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IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL, VOL. 9, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2009
Transient Strain Measurements of a Suspended Cable Under Impact Loadings Using Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors
Chien-Ching Ma and Cheng-Wei Wang
Abstract—The theoretical and experimental studies of ﬁber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors is investigated. In the theoretical studies, the coupled-mode theory with transfer matrix method is used to simulate the dynamic responses of the FBG sensors subjected to a sinusoidal strain wave. The numerical results indicate that the increase of frequency and amplitude of strain wave result in signal distortion, hence the signal distortion limit is established to analyze the FBG dynamic sensing range. In the experimental studies, the FBG sensors as well as the strain gage are used to measure simultaneously the transient responses of dynamic strain for a suspended cable under impact loadings. The frequency spectra of the measuring results for transient responses of dynamic strain are analyzed and the natural frequencies of the cable are determined. The natural frequencies obtained from experimental measurements have excellent agreement for different sensors and different impact positions. In addition, the experimental results also have good correspondence with the theoretical analysis and the ﬁnite-element method (FEM). According to the available experimental results, it is proved that the FBG sensor has excellent ability of transient strain measurement for structures with curved surface and large curvature and has better performance than the traditional strain gage. Index Terms—Coupled-mode theory, dynamic strain, ﬁber Bragg grating (FBG), impact loading, natural frequency, suspended cable, transient response.
I. INTRODUCTION HE ﬁber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors have attracted more and more attention in recent years due to their low weight, small size, high sensitivity, and immunity to electromagnetic ﬁelds –. In addition, it requires no electrical power at the sensing point. They can be used to measure temperature, strain, displacement, pressure, etc. For strain sensing, both the change of the grating period due to physical elongation of the sensor and the change in effective index due to photoelastic effect with shift the Bragg wavelength. In strain sensor applications, FBGs has been successfully applied to health monitoring of civil engineering structures such as bridges, dams and tunnels , . Traditionally, for the purpose of position tracking
Manuscript received November 18, 2008; revised July 23, 2009; accepted August 24, 2009. Current version published November 04, 2009. This work was supported in part by National Science Council (Republic of China) under Grant NSC96-2221-E002-210-MY3. The associate editor coordinating the review of this paper and approving it for publication was Prof. Istvan Barsony. The authors are with the Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan 106, China (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com). Color versions of one or more of the ﬁgures in this paper are available online at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. Digital Object Identiﬁer 10.1109/JSEN.2009.2031327
control, linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) sensors have been widely used for displacement measurement. Over a wide range, the LVDT sensor has good characteristics for resolution in the order of micrometers and there is no electrical contact between the moving specimen and the coils of the sensor –. However, compared with the FBG sensor, the LVDT is relatively large in physical size and heavy in weight. Besides, there are difﬁculties for the measurement in the order of submicrometers due to lower sensitivity of the LVDT. In an attempt to overcome these disadvantages of the LVDT sensor, Chunag and Ma  presented a rather simple but effective method to set up an FBG sensing system and successfully used it for the application of tracking control of a multilayer piezoelectric actuator. In order to understand the optical properties of ﬁber gratings, Erdogen  introduced the coupled-mode theory to describe the principle and spectral characteristics for uniform and nonuniform gratings. In addition, as a strain sensor, the spectral analysis of a FBG subjected to strain ﬁelds is important. Tai  simulated the maximum reﬂectivity of a FBG corresponding to various nonuniform static strain conditions. Sikora  modeled the behavior of an apodized FBG under impulsive strain of rectangular shape. Minardo et al.  numerically investigated the response of FBG to the longitudinal ultrasonic waves in terms of shape and wavelength changes. Ling et al.  presented a simulation method for evaluating dynamic strain distribution along a uniform FBG using its reﬂection spectrum. Since the FBG sensors are based on the wavelength encoding of the measurand signal information, the demodulators which convert the wavelength shifts into electrical signals should be included in sensing systems for easy-reading and real-time monitoring. Therefore, many demodulators have been developed such as the Fabry–Perot tunable ﬁlter system , , the imbalanced Mach–Zehnder interferometer , , the long-period ﬁber grating –, the chirped ﬁber grating , the FBG , , and the tilted FBG . Among these methods, the FBG ﬁlter has the smallest speciﬁcation of full-width at half maximum (FWHM) compared with other types of ﬁber gratings, an FBG ﬁlter-based wavelength-optical intensity demodulation technique has the highest sensitivity. The FBG ﬁlter-based demodulation technique , ,  is used in this study to obtain higher sensitivity. Furthermore, the FBG ﬁlter is placed at the output of the broadband light source to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the demodulation system. To investigate the ability of dynamic strain measurement, the FBG sensors are used in this study to measure the transient
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is the nominal period. As a result..e. II. The length of the uniform grating is assumed to be . experimental veriﬁcations of the solutions for the natural frequencies have also been carried out in the literature. the monitoring of cable tension force is very important and necessary. Besides theoretical investigations of cables. the no backward-going wave exists for reﬂectivity of the entire grating is then calculated by (8) For dynamic strain measurement. the grating is assumed to be divided into sections and with uniform coupling properties. so the . suspension bridges. DYNAMIC SENSING PRINCIPLE AND SIMULATION OF FBG A. guyed towers. To obtain the limit of the grating is deﬁned as reﬂectivity of the uniform Bragg grating subjected to nonunismall form strain.  introduced a comparative study of the existing vibration-based tension estimation techniques for cable supported bridges. to analyze the frequency spectra of experimental results.MA AND WANG: TRANSIENT STRAIN MEASUREMENTS OF A SUSPENDED CABLE UNDER IMPACT LOADINGS USING FBG SENSORS 1999 responses of a suspended cable under impact loadings. Russell and Lardner  determined the tension at the base of an inclined cable by using the modern cable theory  that considers the sag-extensibility without bending stiffness. By assuming that [i. since the coupled-mode sections theory approximations are not valid when a uniform grating section is only a few grating periods long. By coupled-mode theory. is the Bragg wavelength which would be changed when the grating is subjected to various strain condition. Since cables are crucial elements for overall structural safety of a cable-stayed bridge. respectively. According to the available experimental results. Cheng and Perkins  compared theoretical and experimental forced responses and natural frequencies of a sagged horizontal cable supporting an array of discrete masses. the FBG sensors may have practical applications to the tension determination and damage detection of cables and hence to the health monitoring of cable structures. The number of cannot be arbitrarily large. . is the general “dc” self-coupling coefﬁcient deﬁned as (3) where for the uniform grating. and describes grating chirp. the “ac” coupling coefﬁcient. Hence. the the length of each section and propagation through the entire grating can be described by (7) where .  proposed the practical formulas to estimate cable tension force by the vibration method that takes account of both sag-extensibility and bending stiffness. ]. Cables are very efﬁcient structural elements and hence have a wide range of practical applications in civil engineering and in electrical industry. and to compare the measured natural frequencies with the theoretical predictions and the ﬁnite element method. it is proved in this study that the FBG sensor has excellent ability of transient strain measurement for structures with curved surface and large curvature and has better performance than the traditional strain gage. The purpose of this study is to apply the FBG sensors to the measurement of transient responses of a suspended cable under impact loadings. the propagation through this uniform section can be described by a transfer matrix deﬁned such that (5) where (6) is shown at the bottom of the page in which is . A history of the derivations and solutions of the equations for the static and dynamic response of cables can be found in . Zui et al. and cable-supported roofs. Lee and Perkins  investigated experimentally the near resonant responses of the suspended elastic cables driven by harmonic excitation. Kim et al. Lin and Perkins  presented a theoretical model that describes the frequency responses of arbitrarily complex and sagged cable/mass systems and compared to those obtained experimentally using modal testing techniques. With the accurate measurement of natural frequencies. Theoretical Background The FBG is deﬁned as a small periodical perturbation to the of the optical ﬁber core deeffective index of refraction scribed by  (1) is the “dc” index change spatially averaged over where a grating period. is the fringe visibility of the index change. an optical ﬁlter which possesses a linear wavelength dependent transmittance is necessary to interpret the time-varied reﬂected spectrum of FBG sensor (6) .and is backward-propagating modes. including cable-stayed bridges. the is constrained as (4) By deﬁning and as the ﬁeld amplitudes after traversing the section . the ﬁrst-order differential equations describing mode propagation through the grating in -direction are (2a) (2b) where and are the amplitudes of the forward.
it is noted that the response for higher frequency of strain shows obvious difference from sinusoidal function by observing the reand .e. the simulation is performed for a ﬁxed strain amplitude and for three different nondimentional frequency . . Fig.2000 IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL. The result of this analysis provides a useful tool for the practical measuring application of the dynamic strain. 3). The linear ﬁlter is assumed in the form of Fig. The concept of signal distortion limit is established to discuss the dynamic sensing range of FBG in Section III. the solid line in Fig. the signal distortion limit is deﬁned when the signal accuracy is 90% (i. The time response of output light power is simulated for a period. Schematic of the uniform FBG under sinusoidal strain wave. the simulation result of the signal accuracy versus frequency and amplitude of strain is shown in Fig. Here. and the . The grating . The grating’s parameters for the simulation are chosen to be similar to parameters of grating used in this study. The time responses of output light power for: (a) different frequency of strain and (b) different amplitude of strain. frequency . The lower left-hand side of the signal distortion limit is the region suitable for measurement application and is named “good region” in which the output light power response is assumed to be not distorted. VOL. the simulation is performed for a ﬁxed frequency and for three different strain ampliof strain . On the contrary. The tude ( response for is similar to sinusoidal function and agrees with sinusoidal strain wave. 9. amplitude . However. the upper right-hand side of the signal distortion limit is named “bad region” in which the response is assumed to be distorted. and 1000 ). 3. the signal accuracy is deﬁned as (10) According to the deﬁnition indicated in (10). the soidal function for 100 increase of frequency and amplitude of strain result in getting worse of the signal distortion. and period . 2. In the ﬁrst case [Fig. Simulation Procedure and Results Fig. In the second case sults for [Fig. 2(a)]. where is the ﬁltering slope and is equal to zero at . When the intensity of the light incident on the FBG sensor is . We also ﬁnd that the response for higher strain amplitude is different from sinuand 1000 . 2(b)]. NO. length is . 3. the “dc” index the effective refractive index is . wavelength . The response for is similar to sinusoidal function and agrees with sinusoidal strain wave. The signal accuracy versus frequency and amplitude of strain.. change is The parameters of the demodulation system are assumed to be as follows: Optical wavelength range is . into the electrical signal. 1. and the fringe visibility is . the Bragg wavelength is . DECEMBER 2009 Fig. The signal accuracy declines gradually with the increase of frequency and amplitude of strain. the incident light spectrum is . and of strain ( ). 12. linear ﬁlter spectrum is The simulation results of output light power responses for two cases are shown in Fig. . 2. In order to establish a precise signal distortion limit of output light power response. Therefore. the output light power can be expressed as (9) B. 1 shows a uniform FBG which is subjected to a sinusoidal strain wave with velocity . 100 .
. (16) in which (17a) (17b) where and . 3) The derivative cable tension caused by vibration is negligibly small. The surface mounted FBG sensor is attached to the cable surface with strain gage cement on the full grating zone. The Bragg wavelengths of the two FBG sensors before Fig. and tension is clamped at both ends on the tensile tester. . 4. The grating must be prestrained in the measurement range for the two-point mounted FBG sensor. The general solution of (14) is The natural frequencies can be determined by numerical solving the roots of the characteristic equation. mass per unit length . respectively. The following assumptions are made in the analysis. 4. The deﬁnition diagram of cable. . a single-strand steel cable with length . different from traditional mounting method. cable tension. length of cable. Theoretical Determination of Natural Frequencies The simplest method to determine the natural frequencies of cable is the ﬂat taut string theory (11) where . Young’s modulus .MA AND WANG: TRANSIENT STRAIN MEASUREMENTS OF A SUSPENDED CABLE UNDER IMPACT LOADINGS USING FBG SENSORS 2001 Fig. . including surface mounted FBG sensor and two-point mounted FBG sensor. III. There are two kinds of FBG sensor on the cable. 1) The sag-to-span ratio is sufﬁciently small 2) The cable vibrates only within the . 5(a). The cable theory considering bending stiffness is used in this study. By means of variable separation of is deﬂection By assuming that the cable is clamped at both ends. and where in the -direction. force The tension force in the cable is controlled by moving the left end of the cable horizontally and measured simultaneously by the load cell. diameter . an elastic cable suspended between two ﬁxed supports at the same level is considered. However. B. Experimental Setup As shown in Fig. Experimental setup of: (a) the suspended cable with the FBG sensors and (b) the wavelength demodulation system. this simple formula neglects bending stiffness of the cable and is only valid for a ﬂat long slender cable.plane and its motion in the -direction is negligibly small. and mass of cable per unit length. As shown in Fig. and denote the th natural frequency. The two-point mounted FBG sensor. 5. the following characteristic equation is obtained: (18) (13) Equation (12) can be transformed into the following form (14) (15) where is the circular natural frequency. is glued to the cable surface with epoxy at both end of grating zone. The equation of motion in the -direction becomes  (12) is ﬂexural rigidity of cable. TRANSIENT STRAIN MEASUREMENT OF SUSPENDED CABLE A.
The indicated peaks in the spectra correspond to the natural frequencies of the cable. The transient responses of the cable under impact at position D. the induced cable modes are mainly symmetric and the power distribution observed in Fig. 6. C. and 80 mm from the right end of the cable. Due to the fact that the impact position D is at the middle of the cable. The peak-toand the number of recorded samples is 2. the output power will increase as the FBG sensor is elongated and will decrease as the FBG sensor is compressed. The positions of the surface mounted FBG sensor. 7. VOL. The transient responses induced by the impact loadings are measured by three sensors simultaneously. A broadband source with working wavelength ranging from 1525 to 1570 nm and output power up to 20 dBm is used. Fig. The frequency spectra of the cable under impact at position D measured with: (a) the surface mounted FBG sensor. 6 shows the transient responses of dynamic strain for the cable under impact at position D measured with the two FBG sensors and the strain gage simultaneously. The mounting positions of the three sensors are different due to the limited space of the cable. .3 nm. Experimental Results and Discussion Fig. and the grating lengths are both 10 mm. and the strain gage are situated 40. 9. 7 shows the frequency spectra of the measured responses presented in Fig. DECEMBER 2009 Fig. The cable is impacted transversely by a steel rod at the position D (middle of the cable) and the position E (1/3 length of the cable from the left end). 5(b). (b) the two-point mounted FBG sensor. The frequency spectrum of the cable can be constructed from taking the fast Fourier transform (FFT) from the time-domain transient responses measured by the three sensors. 60. a 1 2 coupler is used to divide the light beam from broadband source into two paths. Fig. 6. 12. NO.2002 IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL. A resistive foil strain gage with gage length 1 mm is also used to compare the results from the FBG sensors. The output light power from the circulator is transformed by the photodiode into the electrical power which is received by the oscilloscope. The time period of the complicated transient responses is 0.1 s . hence the measured signals for the transient strain responses of the three sensors are different. 7 is concentrated on the symmetric modes. the two-point mounted FBG sensor. The wavelength demodulation system of the FBG sensors is shown in Fig. If the Bragg wavelength of the FBG sensor lies in the positive linear section of the shaped source spectrum. In order to perform the simultaneous measurement of the two FBG sensors. The FBG behind the 1 2 coupler is used as ﬁlter to shape the light source spectrum. experimental measurement are both 1559. The isolator and the circulator can prevent the reﬂected light of FBG ﬁlter and FBG sensor from coming back to the light source. and (c) the strain gage. The vertical axis represents the voltage value recorded by the oscilloscope.5 peak values of voltage are indicated in the ﬁgure. respectively.
Hence. 9 with strain wave . The relationship between the signal distortion limit and the induced cable modes by impacting at position D measured with the strain gage. Fig. the FBG sensors are more suitable and convenient than the strain gage to measure the dynamic strain for structures with curved surface and large curvature. The ﬁnite-element method (FEM) with package software ABAQUS is also used to analyze numerically the natural frequencies of the cable. 11 shows the frequency spectra from FFT of the transient responses in Fig. The time-varied frequency spectra of the cable under impact at position D measured by the strain gage. 7. 8. The responses of impact at position E are very complicated and similar to the responses of impact at position D in time domain. the natural frequencies and the maximum strain amplitudes of the induced cable modes by impacting at position D can be obtained. 3) discussed in the previous section is shown in Fig. 6 for the strain gage. The blank space “--” in Tables I and II indicates that this resonant frequency is not observed from the experimental measurement. The relationship between the induced cable modes and the signal distortion limit (Fig. 6 that the result obtained by the strain gage has relatively large noise before the measurement which is not observed by two FBG sensors. which correspond to the peaks in the frequency spectra presented in Fig. there are more . The short-time Fourier transform (STFT) with Hamming window function is also taken in order to understand the frequency variation with time of the experimental signals. 10 shows the transient responses of dynamic strain for the cable under impact at position E measured with the two FBG sensors and the strain gage simultaneously.MA AND WANG: TRANSIENT STRAIN MEASUREMENTS OF A SUSPENDED CABLE UNDER IMPACT LOADINGS USING FBG SENSORS 2003 Fig. The measured natural frequencies of cable under impact at position D using the FBG sensors and the strain gage (Table I) have excellent agreement with one another even though the responses obtained from the three sensors are quite different. It is worthy to note that the induced velocity cable modes by impact at position D are all located in the “good region. It is noted from the dynamic strain measurement in Fig. Fig. According to the frequency spectra from FFT [Fig. we can see that relatively larger noise also appears in the spectrum for strain gage. Fig. are almost the same. 6) are not distorted. The results from the cable theory considering bending stiffness and the experiment have excellent agreement with error less than 1% for most modes. The results from FEM also have excellent agreement with the results from the cable theory and experiment. The comparison of the experimental natural frequencies (average of the three sensors) with theoretical and numerical results is listed in Table II. it is not easy to mount the strain gage in the steel cable with large curvature and result in the noise appears at the transient response measurement and frequency spectrum. This disadvantage is not observed in the dynamic strain measurements by two FBG sensors. 9.” which means that the experimental responses measured by two FBG sensors (Fig. 7(c)] and the time-varied frequency spectra from STFT (Fig. 10 for the three sensors. Although the nature frequencies. the excited cable modes include the symmetric and antisymmetric modes. 10 that relatively larger noise is observed for the transient response of dynamic strain measured by strain gage. 8) measured by the strain gage. We can see from Fig. The power is higher and the duration is longer for symmetric modes compared with antisymmetric modes. Fig. Hence. The reason is that the steel cable used in this study has curved surface and 1 mm in diameter. 8 shows the time-varied frequency spectra of the measured responses presented in Fig. Therefore. The natural frequencies from the string theory are TABLE I THE MEASURED NATURAL FREQUENCIES OF THE CABLE UNDER IMPACT AT POSITION D much lower than the experimental results due to the neglect of bending stiffness. Due to the fact that the impact position E is asymmetric.
Fig. 12] measured by the strain gage. and (c) the strain gage. the natural frequencies from the string theory are much lower than the experimental results while the cable theory and the FEM have excellent agreement with experiment. both the symmetric and the antisymmetric modes have long duration time for the results of impact at position E in Fig. With the information of frequency spectra from FFT [Fig. 10. the natural frequencies and the maximum strain amplitudes of the induced cable modes by impacting at position E can be obtained. In order to understand the relationship between the string theory and the cable theory. NO. 11. cable modes observed in the frequency spectra of impact at position E (Fig. DECEMBER 2009 TABLE II THE COMPARISON OF THE EXPERIMENTAL. 12. Different from the results of impact at position D in Fig. 7). also have excellent agreement with each other. THEORETICAL. VOL. the variations of natural frequencies with respect to the ratio of length and diameter from the two . 11(c)] and the time-varied frequency spectra from STFT [Fig. 12 shows the time-varied frequency spectra from STFT of the measured responses in Fig. 13. ural frequencies (average of the three sensors) with theoretical and numerical results is listed in Table IV.2004 IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL. The relationship between the induced cable modes and the signal distortion limit is shown in Fig. 8. 12. Similar to the results of impact at position D (Table II). 9. The transient responses of the cable under impact at position E. 10) are also not distorted. The frequency spectra of the cable under impact at position E measured with: (a) the surface mounted FBG sensor. (b) the two-point mounted FBG sensor. The measured natural frequencies of cable under impact at position E using the different sensors (Table III) have excellent agreement with one another. The results of different impact positions D and E (Tables I and III). The induced cable modes by impacting at position E are all located in the “good region. AND NUMERICAL NATURAL FREQUENCIES OF THE CABLE UNDER IMPACT AT POSITION D Fig. The comparison of the experimental nat- Fig.” which means the experimental responses of the two FBG sensors (Fig. 10 for the strain gage. 11) than the spectra of impact at position D (Fig.
. The time-varied frequency spectra of the cable under impact at position E measured by the strain gage. TABLE III THE MEASURED NATURAL FREQUENCIES OF THE CABLE UNDER IMPACT AT POSITION E Fig. The relationship between the signal distortion limit and the induced cable modes by impacting at position E measured with the strain gage. 14. 14(a). theories are shown in Fig. 13. Fig. If the cable modeling error by the string theory less than 10% (i. The variation of: (a) natural frequency and (b) natural frequency ratio with respect to length/diameter of the cable according to string and cable theories. which means the string theory is suitable to model very slender cable. the natural frequencies from the two theories get close gradually. AND NUMERICAL NATURAL FREQUENCIES OF THE CABLE UNDER IMPACT AT POSITION E Fig. the length-to-diameter ratio of the cable must be more .e.9) is needed. Fig. 12. With the increase of length-to diameter ratio.MA AND WANG: TRANSIENT STRAIN MEASUREMENTS OF A SUSPENDED CABLE UNDER IMPACT LOADINGS USING FBG SENSORS 2005 TABLE IV THE COMPARISON OF THE EXPERIMENTAL. the natural frequency ratio of the string and cable theories more than 0. 14(b) shows the natural frequency ratio of the string and cable theory. THEORETICAL.
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Chan. “Experimental investigation of isolated and simultaneous internal resonances in suspended cables. S. vol. pp. Giordano. Lee. 10. and W.  A. pp. 2006. no.  R. J. Choi. S. it is proved that the FBG sensors have excellent ability to measure the transient strain response and natural frequencies for steel cables with small diameters and large curvatures.. Berkoff. Triantafyllou and L. and A. D. 1277–1294. Technol. May 1997. the length-to-diameter ratio of the cable used in our experiment is only 280. Yin. 22. and B.. P. 1996. Meltz.  I. T. Meas. and R. 1996. 39. Technol. O. Jin. J. 86–89. Ling. pp. pp. “In-ﬁbre Bragg grating sensors.. 270. Chuang and C. M. S. J. 24. Aug. P. 651–656.” IEEE Trans. pp. 18..  B. vol. R.. Instrum. Lee.” IEEE Trans. Conf. Duchowicz. Seksena. 1003–1005. CONCLUSION The dynamic response of a FBG subjected to a sinusoidal strain wave is investigated. NO. SPIE. and G. T. Actuators A. Vengsarkar.-C. no. Lett. IV. Technol. vol..  A. 9. Grinfogel. 355–375. 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and M.MA AND WANG: TRANSIENT STRAIN MEASUREMENTS OF A SUSPENDED CABLE UNDER IMPACT LOADINGS USING FBG SENSORS 2007 Chien-Ching Ma was born in Taipei. Taiwan. respectively. Providence. Taipei.S. In 1985. Taiwan. Taiwan. His research interests are in the ﬁeld of vibration analysis and ﬁber Bragg grating sensors.D. he worked as a Postdoctoral in the Engineering Division of Brown University. National Taiwan University. and the M. degrees in mechanical engineering from Brown University. and Ph. and vibration analysis. Cheng-Wei Wang received the B. From 1984 to 1985. as an Associate Professor. fracture mechanics. in 2006 and 2008. respectively. Taipei. piezoelectric material. in 1956.S. RI. degrees in mechanical engineering from the National Taiwan University. Ma has received the Distinguished Research Award from the National Science Council (NSC) of Taiwan three times. solid mechanics. He was promoted to Full Professor in 1989. he joined the faculty of the Department of Mechanical Engineering. National Taiwan University. . in 1978. His research interests are in the ﬁelds of wave propagation in solids. He received the B. in 1982 and 1984. Prof. degree in agriculture engineering from the National Taiwan University.S. He has been elected as Fellow of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.S. He is currently a Distinguished Professor of the Department of Mechanical Engineering. ﬁber Bragg grating sensors.
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