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10 th Grade Chemistry

BHSEC Queens Ms. Robinson-Surry

January 9, 2012

Stoichiometric Calculations ANSWER KEY

Note: for all problems involving masses you need to calculate the molecular mass (molar mass) of each compound. It is easiest to calculate all of these first before tackling the problem.

You can always check that you have done your calculations correctly by confirming that the reaction obeys the Law of Conservation of Mass. If the sum of the masses of your reactants does not equal the sum of the masses of your products, something has gone wrong. Remember, in limiting reagent problems you must not forget about the excess reagent that is not used up!

1. 4 Bi + 3 O 2 2 Bi 2 O 3

a. What type of chemical reaction is this?

b. If you had 0.625 mol of bismuth, how many moles of bismuth(II) oxide would be produced?

c. If you had 0.625 mol of bismuth, how many grams of oxygen (O 2 ) would you need for this reaction?

SYNTHESIS

Bi = 208.98 g/mol

b. 0.313 mol Bi 2 O 3

c. 15.0 g of O 2

O 2 = 2(15.999 g/mol) = 31.998 g/mol

Bi 2 O 3 = 465.957 g/mol

There are 3 significant figures in the answer because there are 3 sig. figs. In “0.625 mol” The coefficients in the balanced equation DO NOT affect significant figures.

2. 2 H 3 PO 4 + 3 Mg(OH) 2 Mg 3 (PO 4 ) 2 + 6 H 2 O

a. What type of chemical reaction is this? DOUBLE REPLACEMENT (WITH AN ACID)

b. If you want to produce 100. g of Mg 3 (PO 4 ) 2 , how much phosphoric acid and magnesium hydroxide do you need (in grams)?

c. How much water (in grams) will be produced when you make 100. g of Mg 3 (PO 4 ) 2 using this chemical reaction?

d. The density of water is 1 g/mL. How many mL of water would be produced in this reaction?

e. Verify that this reaction obeys the Law of Conservation of Mass by adding up the masses of the reactants and comparing that to the sum of the masses of the products (they should be the same!).

H 3 PO 4 = 97.994 g/mol H 2 O = 18.015 g/mol

Mg(OH) 2 = 58.319 g/mol

b. 74.6 g H 3 PO 4 and 66.6 g Mg(OH) 2

c. 41.1 g H 2 O

d. 41.1 mL H 2 O

Mg 3 (PO 4 ) 2 = 262.855 g/mol

e. Reactants = 74.6 g + 66.6 g = 141.1 g Products = 100. g + 41.1 g = 141.1 g

Law of Conservation of Mass is Observed!!!

3.

2 NaOH + H 2 SO 4 Na 2 SO 4 + 2 H 2 O

a. What type of chemical reaction is this? DOUBLE REPLACEMENT (WITH AN ACID)

b. If you had 50.0 g of sodium hydroxide, how much sulfuric acid (in grams) would you need?

c. What are the products of the reaction, and how much of each (in grams) would be produced if you did this reaction with 50.0 g of NaOH?

NaOH = 39.997 g/mol H 2 SO 4 = 98.077 g/mol Na 2 SO 4 = 142.041 g/mol H 2 O = 18.015 g/mol

b.

61.3 g of sulfuric acid

c.

88.8 g of sodium sulfate and 22.5 g of water

4.

AlCl 3 + 3 AgNO 3 3 AgCl + Al(NO 3 ) 3

a. What type of chemical reaction is this? DOUBLE REPLACEMENT

b. If you combined 5.0 g of aluminum chloride with 7.0 g of silver nitrate, which reactant would run out first (limiting reactant) and which reactant is left over (excess reactant)?

b.

You figure this out by figuring out how many moles of AlCl 3 and AgNO 3 you have, and then

deciding how many moles of each you would need:

AlCl 3 = 133.341 g/mol AgNO 3 = 169.874 g/mol AgCl = 143.323 g/mol Al(NO 3 ) 3 = 212.994 g/mol

5.0

g of aluminum chloride is 0.0375 moles of aluminum chloride

7.0

g of silver nitrate is 0.0412 moles of silver nitrate

In the balanced equation, you need 1 mole of aluminum chloride for every 3 moles of silver nitrate So if you have 0.0375 mol AlCl 3 you would need 3(0.0375 mol) = 0.112 mol AgNO 3

This means that silver nitrate is the limiting reactant and aluminum chloride is the excess reactant.

With 0.0412 moles of silver nitrate, you would use up 0.0412/3 = 0.0137 moles of aluminum chloride, leaving behind 0.0375 mol – 0.0137 mol = 0.0238 mol of aluminum chloride.

5. MgO + 2 HCl MgCl 2 + H 2 O

a. What type of chemical reaction is this? DOUBLE REPLACEMENT (WITH AN ACID)

b. If you combined 1.93 g of magnesium oxide with 3.56 g of hydrochloric acid, how much magnesium chloride would be formed (in grams)? This is the Theoretical Yield of magnesium chloride in this reaction.

c. Which reagent is the limiting reagent?

d. You did this experiment and the mass of magnesium chloride that you obtained was 4.25 g. What is the Percent Yield of magnesium chloride your experiment?

MgO = 40.304 g/mol HCl = 36.461 g/mol MgCl 2 = 95.211 g/mol H 2 O = 18.015 g/mol

b. First you need to figure out if there is a limiting reagent in this problem:

1.93 g of MgO is 0.0479 mol of MgO and 3.56 g of HCl is 0.0976 mol of HCl

According to the balanced equation, you need 1 mol MgO for every 2 mol HCl

So for 0.0479 mol of Mgo you would need 2(0.0479 mol) = 0.0958 mol HCl

Since you are given 0.0976 mol of HCl, this means you will have 0.0976 mol – 0.0958 mol = 0.0019 mol HCl extra (in excess)

With 0.0479 mol of MgO and 0.0958 mol HCl you will produce 0.0479 mol of MgCl 2 0.0479 mol of MgCl 2 = 4.56 g of MgCl 2 [THEORETICAL YIELD OF MgCl 2 ]

c. The limiting reagent is magnesium oxide.

d. 4.25 g MgCl 2 / 4.56 g MgCl 2 = 0.932

0.932(100) = 93.2%

The percent yield of magnesium chloride is 93.2%

6. 4 NH 3 + 5 O 2 4 NO + 6 H 2 O

a. What type of chemical reaction is this? A type of Combustion that we have not learned about!

b. If you combined 12.8 g of ammonia and 14.5 g of oxygen, how many grams of nitrogen monoxide will be formed in this reaction? This is the Theoretical Yield of NO this reaction.

c. Which of the reactants is the limiting reactant? How much of this compound will be left over in the reaction?

d. Verify that this reaction obeys the Law of Conservation of Mass by adding up the masses of the reactants and comparing that to the sum of the masses of the products (they should be the same!).

NH 3 = 17.031 g/mol H 2 O = 18.015 g/mol

O 2 = 31.998 g/mol

NO = 30.006 g/mol

b. First you need to figure out if there is a limiting reagent in this problem:

12.8

g of ammonia is 0.752 mol of ammonia

14.5

g of O 2 is 0.453 mol of O 2

According to the balanced chemical equation, for every 4 moles of ammonia you need 5 moles of O 2

So for 0.752 mol of ammonia you would need 0.939 mol of O 2 Since you only have 0.453 mol of O 2 , O 2 is the Limiting Reagent.

0.453 mol of O2 will produce 0.363 mol of NO of NO in this reaction]

0.363 mol of NO is 10.9 g of NO [Theoretical Yield

c. Oxygen is the limiting reactant. There will not be any oxygen left over in the reaction! (there will be some ammonia left over because the ammonia is present in excess)

d. Law of Conservation of Mass verification:

In order to do this we need to convert all of our moles to masses:

Reactants

NH 3

0.363 mol*

0.389 mol**

0.453 mol

O 2

6.17 g NH 3 6.63 g NH 3 14.5 g O 2

Sum of reactant masses = 27.3 g

Products

NO

NH 3

H

0.363

0.389

0.544

2 O

mol

mol**

mol

10.9 g NO 6.63 g NH 3 9.80 g H 2 O

Sum of product masses = 27.3 g

* ammonia that is used up in the reaction

** ammonia that is not used up in the reaction, and is therefore a product of the reaction.

The Law of Conservation of Mass is obeyed!!!