Shaun Sarvey Jazz 520 04/28/04 Semester Project : Influence of the Jazz Idiom in the Playing Style of SidemanGuitarist Drew

Zingg Jazz was the popular music in America for much of the first half of the twentieth century. Jazz was then supplanted by what began as another blues-based youth dance craze, Rock and Roll. With the advent of Rock and Roll came various technological advancements, which included the perfection of the electric guitar. In the instrument of the electric guitar, both jazz and rock (as well as other styles), developed a unique relationship and continue to influence one another in numerous ways. One result of this relationship between jazz and rock (as well as other styles) is evident in a tradition of numerous electric guitarist innovators. These innovators develop unique voices and have come to the music in a variety of different ways. Some guitarists (or even other musicians) develop directly out of the jazz tradition and fuse their sound with other styles as part of the development of their own unique individual voice. Other guitarists seem to have embarked on their musical journey of self-discovery by first developing a strong voice in the style of rock, blues, soul, and rhythm and blues. These players seem to continue their development largely in two different ways; either by delving deeply into the jazz tradition before severing, in some ways, their former relationship to popular music genres, or through assimilating jazz elements into their own playing as a part of developing into flexible, expressive improvisers.

the guitar has produced some of the most unique musical voices in the twentieth century. However. to name just a few. primarily due to his work with The New York Rock and Soul Revue and Steely Dan. Steve Khan. Buzz Feiten's work with Joe Farrell. and for some. At present. studio work with pop singer. tours and television appearances with pop vocalist. appearances with David Sanborn. Mike Stern and John Scofield. Lucy Kaplansky and Alana Davis. This relationship is best exemplified with John McLaughlin's work with Miles Davis. Zingg performs and records frequently . many of these "hybrid" stylized guitarists have produced some notable efforts as leaders. Zingg has received a considerable amount of attention. and has provided numerous new opportunities including tours with bassist. This is due in part to western culture's incessant need to precisely categorize. One sideman of considerable note is guitarist and New York City native.2 The relevance of the electric guitar's relationship with jazz is evident and continuous. Marcus Miller. However. Robben Ford. Drew Zingg. Larry Carlton. and studio work for singer songwriters. Boz Scaggs. His involvement in these two projects appears to have been a major stepping stone for Zingg. many have also utilized the combination of jazz and popular elements in their careers to transcend stylistic parameters as sidemen and studio session players. Regardless of how one might categorize particular guitarists. Michael McDonald. In addition. hard to understand. these innovators have proven very influential and each has made unique contributions to both jazz and popular music. Pat Metheny. the relationship between the jazz idiom and the electric guitar is very complex. While blurring and transcending traditional stylistic lines of demarcation.

However. the following excerpt (fig. founded in blues. to the average listener. solo I example This solo is a single chorus in length over the [A] section of "Peg. Zingg's use of bebop and contemporary jazz elements make for exciting guitar playing in a popular music format. This influence is evidenced by this author's descriptive analysis of excerpts from the aforementioned transcribed solo examples (utilizing some of the contemporary standard in analytical terminology established by jazz educator.1) (as well as in most of Zingg's playing). Drew Zingg's playing exhibits an advanced approach to harmony and a strong working knowledge of the jazz vocabulary. and are evident in several transcribed solo examples from a live recording of undetermined origin with Steely Dan from St. Some of these elements . rock and R&B elements. 1993. and vocabulary." Drew Zingg is today's quintessential sideman. characteristics." which is structurally organized on the twelve bar blues form in the key of G major. Zingg further engenders his own versatility (making him one of today's most demanded New York sidemen) by seamlessly blending the path of popular music's mainstream guitar traditions with elements from the jazz idiom. are some elements of phrasing and articulation typical to the jazz idiom. September 4. It is this author's intent to provide insight on the influence that jazz has on Zingg's playing.3 with numerous NYC locals and recently has been the guitarist for the Broadway production of "Smokey Joe's Cafe. Missouri. His playing may seem. Jerry Coker) for jazz devices. Louis. Evident in this solo. Peg. 1.

The final note of the ascending digital pattern (D) descends by a semi-tone into D flat (beat four). flat ninth that resolves downward to tonic (beat three). The descent of the line continues downward through the fifth. This fragment begins on the thirteenth. 4 and ending in ms. Here the influence of jazz in Zingg's style is obvious in his use of jazz vocabulary and note choices in a phrase-segment beginning in ms. then continues to chromatically descend beginning (on beat two) with B natural until reaching G (beat three). on an upbeat of one. At this point the line moves chromatically from D down to C. where it is embellished with a be-bop turn. The line continues with a fragment.B.3 . of a G seventh chord sound. ascending to a sharp fifth. accentuation of the upbeat with an avoidance of the accentuation of the downbeat through the slurring of the preceding (upbeat) note into the downbeat. descends to the flat fifth. This begins (beat two) with a flat fifth.D) digital pattern. seventh. 7 (fig.1) . This phrase begins. use of chromaticism to metrically align chord tones on the downbeats. D flat is the first note of a descending arpeggiation of an E flat half-diminished chord (b7.4 include the beginning and ending of phrases on the upbeat. On G.1). with an ascending root position G triad (tonic). b5. by use of color tones. ms 5). and then the third of the chord. which has the fifth of the G chord as its goal on the first downbeat of the next measure. then makes use of surrounding tones both a chromatic step above and then below to enclose the fifth of the chord (beat one.5 (G. What follows is an elaboration. and the use of an active sixteenth-note melodic line.A. the direction of the line changes (ascending) with a 1 .2 . flat fifth. 1. b3. employment of be-bop style turns.

This segment. the harmonic content of the line changes. 6) with a descending arpeggiation of a D minor seventh chord. ms. .2) (ms. (fig. This segment begins (ms. is followed by a change of direction (beat two) that first begins with a diatonic approach above (E) and a chromatic approach below (C#) to D. The sound that Zingg uses to reflect this change is that of D minor in what may be interpreted as a D melodic minor scale choice. 7) with a descending triplet (F. fig. and then descends to D (beat two). This phrase's final measure begins with a very common be-bop figure that begins (beat one.E. 8-9). From D (beat two).5 which serves as chromatic passing harmony between the previous G digital pattern and a D minor seventh sound on beat one in the following measure. leaps to a diatonic approach tone above (E). the line leaps downward to G and ascends through the scale back to D ending this phrase on an upbeat of beat three.1 Another point of interest contained within this solo chorus is a phrase segment that immediately follows the one previously reviewed. 1. This choice provides a very audible focus on the color tone of the ninth in contrast to the underlying harmony of "Peg" that correspondingly changes to C major. then proceeds upward through the scale.D) that is slurred into a chromatic approach tone below (C#). In the final two measures of the phrase.1.

C major pentatonic or other variants) and.D. but like the [A] section is still tonally most suggestive of the tonic key (G). is very reminiscent of be-bop. phrasing. and articulation.G (ms. in these choruses there are two areas that exhibit patterns of wide intervallic playing and are very contemporary stylistically. This solo in terms of overall character. 9-10) is diatonic and contains wide intervallic play predominately between the intervals of a fourth and fifth.6 is comprised of a descending chromatic chain of fourths that alternate between ascending and descending leaps (begins and ends on G after traveling the range of an octave). 9. However. This idea begins with pentatonic material comprised of the pitches A.E. fig. 10) a distinct pattern emerges which lasts . The first segment (fig. and seems somewhat ambiguous and open harmonically. 1. consists of a repeated eight-measure section. serves functionally in this case as an "outro.C. 2. reverts back to diatonic material with the inclusion of F# and B natural. In the Following measure (ms. beat one and two) (could be construed as A minor Pentatonic.2 Peg." and is a total of twenty-four measures in length. starting with the "and" of beat three. solo II example The second solo on "Peg" is on the changes from the bridge section of the tune. The character of the bridge differs in ways from the [A] section since it has a fast harmonic rhythm (one chord for every two beats).1) (ms. as mentioned earlier and like many of Drew Zingg's solos.

Between beat group three and beat group four is a leap of an ascending tenth. This is repeated with a slight alteration when the intervals following the descending fifths are enlarged from a second to that of a minor third. beat group three only differs from group one because it begins with a descending major sixth.2 . 17 is entirely diatonic. Next there is an ascending leap of a major seventh (between the last note of beat group two and beat three). Beat group three nearly has an identical intervallic relationship to that of beat group one. 2.7 through the first three beat groupings. Beat group two is finished with a descending fifth and an ascending minor third. 2. This single measure example begins first (beat one) with a descending minor sixth and is followed by two descending perfect fifths. Beat group four then proceeds by a descending major sixth and then the arpeggiation of a D major triad (dominant). 2. This pattern is comprised of an alternation of a descending fifth followed by a descending second and then an ascending fifth followed by a descending second. since the pitch content in ms. fig.2. However. fig.1 The second example. 17) of wide intervallic playing contained within these choruses on "Peg. ms. which begins with an appogiatura (between the last note of beat group one and beat two) when the line leaps an eleventh (beat two) and is followed by a descending second." is also diatonic. This is followed by a different fragment. (fig.

In this solo. Drew Zingg plays a total of three choruses. On beat three and four the line begins to descend in motion. The first eight measures are that of a blues and there are different changes for the last eight measures of the form.1. In the following measure there is a change of direction that is established by a diatonic approach above on beat one (A) and a chromatic approach below (F#) that resolves upward to G on beat two. ms." This phrase begins in the third measure of the form on the upbeat of one and makes use of G melodic minor scale material against a G seventh chord. The line leaps a minor third to A on beat one of the next measure. The underlying harmony in measure five changes to C7. the use of G melodic minor as the material for the line continues as well and produces the color tones of 13. 9. Measure five commences with the same figure (an octave higher) that began the preceding measure. At this point (beat two) the line proceeds upward through the scale reaching F sharp on the "and" of beat four. and is very similar to what is found in fig. the solo sections are different since a two measure extension is added to the end of the form and.1. a diatonic approach above on beat one (A) and a chromatic approach below (F#) that resolves upward to G on beat two. every other chorus utilizes the "confirmation sequence" to reach the IV chord in the fifth measure of the form." It is sixteen measures in length.8 Bodhisattva. In this example. 6-7 of "Peg. contains some be-bop oriented material used frequently by Zingg. Beat two encompasses a be-bop turn that proceeds downward . 3. 1. However. the first full phrase on the form (fig. #4 and b7 against C7. in terms of harmony. solo example Bodhisattva is similar to a "Bird blues. ms 3-8) begins and ends on an upbeat. However.

Beat group four begins a chromatic ascent (A. 3. 7. 9.1 .D. the sound of line changes and might be interpreted as D melodic minor or G lydian dominant material (once again yielding the color tones of 13. Measure six is almost identical to measure four (diatonic approach above {A} chromatic approach below {F#} resolving upward to G).D) that is slurred into a chromatic approach tone below (C#). 7 of "Peg" solo I. A#) toward the downbeat of measure eight and the pitch B.G) and a common guitar-oriented figure that restates the previous pitch (G) with a slide upward from one whole step below (F). fig. From this point (ms. What follows is a leap of a descending fifth to G on the "and" of beat three. In the next measure (7) the underlying harmony returns to G7. the line continues with a very common be-bop figure and. beat one) the phrase is finished with an upward arpeggiation of a G major triad (B.9 to F sharp (beat three) and continues to descend an F# augmented chord sound through the fourth beat group.E. and then descends to D (beat three). is identical to that of ms. This figure begins (beat one. In this case the only exception is that the ascending eighth note momentum stops briefly at beat four with a quarter note on the pitch D. #4 and b7). 8. if this solo were sixteenth note based. ms 7) with a descending triplet (F. Also. In ms. leaps to a diatonic approach tone above (E).

the line descends chromatically to Eb (beat four). However.2.E. 10. 9-11) immediately following the previously discussed phrase. and the under lying harmony appears to function as a minor ii-V-i progression. fig.3. From the ninth (beat three).2 The next example (fig. Commencing on beat one. is on the beginning of the second eight measure (actually ten in the case of the solos) section of the form. 8 with the pitch D and resolves upward to Eb on beat one in the next measure (9). This segment begins on the upbeat of four in ms. on the "and" of four leaps downward to C. keeping in faith with the tradition and .Bb) resolving downward a semi-tone to A. Drew Zingg. 3. 19-23) coincides with the beginning of the second chorus of Bodhisattva and exemplifies the utilization of the "confirmation sequence" in the underlying harmony to reach the IV chord in the fifth measure (in the second chorus. ms. and reaching the pitch D on the downbeat of the next measure. reaching the ninth on beat three. On the A7 chord the line proceeds upward 3 to b9 (C#. which moves upward a semi-tone chromatically approaching the third of the next chord (C#) on the downbeat of ms. then continues through the scale downward into the downbeat of the next measure. 23) of the form. ms.10 The next segment (fig 3. ms.G. 3. in this case what would usually be a minor or halfdiminished ii chord is replaced by an E flat major seventh chord. there is an upward arppegiation of an Eb major seven-nine chord encompassing both beat groups one and two. is followed by a be-bop turn.

and resolves downward to B on the downbeat of the next measure (21) into the E minor seven chord change. leaps downward a minor third to D (beat two). is part of an upward arpeggiation of a portion of the upper structure of the D minor chord (F. 23. This fragment. reaches the ninth (E) on beat two and is followed by the flat ninth (Eb). 23. In beat groups one and two of measure 21 the line descends an E minor triad (B. and proceeds chromatically upward (D. Measure 22 begins with a triplet figure (beat one). the pitch E moves downward one semi-tone to D# (the third of the next chord {B7}) on beat three.A. which is an anticipation of the change on the downbeat of the following measure.B.E).Bb. This is followed by a four note upward arpeggiation of a F# minor seventh chord (F#.D) into beat four. The previously mentioned Bb ("and" of beat two) serves as a chromatic passing tone that moves downward to the pitch A on beat three.E) and then leaps upward to Bb on the "and" of beat two. The first measure (19) of this phrase begins with an ascending and descending arpeggiation of the G major chord. the line continues to push forward conjoining another be-bop fragment to the phrase to carry into this sequence's destination of C7 in ms. The direction changes on the "and" of beat four and here the pitch E serves as a stepwise connection to the beginning of measure 22.E) that encompasses beat groups one and two (ms. 20).A.11 the origin of this harmonic sequence. Next.C#.Ab.F. .A. Next. Beginning on beat three is a descending D minor triad (A.C) fragment. beginning on the upbeat of three in ms.F#.D#. 22.G. reaches G then F on the downbeat of ms.) to E on beat three. then proceeds upward through B7 with a 3 to b9 (D#. This begins on the third of the chord (F). proceeds downward through the pitches C.C. constructs a be-bop style line that honors the harmony with an audible and very transparent navigation of the chord changes.

1. 4. This solo example is very scalar in nature. solo example Drew Zingg's solo on "Reelin' In the Years" serves as part of an "outro" segment for the tune. is followed by a descending diatonic step into beat two (D). 17-24) that is contemporary in nature and contains some areas of key interest.12 fig. These scale types are a logical choice to bridge these two sonorities since they share many tones in common. This sound (G) is related through an intervallic pattern constructed from G lydian scale material and continues into the next measure (18) with a more scalar. Beat three proceeds with a . and is on the chord changes from the chorus. is predominately sixteenth note based. This phrase begins on the upbeat of one with an ascending leap of a perfect fourth (B to E). which is essentially a modal vamp of alternating two measure segments between G major and F# minor sonorities. which is followed by a diatonic step downward into beat three (B). stepwise melodic curve. Beat two proceeds with a descending leap of a perfect fourth (D to A). ms. followed by a diatonic step downward (G). Zingg makes almost exclusive use of F# natural minor (or minor pentatonic) and G lydian scale types. and an ascending leap of a tri-tone (G to C#). The underlying harmony of ms.3 Reelin' In the Years. 3. Within this solo example is a phrase (fig. 17 is G.

returns to E. Beat four is constructed of a descending major third and then a diatonic step downward. From this point beat group proceeds downward by a leap of a perfect fourth (C# to G#). down by step (G# to F#). the melodic curve of the G lydian material becomes scalar in character and the line makes its way to G# on the "and" of beat four. and then leaps upward a perfect fourth (C# to F#). reiterates the pitch E once again. 19) the line follows a more stepwise and scalar melodic curve that finishes on an upbeat of four. which is followed by a descending leap of a major third into beat four (A to F).13 descending leap of a perfect fourth (B to F#). From this point (beat four) the line descends a major third (G# to E). What follows. beginning on beat two (ms. a minor third (E to C#). In the phrase's final measure (ms. 18).1 . and an ascending leap of a perfect fourth (E to A). is a pattern-like figure that is common to fusion guitar players and contemporary improvisers and is comprised of F# minor pentatonic material. 4. 19 where it becomes the ninth of the F# minor chord. and descends again to C# on beat two. followed by a diatonic step downward (E). fig. Beat group one begins with a slurred (pull off) descending third from E to C#. and the line slurs a minor third downward (B to G#) into beat four. In the next measure. This G# is tied across the bar line into the downbeat of ms. leaps upward by a perfect fourth (F# to B).

the color tones available in the fully extended sonority of E.Db).F. 13) with the pitch Db and the line shifts into a short blues oriented fragment for beat group three and four of ms. which begins with a descending third (Db to Bb). 12-15) that is easily identifiable as "outside" playing in which the sound of Bb7 is superimposed against the tonic. ms. In measure fourteen. then moves up semi-tone to B natural. and by playing outside the underlying harmony. Zingg easily slides back into E major. leaps upward a minor third to D natural. This is achieved by employing chromaticism.1.D.1 Green Flower Street. The following material in measure 14 and 15 ( beginning on beat group two) finishes the phrase. Commencing with beat group four in ms. fig.Bb. The pattern is broken on beat three (ms. is largely E major. 5. scalar in nature. 13. and contains a little chromaticism.14 Black Friday. In "Black Friday" there is an example (fig.Ab.Ab. 5. This is achieved in beat group one. 12 the Bb7 arpeggio is outlined with a descending common overlapping four-note pattern that proceeds through beat group two in the following measure (13) ((D.D/Ab.F/Bb. solo example . Throughout this solo Zingg is able to break up some of the monotony of the extended vamp.F. solo example The solo choruses on "Black Friday" are constructed over what is essentially an E vamp with a blues-like rock shuffle time feel.

9-11) in which Zingg emphasizes the return to C7 from the preceding two measures of G7. ms. 6. The phrase is then completed with a punctuating comment comprised of a very brief falling minor third (Bb to G) on beat one of ms. 6. independent phrase of the solo (fig.1 The next example is a small antecedent phrase segment (fig.2. This is exemplified in his employment of a very common device known as a line cliché. The solo section is over a sixteen bar section in C major that serves as a shout chorus for the tune. and is then reiterated on beat groups three and four to fill out the measure. or to some. fig.1.b7. and in the final two measures finishes with rhythmic kicks on a melodic fragment from the end of the bridge section. four. 4-7) utilizes a lydian-dominant sound over C producing the color tones of #4. On beat four the line picks up momentum beginning a steady sixteenth note scalar passage that ends on beat four of the following measure (6) with a quarter note and the pitch C. This fragment commences with a slight anticipation of the change. moves to F major in measures 14-15. 4 with a motivic fragment that encompasses beat groups one and two. 7. as a CESH (contrapuntal elaboration of static harmony). The first complete. 6. This phrase begins in ms. and 13.15 The key of "Green Flower" street is A minor. The next measure (5) begins with a melodic fragment very similar to the motive established in ms. ms. which begins with a sliding approach note Eb on .

C and G. ms. in the author's opinion. these solo examples demonstrate in Zingg's playing the following: use of jazz vocabulary. Bb. there are many more examples of jazz elements in Drew Zingg's guitar playing contained within these transcribed solo examples. fig. This starts with two sixteenth notes. . The examples chosen are. be-bop inflected articulation. jazz phrasing. 10).16 beat four into E natural on the upbeat and this is followed with two attacks on G by short but even eight notes (beat one.2 Conclusion and suggestions for further research In addition to the examples which were isolated in this study for analysis. 12-13) over the F sonority. and G. This phrase segment is finished with an eight-note triplet containing the pitches C. on the upbeat of three and is followed with B natural on beat four. chromaticism to align chord tones on strong beats (be-bop attribute). What follows is a CESH from the root (C) down to the minor seventh (Bb). 13-16) bringing this solo to an end. are repeated again and. 6. this time. C and G. Overall. the most relevant and evidence that part of Drew Zingg's development as a player has included an engaged study of the jazz idiom. This phrase is followed by an answering segment (ms. Here the line makes its way to the statement of melodic material with the whole ensemble (ms. which is tied across the bar line into beat one. a strong working knowledge in the application of the melodic minor scale and its related modes. Then. on the upbeat of two the two sixteenth notes. are followed by Bb on beat three.

which have been given some attention in these solo examples. in comparison to some of Zingg's other recorded output. CESH. One of the most important elements in music. and timbral. to this . and arpeggiation (or change running). harmonic superimposition. The other recordings. 1993. were chosen for their great frequency of jazz elements. if acquirable. however. These solos of Drew Zingg with Steely Dan from St. 3 to b9. Missouri. September 4. Some of these jazz elements do appear in the rest of Zingg's playing. these two elements coincide with one affecting the other. This mode of analysis should be viewed as only the beginning of a continuing study in an attempt to gain insight and understanding into a player's approach to music. and both elements affect his overall sound. In addition to.17 the use of chromaticism as approach notes and surrounding tones. Discussion of pitch content and stylistic inflection really is not enough to adequately describe a player's personal sound and ability. Zingg's picking technique would obviously have to be witnessed first-hand. since. but within the recordings and performances sampled by this author. use of sequential motivic and pattern like playing. are rhythmic. Zingg's attack and articulation are both rhythmic elements that could be afforded further given attention through more research. and in investigating a player's personal identity. the following jazz devices are also evident. not as frequently. versatile and commanding voice as a player and sideman. and the employment of wide intervals (including fourths and fifths with pentatonic material). may warrant some investigation. as well as contained within the aforementioned attributes. digital patterns. Often. All of these characteristics are exciting to hear in a pop music format and contribute to Drew Zingg's strong. Louis.

To the best of this author's knowledge. an investigation into Zingg's choice in equipment for sound production may uncover some ideas behind what makes up his sound. This author made an attempt to contact Zingg. one would need to contact Drew Zingg himself and pursue some form of information exchange or in order to solicit an interview. and that more information should be discovered as resources and opportunities become available. It is hopeful that this research may continue. on the Steely Dan 1993 tour. Although most believe that tone production comes almost entirely from the hands (and it would seem likely that this is scientifically provable). . and it is with this company that he is still listed as an endorsee. including the Fulltone Fulldrive II. but was unsuccessful. Zingg's equipment seems to vary frequently.18 author's knowledge. His amplification was a pair of Matchless amplifiers and cabinets. probably fitted with an active preamplifier. He is also listed as an endorsee of the Fulltone line of hand-built analog effects. there is little or no existent video footage of Zingg available to the public. in order to gain any further insight into these and many other aspects surrounding Zingg's playing. Ultimately. Zingg played an ESP stratocaster-like body style guitar with a humbucker in the bridge position.

. Flesh and Bone. 1998. Alive in America. Red House. Red House. Nelson. 1994. Robin. 1995. Strecker. I Hide My Face Like This. Michael. Rangell. Songs of Leiber and Stoller. House On Fire. Windy Records. Keep On Lovin'. Compact disc. Davis. Alana. McDonald. Miller. Elektra/Asylum. Lucy. 1995. 2000.1996. 1995. Greenstein. Jackson. Live at the Beacon Theater. Compact disc. Lucy. WHS Music. 1996. Tide. OJB records Bock and Blu. 1990.19 Discography Anel. Lili. 1997. Nelson Rangell. Hybrid Records. Various Artists. Hi-Octane Coffee. The New York Rock and Soul Revue. The Voice of Michael McDonald. 2001. 1991. Catalyst. Giant Records 9 24423-2. Kaplansky. Compact disc. Sherri. Blame It on Me. Steely Dan. Slow Burn. William Hart. Giant Records 9 24634-2.. GRP Records. Holzman. Marcus. Overdrive. Adam. Live and More. Kaplansky. Red House.. Smokey Joe's Cafe. Atlantic. 2001. WEA International. 1994. Lipstick Records CD: LIP 89 25-2. 1995.