe? Right! The states of matter are solid, liquid, gas and Who can name the states of matter? plasma.

The object in the first box is in the solid state. Solids are distinguished by their definite volume. They hold their own shape which is not affected by the size and shape of the container in which they are placed. As what you can see in the box, the shape of the marbles remains spherical and do not change. It has definite volume and shape. Now class, hold these marbles. Use your senses and examine. What do you observe? The marbles are hard, shiny, light and smooth. Just as every individual object on earth has a unique identity and there are also similarities. Substances can be identified by their properties. Anyone would have difficulty in compressing a solid mostly marbles. Any idea why it is hard to compress marbles? It is the molecules are compactly arranged. Correct! It is because of the arrangement of the molecules within a solid. They are compactly arranged and almost have no space for molecule to move. Look around you and cite some solids inside the room. Door, windows, desk, chair, board, textbooks Now how about the second box? What s in it? The second box is water in a container. That s right and water is in the liquid state. Best example of the second state. The molecules in liquid are close to one another but unlike solids, the molecules are free to move and can change positions with each other. This allows liquid to flow. It takes the shape of the container where it is placed.

floor,

In the morning, when you are having your breakfast, before going to school and on the way to school, what liquids do you encounter? In the morning we drink coffee, water and fruit juices. We use water to take a bath before going to school. On the way to school, we saw different kinds of drinks on stores like soft drinks and liquors. Very good! Of course, liquids are very important for our health and for our daily life. Let us proceed to the third one. What s in it? None Ma am. It is empty. The third phase of matter is then in gas state. Right! Unlike solids and liquids, gases have no definite shape and volume. The molecules of gases are far apart from one another. This causes them to move freely and independently and makes them to be invisible. Example is the balloon, when it is deflated, it becomes empty but as we blow it, gas filled the empty space and suddenly takes form. Additionally, we have the fourth and fifth state of matter which includes the plasma and BoseEinstein Condensate. Plasma is similar to gases but differ in ions and electrons. It is high energy, electrically charged mixture of ions and electrons. They appear only during lightning bolts and inside fluorescent lamps. The fifth state of matter is the so called BoseEinstein Condensate. Predicted some years about 73 years ago by Albert Einstein and Satyendra

Nath Bose. The concept of this state was realized after Eric Cornell and Carl Weiman in Boulder, Colorado in 1995. Just as every individual object on earth has a unique identity but there are also characteristics which are common. These are identified with the different properties. Matter is categorized into two set of properties: general and specific properties of matter. What are general properties of matter? That s right. What are those? Kindly read. The properties of matter that exist in all materials.

The general properties of matter are the ff: 1. Mass- is the amount of matter in an object. It is constant and does not change even moved from one place to another. 2. Volume- the amount of space an object takes up 3. Inertia- the resistance of an object to changes in motion 4. Weight- a measure of the pull of gravity on an object 5. Impenetrability- the inability of two object to occupy the same space and time 6. Density- mass per unit volume

Density is calculated using our formula: Density =mass Volume =m/v For example, the mass of an object is 10 g, and its

volume is 4 cm . What is the density of the object? Anyone who can solve?

= m/v =10 g/4 cm =2.5 g/cm

To measure the density of the objects, let us have an experiment. ( Activity no. 1 is given)

That is correct. An object that is denser than water will sink and an object less dense than water will float. And now, what are specific properties? The properties of matter that exist only on specific materials. That is right. There are two types of physical properties: intensive and extensive properties. Intensive properties are which do not depend on the amount of matter present. It is not about how much you have but what you have. Kindly read.

a. Boiling point- the temperature at which a particular substance changes from liquid to gas b. Freezing point- the temperature at which a particular substance changes from liquid to solid c. Melting point- the temperature at which a particular substance changes from solid to liquid d. Buoyancy- ability of an object to float on water e. Density- ratio of mass to the volume of a

f. g.

h. i.

j. k.

l.

m. n.

substance Ductility- ability of solid to be drawn into fine wires Elasticity- ability of solid to return to its original form when a deforming force is removed Hardness- pertains to resisting indention or compression Malleability- ability of solid to be hammered into thin sheets without breaking in Magnetism- ability to attract specially metals Odor- pertain to quality of a substance that renders it perceptible to the sense of smell Conductivity and resistivity- if the object conducts electricity, it has high conductivity but if the object is a poor conduction then it has high resistivity State- pertain to whether the object is solid, liquid, gas or plasma Texture- pertains to smoothness or roughness of object

Now, let us proceed to extensive properties. What Properties of matter that depend on the amount or quantity of materials present. are extensive properties? Right. Extensive properties also depend on the amount of matter present. Class, this table we have shows about the extensive properties.

PROPERTIES DESCRIPTION Size (length, area, The more matter, the volume and shape) bigger the size

Mass and Weight

Conductance Resistance

The more matter, the bigger the mass or weight and Is it a good conductor of electricity? If so, it has a high conductance like conductivity. Is it a poor conductor of electricity? If so, it has high resistance like resistivity.

Now class another classification of matter is the chemical property of matter. Chemical properties of matter describe the Any idea about that? changes that occur in chemical composition that take place during chemical reactions with the other substances. Mostly, chemical properties are found in our body with the process of digestion and metabolism of our body. These properties are often hidden that they can only be observed the reaction with the presence of acids, base and other chemicals. Examples are rusts which are formed with the presence of water and oxygen on metals. Under chemical properties of matter we have the following: PROPERTIES DESCRIPTION Combustibility Is it easily burned? If so, it is combustible. Oxidation Does it easily rust? (if it is metal) if so, it is easily oxidized.

For all that we have discussed, we can conclude that matter is significant to our daily living. If we are familiar about the chemical and physical properties of a particular material, we would know when, where or how to use them. The different phases of matter give us knowledge How about the phases of matter? about the natural phenomenon that occurs in our nature that we encounter every day. That is right and with the general and specific properties of matter; it makes us to be aware of the different characteristics of matter. III. Integration

Class let us have a game. The class will be divided into four groups. (Activity no. 2 is given.) (Students will follow.) Now proceed to your respective groups. EVELUATION: Direction: Identify the following: 1. It is anything that occupies space and has mass. 2. It is a phase of matter with definite shape and volume. 3. It is the measure of pull of gravity on an object. 4. It is the mass per unit volume. 5. It is the ability of an object to oppose a Matter Solid Weight Density Hardness

change in shape and defined also as the ability to scratch another substance. 6. It is the ability to bend without breaking. 7. The properties of matter which we usually describe with the use of our senses or physically. 8. It is the ability of an object to float on water. 9. It pertains to the roughness or smoothness of object. 10. It occurs in chemical composition that take place during chemical reactions with other substances. Chemical properties Hardness Physical properties of matter Flexibility

Buoyancy

Enumeration: 1. List the general properties of matter. (5)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Mass Volume Inertia Weight Impenetrability

2. List the specific properties of matter. (5)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Hardness Brittleness Luster Malleability Ductility

Essay: Compare the physical and chemical properties of matter. Give some examples. Physical properties of matter are what we usually describe by our senses. Examples are the texture, odor, color and hardness of object. Chemical properties of matter are those can be identified chemically.

IV. Agreement Cut pictures of the natural phenomenon dealing with the physical and chemical properties of matter. ACTIVITY NO. 1 DETERMINING DENSITY OBJECTIVES 1. To weigh the object using triple beam balance. 2. To measure the volume of an object. 3. To determine the densities of the objects using the given formula. MATERIALS Triple beam balance, beaker, graduated cylinder, water, ruler, piece of wood, piece of metal, and block of wood PROCEDURES 1. Using the triple beam balance, measure the mass of the block of wood, piece of wood and piece of metal. 2. Using the ruler, measure the important quantities of the block of wood then, calvulate the volume. 3. Use the graduated cylinder to measure the amount of water. a. Fill the graduated cylinder a measured amount of water. b. Get the initial reading which is the volume of water. c. Submerge the object (piece of wood and metal) into the water. The objects will cause the water to rise to a certain value. d. Measure the final reading e. Get the difference between the initial and final reading and it is then the volume of the definite objects.

4. Calculate the density of each sample by the formula: density= mass/volume. EVALUATION Guide questions: 1. How the density of the objects does is determined? 2. Is the volume easy to determine? Is the mass easy to determine? OBSERVATION Record the quantities on the table below. OBJECTS Piece of wood Piece of metal Block of wood GENERALIZATI

VOLUME

MASS

DENSITY

TIME 07:00-07:30 07:30-08:30 08:30-9:30 09:30-10:00 10:00-11:00 11:00-12:00 12:00-01:30 01:30-02:30 02:30-03:30 03:30-04:30 04:30-05:00

MONDAY FLAG PHYSICS PHYSICS RECESS ENGLISH 4 VALUES ED. 4 LUNCH MATH 4 FILIPINO 4 COMPUTER 4 RHGP

TUESDAY CEREMONY PHYSICS SOCIAL STUDIES 4 RECESS ENGLISH 4 HEALTH 4 LUNCH MATH 4 FILIPINO 4 COMPUTER 4

WEDNESDAY AND PHYSICS SOCIAL STUDIES 4 RECESS ENGLISH 4 MUSIC 4 LUNCH MATH 4 FILIPINO 4 LIBRARY/ GUIDANCE HOUR

THURSDAY PHYSICAL PHYSICS SOCIAL STUDIES 4 RECESS ENGLISH 4 T.L.E. 4 LUNCH MATH 4 FILIPINO 4 CAT

FRIDAY FIRNESS PHYSICS SOCIAL STUDIES 4 RECESS ENGLISH 4 T.L.E. 4 LUNCH MATH 4 ARTS 4 P.E.

TIME 07:00-07:30 07:30-8:30 8:30-9:30 9:30-10:00 10:00-11:00 11:00-12:00 12:00-01:30 01:30-02:30 02:30-03:30 03:30-04:30 04:30-05:00

SUBJECTS FLAG CEREMONY AND PHYSICAL FITNESS PHYSICS PHYSICS RECESS ENGLISH 4 VALUES EDUCATION 4 LUNCH BREAK MATHEMATICS 4 FILIPINO 4 COMPUTER 4 RHGP

COOPERATING TEACHERS MRS. ROSALIA R. NIEVA MRS. ROSALIA R. NIEVA MS. JENNIFER M. PEDRAZA MR. MHELJAY C. ABEL MR. MARK ALVIN M. RODIL MRS. MARITES A. SAGUID MS JENNIFER M. PEDRAZE MRS. ROSALIA R. NIEVA