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2 Porosity of reservoir rock （油藏岩石孔隙度）
1 Definition of Porosity 2 Classification of Porosity 3 Factors affecting Porosity 4 Applications of Porosity 5 Determination of Porosity

New Words
effective porosity 有效孔隙度 classification 分类 uniform 均匀的 overburden pressure 上覆岩层压力 p 覆岩层压力 pack 充填 cubic packing 立方排列 rhombohedral packing 菱形排列 formation 地层 储层 f ti 地层、储层

absolute porosity 绝对孔隙度 interconnect isolate 隔离 factor 因素 连通

1 Definition of Porosity
The Constitution of Sandstone

Sandstone is formed from grains that have undergone sedimentation,compaction and cementation.

grain Cementing material pore The Constitution of Sandstone

1 Definition of Porosity
Porosity(φ) : the ratio of the pore volume in a y(φ) p rock to the bulk volume of that rock. express in per cent.
Mathematical form is:

φ =

V V

p b

…….(1) (1)

07 specific gravity brine. The new weight is 453g. The core sample is 12 cm long and 4 cm in diameter. .Definition of Porosity EXAMPLE 1 A clean and dry core sample weighting 425g was l dd l i hti 425 p g y 100% saturated with a 1. Calculate the porosity l d i di t C l l t th it of the rock sample.

80cm3 ( ) ( ) The pore volume is: 453 − 425 Vp = (Vwet − Vdry ) = = 26.Definition of Porosity f f y SOLUTION The bulk l Th b lk volume of th core sample i f the l is: Vb = Π (2) 2 (12) = 150.07 1 .17cm3 26 17 γ 1.

80 Vp .Definition of Porosity f f y SOLUTION The Porosity of the core is: 26.17 φ= = = 0.173or17.3% Vb 150 80 150.

2 Classification of Porosity ( (孔隙度分类） 1) Geological classification of porosity Porosity can be classified into two groups: primary and secondary porosity. Primary porosity 原生孔隙度 B. A. Secondary porosity 次生孔隙度 yp y .

Classification of Porosity f f y Primary porosity: Primary porosity is that which was formed at the time of deposition of the sediments p Secondary porosity: secondary porosity was developed after deposition and burial of the formation. Sandstone porosity is practically all primary porosity whereas carbonate porosity tends to be secondary p y y porosity. .

Total (absolute) porosity 绝对孔隙度 B. Porosity may be classified as total 、 effective and d d dynamic porosity: i i A. B Effective porosity 有效孔隙度 C.Classification of Porosity 2) E i Engineering classification of i l ifi ti f p porosity （孔隙度的工程分类） y From a reservoir engineering standpoint. Dynamic porosity 流动孔隙度 .

g .The different types of p yp pores are shown in Figure.

Classification of Porosity f f y Figure 1: Effective and ineffective porosity in a cemented siliciclastic sandstone .

Absolute (Total) Porosity Absolute porosity is the ratio of the total pore volume in a rock to the bulk volume of that rock. regardless of whether or not those pore k spaces are interconnected.Classification of Porosity y A. φ a = V tp p Vb .

φe = V ep Vb .Classification of Porosity B. Effective Porosity Effective porosity is the ratio of the interconnected pore volume to the bulk volume.

Dynamic Porosity y y Dynamic porosity is the ratio of the pore volume that fluid can flow under a certain pressure difference to the bulk volume volume. φ f = V V fp b φ a >φ e>φ f .Classification of Porosity C.

. because it is only from this type of porosity that the fluids can move and be recovered.Classification of Porosity Only ff ti O l effective porosity has real significance it h l i ifi in all reservoir engineering calaulations calaulations.

About 90% of carbonate porosity is effective porosity.Classification of Porosity ● Sandstones have porosities that typically range from 8% to 38%. ● Carbonates have porosities that typically range from 3% t 15% with an average of about 8% Ab t f to 15%. ith f b t 8%. About 95% g of sandstone porosity is effective porosity. .with an average of 18%.

3 Factors Governing Porosity （影响孔隙度的因素） 1) Effect of packing on rock porosity 2) Effect of sorting on rock porosity 3) Effect of cementation on Porosity 4) Effect of compaction on Porosity .

9% .6% rhombohedral packing Φ = 25. cubical packing Φ = 47.Factors Governing Porosity 1) Effect of packing on rock porosity （颗粒排列方式的影响） Packing describes the arrangement of the sand grains relative to one another.

Factors Governing Porosity .

the higher porosity is.some small particles are mixed with larger sand g grains.Factors Governing Porosity 2) Effect of sorting on rock porosity （颗粒分选性的影响） Pf Psi If the size of grain is not uniform . . the porosity will be reduced. The more uniform grain size is .

Factors Governing Porosity 3) Effect of cementation on Porosity ) y （胶结性质的影响） The composition of cementing material胶结物成分 The content of cementing material胶结物含量 Cementing type of cementing material胶结类型 .

1 Variation of porosity with clay content .Factors Governing Porosity Table 2.

is .Factors Governing Porosity The higher degree of cementation is.the lower porosity is.

Porosity decrease with compaction. .4) Effect of compaction on Porosity The compaction increased with depth tends to squeeze the mineral particles closer.

p .the higher the degree of hi h th d f compaction is.Factors Governing Porosity 4) Effect of compaction on Porosity 压实的影响 porosity decrease with depth. abscissa — porosity ordinate — depth The deeper the depth is .

4 Apllications of Porosity （孔隙度的应用） 1) Evaluating formation Grade Very good d g good 评价储集层 5~0 no value l Porosity % 25~20 20~15 15~10 10~5 moderate p poor 2) Calc lating reser oir oil content 计算原油储量 Calculating reservoir .

Apllications of Porosity Calculating reservoir oil content g N=AShΦSoi where: As = surface area of the reservoir h = thickness of the formation Φ= porosity Soi= th percent of the pore volume the t f th l occupied by the oil .

5 Determination of Porosity y （孔隙度的确定） 1) Determination of Porosity by Direct Measurements φ = V V p b .

Determination of Porosity Measurment of bulk Volume A. The method of taking geometrical size g g B. Measurement of bulk Volume by coating the rock with paraffin 封蜡法 p 封蜡 . Measurement of bulk volume by displacing mercury C. Measurement of bulk volume by saturating y g fluid D.

. a sliding caliper is used to measure geometrical size of sample.Determination of Porosity Measurment of bulk Volume A. A The method of taking geometrical size If the sample has a simple geometrical shap and is not chipped or notched.

Determination of Porosity Measurment of bulk Volume B. Measurement of bulk volume by displacing mercury 排汞法 The sample is immersed in the core chamber filled mercury . . The change in mercury level is bulk volume volume.

Apparatus f determing bulk volume A for i .

C. C Measurement of bulk volume by f saturating fluid (饱和流体法） .

Vb = Wair − Wimm i i ρ fluid .

.

Measurement of bulk Volume by y coating the rock with paraffin 封蜡法 Vf = w 2 − w 3 − w 2 − w1 ρw ρp ρP — density of paraffin .D.

A Weight of dry sample in air =20.0g density of paraffin = 0.00 g/cc What is bulk volume of the sample ? .Weight of dry sample coated with paraffin = 20.Example 2 A.9 g C.0 g 20 0 B. Weight of coated sample immersed in water = 10.9g/cc density of water = 1.

Gas expansion method .Determination of Porosity Measurment of Pore Volume A. Measurement of pore Volume by saturating fluid B.

A. g/ cm3 . Measurement of pore Volume by p y saturating fluid Vp = W2 − W1 ρl W1— Weight of dry sample in air W2 — Weight of saturated sample in air ρl —density of the liquid.

00 g/cc What is effective porosity of the sample ? .Example 4 A.0 g B.5 g sat rated 22 5 C. B Weight of saturated sample in air = 22. C Weight of saturated sample in water = 12. Weight of dry sample in air =20.6g 12 6g density of water = 1.

Gas expansion method .B.

. Pb —the vacuum pressure in sample chamber. MPa. MPa. MPa.PV2 + P (V1 −Vf +Vp ) = P(V2 +V1 −Vf +Vp ) a b Pa − P V p = V f − V1 + V2 P − Pb Pa —atmospheric pressure ( absolute ) . P —the pressure after the equilibrium is established in the system.

Definition Compressibility ： th f ti C ibilit the fractional change in pore l h i volume of per unit bulk volume with a unit change in pressure. 1/ MPa reciprocal megapascal C f 1 ΔVP = Vb Δ P .3 2 3 Compressibility of Porous Rocks 多孔岩石的压缩性 1.2.

The depletion of fluids from the p p pore space of a p reservoir rock results in a change in the internal stress in the rock. This change in stress results in changes in the grain grain. thus causing the rock to be subjected to a different resultant stress. and bulk volume of the rock. pore. Pf Pf Psi Psi Befor development After development .

rock-pore compressibility Pore compressibility is the fractional change in i pore volume of the per unit pore volume l f th it l with a unit change in pressure. C P 1 Δ VP = VP Δ P .

rock-matrix compressibility Rock-matrix compressibility is the fractional change in pore volume of per unit the solid rock material(grains) volume with a unit change in pressure C s 1 ΔVP = Vs ΔP .

1 Δ V0 Ct = Vb Δ P ΔV0 = ΔVP + ΔVL Ct=Cf + Φ(SoCo+SwCw+SgCg) ( .total t t l compressibility ibilit Total compressibility is the fractional change in pore and liqued volume of the per unit bulk volume rock with a unit change in pressure.

2．Transform of lab porosity with formation p p y porosity y 实 实验室内常压下的孔隙度与地层条件下孔隙度转换 常 度 度转 φ = φ0e ΔP − CP ΔP ：effective overburden pressure change ：rock compressibility ：lab porosity CP φ0 .