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# GE2111- Engineering Graphics

Projection of Planes
For the planes inclined to HP and VP, see the Surface / Plane inclination first. Surface / Plane inclination with respect to HP, 1. Start drawing the top view first and then project its front view. The front view will be a line and it should be on XY line. 2. Tilt the front view in anti clock wise direction to the given angle of inclination with respect to HP and project its top view, which will measure an apparent shape. 3. Tilt the apparent shape of the polygon with respect to VP and then draw its front view. 4. The final front view and top view should be drawn with continuous thick line (HB pencil). Surface inclination with respect to VP, 1. Start drawing the Front view first and then project its top view. The top view will be a line and it should be on xy line. 2. Tilt the top view in clock wise direction to the given angle of inclination with respect to VP and project its front view, which will measure an apparent shape. 3. Tilt the apparent shape of the polygon with respect to HP and then draw its Top view. 4. The final front view and top view should be drawn with continuous thick line (HB pencil).

Resting conditions
Case - 1 Surface inclination with respect to HP and the edge inclination with respect to VP For this case, the planes may have one of its side/edge on HP or one of its corners on HP When the plane is having one of its sides on HP, Construct the top view of the given polygon in such a way that one side / edge of the polygon is perpendicular to VP and it is on the left hand side.

## Prepared by K.S.Badrinathan, S.Ramesh Babu & V.Sridharan

GE2111- Engineering Graphics When the plane is having one of its corners on HP, construct the top view of the given polygon in such a way that an imaginary line introduced through one corner of the polygon is perpendicular to VP and on the left hand side. Also the two sides containing the corner through which an imaginary line is introduced is equally inclined to that line. Case - 2 Surface inclination with respect to VP and the edge inclination with respect to HP For this case, the planes may have one of its sides/edges on VP or one of its corners on VP When the plane is having one of its sides on VP, construct the front view of the given polygon in such a way that one side / edge of the polygon is perpendicular to HP and it is on the left hand side. When the plane is having one of its corners on HP, construct the top view of the given polygon in such a way that an imaginary line introduced through one corner of the polygon is perpendicular to HP and on the left hand side. Also the two sides containing the corner through which an imaginary line is introduced is equally inclined to that line.

Simple position Top view for the plane surface inclined to HP having one of its edges on HP
X Y

Simple position Top view for the plane surface inclined to HP having one of its Corners on HP
X Y

## GE2111- Engineering Graphics

Simple position Front view for the plane surface inclined to VP having one of its edges on VP

Simple position Front view for the plane surface inclined to VP having one of its Corners on VP

Case III (Refer problem nos 12 and 13 in tutorial sheet no- 4): When the plane surfaces is inclined to both HP and VP, then their summation of their
angles will be 900. In this case the inclination angles can be seen only in the side view. For this type of problems,

## Prepared by K.S.Badrinathan, S.Ramesh Babu & V.Sridharan

GE2111- Engineering Graphics 1. 2. 3. 4. Start with either drawing the front view or top view first. Project its side view, which will be a line. Tilt the side view to the given angle of inclinations with respect to HP and VP Draw its final front view and final top view, which will measure an apparent shape.

Indirect Problems
The problems for which the surface inclination with respect to HP and VP is not given, the apparent shape dimensions and in which view this apparent shape is obtained will be given. For this kind of problems, the following hint will be useful 1. When the apparent shape is obtained in the top view, then the plane will be inclined to HP (eg. The top view of rectangular plane 50 X 30 mm resting on the HP on one of its shorter edges is a square of side 30 mm). For this type of problem a. Start drawing the top view first and then project is front view, which will be a line b. Since the apparent shape dimensions are given, in the second stage construct the apparent shape of the polygon in the top view for the given dimensions and then find the angle of inclination in the front view c. Tilt the apparent shape of the polygon with respect to VP and then draw its front view. d. The final front view and top view should be drawn with continuous thick line (HB pencil). 2. When the apparent shape is obtained in the front view, then the plane will be inclined to VP (eg. The front view of the circular lamina of 80 mm diameter having one of its corners on VP is an ellipse of major axis 80 mm and minor axis 40 mm) a. Start drawing the front view first and then project its top view, which will be a line b. Since the apparent shape dimensions are given, in the second stage construct the apparent shape of the polygon in the front view for the given dimensions and then find the angle of inclination in the top view c. Tilt the apparent shape of the polygon with respect to HP and then draw its Top view. d. The final front view and top view should be drawn with continuous thick line (HB pencil).

## GE 2111 Engineering Graphics

Projection of Solids
I. Solid Axis Perpendicular to HP and Parallel to VP
This case will be much useful for solving the projection of solids with axis inclined to HP and parallel to VP, section of solids, development of surfaces and isometric projection.

For the solid axis perpendicular to HP and parallel to VP, all the solids will be resting on the HP on its base. The top view gives the true shape of the polygon. Hence draw the top view first and then project its front view.

Various positions of the solid when its axis is Perpendicular to HP and Parallel to VP
1. Prisms resting on the HP on its base and one of its base edges / lateral surfaces / rectangular surfaces is parallel to VP 2. Pyramids resting on the HP on its base and one of its base edges is parallel to VP. 3. Prisms resting on the HP on its base and one of its base edges / lateral surfaces / rectangular surfaces is perpendicular to VP. 4. Pyramids resting on the HP on its base and one of its base edges is perpendicular to VP 5. Prism resting on the HP on its base and one of its base edge / lateral surface / rectangular surface is inclined at some angle to VP 6. Pyramids resting on the HP on its base and one of its base edges is inclined at some angle to VP

## Prepared by K.S.Badrinathan, S.Ramesh Babu & V.Sridharan

GE 2111 En ngineering G Graphics 1. P Prisms resti on the HP on its b ing base and on of its ba edge / l ne ase lateral surf face / re ectangular surface is p parallel to VP While constructi the top view, see that one sid of the gi e ing p de iven polygon is parallel to xy line p y

2. Py yramids res sting on th HP on it base and one of its base edge is parall to he ts d s es lel VP. While constructi the top view, see that one sid of the gi e ing p de iven polygon is parallel to xy line p y

## Pre epared by K. .S.Badrinath S.Rames Babu & V han, sh V.Sridharan

GE 2111 Engineering Graphics 3. Prisms resting on the HP on its base and one of its base edge / lateral surface / rectangular surface is perpendicular to VP. While constructing the top view, see that one side of the given polygon is perpendicular to xy line

4. Pyramids resting on the HP on its base and one of its base edge is perpendicular to VP While constructing the top view, see that one side of the given polygon is perpendicular to xy line

## Prepared by K.S.Badrinathan, S.Ramesh Babu & V.Sridharan

GE 2111 Engineering Graphics 5. Prism resting on the HP on its base and one of its base edge / lateral surface / rectangular surface is inclined at some angle to VP While constructing the top view, see that one side of the given polygon is inclined to the given angle of inclination with respect to VP

6. Pyramids resting on the HP on its base and one of its base edges is inclined at some angle to VP While constructing the top view, see that one side of the given polygon is inclined to the given angle of inclination with respect to VP

## II. Solid axis Inclined to HP and Parallel to VP How to start with

When the solid axis is inclined to HP and parallel to VP, make the solid axis perpendicular to HP and parallel to VP, and the base of the solid should rest on the HP. The top view gives the true shape of the polygon. Hence draw the top view first and then draw its front view. While drawing the front view, see that the base is on the XY line. Tilt the front view in the clockwise direction with respect to the rightmost base edge / corner for the given angle of inclination with respect to HP Then project its top view.

Hints for marking the visible and invisible edges 1. Blindly connect the outermost boundary points with continuous thick lines. 2. In prisms, two end faces are there. The end face nearer to the observer will be visible. So in the top view connect all the points of the end face nearer to the observer with continuous thick line. 3. For the base, only one half will be visible. The visible base edges by default will be the outside boundary of the solid and these edges would have been shown by step 1. Connect the remaining points by chain dotted lines. 4. Among the N number of lateral edges (N- number of sides of the polygon), two lateral edges by default will be the outside boundary and these lateral edges would have been shown by step 1. 5. Now see the front view and see the position of the extreme lateral edges already shown in the top view. 6. The remaining lateral edges between the observer and the extreme lateral edges (which forms the outside boundary in top view) will be visible always and hence show these lateral edges by continuous thick lines 7. The remaining lateral edges between the extreme lateral edges (which forms the outside boundary in top view) and the reference line will be invisible always and hence show these lateral edges by chain dotted lines

## GE 2111 Engineering Graphics

Resting conditions for the solids having its axis Inclined to HP and Parallel to VP
1. Prisms will rest on the HP either on one of its corners or base side 2. Pyramids will rest on the HP on one of its corners or base side or Triangular surface or lateral edge 3. Cylinder will rest on HP on one of its base circumferential points 4. Cone will rest on HP on one of its base circumferential points or generator 1. Simple position top view for prisms resting on HP on one of its base edge / Simple position top view for the pyramids resting on HP on one of its base edge / Simple position top view for the pyramids having one of its triangular faces on HP While constructing the simple position top view of a given polygon, see that one side of the polygon is perpendicular to VP (XY line) and is on the right hand side. Then project its front view. Tilt the front view with respect to the lower most right side edge (which will be the resting edge on HP) in the clockwise direction to the given angle of inclination with respect to HP. (Note:- while tilting see that the resting edge is on the XY line) Then project its top view. Refer the hints for marking the visible and invisible edges.

2. Simple position top view for prisms resting on HP on one of its corners / simple position top view for pyramids resting on HP on one of its corners / Simple position top view for the pyramids having one of its slant edges on HP Construct the top view of the given polygon in such a way that an imaginary line introduced through one corner of the polygon is perpendicular to VP and on the Right hand side. Also the two sides containing the corner through which an imaginary line is introduced is equally inclined to that line. Then project its front view. Tilt the front view with respect to the lower most right side corner(which will be the resting corner on HP) in the clockwise direction to the given angle of inclination with respect to HP. (Note:- while tilting see that the resting corner is on the XY line) Then project its top view. Refer the hints for marking the visible and invisible edges.