ABSTRACT

Design and development of Progressive tools for the sheet metal component is one important phase in sheet metal manufacturing. Sheet metal press working process by progressive tools is a highly complex process that is vulnerable to various uncertainties such as variation in progressive tools geometry, strip layout, die shear, material properties, component and press working equipment position error and process parameters related to its manufacturer. These uncertainties in combinations can induce heavy manufacturing losses through premature die failure, final part geometric distortion and production risk. Identification of these uncertainties and quantifying them will facilitate a risk free manufacturing environment, which goes a long way to minimize the over all cost of production. FEM based modeling of press working process is a very effective tool to over come the above uncertainties. Over recent years vigorous developments have been undertaken to enable the production of sheet metal components (electrical insert) by press working. The driving force behind this activity has been values addition obtainable by this method in comparison with others. These developments are leading to the commercial feasibility of producing sheet metal component (electrical insert) forms of high quality, ready for use. In this project work progressive tool design has been examined using CAD package (Solid works-2003) and analyzed by FEM. From software and conventional results, the dimensions and materials can be optimized, which is cost effective.

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The progressive die performs a series of fundamental sheet metal working at two or more stages during the press running to produce a production part as the strip stock moving through the die surface. Press working from the optimum dies design and its making has been the purpose of mass production in the manufacturing field. The design and manufacture of press tools, or punches and dies, is a branch of production technology that has extended into many lines of engineering manufacture over the past seventy years. There is no doubt that the accuracy achieved by new ideas in design and construction applied by the press tool designer, coupled with increased speed and rigidity of the presses etc, used, have all contributed toward maintaining this form of metal tooling well to the force as a means of obtaining pleasing, yet strong, durable articles that can withstand severe day-to-day usage. The modern car, radio and television sets, clocks and watches, house hold wares and office furniture are all examples where press tools are used in varying degrees permitting the marketing of a complete series of products quickly and cheaply to bring them within the purchasing power of the public. More and more it has become the practice to produce from sheet metal by some form of pressing process, work pieces that would have been made from bar, forging or casting two or three decades ago. Also, the handling of both strip material and semi-finished components has assumed an importance simply because fast and efficient movement means cheap products from operators who do not suffer fatigue from the handling of awkward or heavy components. However, it should not be forgotten that press design has made many advances in recent years in common with, for example, the machine tool industry, and machines are now available that are capable of withstanding the heavy stresses set up in many modern production process. From this encouraging picture it may come something of a surprise to realize that in press work there are often factors, particularly in bending and drawing process where successful results are obtained only through the extensive experience of a tool designer and not from information derived from text books. Four factors are essential contributions to firstclass press work. 1. Good operation planning 2. Excellent tool design

3. Accurate tool making 4. Knowledgeable press setting So, this project needs a whole of press tool data, our field experiences, and theoretical instructions. According to upper factors, this project could be achieved to the optimum die design through the FE analysis, Solid works modeling, and practical method of die making. Furthermore the aim of least defects could be obtained mostly by revision through the tryout. 1.1 COMPONENT ANALYSIS Material Thickness Shear strength Temper grade Supply condition Geometry tolerance PROPERTIES  It has a bright and fine finish.  It can withstand heavy loads, as it is tough.  Welding of this material does not change its chemical structure.  It has a scale free material.  Fine or bright for electroplating. 1.2 SCOPE OF THE PROJECT The scope of the project involves the design, modeling for assembly, FEM analysis, detailed drawings for the sheet metal tools and 3D CAD Data for the manufacture of the components mentioned below, • Electrical Insert (LG-Company component) : Mild Steel (St-42) : 2 mm : 35kg/mm2 : Hard : Strips : IS2102

Modeling for assembly All tool elements were modeled by solid works2003. This stage involved making the drawings of assembly, individual tool elements etc.

die. die and shedders where made in solid works2003. For this 3D models of the punch. guide bush. stripper plate. die and shedder of certain tools needed to be CNC machined.0 Preparing 3D models The punch. . guide pillar. top half and bottom plate were analyzed by Ansys-V10.FEM analysis The main functional elements like punches.

1. And also depends on the type of operation.1. Here the important thing is that the distance or the gap between the Punch and Die is calculated one according to the sheet thickness and shear strength of the sheet. Where as. The most common type of combination dies blanks and draws a part. • • • Progressive Tools Combination Tools Compound Tools 2. The conventional positions of the blanking punch and die are inverted. drawing and embossing etc. The blanking punch being clamped to the die shoe forms part of the bottom tool.1 CUTTING TOOLS Cutting tools are used to cut the sheet metal to required blanks. These tools are mainly divided as. piercing. 2. 2. the blanking die being clamped to the die head forms part of the top tool.CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2. a compound tool also produce blanks having pierced holes but the difference being that the former performance the operations at more than one station where as the later performs both the operations simultaneously at the same time.1 Progressive Tools Progressive tool performs two or more operations at different stages in each stroke. The stock strip is advanced through a series of stations that form one or more distinct press working operations on the strip to get the component. or providing the holes inside the components. trimming and are combined with non cutting operations which may include bending. forming.2 Combination Tools A die in which cutting operation and non-cutting operations on a part is accomplished in one stroke of the press. In the shaving operation the clearance is less as that of calculated for the general cutting clearance. The piercing punches assume the . And also trimming out the draw edges and formed components to maintaining the finished size of the component.3 Compound Tools Similar to a progressive tools.1. The cutting operations may be blanking.

stretching beyond the elastic limit.1 Critical Stage Stress Diagram . The punch contracts the work material supported by the die and a pressure build up occurs.3. The slug resulting from the piercing operation falls down through the die shoe opening provided for the purpose. After completion of piece part the burr forms on the same side of the piece part. The material is stressed from punch and dies side simultaneously in sections that lies parallel to the forces applied by means of shear blades or punches and die as shown in Fig. Penetration and Fracture will takes place.1. 2. Note that the blanking die walls are straight through without an angular clearance as the piece parts are knocked out of the die as soon as the blanking is over. The cutting action that occurs on blanking or piercing is that similar to that of chip formation by a cutting tool. Then the Plastic deformation. Their mating piercing dies are formed in the blanking punch. Fig 2.conventional position and inside the blanking die opening piercing punches are mounted with a punch holder.1. thickness and cutting length. Three critical stages of shearing are • • • Plastic Deformation Penetration Fracture The metal is subjected to both tensile and compressive stresses.2 SHEARING THEORY AND ACTION Shearing is the method of cutting a sheet metal (shear out) without forming chips. The shearing or cutting forces necessary to bring about shearing or rapture of the material depend primarily upon the shearing strength of the material.

3. On the optimum cutting condition. plastic deformation takes place. The punch contacts the stock material and exerts pressure on it.3.3.2 Fig 2. This imparts metal Bright polished finish (cut band) on both the strip metal and blanked component or the slug. This operation is shown in below Fig.2. the cut band is 1/3 times the sheet thickness.2. As the further load increased the punch will penetrate the material to a certain depth. And equally thick portion of the metal is forced into the die.2 Penetration As the driving force of the ram continues.3 Penetration Stage Diagram .3.3 CRITICAL STAGES 2. The stage imparts a radius (roll over) on the upper edge of the opening in the strip of metal and the lower edge of the blanked or slug material as shown in the Fig.2. the. When the elastic limit of the stock material is exceeded.2 Plastic Deformation Stage Diagram 2.1 Plastic Deformation The stock material has been placed on the die.3 Fig 2. the punch is forced to penetrate the stock material and the blank or slug is displaced into the die opening a corresponding amount. This is the true shearing portion of the cutting cycle.3. the press has been tripped and the punch is being driven toward the die.3.

The punch then enters the die opening.4 Fracture Stage Diagram 2.3.3 Fracture Further continuation of the pressure then causes fractures to start at the cutting edges of the punch and die.3. The blank or slug is separated from the stock material.4 CUTTING CLEARANCE Cutting clearance is a gap between a side of punch and the corresponding side of the die opening on one side of the edge when the punch is entered into die opening.2.4 Fig 2.1 Fig 2. This operation is shown in below Fig. These are the points of greatest stress concentration. This is shown in below Fig 2.4. Under proper cutting conditions the fractures extend towards each other and meet.1 Cutting Clearance Diagram Proper cutting clearance between punch and die cutting edges adds the following advantages • • Helps to produce accurate components.4. pushing the blank or slug slightly below the die cutting edge. . Increases the life of Press Tool.2.3.

If however the proportional cutting clearance is further decreased. 2. The operation is shown in Fig 2.4. Cutting clearance results in objectionable piece part correction.2 Excessive Cutting Clearance Diagram 2. Objectionable burrs may appear on the piece part if the cutting clearance is insufficient.  The sheared or fractured surfaces are rough.  Blunt cutting edges causes excessive radius (roll over) on the opposite work surface.4.4. .  The burrs on the work piece become unavoidable. The followings are the draw backs of insufficient cutting clearance as. The edge radius becomes larger and does not blunt smoothly into the cut band. the cut band becomes smaller. This is shown below Fig 2.  Excess cutting force is required to shear or to cut the sheet of metal.4. some times degenerating to a more line of demarcation between the break and edge radius.  Both punches and dies become blunt and they have to be ground after short run.• Reduces the cutting forces. the stock material may react by showing two or more cut bands.3 In the case of excessive clearance the burrs results from dragging of the material with insufficient clearance the burr is caused by compressive force.4.2 Fig 2.2 Insufficient Cutting Clearance When the cutting clearance is slightly too small the conditioned may be identified by greater width and irregularity of the cut band.1 Excessive Cutting Clearance This clearance illustrates comparatively large space between punch and die cutting edges.

The width of the cut band is approximately one third of the sheet thickness.4 Optimum Cutting Clearance Diagram Optimum cutting clearance is calculated by the given below formulae. which occurred during the first stage of the shear action. which result from the third stage of the shearing action. fs = Max.4 Fig 2.Fig 2.01 X (t) X √ (fs) Where.3 Optimum Cutting Clearance The blank or slug has been made under optimum cutting conditions.4. t = Sheet thickness in mm.4. it is resulting from the second stage (penetration) of the shearing action. The highly burnished band.4. This is shown in Fig 2. Shear strength of the sheet material in kg/mm2 . C/2 = 0. The edge radius is the result of the initial plastic deformation.3 Insufficient Cutting Clearance Diagram 2. C = Cutting clearance in mm. The balance of the cut is the break.4.

Where. This may lead to the breakage punch and die. OR sometimes it may be defined as.5 CUTTING FORCE Cutting force is that force which has to act on the stock material in order to cut out the blank or slug. Cutting force = L x S x Tmax Cutting force = K x L x S t2 /1000 Tons.4.5 Angular Clearance Angular clearance is a draft or taper applied to the side walls of a die opening in order to relieving internal pressure of die opening as it pass through the die opening. Where L = length of the cutting edge in mm. Therefore. S = Shear strength of the stock material in kg/mm2.5 Land and Angular Clearance Diagram 2.2. Tmax = shear strength in N / mm2 . T = thickness of the stock material in mm.4 Land The inner walls of the die opening are not usually made straight through as the blanks or slugs tend to get jammed inside.2. separating or cutting of work material from the parent material.4. L = Length of the periphery to be cut in mm. This determines the capacity of the press to be used for the particular tool. This may result in undue stress built up. S = Stock thickness in mm. Land and the Angular clearance are shown in the Fig. 2.4. To avoid such a situation the die walls are kept straight wall is called the land.4.5 Fig 2. or.

shear action takes place. Because of this the shear strength of the stock material must be known in order to calculate the cutting force.5. 2. which has a smooth finish on its side.1 Shear Strength of Materials When a cutting punch is driven through the stock material. which tend to cling. • Area of stock material to be stripped. .The following are the importance of cutting force. 2.5.A punch. For any cutting die. However. • Stock material . the cutting force should be determined before building the die.Materials. which have a high friction. Because of this. The punching force overcomes the shear resistance of the stock material. There are so many variable factors involved that an accurate calculation must be a highly specialized computation for a specific job only. • Surface condition of sidewall . • Condition of cutting edges . are more difficult to strip. the cutting-force requirement is the major factor used to select a punch press of proper rating for the job. it is not usually practical to lay down general rules. The following important factors which is affect stripping force.When the cutting edges are sharpness tripping effort is required. value and materials. • • Mass production can be achieved in a short time. • Distance between punches .More effort is required to strip punches that are close together. which is not as smooth. which can directly bring in to use.6 ADVANTAGES OF PROGRESSIVE TOOLS There are numerous advantages of progressive tools in the modern mechanical industries which are follows. walls strips more easily than a punch.2 Stripping Force Reasonably accurate calculations of stripping force requirements can be made. 2. No more secondary operations are required to finish the component.

which were earlier cast or machined. • Metal economy and the resultant reduction in weight and cost. In order to produce precision integrated circuit (IC) leadframe.• Sheet metal operations have now replaced many components. Especially. IC leadframe needs the precision shape for good efficiency. • • Goods such as electronic appliances. use of unskilled labor and high degree of possible precision have rendered presswork indispensable for much mass production. it is possible to predict the lead shift of leadframe to manufacture high precision leadframe in progressive blanking process and these results might be used as a guideline to optimize layout design system in multihole blanking process. The sheet metal operation is very difficult for brittle material. The entire top of a car can be finished to size from a single sheet metal. steel furniture. The blanking of sheet metal using progressive dies is an important process on production of precision electronic machine parts. the main defect is lead shift of inner leads in progressive blanking process. • • • • The process cannot be applicable for the plastic material like plastic forming etc. . High skilled labors and designers required.7 LIMITATIONS OF PROGRESSIVE TOOLS With the numerous advantages some limitation are follows. Dong-Hwan Kim and Byung-Min Kim [1] were presented ‘Development of optimal layout design system in multihole blanking process’. There is no need for further machining as in case of castings or forging. Press tool is not affordable for batch production. high productivity. 2. It predicts the shape of the stamped component after forming. it must be done through try-error. 2. In this paper. From the results of FE analysis using suggested method in this research. trimming and springback for inner leads. FE simulation technique has been proposed to predict the deformation behavior and springback of IC leadframe through the simulation of the progressive blanking process. The next blanking process is executed repeatedly until the final blanking of lead.8 JOURNAL REVIEW Seon-Bong Lee. utensils and automotives.

This study reveals the sheet metal forming process with multi-forming die by Cut off type feeding system. machining condition for die making. and post-processing modules. data-conversion. die materials. Results obtained using the modules enable the design and manufacturer of stator and rotor parts to be more efficient in this field. CAD/CAM application. the working conditions. production feasibility check. Knowledge for the CAD/CAM system is formulated from plasticity theories. The program for the system has been written in AutoLISP on the AutoCAD for strip. the system is designed by considering several factors. The feature of this study is the die development of scrapless progressive die of multi-stage through the Modeling on the I-DEAS program. ordinary machine tool operating and revision by tryout. know-how and so on. the complexities of blank geometry and punch profile. components drawing on the Auto-Lisp.and die-layout and in customer tool kit on the Smart CAM software for modeling and post processing with a personal computer. The first approach is based on applying a coding technique to characterize the work piece geometric features.Sung-Bo Sim. experimental results and empirical knowledge of field experts. heat treatment of partially die components. the diameter and material of a wire. B. blanklayout. This feature description is subsequently used . An approach to a CAD/CAM system is based on knowledge-based rules. Hon [4] were presented paper on the topic of ‘Feature-Based Design of Progressive Press Tools’. It is composed of nine modules. H. die-layout. Chen and k. Sung-Taeg Lee and Chan-Ho Jang [2] presented ‘A study on the development of center carrier type progressive die for U-bending part process’. strip-layout. This paper outlines two approaches for the development of a feature-based system which is used to support the detailed design of progressive press tools. Ismail. modeling. which are input and shape treatment. The next process of die development was studied according to sequence of die development. S.C. The Center carrier-type progressive die for U-bending sheet metal production part is a very specific division. and the availability of a press. Choi and Chul Kim [3] were presented journal as ‘A compact and practical CAD/CAM system for the blanking or piercing of irregular shaped-sheet metal products for progressive working’. T. die structure. This paper describes research work into developing the computer-aided design and manufacturing of stator and rotor parts with blanking or piercing operations. Based on knowledge based rules. such as the material and thickness of product. J. S.e. Through the FEM simulation by DEFORM. flat pattern-layout. it was accepted to Ubending process as the first performance to design of strip process layout. i. K. It is capable of generating automatically NC data to match tooling requirements by checking dimensions according to the drawings of the die-layout module.

Choi [5] were presented paper as ‘A study on the development of computer-aided process planning system for electric product with bending and piercing operations’. Y. which are input and shape treatment. The system has been written in AutoLISP on the AutoCAD with a personal computer. J.to propose the type and layout of the press tool punches required to produce the part. The approaches have been implemented on an IBM PC in C and integrated with a prototype lowcost CAD system for press tool design. The second approach uses design constraints as the bases for selecting the punches and dies. and die layout modules. In this work. The forming process can then be predicted successfully from the results of analyses. such as bending sequence by fuzzy set theory. It is composed of four main modules. Results obtained using the modules enable the manufacturer for progressive working of electric products to be more efficient in this field.S. The system is designed by considering several factors. The effects of the embossing depth and the number of stacked sheets are investigated and compared with experimental results. The strip layout and die layout drawings automatically generated by formularization and quantification of experimental technology will make minimization of trial and error and reduction of period in developing new products. strip layout. Park. In order to increase the productivity of electrical parts. Approach to the system is based on the knowledge-based rules. and the availability of press equipment and standard parts. Chul Kim. Kim and J.H. enabling the development of an appropriate design for the die and the process. punch profiles. For proper design of the process. complexities of blank geometry. and the empirical knowledge of field experts. Knowledge for the system is formulated from plasticity theories. Motor cores have been fabricated using progressive stacking dies with lamination in order to obtain better electro-magnetic properties.C. . Keun Park and Sang-Ryun Choi [8] were presented ‘Finite element analysis for the lamination process of a precision motor core using progressive stacking dies’. manufacturing processes using progressive dies have been widely used in the industry. rigid–plastic finite element analysis is carried out in order to simulate the lamination process of the motor core. a prediction of the process is required to obtain relevant design parameters. flat pattern layout. This paper describes a research work of developing computer-aided design of product with bending and piercing operation for progressive working. experimental results.

CHAPTER 3 TERMINOLOGY OF PROGRESSIVE TOOLS 3. It may be complete product itself or it may be a component of product may be designed without die shoe by incorporating fixtures for attaching them to the ram and bolster plate of the press. Day Light Day light is the distance between top surface of the bottom shoe to the bottom surface of the top bolster when the tool is in open condition. Slug In piercing operation the entire periphery is cut and the cut out piece is called slug or waste. Shut Height The distance from the bottom surface of the bottom shoe (bottom plate) to the top surface of the top bolster (top plate) when the tool is in closed condition as known as shut height. Stock Material General term for any of the various materials from which the piece parts is made.2 PARAMETERS IN CUTTING TOOLS Blank In blanking operation. the entire periphery is cut and the cut out piece is called blank.1 PROGESSIVE TOOLS WORKING TERMINOLOGY Before beginning the study of die making it is necessary to attain a clear understanding of the following terms. Piece Part It is a product of die. . 3.

4. The tool shank.4 PUNCH PLATE . It is made out of case hardened tool steels or sometimes OHNS. It is hardened and tempered to 45-48 HRC.  Increased die life  Minimum set up time. the punch exerts and an upward thrust. 4. is also screwed into the top plate.  Facilitation of maintenance. which locates the whole tool centrally with the press ram.CHAPTER 4 ELEMENTS OF PROGRESSIVE TOOLS 4. So a hardened plate to prevent it from digging into the soft-top plate should back up punch. 4. And the material of the top plate is ST-42.1 DIE SET The die set is one of the basic elements of the stamping industry.3 PUNCH BACK PLATE OR THRUST PLATE While performing the cutting operation. Some of the advantages realized by assembling die components to a properly selected die set are:  Accuracy die set up. The purpose of die set is to utilize the entire die assembly.  Facilitation of storage. It can be defined as a sub press unit consisting of a bottom plate and top plate together with guide pillars and bushes by means of which the top and bottom plates are aligned. The punch assembly including the punch holder and thrust plate is mounted on the top plate.  Alignment of punch and die members.  Improved piece part quality.2 TOP BOLSTER (TOP PLATE) The upper working member of the tool is called the top plate.

The punch is usually fixed to a plate with a light press fit. Punch holder holds the all types of cutting and non-cutting punches to ensure alignment between punch and die it is made out of ST-42. 4.5 PUNCHES A punch is the male member of a press tool to get a component from the strip. It is made out of good quality alloy steel called H.C.H.Cr. (T215Cr12W90) material and hardened to 58-60 HRC. 4.6 STRIPPER PLATE When cutting action is over, the punch withdraws from the die but the stock strip also will move along with punch. So for next operation strip cannot be moved forward. To facilitate this function one plate is fixed above the die plate. This remove the strip from the punch is called stripper. It guides punches and pilots in this plate to ensure alignment with punch and die. It is made of O.H.N.S. material (T110W2Cr1). It is hardened and tempered to 50-52 HRC. 4.7 DIE PLATE A die block is defined as the block or plate from which the die profile is cut. It is usually lower member of the tool. It is usually made from T215Cr12W90 material and is hardened to 60-62HRC. It provides cutting edge. The die opening has different designs and the design is selected after looking in the requirements and facilities available. The most common die section has straight line and then angular clearance is given in order to allow easy fall of components and slugs. Button inserts can be used conveniently for circular holes. Large dies are made from many segments, which are secured in a sturdy die holder (bottom bolster) by Allen-screws and dowels. Many factors influence design of die blocks.  Weather the die block is conventional or special purpose machining.  Shape and complexity of the profile.  Size and thickness of the component.  Production requirement.  Quality of the component.

 Hardness of the component.  Machining facility available.

4.8 BOTTOM BOLSTER (BOTTOM PLATE) Bottom plate gives cushioning effect to the die as well as provides enough space for the tool to be clamped to the press bed. There may be opening in the base plate, which allows the blank, or slug to fall and clear off from the tool. The die assembly including stripper, all bottom elements are mounted on the bottom plate. 4.9 GUIDE PILLAR AND GUIDE BUSH Guide Pillar and Guide Bush are very important function in press-tool. Pillar and bushes guide the moving and fixed half of the tool in the press and also it is used to ensure accurate alignment between the punches and die These are made out of case hardened tool steel (17Mn1Cr95) or some times O.H.N.S. (T110W2Cr1). Pillar and bushes are hardened and tempered to 56-58 HRC. 4.10 STOPPERS After each and every stroke of press the strip has to be fed from one pitch length. This can be accomplished by means of a stopper. The function of the stoppers is to arrest the movement of the strip. It is made out of hardened tool steels. It is hardened and tempered to 48-50 HRC. 4.11 PRESSURE PAD Pressure pad are commonly actuated by spring or rubber cylinders. Where more pressure is necessary, the die is usually installed in a press which is equipped with an air cushion. Hydraulic cylinders can also be used to actuate pads when strong pressure is required. In Bending Die, the pressure pad performs the following functions. Which are listed in order of operational sequence, • • • They hold the work piece during bending. They serve as bottoming blocks for setting of the bed (or beds). They act as strippers or shedders to aid in removing the piece part from the Die.

4.12 EJECTORS

In the conventional position die is the lower member of the tool (being clamped to die shoe). If the ejection of the blank is achieved by forcing it upwards, the action is known an ejecting. The element of the tool, which ejects the blank, is called an ejector. 4.13 SHEDDERS In inverted tool, die becomes the upper member of the tool being clamped to the press ram. The ejection of the blank is achieved by forcing them downwards. This action is generally known as shedding and element of the tool which sheds the blank is known as shedder. 4.14 KNOCK OUT A mechanism for ejecting blanks on other work from a die commonly located on a slide but may be located on the bolster.

3. Choose the die shoe. the tool should be easy and safe to operate. Controlling location of the scrap strip. 9. 5. so that when the die block is mounted it can be ground without removing it from the die shoe. 1. The following design point should be considered carefully. it should be practical and attractive but should not have elaborate trimmings or needless complexity. While designing the tool. the drawing of the elements to be manufactured with sufficient required details. Location of strip by means of locating pins must be provided. 10. Counter bore in the die block. 7. The type of stripper used. the tapped hole in the die shoe and reamed holes in the die shoe must be made from 6 to 9 mm deeper than needed to allow for grinding of die block. name and specification of the machine to produce the elements and the number of elements required will be provided. Channel clearance should be adequate to allow the strip to move freely.CHAPTER 5 DESIGN ASPECTS AND ANALYSIS Tool design is a specialised phase of tool engineering. Small profile punch should be guided in the stripper plate. In all cases the tool must be made as economically as possible for the required service. 6. Dowel should be a safe in non-cylindrical location so that section or parts may be mounted in one position only. 2. Guidance should be extended at least two-scrap width in front of first Station. 4. Die block should be longer and wide enough so that the location of the holes will be at least one and half time the thickness of the block away from the edge. . 8. After component analysis it was decided to go for progressive Tools.

1 COMPONENT DATA Material: mild steel (St-42) Supply conditions: strips Temper grade: hard Shear stress: 35 kg/mm2 Geometry tolerance: IS2120 .1.1 Flow Chart of Design Aspect and Analysis The design aspect and analysis that has been adopted in this dissertation work to do a successful tool design includes the following steps.1 DESIGN CALCULATION 5.Fig 5. • • • • • Component study and 3D-solid modeling of the Component Design of the Tool Selection of proper tooling materials 3D solid modeling of the Tool Analysis of the Tool 5.1.

Ultimate Tensile Strength. Brinell Hardness. linear 500°C CTE. Converted from Brinell hardness. 0-500°C (68930°F) Typical steel . Electrical Properties Electrical Resistivity 1.33 Comments Typical for steel.0.65 Weight (%) Physical Properties Metric English Density 7. linear 1000°C 11.7 µm/m-°C 6.48 97.1. Rockwell C Hardness.7e-005 ohmcm 1.Fig. Typical For Steel normalized at 900°C.2 µm/m-°C 13. 0-300°C (68570°F) Typical for steel . Vickers Tensile Strength. 65 J annealed at 815°C. Rockwell B Hardness. Converted from Brinell hardness.1 Chemical and Physical Properties of C42-Steel COMPONENT C FE MN 0.284 lb/in³ P Max 0.17 µin/in-°F Typical steel Typical for steel .87 g/cc 0. Knoop Hardness.35 .7e-005 ohm-cm condition of specimen unknown. linear 20°C CTE.24 .39 µin/in-°F 6.2 Component Diagram Table 5. Yield Elongation at Break Reduction of Area Modulus of Elasticity Bulk Modulus Poisson's Ratio Izod Impact Shear Modulus 235 259 97 21 247 786 MPa 670 MPa 14 % 36 % 210 GPa 140 GPa 0.5 .4 .04 S 0. Converted from Brinell hardness. Mechanical Properties Hardness.29 43 J 80 GPa 235 259 97 21 247 114000 psi 97200 psi 14 % 36 % 29000 ksi 20300 ksi 0.72 µin/in-°F 8. linear 250°C CTE. 5.1.29 31.5 µm/m-°C 12.0.9 µm/m-°C 14.78 µin/in-°F 7.01 1. 20°C (68°F) Thermal Properties CTE. Converted from Brinell hardness.98.7 ft-lb 11600 ksi Typical for steel Typical for steel. 53 J as rolled Typical for steel.

1. At this time we referred the web size on the strip from database and its related instructions. Metal Close Analogs: AISI 1141 Material Notes Applications include cold drawn or finished bar. Our intention considered that the best utilization ratio of sheet metal can be obtained as taking the accurate strip process layout design through the theoretical calculation and field experiences. 5.Specific Heat Capacity Thermal Conductivity 0.1.9 W/m-K 0. Medium Carbon Steel. Fig. pitch) and disposition of each stage on the strip lay out are performed exactly.5.113 BTU/lb-°F 360 BTU-in/hr-ft²-°F Typical steel Typical steel Subcategory: AISI 1000 Series Steel.1. the first step is how to decide the feeding method according to the .3 Flow Chart of Strip Process Layout Design Fig. For the design of strip process layout. cold punched nuts. machine screws and wood screws. it must be enough that the decision of strip feeding distance (advance. Carbon Steel.472 J/g-°C 51.3 shows the flow chart strip process layout design system. Due to upper cause. This is the optimum method of initial die design.2 STRIP LAYOUT The disposition of part on the strip feed unfolding was displayed with a constant area repeatedly. electrical insert. split rivets. 5.

material properties.6425 x 1 x 100) / (74 x 32) = 88.00 = 2.75t 1. of rows = --------------------------------Area of strip per pitch = (2094.4 showing the production part and its length (70 mm) used to the thick sheet metal (material: mild steel and thickness: 2.NO 1 2 Type of component Curved component Straight component Single row 0.= -------------------------------------Area of the strip before blanking weight of strip before blanking Area of blank x no.0t Multi row 1.00mm Strip width (W) W = 2 x A + Length of component = 2 x 2 + 70 = 74.6425mm2 Percentage of material area utilization Area of blanks from strip weight of blanks/strip = --------------------------------------.1. accuracy of production part. 5.1.0 mm) production part. 5.52)} = 2094.45% .{(5x5) – (π x 2.quantity of production part. and material thickness.3 and Fig.00mm Component area (a) A = (30 x 70) .25t 1. wide row strip layout 2. the second step is followed to this flow chart of Fig.5t A = 1t (for straight component and single row strip layout) = 1x2.00mm Pitch (P) P = width of component + A = 30 + 2 = 32. Two types of strip layouts are used for design the optimized strip layout. narrow row strip layout Wide row strip layout Scrap allowance (A) SL. 1.

6425mm2 Percentage of material area utilization = (2094. . 5. web-size.5 Narrow Row Strip Layout The strip process layout was considered that the proper sizes are strip width.56% Fig.Fig.00mm Component area (a) A = (30 x 70) .{(5x5) – (π x 2. 5. advance.6425 x 1 x 100) / (34 x 72) = 85.1.00mm Strip width (W) W = 2 x A + Length of component = 2 x 2 + 30 = 34. etc.1.00 = 2.00mm Pitch (P) P = width of component + A = 70 + 2 = 72.52)} = 2094. notching allowance.4 Wide Row Strip Layout Narrow row strip layout Scrap allowance (A) A = 1t (for straight component and single row strip layout) = 1x2.

41 = 3926.47 kgf Shear Force for Notching Operation (Fsn) Fsn = 39.47 + 5539.71 x 2 x 35 Fsb = 13699. hole Operation (Fsp) Fsp = π x 8 x 2 x 35 x 2 Fsp = 3518.58 + 3419. Here the percentage of material utilization of wide row strip layout (88. Fsf = 15 to 20% of total shear force required = 0. we can use spring loaded stripper in the press die.56 Fsh = 26177.1. and fourth stage works blanking as a complete stage. 5. After that.4 and Fig 5.85 x 2 x 35 Fso = 3419.58 kgf Shear Force for Oblong hole piercing Operation (Fso) Fso = 48.1. the third stage works notching.45%) is higher than narrow row layout (85.57 x 2 x 35 x 2 Fsn = 5539.56 kgf Total Shear Force (Fsh) Fsh = 3518.41 kgf Stripping force (Fsf) Here the thickness of sheet metal is 2mm. We must take care of pilot damage or its fracture through the causes of dislocation on the every stage.80 kgf Shear Force for Blanking Operation (Fsb) Fsb = 195. Therefore the wide row strip layout is chosen for implementation of design and manufacturing of progressive tool. Fs = shear area x shear stress Fs = periphery cut x sheet thickness x shear stress F s = L t fs Shear Force for Piercing Ø 8mm X 2Nos.5.61 kgf . 5.80 + 13699.The first stage operates piercing. the second stage works piloting and oblong piercing.15 x 26177.1.56%). If the sheet thickness is less than or equal to 1mm.3 SHEAR FORCE (Fs) Shear force. so no need to use stripping loaded stripper. the strip process layout was obtained as a result in Fig. And always stripping force will be 15 to 20% of the total shear force required.

5-3% 1.06 mm per side Otherwise by using percentage table for various materials Material Clearance % of sheet thickness C = 3% of sheet thickness C = (3 x 2) / 100 C = 0.4 PRESS CAPACITY (Pc) Press tool is to be loaded 70 to 80 percentage of the rated press capacity for consistent performance.39 Tones ≈ 38 Tones The presses are manufactured to press tonnage capacity as per preferred numbers like 5.5.02 x 1.284 i = 1.005 x 2 x √35 C = 0.6 CENTRE OF PRESSURE Three method are used for calculating centre of pressure as.00 X2 = 82. 40. Therefore choose the nearest available press tonnage capacity as.00mm .00 Mild steel 2. 50.005 x t x √Fsh C = (0. etc. 3… X1 = 50.00 X4 = 146. • • • Centre of Gravity Method Moments Method Graphical Method X’ = ∑Li Xi/∑Li L1 = 186. 25. 10.5-5% Aluminium Brass 1.01t – 0.714 L2 = 79. 2.5-3% if t ≤ 3mm if t > 3mm Centre of Gravity Method Take reference line away the blanking centre.00 X3 = 114.1. say 50.3 kgf Pc = 37.1.5 CLEARANCE(C) C = 0. 20.142 L3 = 48.1.015) x √Fsh C = 0.2 x 100) / 70 Pc = 37396. Pc = (total shear force + stripping force) x FOC / 70 to 80% of press capacity Pc = (30104.06 mm per side 5. 63.856 L4 = 50. 16. Pc = 40 Tones 5.

2. .1.73mm Centre of pressure from blanking centre is = 78.564 L4 = 39.142 L3 = 244.1.73mm Y’ = ∑Lj Yj /∑Lj L1 = 39.7 DIE BLOCK DESIGN Die block dimensions are governed by the strength necessary to resist the cutting forces and will depend on the type and thickness of the material being cut.571 L5 = 25.6 Graphical COP Method of Wide Row Strip Layout 5.X’ =78.11 Take reference line away the edge of strip.00 Y3 = 87.142 Y’ = 86.00 Y4 = 114. 5. 3… Y1 = 58. the cutting force for that die is the sum of the stock material.571 L2 = 25.96mm Graphical Method j = 1.89 Y2 = 60.96 – 50.00 =36.73 – 50.00 =28.00mm Fig. say 50.96mm Centre of pressure from strip edge is = 86.00 Y5 = 115. The force required to drive a punch through the stock material is the cutting force for that particular punch. If a die has more than one punch acting simultaneously.

For this thickness. Fsh . TD = 3√Press Tonnage = 3√40 x 1000 TD = 35. (TD) =35. fracture will occur when the cutting force equals the shear strength of stock material of die. The load builds up rapidly during the plastic deformation stage and continuous to increase while penetration is taking place. Fsh = shear strength of stock material x cut edge area Resistance begins when the punch contacts the stock material.5 TD) + length of component here. TD = 3√Fsh If the Fsh is in tones the thickness TD is in centimeters and if Fsh is in kilograms the thickness TD is in mm.69 mm Otherwise also use as. regrinding allowance should be added which increases the die life.5 TD + greater length b/w from cop point) x 2 = (1. Shear strength of stock material must be known in order to calculate cutting force because the shear resistance of stock material is overcome by the punching force.00mm Width of Die Block (WD) WD = (2 x 1.33) x 2 LD =252. Generally 3 to 5 mm is added. Cutting force. The accumulated load is released when fracture occurs.00 mm Length of Die Block (LD) LD = (1. the importance of cutting force is to select a punch press of proper tonnage rating for the job. If a proper cutting clearance exists between punch and die.41 TD = 29.00mm Therefore Thickness of die block.In any cutting die.Total Shear Force . Die block thickness. Thickness of die block is found by using empirical formula as. Thickness of die block (TD) TD = 3√Fsh = 3√26177. Td = TD + 3 to 5 mm however at any case the thickness should not be less than 20 mm. Relation of cutting force to shearing action is described as follows. Thickness of die block.5 x 35 + 71.

482 kgf Let the No. Transverse force 5235.= (2 x 1.25 mm. which is used to hold the die part together by means of screws.41 kgf = 5235.4 5. Deflection. Therefore the transverse force is acting on die block as usually 20 – 30% of total shear force of the tool.482 = shear area x shear strength x No. δ = FL3/354EI (For bottom plate consider as parallels supported beam) δ = FL3/354EI (For top plate consider as simply supported beam) . blanks or part. of screws required is minimum Four. The minimum wall thickness from the edge of the die block to centre line of screw is 9D/8 = 15.999 mm D = M10 The nearest highest value M10 is chosen for factor of safety.1. Otherwise the clearance or die alignment is impaired.00) WD =176. The bottom plate must be rigid and not deflect excessive into the bed opening.3. Fastness (Allen screw) The transverse force is acting on die block. The mathematical analysis is greatly simplified assuming that the bottom plate is considered to be on parallels. And hole diameter is Ø8. The shoe deflection is calculated using the strength of material formula.8 DIESET DESIGN Most bed has large openings to permit the installation of air cushions of scrap.20 x 26177. The transverse force = 20% of total shear force = 0. The designed detail diagram of die plate has shown in the fig 5. of screws x safety factor = (π x D2 x fs x N x S)/4 D = Ø9.00 mm.5 mm and pitch is 1.00mm Die block dimension is (252 x 176 x 35) mm Land and draft From CITD standards land will be 3-6 mm and draft will be 1/4º to 1/2º Take 5mm land and 1/2º draft If draft is not given internal stresses may develop in the hole from accommodate of scrap or component and die block will get crack. Deflection.5 x 35 + 70.

On the return stroke of punch.1. 5 TD = 52.25 TD = 42. Length of bottom plate. Length of top plate. the scrap strip tendency to adhere to the punch and be lifted by it. Thickness of top plate.00mm = width of die block + [2 x ((9D/8) + (D/2) + 2)] = 176 + [2 x (9 x 32/8) + (32/2) + 2)] = 286. Where. p = F/A A = cross sectional area As per GTTC kinetic standard the length of guide bush in top plate (D) should be 32.00mm Top plate dimension is (286 x 326 x 42) mm The designed detail diagram of top plate has shown in the fig 5. F = 80% of cutting force = 0. the scrape strip has a tendency to contract.2 5. This action interferes with the feeding of the stroke through the die.1 Thickness of bottom plate.41 kgf = 20941.00mm.00mm and total length of guide bush will be 64.00mm = length of die block + (2 x (9D/8)) = 252 + (2 x (9 x 32/8) = 326.3. WTP WTP = 1. TTP LTP LTP Width of top plate.3 N L = distance between parallel E = modulus of elasticity I = bh3/12 (moment of inertia) Where.8 x 26177.93 kgf = 209419. The inner diameter and outer diameter will be Ø22H7 and Ø32h6 respectively. WBP WBP = 1.00mm Bottom plate dimension is (286 x 326 x 52) mm The designed detail diagram of bottom plate has shown in the fig 5.3. b = length of bottom plate h = thickness of bottom plate Stress.00mm = length of die block + (2 x (9D/8)) = 252 + (2 x (9 x 32/8) = 326. TBP LTP LBP Width of bottom plate.Where.9 STRIPPER PLATE DESIGN After a blank has been cut by the punch on its downward stroke.00mm = width of die block + [2 x ((9D/8) + (D/2) + 2)] = 176 + [2 x (9 x 32/8) + (32/2) + 2)] = 286. .

1 x 105 N/mm2 I = bh3/12 (moment of inertia) = 1. b = length of stripper plate = 176 mm h = thickness of stripper plate = 20 mm Stress. Deflection. physical properties of stock. including stock thickness. The underside of the stripper plate which comes in contact with the strip should be machined and preferably ground.2 x 26177. punch clearance. For the stripper action on the upward movement of the punch. Where. In this design the stripper is mounted over compression springs and suspend by bolts from the punch holder.8 N L = distance between two successive screws = 222 mm E = modulus of elasticity = 2. δ = FL3/192EI Where. Strippers are of two types.17x 105 mm4 Where. stock lubrication and scrap allowance. The height should be sufficient to permit the sheet metal to be fed freely between the upper die surface and under surface of the stripper plate. • • Fixed stripper or box type stripper Floating stripper or spring loaded stripper Fixed stripper is attached at a fixed height over the die block. The stripper plate is usually of same width and length as the die block.some device must be used strip the scrap material from the die block.48 kgf = 52354. As the punch travels downward for the blanking operation the stripper plate contacts the stock strip first and holds it until the punch . cutting perimeter. The mathematical analysis is simplified by assuming fixed stripper to be considered as a fixed beam support The fixed stripper plate deflection and stress is calculated using the strength of material formula. Spring loaded stripper Spring loaded type stripper is used on large blanking operations and also on very thin and highly ductile materials where it is desirable to utilize the pad pressure to hold the surrounding stock during the blanking operation. p = F/A A = cross sectional area Fixed stripper Stripping force depends on many factors.41 kgf = 5235. F = 10% to 20% of cutting force = 0. such a device is called stripper. with the lower surface of the stripper below the cutting end of the punch. the scrap strip will strike the underside of the stripper plate and get stripped off from the punch.

the height is 1.clears the strip on its return stroke.1. height of 2. The mathematical analysis is simplified by assuming simply supported beam. The thickness of stripper plate as per GTTC standards has 16 to 20 mm therefore take 16 mm. δ = FL3/48EI Where.3. . In this case. the stripping force may be as high as 20% of cutting force and the spring can be designed accordingly. If the height is greater than 2t there is a chance of feeding two strips. Rather than the height of guide plates the important factor in case of guide plate is the guide width. The spring loaded type stripper plate deflection and stress is calculated using the strength of material formula. The stripper is to be guided either in main pillars or in auxiliary pillars. to avoids this height is kept less than 2t. F = 10% to 20% of cutting force L = distance between two successive screws E = modulus of elasticity = 2. The guide width has to be tolerance such that the strip moves freely between the guides at the same time there should not be any play in the strip.5 mm is provided.7 5. As the ram rises the spring pressure strips the stock holding in the punch. The dimension of stripper plate is (252 x 176 x 16) mm The detail designed drawing of stripper plate is shown in the fig 5. b = length of stripper plate h = thickness of stripper plate Spring loaded stripper is used when • • • • Stock thickness is less than 1 mm The number of stations are more If verity of operations are present If the length of channel is too much Dimension of stripper plate is same as the die block dimension except the thickness. For less than 1mm thickness. the kind of stop and the stock thickness.1 x 105 N/mm2 I = bh3/12 (moment of inertia) Where. Because when stops are used a suitable space must be provided for the easy passage of the strip.5t to 2t is taken where ‘t’ is stock thickness. Deflection. Generally.10 GUIDE PLATE DESIGN The height of guide plate is governed chiefly by two factors. If there is no stop the height may be much lower when compared with stops introduced.

In order to support strip.0.0.2t (t is die block thickness).15 x 35 = 6 mm The detail designed drawing of guide plate has shown in the fig 5. Insufficient clearance causes missing of the fractures and resulting jagged edge with excessive burnishing.11 GUIDE PILLAR DESIGN Since alignment is a matter of maintaining clearance.0.15t to 0.1 to 0. In case of floating stripper the guide is provided with a hood so that strip does not get lifted or come outside the guide plates.0 The length of the guide plate is made more than the length of die block and at the entry it is tapered at 10 to 15° for easy entry of strip as shown in figure. Wg = Width of Strip + Tolerance on Strip + Feeding Clearance + Manufacturing tolerance Tolerance on strip ± 0. clearance must be help to close limits between the punch and die steels. clearance is needed to obtain a clean fractured edge.4 Feeding clearance = 0.1.0 .8 5. Guides pin are originated to provide alignment when the die is exerting forces to shape metal.2 mm Manufacturing tolerance = ± 0.05 = 74. Excessive clearance allows pull-in of metal and large burr formation. In cutting. strip back plate is fastened under the surface of the extended portion.05 to + 0.1 . More specifically. the allowable clearance variation should be used in designing the die details.2 + 0. The purpose of clearance varies in each operation. Width of guide plate.3. Forming and drawing clearance is needed to allow room for the sheet metal thickness between the steels. Most die operations cause on increase in clearance due to side thrusts. depending on the hardness of the metal. The guide plates are extended by 30 to 50mm beyond the die block. The thickness of the guide plate is from 0.1 + 0. That is necessary to maintain proper clearance between the components shaping the metal. Wg = 74 .15 mm Thickness of guide plate Tg = 0.Width of the Guide Plate. for coil for strip .2 + 0. The bust cutting clearance varies from 5 to 20% of the sheet thickness.

such as with cams. Another cause to side thrust may be press ram which is not parallel to the bed. After knowing the vertical force.05 to 0. So Y is taken as 0. The mathematical analysis is simplified assuming that the guide pillar as a cantilever beam. The diameter can be calculated using the deflection formula. For 45º cam. Causes of side thrusts in dies are itemized as follows. Before guide pillar design knowledge of forces occurring during stamping operations are considered.01 mm. Select the die view in which the pin deflection will cause a clearance change. the diameter of pillar is calculated. side thrust and allowing a pillar deflection of 0. Similar side thrusts occur during right angle bending and cup drawing operations. dies and punch steels. two pins are considered non-existent then. first the vertical die force must be known. Side thrusts resulting from the use of shear or angular cutting faces to reduce force requirements. Y = FL3 /3EI If two pillars are used. will attempt to overcome this situation. Side thrusts necessary to align the ram. Side thrusts due to poor alignment of components during die construction. Then the vertical forces must be . trim. neglecting friction. Dies that are somewhat self aligning. forming and drawing die. one on each side then above formula is used. and without proper lubrication and surface finish galling or scoring bends becomes a problem. side thrust equals the vertical force. Side thrusts created by non symmetrical forms or draws where punch and die are loaded off center at initial contact. bending and flange dies where forces act on only one edge of the steels. Side thrusts due to angular contacts between surfaces. If four pillars were used.005 mm.01 mm sometimes 0. Excessive clearance means that square bends and straight walls are not possible since a taper is created. Because of presence of other pillars it is not possible.05 to 0. • • • • • • • Side thrusts due to the clearance used in cutting. Large side thrusts are present when cams are used. Side thrusts occurring in cut off. Y = FL3 / 6EI Permissible deflection Y is clearance between pillar and bush. such as many form or draw dies.Insufficient clearance causes burnishing of metal.

these horizontal forces must be known. When the stroke is at bottom dead center (BDC). guide pillar and guide bush is H7/h6 or H7/h5 and guide bush and top bolster (top plate) is H7/p6.analyzed to see if any side thrusts are created.No.S (St-42) M. Having calculated the vertical force with known shear strengths a ratio can be used to find side thrust.= ---------------------(Sheet thickness – penetration) vertical force Fit recommended between guide pillar and bottom bolster (bottom plate) is H7/p6.2 Dieset Details Sl. 01 02 03 Description Top plate Bottom plate Guide bush Material M. the pillar and bush should have a minimum engagement equal to 1d to 1. Side ac represents the clearance. Side bc would be the vertical cutting force and side ac the horizontal vector. A theoretical study of vector force in a cutting die from the gage curve shows one approach to the problem. Clearance horizontal force ------------------------------------. The designed detail diagram of guide pillar has shown in the fig 5.S (St-42) 17Mn1Cr95 Size (L x W x T)mm 286 x 326 x 42 286 x 326 x 52 Ø56 x 64 Remarks(HRC) 58-60 . It is better to have length of pillar less than 100. The diameter of guide pillar is 28 mm and length of pillar is 184 mm.3 The dimension of guide pillar is (Ø22 x 184) mm Table 5. This same triangle also represents the force distribution. side bc represents the sheet metal thickness less the penetration at fracture completion.5d before actual operation starts and also the pillar should not project above the top surface of top plate. it is this horizontal force that causes many problems of alignment before any practical calculations can be made. Note that triangle abc represents the physical relation of the punch and die near maximum force conditions.3.

due to load acting from both sides of punch i.1. It should have high compressive and tensile strength. If the buckling load is higher it cad be made lower by providing a step with larger diameter at buckling portion of the punch end.12 PUNCHES DESIGN • • • • • Punch is of the same shape as that of the operation to be performed. The buckling load which is a function of slenderness of the punch. To encounter the punch from buckling the punches have to be safe from buckling load. 01 02 03 04 Guide pillar 17Mn1Cr95 Ø22 x 184 Table 5.e. So using Euler’s formula we have to check for buckling load.04 Sl. constant for both ends guided or hinged E = modulus of elasticity I = π d4 / 64 L = unguided length of punch . Since the force is in acting on both sides of the punch. This increases the punch strength. Fb = π 2 n E I / L 2 Where. It should be less than the cutting force. To encounter deflection of the punch a proper clearance is to be provided in the plate as well as a proper guiding clearance is to be provided in the stripper.3 Plates details Material T110W2Cr1 (OHNS) M. It should be capable of resharpening. it may also damage or break the punch or chip off the die. As the buckling load coming on it will not buckle the punch as it is hardened but it will result in breakage. Punch hardness is high compared to that of work material (as much as 20 HRC). During operation.No. it is treated as a column and designed for buckling load. This has a tendency of incorrect clearance all around which results in unequal wear. if it is higher the punch may break.n = 1. Euler’s formula is given by.S (St-42) T110W2Cr1 (OHNS) T110W2Cr1 (OHNS) 58-60 Remarks 58-60HRC 54-56HRC 54-56HRC Description Die plate Punch plate Punch back plate Stripper plate Size (L x W x T)mm 252 x 176 x 35 252 x 176 x 16 252 x 176 x 8 252 x 176 x 20 5. compressive stresses or waviness of strip the punch may enter into the die in an angle. It should not deflect.

it is reduced by using a stepped punch. hardened parallel. If the compressive stress exceed between the punch plate and punch holder to take the cutting pressure on punch head from being forced into the softer holder this becoming loose.Fb= buckling force. As a general rule. Cutting force Compressive stress on punch.d = diameter of hole t = stock thickness Ss= shear stress Substituting for n and I in above equation we get length of punch L = (π d /8) √ (E d / Ss t) This equation indicates the maximum length of punch which resists deflection with proper clearance in punch plate and in guiding stripper. Depending on the punch construction. back up plate is employed whenever the punch diameter is less than four times the stock thickness. Die bushing subjected to high stresses are also to be supported by buckling plates. Here we can consider the condition as the compressive force of punch is equal to the shear force (cutting force) of sheet metal cutting. . The thickness of buckling plate depends on stock thickness and generally 5 to 10 mm is recommended. Sc = ----------------------------------Cross sectional area of punch Sc = 4 π d t Ss / π d2 = 4 t Ss /d The above equation indicated that. In punch the collar area is subjected to force therefore the collar thickness is increased to a hardness of 45 – 48 HRC. the unit compressive stresses for different punches are shown below the respective punches. Fb = π 2 n E I / L 2 = π d t Ss Where. The compressive stress of punch should not exceed 70 to 80 kgf / mm2 As similar to buckling load if the compressive stress is high. to pierce a hole equal to stock thickness the compressive stress should be four times the shear stress. It is also always necessary to check the compressive stress of the punch. Back up plate is generally made up of plain carbon steel. For example consider a circular punch.

Diameter of piercing punch Diameter of piercing on die block The maximum length of punch Where. d = Ø8 mm d1 = d + 2C d1 = 8 + 2 x 0. • • • • • • Punch steels of high compressive strength Greater than average clearances Optimum punch alignment. To reduce the chance of misalignment of over feeding or underfeeding pilots are used. finish and rigidity Shear on punches or dies or both Prevention of stock slippage Optimum stripper design Design of piercing punch For piercing operation punch size is on per component diameter and die size is add 2C with hole diameter (clearance is given in die size).06 = Ø8. It means that it registers the position of strip. Pilot position the strip and ensure proper positioning.00 mm The dimension of piercing punch is (Ø8 x 55) mm . Pilot arrests all movements before punching. For blanking operation die size is on per component size and die size is reduce 2C with component size (clearance is given in punch size). Two types of pilots are used.Diameter of piercing punch t – Thickness of the strip Lmax = 7.12 mm Lmax = 7. • Spring load pilot L = 55. The punching of such holes can be facilitated by.00 mm But L/d ratio should not more than 10 times.5 x √ (83/2) Lmax = 120.5 x √ (d3/t) d . That means always the length of punch keep in normal condition 55 – 60 mm Length of piercing punch Design of pilot punch If the strip is fed more or less than the pitch then it is going to affect the number of components and also change the dimension of components.Holes having diameters less than stock thickness can be successfully punched.

For piloting must be a pre-pierced hole.06 + 7.03 mm for low accuracies for high accuracies A = 0.03 mm dpilot = dpunch – 0. The bullet nose is provided at the end of ensure the strip into its correct position.5 mm B = 3 to 5 mm or d/2 (whichever is greater) Diameter of pilot punch = d .05 to 0. the component is bent but nothing happens in the pilot. In general. dpilot = dpunch – 0. due to wider opening in the die.05 to 0. Fixed pilots are always used in a blanking punch.94 . Therefore spring load pilots are used when only piloting is to be done. Hence a fixed pilot is used in blanking punch. if fixed pilot is used due to overfeed or underfeed the eccentricity of axis between pierced hole and pilot makes the pilot to enter at an angle and this results in a breakage of pilot or it make a dent mark on the strip. The length of pilot is greater than the punch length as shown in figure. If the pilots are individual to position the strip they are spring loaded.94 mm Diameter of pilot on die block = 2c + Diameter of pilot punch = 2 x 0.• Fixed pilot At least two pilots are necessary for proper piloting. Diameter of pilot.0. The reason is that. Surface of the pilot should be highly polished to reduce the friction. If the overfeed is more and there is a eccentricity between axis of pierced hole and axis of pilot.3% of component thickness = 8 .6t to 1t or minimum 2.03 x 2 = Ø7.

00 .00 mm = 57.00 = 96. δ = FL3/192EI Where.00 = 190.06 mm Length of pilot punch Design of blanking punch The blanking aperture length = 70.88 mm Corner radius of punch =R–C = 2.00 mm 5.93 kgf = 209419.00) + 8.3 N L = distance between two successive screws = 222 mm E = modulus of elasticity = 2. oblong piercing punch. The shoe deflection is calculated using the strength of material formula for fixed supported beam.1 x 105 N/mm2 I = bh3/12 (moment of inertia) = 6.9 Shut height = (Length of punch .5 – 0.00 mm .00 mm The designed detail diagram of punches like piercing punch.2 THEORETICAL DEFLECTION AND STRESS CALCULATION 5.00 – 2.2) + Punch back plate thickness + die plate thickness + top plate thickness + Bottom plate thickness = (55.00) + 8.2. F = 80% of cutting force = 0.00 + 35.88 mm The width of blanking punch = 30.00 .2 x 0.06 = 2.00 .29 x 106 mm4 = Length of piercing punch (L) + 2.2C = 70.00 mm Day height = (Length of punch . Deflection.00 – 2 x 0. piloting punch. notching punch and blanking punch has shown in the fig 5.06 = 29.00 + 35.00 + 42.06 = 69.00 – 2.41 kgf = 20941.1 DIE BLOCK The mathematical analysis is greatly simplified assuming that the die block (die plate) is considered to be as fixed beam.2C = 30.00 + 52.44 mm Length of blanking punch = Length of piercing punch = 55.3.2) + Punch back plate thickness + die plate thickness = (55.= Ø8.8 x 26177.

δ = FL3/48EI Where.73 x 106 N/m2 .29 x 106) = 9. The mathematical analysis is greatly simplified assuming that the bottom plate is considered to be on parallels.1 x 105 x 6.Where.3 x 2543) / (48 x 2.1 2d Diagram of Die Block for Theoretical Calculation 5.2.2 TOP HALF Top half includes as for calculation and analysis purpose as top plate.2.7 N/mm2 = 9. Stress.97 µm p = F/A A = cross sectional area p = 209419.85 x 106) = 4.3 x 2223) / (192 x 2. F = 80% of cutting force = 0.3 / (326 x 66) = 43. The shoe deflection is calculated using the strength of material formula. punch back plate and punch plate. Deflection.8 N/mm2 = 1.3 N L = distance between two successive screws = 254 mm E = modulus of elasticity = 2.85 x 106 mm4 Where. Where. Where.8 x 26177.1 x 105 x 6. δ = (209419.48 x 107 N/m2 Fig 5. b = length of bottom plate = 286 mm h = thickness of bottom plate = 66 mm Deflection.26 µm p = F/A A = cross sectional area p = 209419. δ = (209419. b = length of bottom plate = 176 mm h = thickness of bottom plate = 35 mm Deflection.3 / (176 x 35) = 14.93 kgf = 209419. Stress.1 x 105 N/mm2 I = bh3/12 (moment of inertia) = 6.41 kgf = 20941.

7 N/mm2 = 4.3 BOTTOM PLATE The mathematical analysis is greatly simplified assuming that the bottom plate is considered to be on parallels.2. Deflection.26µm p = F/A A = cross sectional area p = 209419.35 x 106 mm4 Where. δ = FL3/354EI Where.41 kgf = 20941.3 x 2663) / (354 x 2.2.1 x 105 x 3.3 2d Diagram Bottom Plate for Theoretical Calculation .35 x 106) = 5. The shoe deflection is calculated using the strength of material formula for parallels supported beam. Stress.8 x 26177.2 2d Diagram of Top Plate for Theoretical Calculation 5.3 N L = distance between parallel E = modulus of elasticity = 2. F = 80% of cutting force = 0.93 kgf = 209419.37 x 107 N/m2 Fig 5.Fig 5. δ = (209419.2. Where.1 x 105 N/mm2 I = bh3/12 (moment of inertia) = 3. b = length of bottom plate = 286 mm h = thickness of bottom plate = 52 mm Deflection.3 / (326 x 52) = 43.

The diameter of guide pillar = 1.3 time of thickness of die plate. 5.3 x thickness of die plate = 1.2 x 26177.2. F = 10% to 20% of cutting force = 0.26µm p = F/A A = cross sectional area p = 52354.8 / (176 x 20) = 14. Where.1 x 105 N/mm2 I = bh3/12 (moment of inertia) = 1.4 2d Diagram Stripper Plate for Theoretical Calculation Stripping force depends on many factors.17x 105 mm4 Where. cutting perimeter.487 x 107 N/m2 Fig 5.41 kgf = 5235. Stress.48 kgf = 52354.2. punch clearance.5. The mathematical analysis is simplified assuming that the guide pillar as a cantilever beam if the thrust force is high compared to vertical load.2.1 to 1.87 N/mm2 = 1.4 STRIPPER PLATE The mathematical analysis is simplified by assuming fixed stripper to be considered as a fixed beam support The fixed stripper plate deflection and stress is calculated using the strength of material formula.5 mm > 22 mm Hence the guide pillar diameter is safe dimension. stock lubrication and scrap allowance. b = length of stripper plate = 176 mm h = thickness of stripper plate = 20 mm Deflection.1 x 105 x 1. δ = FL3/192EI Where. Here for cutting operation 80% of .1 x 35 = 38.5 GUIDE PILLAR First we can check the diameter of guide pillar by using standard formula as 1.8 N L = distance between two successive screws = 222 mm E = modulus of elasticity = 2.1 to 1. including stock thickness. physical properties of stock.8 x 2223) / (192 x 2.17 x 105) = 9. δ = (52354. Deflection.

Here for cutting operation (piercing operation) 80% of cutting force is acting on punch as compressive nature. δ = P l / A E = 11.cutting force is acting on vertically and 10 to 20 % of total cutting force only acting on side thrust.2.6 PUNCHES Piercing punch The mathematical analysis is simplified assuming that the piercing punch as consider as one end is fixed and compressive force is acting on other end. p=P/A = 1.5 2d Diagram Guide Pillar for Theoretical Calculation 5.2. For this condition the guide pillar is as consider as a one side is fixed and other end is free column construction. Hence the applied load is safe for design.63e8 N/m2 Fig 5. From strength of material for column construction of one end is fixed and other end is free type.1 x 105 N / mm2 I = π d4 /64 d = 22 mm l = 142 mm P = 73872. crippling load as P = π2 E I / 4 l2 Where E = 2. Deflection. Therefore the side thrust may be neglected for this cutting operation. So the side thrust is comparatively very less amount only acting on the guide pillar. .53 N > 10000 N The applying load is also within crippling load.022 µm Stress.

Modulus of elasticity.1 x 105 N/mm2 δp = 9. Sco = ----------------------------------Cross sectional area of punch Here Cutting force for oblong hole piercing operation. δ p = Pp L / Ap E δp = piercing punch deflection Pp = Compressive force for piercing operation = 14074. Ao = 118.32 N L = Length of punch = 55 mm Ap = Cross sectional area of piercing punch = 50. Cutting force Compressive stress on piercing punch.15 µm Fig 5.27 mm2 E = 2. Cutting force Compressive stress on oblong piercing punch. We know that the compressive force on the punch is equal to the shear force on sheet metal.6a 2d Diagram Piercing Punch for Theoretical Calculation Oblong piercing punch The mathematical analysis is simplified assuming that the oblong piercing punch as consider as one end is fixed and compressive force is acting on other end. t = thickness of sheet metal = 2mm Ss = shear stress on sheet metal = 35 kgf/mm2 d = diameter of piercing punch = Ø8 mm Scp = 3.We know that the compressive force on the punch is equal to the shear force on sheet metal. Where. Here for cutting operation (oblong piercing operation) 80% of cutting force is acting on punch as compressive nature.81 N Cross sectional area of oblong piercing punch. Po = 27559. Scp = ----------------------------------Cross sectional area of punch Scp = 4 π d t Ss / π d2 = 4 t Ss /d Where.50 x 108 N/m2 Deflection of piercing punch.1 x 105 N/mm2 .27 mm2 E = Modulus of rigidity = 2.2.

Scn = 3.6b 2d Diagram Oblong Piercing Punch for Theoretical Calculation Notching punch The mathematical analysis is simplified assuming that the notching punch as consider as one end is fixed and compressive force is acting on other end. Length of notching punch.95 mm2 E = 2.6d 2d Diagram Modified Notching Punch for Theoretical Calculation .90 x 108 N/mm2 δ n = Pn L / An E δn = 10.6c 2d Diagram Notching Punch for Theoretical Calculation Fig 5. Deflection of oblong piercing punch. Cross sectional area of notching punch. Cutting force ----------------------------------Cross sectional area of punch Pn = 22158.2.89 x 108 N/mm2 δ o = Po L / Ao E δo = 7.2. Scn = Here Cutting force for notching operation.02 µm Compressive stress on modified notching stepped punch. Deflection of modified notching stepped punch. L = 55 mm Scp = 2.40 N An = 70. Modulus of elasticity.1 x 105 N/mm2 L = 55 mm Scn = 4. Compressive stress on notching punch. Compressive stress on oblong piercing punch.Length of oblong hole piercing punch.2. We know that the compressive force on the punch is equal to the shear force on sheet metal. Deflection of notching punch.02 µm Fig 5.57 µm Fig 5.89 x 108 N/mm2 δ n = Pn L / An E δn = 15. Compressive stress on notching punch. Here for cutting operation (notching operation) 80% of cutting force is acting on punch as compressive nature.

6e 2d Diagram Blanking Punch for Theoretical Calculation . Compressive stress on blanking punch.64 mm2 E = 2. Here for cutting operation (blanking operation) 80% of cutting force is acting on punch as compressive nature.84 N Ab = 2094.Blanking punch The mathematical analysis is simplified assuming that the blanking punch as consider as one end is fixed and compressive force is acting on other end.2. We know that the compressive force on the punch is equal to the shear force on sheet metal. Cutting force ----------------------------------Cross sectional area of punch Pb = 109599. Scn = Here Cutting force for blanking operation. Length of blanking punch.54x 107 N/mm2 δ b = Pb L / Ab E δb = 1.1 x 105 N/mm2 L = 55 mm Scb = 6.75 µm Fig 5. Cross sectional area of blanking punch. Compressive stress on blanking punch. Modulus of elasticity. Deflection of blanking punch.

3.3 PROGRESSIVE TOOLS DETAILED DRAWING Fig 5.1 Detailed Drawing of Top Plate Fig 5.3.5.2 Detailed Drawing of Bottom Plate .

4 Detailed Drawing of Die Plate .3 Detailed Drawing of Guide Pillar and Guide Bush Fig 5.Fig 5.3.3.

3.3.5 Detailed Drawing of Punch Plate Fig 5.6 Detailed Drawing of Punch Back Plate .Fig 5.

7 Detailed Drawing of Stripper Plate Fig 5.3.Fig 5.8 Detailed Drawing of Strip Guide Plate .3.

3.9 Detailed Drawing of Punches Designed Diagram .Fig 5.

11 Detailed Drawing of Strip Support Plate and Shank .10 Detailed Drawing of Automatic Stopper. Depression Screw. Fulcrum Pin and Finger Stopper Fig 5.3.Fig 5.3. Spring Support Pin.

S 326X284X42 252X176X8 252X176X16 252X180X20 302X50.4 Bill of Materials of Progressive Tools Sl.5 M6X6 Ø8X80 R.M.C.9 125X22X10 Ø3X130 Ø20X72 Ø56X64 Ø22X184 M6X20 Ø8X50 M10X50 Ø8X80 M10X25 Ø10X80 M10X50 Ø40X82.No 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 Qty 1Nos 1Nos 1Nos 1Nos 1Nos 1Nos 1Nos 1Nos 2Nos 2Nos 1Nos 2Nos 1Nos 2Nos 1Nos 2Nos 3Nos 1Nos 1Nos 1Nos 4Nos 4Nos 12Nos 2Nos 4Nos 2Nos 4Nos 2Nos 4Nos 1Nos 4Nos 1Nos DESCRIPTION TOP PLATE PUNCH BACK PLATE PUNCH PLATE STRIPPER PLATE STRIP GUIDE PLATE DIE BLOCK BOTTOM PLATE STRIP SUPPORT PLATE PIERCING PUNCH PILOTS OBLONG PIERCING PUNCH NOTCHING PUNCH BLANKING PUNCH ALLEN SCREW LOCKING DOWEL LOCKING DOWEL FINGER STOPPER AUTOMATIC STOPPER FULCRUM PIN DEPRESSION SCREW GUIDE BUSH GUIDE PILLAR ALLEN SCREW DOWEL ALLEN SCREW DOWEL ALLEN SCREW DOWEL ALLEN SCREW SHANK C.9X6 252X176X35 326X284X52 176X50X5 Ø10X55 Ø10X63 55X21X6 55X16.M.5.25X4.S 390X290X45 255X180X15 255X180X20 255X180X25 305X55X10 255X180X40 330X290X55 Ø15X60 Ø10X70 60X25X10 60X20X10 75X60X35 85X15X10 130X25X15 Ø25X75 Ø60X70 Ø25X190 Ø45X85 Ø15X85 REMARKS 52-55HRC 52-55HRC 58-60HRC 58-60HRC 52-55HRC 58-60HRC 58-60HRC 58-60HRC 52-55HRC 52-55HRC 52-55HRC 58-60HRC 52-55HRC - 5.S.5 ASSEMBLED VIEW OF PROGRESSIVE TOOLS .S T110W2Cr1 St-42 17Mn1Cr95 17Mn1Cr95 STD STD STD STD STD STD STD St-42 STD STD F. SCREW SPRING SUPPORT PIN MATERIAL St-42 T110W2Cr95 St-42 St-42 T110W2Cr95 T110W2Cr1 St-42 St-42 T215Cr12W90 T110W2Cr1 T215Cr12W90 T215Cr12W90 T215Cr12W90 STD STD STD T110W2Cr1 M.4 BILL OF MATERIALS OF PROGRESSIVE TOOLS Table 5.K.5 70X55X30 M8X55 Ø5X12 Ø4X12 80X10X5.

5 Tool Specifications TOOL SPECFICATION PRESS CAPACITY 40 TONES TYPE OF PRESS MECHANICAL PITCH 32.6 TOP HALF ASSEMBLED VIEW OF PROGRESSIVE TOOLS .00 MM CLEARANCE 0.00 MM TYPE OF DIE SET REAR AND FRONT PILLER TYPE OF STRIPPER SOLID TYPE METHOD OF FEEDING MANUAL TYPE OF STROKE FIXED NO.00 MM STRIP WIDTH 74.5.1 Assembled View of Progressive Tools Table 5. OF SLIDE SINGLE ACTION 5.00 MM DAYLIGHT OF THE TOOL 96.Fig 5.06 MM/SIDE SHUT HEIGHT OF THE TOOL 190.

2 Top Half Assembled View of Progressive Tools 5.6.6.7 BOTTOM HALF ASSEMBLED VIEW OF PROGRESSIVE TOOLS Fig 5.Fig 5.3 Bottom Half Assembled View of Progressive Tools CHAPTER 6 .

. as the principle the model is discretized into finite number of elements. The material is assumed to be homogeneous and isotropic 2.4 FINITE ELEMENT MODELING In order to carryout the finite element analysis. oblong punch. 3D-Solid model of the all functional elements are modeled in solid works 2003 software and imported to Ansys V10.1 INTRODUCTION Finite Element Method is a numerical procedure for obtaining approximate solutions to many of the problems encountered in the engineering analysis. a set of linear or non-linear algebraic equations is obtained. soil and rock mechanics. guide pillar and guide bush are include structural analysis to estimate the deflection and stresses. hydraulics etc.2 OBJECTIVE The objective of the analysis of the functional elements like die set (top plate and bottom plate). The geometric models (PARA) are imported into ANSYS.ANALYSIS 6. The element type considered for structural analysis is solid 45. modal. the degree of freedom set which in turn implies the . heat transfer.3 APPROXIMATION 1. The concept of solving in finite element method is a complex structure defining a continuum is discretized into simple geometric shapes called elements. This is also a process in which a mathematical net or mesh is generated. Linear static analysis is considered for structural analysis 6. die plate. aerospace industry and architectural applications for various analysis like static. An assembly process is used to link the individual elements to the given system. The properties and the governing relationships are assumed over these elements and expressed mathematically in terms of unknown values at specific points in the elements called nodes. When the effects of loads and boundary conditions are considered. Each element type has a unique number and a prefix that identifies the element category.0 software 6. FEM is one of the most effective tools available in the industries to solve almost all kinds of engineering problems. The major areas in which the FEM application is more pronounced are automotive industry. 6. notching punch and blanking punch). stripper plate. punches (piercing punch. Solution of these equations gives the approximate behavior of the continuum or structure. To carryout the analysis.

Material properties. SOLID 45 have a quadrilateral displacement behavior and are well suited to model irregular meshes (such as produced from various CAD/CAM systems). The element also has plasticity. thermal. This element is used for • Steady state structural analysis with thermal loads along with the pressure loads • Modal analysis Fig 6.5 STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS The functional elements like top half. notching punch and blanking punch are subjected to steady state static structural loads and would lead to induction of stresses in the functional elements. creep. oblong piercing punch. .4. the element type used is SOLID 45 (structural element) and meshed with Tetra elements and mapped elements. punches like piercing punch. According to Vonmises a unit volume of material should have certain volume of potential strain energy for transition of plastic state regardless of stress arrangement. Eight nodes having three degrees of freedom at each node define the element: Translations in the nodal x. die plate. boundary conditions and various input data to be given are below. magnetic.σ3) 2 σ= 2 To carryout the analysis. Vonmises stresses can be expressed as (σ1 – σ 2) 2 + (σ2. The types of elements chosen for analyses are given below. stripper plate. . guide bush. Hence it is required to study the deformations and stresses induced in the model because of the static loads.σ3) 2 + (σ1. guide pillar.1 Solid 45 3-D 8 Nodded Hexahedral Structural Solid Element The element shown above is used for steady state structural analysis. large deflection and large strain capabilities.discipline (structural. electric) whether the element lies in two-dimensional or three-dimensional space. The element shown below is used for steady state structural analysis. 6. y and z directions.

E = 2.1 Top Half Meshed and Mesh with Load and Boundary Conditioned FE Model . die plate. poison’s ratio are taken for the HDS material for the analysis. notching punch and blanking punch) and bottom plate are fully restricted to move in any of X. And also for guide pillar load applied is on Fx positive direction of magnitude as 10 to 20% of cutting force as thrust load and F z positive direction of magnitude of 80 to 90% of cutting force as vertical load. bottom plate and die plate are applied on Fz positive direction of magnitude as 80% of cutting force as vertical. Application : structural analysis.3 to 0. = 0. oblong piercing punch. Thus all the functional elements like top half. Z directions at specified place or nodes. oblong piercing punch.5. The meshed and mesh with load and boundary conditioned finite element model of functional elements are shown as follows. stripper plate. Boundary Conditions Here Ux = UY = Uz. Loads Load for the some function elements like top half.Material Properties Material properties such as modulus of elasticity. Y.5 Fig 6. guide bush. punches (piercing punch. Element type: structural solid brick 8node 45. notching punch and blanking punch are applied on Fz positive direction of magnitude as calculated cutting force of that operation as compressive load on surface. ν = 0.1×1011 N/ m2 Poisson’s ratio. guide pillar. And for punches like piercing punch. Modulus of elasticity.

2 Die Plate Meshed and Mesh with Load and Boundary Conditioned FE Model Fig 6.5.5.4 Guide Pillar Meshed and Mesh with Load and Boundary Conditioned FE Model Fig 6.5.5.Fig 6.3 Stripper Plate Meshed and Mesh with Load and Boundary Conditioned FE Model Fig 6.5Guide Bush Meshed and Mesh with Load and Boundary Conditioned FE Model .

8 Oblong Piercing Punch Meshed and Mesh with Load and Boundary Conditioned FE Model .5.6 Blanking Punch Meshed and Mesh with Load and Boundary Conditioned FE Model Fig 6.5.7 notching Punch Meshed and Mesh with Load and Boundary Conditioned FE Model Fig 6.5.Fig 6.

5.9 Piercing Punch Meshed and Mesh with Load and Boundary Conditioned FE Model Fig 6.5.10 Bottom Plate Meshed and Mesh with Load and Boundary Conditioned FE Model .Fig 6.

98e7 13.73e6 DIE PLATE ANALYSIS (a) Deflection (b) Stress Plot Fig 6.91e7 Calculated value Deflection Stress µm N/m2 4.6 STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS RESULTS OF FUNCTIONAL ELEMENTS Element type: solid brick 8node 45 Material property: Modulus of elasticity: 2.49 5.6 3.6.49 5.1 Top Half Deflection (a) and Stress Plot (b) Sl.3 TOP HALF ANALYSIS (a) Deflection (b) Stress Plot Fig 6.35e8 13.6.1 4.6.98e7 Sl.1 x 105 N/mm2 Poisson ratio : 0.No 2 Description Die plate .2 Die Plate Deflection (A) and Stress Plot (b) Thickness Mm 35 35 (80%) Analysis result Deflection Stress µm N/m2 17.97 9.44e8 Calculated value Deflection Stress µm N/m2 13.41 8.N o 1 Description Top half Thickness mm 42+8+16 Analysis result Deflection Stress µm N/m2 5.

53e8 18.N o 4 Description Guide pillar Size (Ø d X h) Mm Ø 22 X 184 Analysis result Deflection Stress µm N/m2 7.96e8 9.4 Guide Pillar Deflection (a) and Stress Plot (b) Sl.3 Stripper Plate Deflection (a) and Stress Plot (b) Thickness mm 16 18 20 Analysis result Calculated value Deflection Deflection Stress Stress N/m2 µm µm N/m2 30.No Description 3 Stripper plate GUIDE PILLAR ANALYSIS (a) Deflection (b) Stress Plot Fig 6.63e8 .26 1.69 1.STRIPPER PLATE ANALYSIS (a) Deflection (b) Stress Plot Fig 6.02 1.4 4.6.08 1.28e8 12.2 2.6.14e7 Sl.4 1.17e6 Calculated value Deflection Stress µm N/m2 11.68 3.42e7 16.26e7 11.

88 X 55 X 29.No 5 Description Guide bush size (Ø d X h) Mm Ø56 X 64 Analysis result Deflection Stress µm N/m2 4.6 Blanking Punch Deflection (a) and Stress Plot (b) Sl.75 6.80 3.25e7 Calculated value Deflection Stress µm N/m2 - BLANKING PUNCH ANALYSIS (a) Deflection (b) Stress Plot Fig 6.6.5 Guide Bush Deflection (a) and Stress Plot (b) Sl.69e8 Calculated value Deflection Stress µm N/m2 1.6.51 4.88 2.GUIDE BUSH ANALYSIS (a) Deflection (b) Stress Plot Fig 6.54e7 .No 6 Description Blanking punch Analysis result Size (L X W X T) Deflection Stress Mm µm N/m2 69.

25 X 4.90e8 OBLONG PUNCH ANALYSIS (b) Stress Plot (a) Deflection Fig 6.NOTCHING PUNCH ANALYSIS (a) Deflection (b) Stress Plot Fig 6.5 Analysis result Deflection Stress µm N/m2 8.N o 8 Description Oblong punch Size (L X W X T) mm 55 X 21 X 6 Analysis result Deflection Stress µm N/m2 8.15e9 Calculated value Deflection Stress µm N/m2 10.6.89e8 . No 7 Description Notching punch Size (L X W X T) mm 55 X 16.37e9 Calculated value Deflection Stress µm N/m2 7.57 2.8 Oblong Punch Deflection (a) and Stress Plot (b) Sl.7 Notching Punch Deflection (a) and Stress Plot (b) Sl.04 3.6.55 1.43 1.

98 7.N o 10 Description Bottom plate Analysis result size (L X W X T) Deflection Stress mm µm N/m2 326 X 256 X 52 4.50e8 BOTTOM PLATE ANALYSIS (a) Deflection (b) Stress Plot Fig 6.13e8 Calculated value Deflection Stress µm N/m2 5.10 Piercing Punch Deflection (a) and Stress Plot (b) Sl.N o 9 Description Piercing punch size (Ø d X h) mm Ø 8 X 55 Analysis result Deflection Stress µm N/m2 2.6.06 1.26 4.9 Piercing Punch Deflection (a) and Stress Plot (b) Sl.87e8 Calculated value Deflection Stress µm N/m2 9.6.15 3.PIERCING PUNCH ANALYSIS (a) Deflection (b) Stress Plot Fig 6.37e7 .

B. Choi. Ismail. New York. ‘An expert system of progressive die design for electron gun grid parts.S.’ McGraw-Hill Book Company. Pages 367-378. Kim.’ Journal of Materials Processing Technology 130–131 20 December 2002. 6. ‘A compact and practical CAD/CAM system for the blanking or piercing of irregular shaped-sheet metal products for progressive working.H. S. ‘Tool Design. Volume 110. Chand & Company (Pvt) Ltd. Pages 2–8 2. Kumar. ‘A Text-Book of Production Engineering. Volume 88. 9. Park. ‘press tools design and construction. Chen and K.’ Journal of Materials Processing Technology. 1988.’ Journal of Materials Processing Technology. T. B. Hon.’ McGraw-Hill Book Company. K. ‘A study on the development of computeraided process planning system for electric product with bending and piercing operations. March 2001 Pages 36–46. . New Delhi.’ Journal of Materials Processing Technology. Volume 130–131.C. March 1996. R. ‘Finite element analysis for the lamination process of a precision motor core using progressive stacking dies. P. Choi. 10. Park. 3. Sharma.’ Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company. Singh.Joshi. 20 December 2002. Y. 10 November 2004. New York. Lecain. 1972. J. Issue 3. 15 April 1999. Pages 216–221. Keun Park. Seon-Bong Lee. Issue 1.’ International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture. J.H. 8. New York. J. ‘A study on the development of center carrier type progressive die for U-bending part process. Sang-Ryun Choi. 4. Pages 477–481. Volumes 153–154. P. ‘A low cost knowledge base system framework for progressive die design. Pages 958–964.C. ‘Feature-Based Design of Progressive Press Tools. Chul Kim. ‘Development of optimal layout design system in multihole blanking process. Byung-Min Kim. 11. ‘Progressive Die Design and Manufacture. Sang B. 1988. 5. S.’ S. Issues 1-3. Chul Kim.C. H. Pages 1005–1010. Sung-Taeg Lee. 7. 12.’ Journal of Materials Processing Technology.’ Journal of Materials Processing Technology. Volume 36. D. Chan-Ho Jang. Volumes 153–154. Pages 626–631. Dong-Hwan Kim.REFERENCES 1. Volume 130–131. 20 December 2002. Dallas. S. Goold. Donaldson. November 2004. Sung-Bo Sim. 1962.’ Journal of Materials Processing Technology.

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