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The GAP Model Analysis of Indian Higher Education

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5 lakhs in 1947 to 350 and 1 crore respectively in 2007. and remaining 13% is absorbed by professional faculties like medicine and engineering though the number of universities and students is increased from just 17 and 3. The universities of India can be classified in various categories like Central universities. while the percentage of plan expenditure on higher education total education has fallen from 22% in fifth five year plan to 6% in eleventh five-year plan (2007-12). science by 20%. national institutes of importance and open universities. SI No. 87% of it is concentrated in three faculties of arts by 42%. as shown in table 1.Introduction Higher education scenario in India It is most evident by the fact that India is lagging behind in higher educational services as it comprises only 6-7% students as against 16% in most of the developing countries. State universities. and commerce by 21%. (31st April 2011) The GAP Model Analysis of Indian Higher Education Page 2 . Of this 7% elite academia. 14 would be of world class type. deemed universities. Of these 30 Central universities. As well the dependence on government funds has increased from 57% to 82%. agricultural universities. 7 Indian Institutes of Management and 30 Central universities under the 11th fiveyear plan. Realizing the urgent need of revamping the Indian higher education system the Ministry of Human Resources Development has proposed to establish 8 new Indian Institutes of Technology. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Type of Universities in INDIA Central Universities Open Universities Agricultural Universities Deemed Universities (34 government and 86 private) State Universities Private universities established by state legislatures No. private universities.

e. making it the country’s fifth largest service sector export. The USA and the UK account for 80% of global market in higher educational services. Australia’s International Development Program. The University of Phoenix.. Impact of WTO-GATS on higher education in developed countries It is estimated that by 2025. whose output is just 6% of total Indian education. 3. while demand from USA and the European countries will be slowed down. New Zealand. and Singapore) started providing tailor-made higher educational programs targeted at specific markets. The agencies that are working for this purpose are: USA’s Information Centers. 2. and allowing many unaided affiliated colleges. Since the launching of the GATS (General agreement on Trade in Services) by WTO (World Trade Organization). Supreme Court judgment in 2002 on higher education On 31-10-2002 the supreme court of India delivered benchmark judgment that: 1. Admissions be on merit or marks of the qualifying common entrance test or examination. distance education courses.7 Foreign universities having branch campuses in India Total In the changing scenario of globalization and privatization. The government has taken a stand not to bear additional expenditure over the present 10% budget on higher education. America’s largest private postsecondary institution and a profit-oriented corporation listed on the New York Stock Exchange. This data makes it evident that developed have taken the marketing move for their higher education services. India and other East and South Asian countries. UK’s British Councils. Higher education is a ‘private good’ but not ‘public good’. Part-time The GAP Model Analysis of Indian Higher Education Page 3 . It started allowing private institutions to impart education permanently on non-grant basis. The ‘Universities 21’. Reaction from educational establishments has come in the form of frequent review of syllabus. Autonomy and liberty in the management of the private institutions. China. higher education is slowly moving from its era of highest subsidy to low subsidy through participative route i. a network of universities from seven countries (USA. and hence private institutions are a necessity. 70% of the demand for international higher education will come from China. UK. the education can not remain aloof. Primary education is a fundamental right but not higher education. USA has become the world’s largest exporter of higher education services. initiation of self-supporting courses. Australia. 4. diversifying of structures and introduction of novel ways of delivering the service. In other words. Canada. and Germany’s Academic Exchange Service.

WHO. and price to the international community by making the presence of its 94 programs in 31 Asian countries. as was promulgated by GATS’ Doha 2006 and Geneva 2009 ministerial meets. NIIT tie-up with ITT Educational Services. IGOU has taken the lead in providing flexibility of time. distance learning programs. NITs. Wharton. evening courses. can be better utilized in order to have introspection and to diagnose the syndromes that the Indian higher education system has been suffering from. Western International University. Keeping in view the emerging trends in the international arena of higher education. etc in the near future. self-supporting courses. Impact of WTO-GATS on Indian higher education Educational service is one of the twelve groups of services which are to be negotiated under the GATS of WTO. regional. IITs. Many Indian students are already getting foreign degrees. and Tata InfoTech tie-up with Hertfordshire University. There is no doubt that Indian higher education will be guided and controlled primarily by GATS and secondarily by UGC. online courses. and London Business School. in-service courses. Only IIMs. India has to realize that it is the high time for it to reorient and transform itself from protectionist to participative manager by adopting ‘services marketing concept’ in improving the quality of higher educational services (by adopting various tools and techniques. and AICTE.courses. Arizona. It has collaboration with many open universities in SAARC. NBA. These examples are indicative of the quick responses to the globalization of the educational services on the part of the developing nations. national and international organizations like COL. tariff and regulation. WIPO. it has to accept latter’s condition (Article 13 of GATS) of successful international trade of educational services with minimum restrictions. Bitner. and IGNOU could take up the initiative to react actively and positively to the agreement with GATS. mostly from UK. HRD. India being one of the founding members (153 countries in July 2009) in WTO. collaboration with local universities and research and development organizations. USA. where GAP model analysis is one such tool) to be offered in India and abroad. and Parasuraman of USA (1988). Indian School of Business tie-up with Kellogg. and World Bank. Bill was passed in the parliament to permit to start private universities including foreign universities or their franchisees in India from 01-4-2005 onwards. doing professional courses at local branch campuses of the following foreign institutions in India: UK-based Wigan and Leigh College. and to suggest remedial measures The GAP Model Analysis of Indian Higher Education Page 4 . which otherwise shall be sidelined and lose its survival due to cut-throat competition in the international market. place and product. MCI. GAP model analysis of service quality in Indian higher education GAP model analysis of quality. developed by Zeithaml. and Australia are marketing their higher education in India in different forms of their presence – distance education. UK. and lateral entry into their universities located in their countries. For instance. At present more than 100 foreign universities. USA. twinning agreement and franchising arrangements are some of the new trends that have revolutionized the traditional form and structure of education.

and evaluation of affiliated colleges. co-operative stores. As is advocated by Booms and Bitner an effective marketing of educational services includes the effective management of the following 7Ps (the words starting with bold letter P) of services marketing mix: • • • • • • • Product: It includes degrees awarded and their syllabi. The student is substituted for a customer (service taker). and non-teaching staff for which the universities have to plan and implement the number of teaching and non-teaching staff. post offices. Promotion: It includes media propagation. students themselves. number of students. functionality and ambient conditions of the class rooms and buildings. while the university is substituted for a marketer (service provider). their background and interest and aptitude for the course in which he is studying. recruitment and selection. Process: This P includes type of the service--standardized or customized. annual reports and calendars of the university. This entire article is structured around this model. Price: It includes admission and term fees structure. placement facility. brand name of their degrees and its history. recognition by UGC. paper exemptions. People: This P includes professors. dress code of students and professors. grading given by NAAC. study centers (in case DDE courses) based on their performance. banks. demand and supply conditions of the degrees offered. aesthetics. and the control desired on affiliated colleges and study centers. exam fees. etc. public relations with government. college affiliation fee. and for revamping the various strategic elements of system. NBA or HRD. MCI. NAAC. Place: It includes selection of affiliated colleges based on their strengths and weaknesses. and public awareness programs. educating the students about their role and responsibility. lateral entries. The student perceptions are subjective assessments of actual service experiences. computer labs. and conducting research on needs and wants of students and professors. UGC. number of steps involved in the service process—simple or complex. State Councils of higher education and research organizations. AICTE. Student expectations are the standards of or reference points for performance against which educational service experiences are compared. procedure. and non-teaching staff in the service delivery. equipment in the labs.and strategies for preventing or minimizing the specific syndromes. etc. press meets. fee concessions and exemptions. etc. The GAP Model Analysis of Indian Higher Education Page 5 . CRM. library facilities. their qualifications. professor. and are often formulated in terms of what a student believes should or will happen. The actors that are noted in its original model are named differently for our purpose in this article. and the level of involvement by student. and communicating the cultural values with the students. other students. gym. visiting cards of the staff. Physical evidence: This P includes design. their training and rewards. and non-teaching staff. hospitals.

Customer (Student) gap 5: Not knowing what the . These are: • • • • • Provider (University) gap 1: Not knowing what the student expects. GAPS in the service quality But in practice. expectations and perceptions would be identical. Provider gap 3: Not delivering to service standards. advertising. word-of-mouth communications. and competitive services offered by competing universities). Provider gap 4: Not matching performance to promises. In a perfect world. sales promises) as well as factors that the marketer has limited ability to affect (innate personal needs. these concepts are separated by some discrepancies within the universities that inhibit delivery of quality education.The success of student expectations consists of marketer-controlled factors (such as pricing. Provider gap 2: Not selecting the right service designs and standards.university delivers Services Perceived Services Delivery UNIVERSITY Perceptions GAP External Universities Past 5 Expected Service Driven Student Needs STUDENT Industry Suggestions 1 2 3 Experiences Communications ofby University Service Designs by Students student expectations GAP and standards set to Students by Universities The GAP Model Analysis of Indian Higher Education Page 6 .

professors and administrators. Too many procedural layers between the front-end employees (professors and nonteaching staff) and board of management.Figure 1 GAP Model of Service Quality in Higher Educational Services The basic objective of the university is to develop the strategies in such a way that it can influence the student’s expectations and perceptions so that all the four gaps that take place due to differences in expectations and perceptions can be filled up. Lack of customer relationship management (CRM) with the students Page 7 The GAP Model Analysis of Indian Higher Education . it is not focused on quality of the services offered in the university. registrar. Insufficient communication between students and professors. Let us diagnose the specific causes for each of the gaps as shown in fig. Lack of interaction between university and students. and vice chancellor in order to have link by the students. and between university and industry. and industry need and want from the university. Even if there is any research on this objective.1. teachers and non-teachers. such as many redundant layers and sub-layers through head. and students and administrators. principal/dean. University Gap-1 Services expected by students minus University’s perception of student’s expectations Causes for Gap 1: • • • • • • Inadequate research on market research on what the student.

Students lacking knowledge of their roles and responsibilities. Insufficient communication between teaching and non-teaching staff. etc) through cues for physical evidence. Absence of process (delivery of services) management to focus on student requirements.driven service designs and standards Causes for Gap 2: • • • • • • • Lack of student-driven service standards. infrastructural facilities) among affiliated colleges. examination schedules and model papers. Inadequate administration commitment towards the services. Over or under promising about the quality of education (placements. University Gap-4 Service delivery minus external communications to students Causes for Gap 4: • • • • • Ineffective CRM to manage students’ expectations about services from the universities. Vague. Failure to smooth peaks and valley of demand for certain courses. undefined design of the services to be provided to students. Lack of empowerment. scholars and teachers. lab. University Gap-3 Student-driven service designs minus service delivery Causes for Gap 3: • • • • • • • Ineffective recruitment and selection of professors and non-teaching staff. No systematic process for the development of new courses to be offered so as to sustain the competition from other established public or private universities from regular or distance mode services. Role ambiguity and role conflict among professors. and DDE courses. Differences in the policies and procedures (structure of syllabi. regular. Inappropriate evaluation and compensation system for professors. collaborative research. Failure to connect course to the students and scholars. Over reliance on government funds for running the courses. teaching. Absence of formal system for setting service quality. The GAP Model Analysis of Indian Higher Education Page 8 . etc.University Gap-2 University’s perceptions of student’s expectations minus student. Failure to educate students about their roles and responsibilities. team-work.

Interactive marketing strategies The GAP Model Analysis of Indian Higher Education Page 9 . 3. records. 2. empathy. computers. non-teaching staff. Internal marketing strategies. Assurance: Knowledge. Tangibles: Appearance of physical facilities equipment in the labs. such as reliability. OHP. attendance sheet. LCD. to student needs and requests. assurance. 5. courtesy. and ability of the professors and staff to inspire trust and confidence among the students about their placement. 4. responsiveness. Response of professors and staff (employees) to their failure in service delivery. and tangibles of university education. project reports.Student Gap-5 Student’s expectations of service minus student’s perceptions of service Causes for Gap 5: • • • The first impression that the students get while interacting with the administration and professors over phone or in person during admission in to the university campus. Responsiveness: Willingness of the professors and staff to help students and provide prompt service. and spontaneity in delivering memorably good or poor service to students. letter heads. and other written materials. internet. Service quality dimensions 1. question papers. 3. to problematic students. answer sheets. External marketing strategies 2. Student assessment of service quality dimensions. Reliability: Ability of the professors and staff to perform the promised service dependably and accurately. dress code. Marketing triangle of higher education services The strategies that could be followed by Indian universities can be broadly divided into three groups in terms of type of marketing: 1. Empathy: Caring and individualized attention given to students by professors.

and professors and staff. internal marketing strategies. the university and the professors and staff.Figure shows that external marketing strategies. The GAP Model Analysis of Indian Higher Education Page 10 . and interactive marketing strategies are to be developed within the encounters (interactions) that take place in between the university and the students. and students respectively.

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