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Oxford.D. Hon. Cambridge Hon. . D. R. Hon. LL. Oxford Acade'mie Royale de Belgique Nunquam vera species ab utilitate dividitur.L.C. Or.BYZANTINE AND ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE by THOMAS GRAHAM Associd de 1* JACKSON. Fellow of Wadham College. Inst.A. vm. QUINTIL. 3 Cambridge at the : University Press of Chicago Illinois The University Press Chicago.


. II PAGE XVIII German Romanesque French Romanesque.CONTENTS OF VOL. Burgundy Auvergne 90 French Romanesque. .. 159 173 before the Norman conquest . .. CHAP. English Romanesque after the English Romanesque Conclusion after the Norman conquest . . French Romanesque. Chronological tables of architectural examples 269 Index 278 .. Provence Toulouse French Romanesque. Aquitaine and Poitou . 127 147 XXV XXVI XXVII XXVIII of France . French Romanesque.} 235 XXIX 257 . 205 Norman conquest (cont. French Romanesque. r XIX 28 62 82 XX XXI XXII XXIII French Romanesque. English Romanesque XXIV Normandy The Isle .

For i2th read nth. . line i.ERRATUM p. 83.

was He adorned it with pression of his Christian devotion. II. seated on his throne. imperially robed. but Eginhardt was no Procopius. The the exsplendour of this church. " the of the most holy mother of God. Mx-iaape e was found when the tomb was opened in 1 Eginhardt. aedificiis in the 8th century would have been very interesting. r j. xvii.CHAPTER THE history of XVIII GERMAN ROMANESQUE Romanesque architecture in Germany ance begins with Charlemagne. Charlemagne however Eginhardt his secretary and biohe repaired the churches throughout his grapher says book de dominions. basilica seem not unworthy of mention. but the basilica at AIX-LA-CHAPELLE was a great work considering its age and situation. and here he was in fact afterwards buried. A. Two buildings however. . cap. Vita Caroli Magni. as he 1165. It was destined by Charlemagne to be also his tombhouse. and a bridge " This bridge at over the Rhine at Moguntiacum 1 Mainz was only of wood. was a great A are modestly told. says Eginhardt. perhaps of boats. We find no buildings in that country older than his time except those which the Romans had left behind them. constructed with wondrous workmanship at Aquisgranum. nor was Charlemagne a Justinian. but he gives no details. we builder. and with his sceptre in his hand and a copy of the gospels on his knee.

[en. But besides materials there can be little doubt he also 1 Eginhardt. xvm Aix-la- Cbapelle gold and silver. curavit . original j&faru ~ Fig. .2 GERMAN ROMANESQUE and lights. of solid bronze. cum columnas posset. stripped and ruined the splendid palace of Theodoric at the former city which has now practically disappeared. Roma atque Ravenna devehenda 2 marmora aliunde habere non Eginhardt. Vita Caroli Magni^ cap. xxvi. Eginhardt tells us that columns and marbles for the work Charlemagne imported from Ravenna and Rome 2 and he is supposed to have its can doubt foreign origin.Vitale of an exotic in building (Fig. the kingdom of the Austrasian Franks The AIX-JLA-CHAPOLE. and with doors and screens Hither he would come to the service as long as his morning and evening and even by night 1 . 63. and no one who has seen it and also the church at Ravenna from which it is supposed to have been imitated. xxvi. health permitted Imitation ofS. cap. 63) was something in the 8th century. et Ad cujus structuram.



still a domed building even of these dimensions would be a considerable undertaking at any time. two staircases by which to mount to it at the west end enclosed in circular turrets and though at Aix there are no exedrae the arches of the upper gallery (Plate LXXXII) have colonnettes in them recalling those at Ravenna. and yet there is sufficient difference to show that the builders were men of originality. and The plan there could have been no such men in Austrasia then. and it is carried out in a very scientific manner. This is contrived much better here than at is though there further trouble caused by the protrusion of the exedrae into the aisle vault. xvin] GERMAN ROMANESQUE from Italy his 3 principal Aix-ia- imported builders. and they have even something like a pulvino on their capitals. a surrounding aisle in two storeys. Although the . Instead of that supports the aisle is by no means excessive. the vault of the intervening triangle being easily 1 has 6 sides. by barrel vaults on radiating lines turned from arches thrown across from pier to wall. able to think for themselves. 2 . Both churches have a dome over an octagon. is it is a square bay of simple the aisle opposite each side of the cross-vaulting octagon. The gallery above is vaulted differently. Vitale. forming square and triangular bays i alternately as below. 63) and the vaulting of The constructlon so as to escape the very cleverly managed. though a women's gallery was not required by the Latin use. not tied to a simple imitation of their model. It will be seen from the plan that the area of the (Fig. diameter of the dome is less than that at S. Vitale Chapelle very strong. Vitale by more than ten feet.CH. awkwardness which would have been caused had the outer wall been octagonal like the inner. S. so that there in managed. architect and is his The resemblance to S.

The metal work still The bronze and north entrances on their hinges. but Chapelle most of them have been renewed and of the columns which were carried off by French invaders to Paris not all have come back. concealing the dome . much alike outside as well as inside. the two churches at Aix and Ravenna would have been AIX'JLA-CHAPELLE. xvm some are antique Corinthian. Further evidence of Italian or Italo-Byzantine workmanship is afforded by the mouldings of the cornices. The exteiior The exterior has slate. present Fig. old bronze doors of the west The stunted proportion of the lower order and the absence of bases give the impression that the floor level has been raised.4 Aix-la- GERMAN ROMANESQUE Among the capitals : [CH. . which are rather clumsy versions of classic detail. 64 . and the hang gallery front has its cancelli. now a monstrous fluted : dome of it timber and somewhat grotesque but probably had originally a plain pyramidal roof rising from walls and then carried up as a drum.

like that of S. It was originally a gatehouse two storeys high. The floor has been removed and the three arches of the back built up in order to convert it into The altar stands against the central a chapel. 64). which is planted on original central arch. and is . blocked arch under an additional arch on columns and the wall and encloses the capitals. expanded circular end is supposed to represent on the same foundations the tomb-house of Otho III who died in 1 002 and who was supposed by some to have re-built Charlemagne's church. opere mirabili constructa of which Eginhardt y writes. Vitale. is basilica at Lorsch near Worms. xvm] 1353 it GERMAN ROMANESQUE choir 5 The original in was short. and Aix-ia- was replaced by the present long building P The cholr (Fig. with three open arches in front and three behind. chapel at LORSCH. tarius at It is more probable that like Julianus ArgenRavenna he was the administrator of the Aquisgranum. This inner. little doubt that we have in the Dom of Aix-la-Chapelle the basilica. who is Eginhardt " operwm regalium exactor" and variarum artinm doctor peritissimus" was the architect of the building. additional arch style is in a totally different decorated with zigzags like from the building. Coeval with Charlemagne's or possibly a little earlier. which the i4th century architect united by the There can be present choir to the 8th century building. which is of the monastery dedicated in the presence of Charlemagne in 774 (Plate LXXXIII). Some would have described as " it that Eginhardt himself. a veritable lantern of late Its German Gothic. generally supposed to be part the little expenses.CH. Fergusson believes the truth to be that he built himself a tomb-house where the choir now ends.

xvin later Norman date .6 Lorsch GERMAN ROMANESQUE work. well carved. from composite (Fig. The lower capitals are imitated debased classic The or I2th century. The capitals are also of a much than the certainly not older nth building has a high-pitched was low. Fig. first floor 65). supporting what our Anglo-Saxon work we call straight-sided arches. as may be seen by the starting of original pitch The details are of a a modillion pediment at one end. little . roof of slate. Three of them are pierced with simple round-headed storey has a colonnade of queer Ionic capitals (Fig. 65. [CH. and have no necking. but the type. fluted pilasters The upper with in 66). they are and carry a stringcourse or cornice at the level decorated with a regular Byzantine pattern.



66. n. and betraying a Byzantine. in the church called " Varia " which he had built 1 . or Italo-Byzantine hand. 510. though only the starting already mentioned now remains. 67. vol. three more to the east that once time we may suppose the three chapel in 1053.CM. quam ipse hujus rei . three open arches to the west. at which eastern arches were closed. which once was returned on the end walls and ramped into a pediment. Fig. in ecclesia quae dicitur Varia. the strange design of the upper storey snows no affinity with the art of the Exarchate or the East. It is with its long a impossible however to believe that building axis north and south. p. and were open. showing execution of the carving a skill and knowledge Betrays superior to the local talent of the Germany of those days. gratia construxerat. but the funeral chapel of Lewis III (876-882) who according to the Chronicon Laureshamense was buried here all. 67). xvin] GERMAN ROMANESQUE Above at the eaves is 7 lights. the altar placed against the 1 Apud Lauresham. but . The walls between the columns are of red stone chequered with white. for they show both inside and out. Rivoira i r i 1 rr Southern influence maintains that it is not a Carlovingian building at Fig. probably insertions. It is in the an extremely curious little building. could have been built for a It is recorded that it was consecrated as a church. a good plain modillion cornice (Fig. Cited by Rivoira.

During the reign of the three Othos Germany saw something like the development of free communes which was going on in Italy. began to resist the Bishop or Imperial Vicar who was put over them. Ulm. Speyer. Worms. for the cultivation Empire in the the deposition of Charles the Fat France was separated from Germany. especially those on the great water-ways of the Rhine and other navigable rivers. which remained under elective kings till the Empire was revived by Otho I in 936.8 Lorsch GERMAN ROMANESQUE [CH. German Sskan no general example. Mainz. who conquered and established a Italy and restored it to Imperial rule. and when German Romanesque of a definite style we find began to assume the character the basilican type of church accepted for general use. the Empire. Henry (i 106-1125) granted V them privileges. more Rise of stable government. buildings many is polychrome The round church illustrated at NYMEGUEN is in Brabant. Treves. Under Charlemagne's weak successors. Charlemagne's Palatine chapel by Fergusson. xvra adjective and middle one. and in the set distracted state of the was little room 9th century. and the additional arch with its zigzags The over it for dignity. Many cities had become important trading communities. but the vanished abbey of Lorsch may have had of masonry besides this one. Cologne. Regensburg and Augsburg were already aspiring to Those of them which depended on municipal freedom. there In 888 on of the arts. took away the jurisdiction of Bishops. . Nuremburg. and made the cities immediately dependent on the Those towns on the other hand which were on Dukes and Counts waged incessant wars dependent Emperor. which obviously a later imitation of But his building at Aix. Romanesque capitals erected varia is applicable to a polychrome structure.

which we with lofty towers (Plate LXXXIV) panelled. just as the free communes of Italy after the peace of Constance had been recognized as an estate of the Italian kingdom.plan of German architecture. that while in Italy the struggle was between the cities and the Emperor the free towns in Germany were the most loyal and obedient subjects of the Empire. period from Charlemagne's attempted revival of architecture till the end of the loth century is almost The a blank as far as any existing monuments are concerned* At Gernrode there is a church of 968. was their best friend.. The 18 cities brilliant examples of early German Romanesque. and the tall blank arches at . Worms. chap. Lucca. tions of this feature in 1 German V. Hallam. architecture have been chap. as the nobility and the prelates were their natural enemies 1 It is in the great towns on the Rhine which were in readiest communication with Italy. Middle Ages. with the arcaded galleries round the apse. V. and pierced by windows with midwall shafts. v. that we find the most . of the House The of Hohenstaufen completed their liberty and they were munes admitted to a place in the Imperial diet. . Bryce. and rapidly grew into important trading communities. partly restored however instance in peculiarities the I2th century.CH. Speyer. says Hallam. like those of Milan. and Toscanella. The Emperor indeed.XVIII] GERMAN ROMANESQUE The fall with the castles of the nobility. There was however this difference between the struggle of the cities for municipal freedom in Germany and Italy. The great churches of Cologne. Holy Roman Empire. which affords the earliest The of the double apse which is one of the Various explana. We knew Bergamo and Como that break the plainness of the lower walls remind us of Pisa. and Mainz meet again Lombard are inspired by North Italian example.

Gail on the curious ground plan of a complete Benedictine establishment found in the library of S. the western to S. The was to be Near the western apse. . Laach. Worms. long and 80 The GERMAN ROMANESQUE In [en. Trier. on^ to S. a second choir and altar may have been added at the east when orientation became the rule. 200 ft. wide an apse at each end. with nave and side aisles. one to S. were to be two round towers. Gabriel. Below that at the east is with a crypt or confessio. Or as the original churches be found at Hildesheim. Peter. This however fails to explain the churches with an apse of the same date at each end screen. Gall in Switzerland. it. to which the ascent was to if be by a Defects spiral inclined plane. instead of the English were not orientated but had the altar at the west end. with a door to the aisle on each side of Rome. the intention of the apstki plan ^ draughtsman may be so understood. where the west end has been re-built. and may have existed once at Speyer. Michael. but detached. These double apsidal ends of course prevented anyn l*ke t ie fa 9 a des which are so important a feature of ' 1 As Architecture. Maria in Cosmedin at entrances for the laity were from a parvise or colonnaded court outside the western apse. Mainz. and in front of it a chorus cantot'um like those at S. They are shown They are to s. and the other by the division at the choirtownspeople. and may possibly have It shows a church been drawn by Eginhardt himselP. The eastern apse dedicated to S. the plan is reproduced by Fergusson and most of the histories of I think it unnecessary to have it here. one on each side with an altar on the top of each. xvin attempted. conventual churches one choir may Sdai plan have been used by the monks. Clemente and S. which was sent to Gospertus the abbot who re-built that church between 820 and 830. Paul.

Plate LXXXIV /:" *: t.^. /l^^^f|^ S. COLUMBA COLOGNE . .


. France and England. The entrance to these in itself ment churches is in the majority of cases at the side. 1 distribution of prizes. is solicited simultaneously and distress- ingly diametrically opposite individual group of apse and dome suffers the other 1 . are. monotony Lord Leighton. where there is often a porch of greater or less importance. Gilles and In the interior also the Poitiers. from which they are approached either on the sides or in the centre by broad flights of steps. but it is in chiefly jars is the interior that on our sense of sensible artistic propriety.R. said in one of his Presidential addresses . whose remarks on architecture were always valuable. Wells and Exeter. is it disposition "externally the effect of this monotonous and perplexing. of two similar apsidal ends is disappointing-. Nor does the exterior of the western apse compensate for the loss of such a fa?ade as those which delight us at Lucca and Toscanella. raised to a considerable height above the floor of the nave. Discourse delivered to the students of the Royal Academy on the by Sir Fredeiick Leighton." two directions each by rivalry with Double The typical plan of these double-apsidal churches includes a transept at the west as well as at the east end. and the jar made more by the fact that the choirs being built over crypts. . The cathedral of S. Lord to the Royal Academy. by an arrange- very dignified and impressive. P. Bart. controlled as he enters by no dominant in object. This involves a considerable sacrifice of effect the first view of a fine interior from the west end is not lightly to be parted with. Dec. S. 9. 1893. Stephen at VIENNA has a fine Roman" esque front with its giant doorway. xvm] GERMAN ROMANESQUE n Defects of Ie the great churches in Italy. and the eye of the spectator.CH.A." but as a rule the apsida? plan entrance to the great German churches is at the side.

axis there are three towers on a line at right angles to the In other cases they are of the building at each end of it. though they have been altered to some extent in the 1 2th century and afterwards. except Laach which is date from the first half of the nth century. more room moving the two side towers forward given the by out of line with the central dome-tower. but only one transept. with two apses. Speyer. xvni The German six and over the crossing of each of them is an octagonal dome on squinch arches. Worms Cathedral It 1 1 perhaps the most pleasing of the group. was founded in 1016. All these churches. and this is the number at Worms. full Six towers is complement for a Rhenish church of the first WRMS SCALE or nrr Fig. Laach and Mainz. a little later. but restored and re-dedicated in is WORMS an immense basilican church. Right acutely pointed often at the end of the transept so that flanking towers. It is (Fig.i 2 GERMAN ROMANESQUE [CH. contained in a tower which is less arcaded with an external gallery and has a more or and left of this are two roof. which is at the eastern end 8 1. 68). rank. The is choir is prolonged beyond the crossing straight wall and the apse masked outside by a between . 68.

^M. tfA^N ^^. " . k '* v ' V *. .> > j! . The Western Towers . .**ft ! i 4B WORMS CATHEDRAL. i ' * '' "' I ' .Plate life:' /. -. f ' f .



.f. .\ \ v WORMS CATHEDRAL . ? ' /f-'. -'r /" if f- '^^ ^ "<x - : .<. '*f fW|^ '' < M V.

which changes suddenly into a squinch arch on which the dome rests. at e ra with pilaster strips connected at each panelled stage by arcaded cornices. They are set in a little. The main piers. and is later The vaulting lias than the church. stage by stage. which gives a very good outline. as they rise. and not so good. cross-vaulted. which they seem to support. re-built in two round Gothic apse at this end is also later than the Romanesque part. It looks as if the architect had it The dome octagonal . The dome-tower has an arcaded gallery round it. There being no transept at this end the flanking towers are brought close The up to the central one. The piers are all of plain square masonry with only a moulded impost by way of capital. Inside. corresponding to twice that number in the aisle. corresponding to the columns with cushion vaulting. which runs up and carries two blank arches over the The round-headed clerestory windows. seems that vaulting was intended from the first The gathering in of the dome should be noticed. The effect of this group is very noble (Plate LXXXV). It begins with something like a spherical pendentive. have attached pilasters and halfcapitals running up to take the intermediate piers have a shallow flat pilaster formed by setting back the arch and wall over it. which is flanked by two other round towers one of which has been times. But from the plan of the piers and the attached half-columns with their capitals at the proper height to start the transverse rib. and an additional break suitable for a diagonal rib. xvin] GERMAN ROMANESQUE towers with 13 These towers are Worms spires. the nave between the two domed spaces consists of five square bays. pointed arches. divisions of the nave. so that the nave arches are ten on a side (Plate LXXXVI).CH. and so has the western dome-tower.

The French again violated and tried to blow it to use it at the time of the Revolution. carried by cylindrical columns with cushion capitals. up. and from the scale and architectural would seem pretensions of this building the colony have been still more numerous in the i2th century. and the narthex escaped.i 4 GERMAN ROMANESQUE not [CH. The west front with the Imperial Hall. transept. Speyer Cathedral to The Bishop great cathedral of SPEYEK was dedicated by Gundecar of Eichstadt (1057-1075). xvm to but did begun a true pendentive finish it know how worms. A special feature is the exterior arcaded gallery which runs along the top of the walls above the clerestory . and was not restored till 1822. interesting and there are some pretty diaper patterns round the Three hundred Jewish families are entrance doorway. ^ has plain cross-groining with transverse ribs only. The building was turned into a magazine. dates from 1854-1858. a sort of narthex. inhabitants. five arches of the nave. The was ancient crypt (Plate in LXXXVII) remains as it built 1039. but the western one belongs to the new front of 1854. It suffered who expelled the the church a ruin : only the choir. and left 159. full equipment of six towers. but the 1 upper part was re -built after a fire in at the hands of the French in 1689. s^agogue We must not leave i2th Worms without mention of the It is a century Jewish synagogue. burned the town. but did not succeed. and the upper part of the transept and the cupola of the narthex were destroyed. and two transepts. still living at Worms. from two columns on the rectangular building vaulted central line with good capitals of the Corinthian type. Originally the nave may have ended other- The church has the wise.

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There is a crypt here like that at Speyer. between the two arches. and slender. The description of the nave at Worms will apply very well to that of Mainz (Plate LXXXIX). where the triforium. . Though not so badly treated by the French as Speyer. and are its eastern They are panelled in the Lombard way. which is decorated by The vaulting shafts have cushion caps and paintings. probably after the fire of 1 1 90. two apses. if there had been one. There are the same square piers without capitals. side. M The domes are octagonal and rest on squinch arches. that over the western crossing having been re-constructed. set in each case clear of the transept against towers are square. would have been. the cathedral during the Napoleonic wars went through many vicissitudes. The quadripartite vault of the nave is very domical. the guide books. nave was vaulted with pointed arches by Archbishop Conrad. with tapered The crypt columns carrying cushion capitals. and though the other ribs are pointed the springers remain of a former construction with round arches. The splendid cathedral of MAINZ (Plate LXXXVIII) Mainz was re-built'and re-consecrated between 1037 and 1049 an d The again restored after a fire between 1056 and 1106. pilaster of the intermediate piers are turned below the This leaves a space clerestory instead of above it. two transepts and six towers. according to oiler of Darmstadt. with cast-iron by the architect who restored the church after its desecration. and the two storeyed curious. and at another as a slaughter house. and was used at one time as a hay It has magazine. even plainer here than at Worms but the blank arches springing from the . carry round wall ribs. xvni] GERMAN ROMANESQUE The 15 windows. chapel of S Godehart at the north transept is very .CH.

it praised. dates from the middle of the i2th century having been founded in 1093. two transepts and six towers. partly Fig. the product of the volcanic district in which situated. They date probably into the walls of the south aisle are century. Laach The abbey church of LAACH mendig and Andernach. picturesquely of a lake and surrounded by wooded hills. 70). . and though the design has been much seems to me overdone with too many features crowned with a square tower over the centre of the transept and has two round (Plate XC). and built some very good pieces of Romanesque sculpture dating from the same period (Fig. apparently at the east end has Romanesque doorway of p^y O f gOOd Corinthian character. The west end is towers at the ends of it Pilaster strips run up them. 69).I6 GERMAN ROMANESQUE A fine [CH. 69. xvm Mate cathedral cap jtai s knockers here and on the north animals. and the bronze from the i2th door are admirable. The church is built chiefly it is of lava. but not consecrated till 1 (Fig. near Niederplaced at the head 156. It is much full has the smaller than the preceding churches but complement of two apses.





so that the bay of vaulting in the nave is oblong. instead of there being two in the aisle to one in the nave. xvm] GERMAN ROMANESQUE 17 turned into columns in the top storey carrying arches. A. II. The great arches are cut square through the wall without any moulding. which in this case forms LAACH 'xLXJXJX Fig. which are much too big. l\ .CH. the longer dimension being frojn north to south. The nave piers are square. The whole church is cross-vaulted with round arched transverse ribs but no diagonals. disagreeably. The towers of Laach at the east end are square. and those towards the nave run up as vaulting shafts with cushion capitals. making the conical roof seem at to The eastern turrets certain coarseness about the arcaded cornices under the eaves. part of the original design. slightly in the overhang Mainz offend same way. 70. with half-columns towards nave and aisle. The bays of nave and aisles are equal. 2 . and spring from a small impost moulding without a capital there is no triforium. : J. In the interior some progress has been made towards the Gothic system of vaulting. and more successful There is a bad effect. which being wide become distorted on the circular plan when seen in profile they undercut the outline with a very .

as possible. which has a fine effect inside. Trophime All this is excellent The capitals are carved in rather a lumpy fashion. The last plain dignity. The Romanesque churches those we have been describing at COLOGNE differ from Three of them. Cologne having no apse at the western end but though that end was thereby set free for treatment as a fa$ade with a western doorway. and the Apostles church are trilobate. cloister at S. but imparts an well as the choir. no in . the stems of the foliage being worked like strap. and no diagonals. S. 71) which was re-built has an ambulatory aisle round all 1047 and studded with beads. S. relaxed in the pretty little cloister which forms an atrium at the west end (Plate It has three walks. Great S. with heavy half-round transverse The cloister is vaulted ribs. Maria in Capitolio. north and south side opening by doorways into the nave The western apse aisles as in the plan for S. The . forming an upper storey. Gall. and no stringcourse which bay westwards has a gallery The runs back into the apse. the two transepts being apsidal as (Fig. [CH. and is vaulted There is no carving. lower one contains the tomb of the founder. Martin. and the from a central column. MARIA and consecrated in undeniable clumsiness to the outside (Plate XCI I). xvrn but a blank wall clerestory with a single round-headed to divide window above. the ends of those on the The severity of the style is XCI). advantage is taken of the opportunity.i8 Laach GERMAN ROMANESQUE space. but not without whole interior is as the storeys. protrudes into the cloister-garth. and inner are pierced with roundand the walls both outer arched openings on coupled colonnettes which are tapered and incline a little towards one another like those in the at Aries.

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'? tlfiJf S. ' I* *** !. MARIA IN CAPITOLIO-COLOGNE .1 * .

and have stilted Attic bases piers are plain rectangles with an impost : the nave moulding instead of a capital there is no triforium but a blank wall with round-headed clerestory windows above. 19 Cologne. 22 . 71- pendentives are small the Byzantine kind. which is not circular but rather a square with the corners rounded off so that the The dome COLOtM. but otherwise it is a real There is a smaller a narrow bay eastwards before the semi-dome of the over The transepts have barrel vaults with eastern apse. and semi-domes over the apses. and there is a gallery over it with the same kind. The aisles are cross-vaulted with transverse ribs but dome of oblong dome no diagonals. there are the columns of the apses : are cylindrical. transverse ribs. are very plain.S-MMIA Fig. to which it opens with a triple a triple arch of arch. . xvin] details GERMAN ROMANESQUE is . there cushion capitals everywhere no carving.CH. The nave has later Gothic vaulting on shafts that have been added and are corbelled out above the nave piers. Over the crossing is a dome. At the west end is a narthex or porch as wide as the nave alone.

xvni under both choir and transepts. ANDERNACH XCIII) has four towers. It is formed by gabling all four sides of the tower. arched arcade. At Great S. The Romanesque nach were (Plate churches of Coblentz and Ander- built early in the I3th century. the arris of the diagonal groin ribs and no It diagonals. The eastern towers have pyramidal roofs the western. The spire is completed . There is a triforium as large as the arcade below. It has three apses at the east end for choir the central one arcaded inside with niched recesses below a range of large round-headed windows. The the western bay being occupied nave piers are square with an impost by a gallery. and setting a square spire of timber and slate diagonally on the points of the gables instead of . being pinched up. and no transepts. divided by rather slender The nave is four bays long to eight of coupled shafts. Maria in Capitolio. directly on the angles of the tower. the vaults are Gothic. The gabST splre moulding and no capital. the German gabled spire which is so constant a feature of the style. Martin (1172) and SS. GERMAN ROMANESQUE The [CH. The former of these magnificent central forms a prominent feature in the river galleried apses front of the town. lights the aisle. and has the finest exterior of anything churches with its tower and its in In the interior there is a triforium with Cologne. of two under an including arch. crypt extends has cylindrical tapered columns with cushion capitals. and except pointed arches above a round the barrel vault of the transepts and the semi-dome of the apse. Aposteln (1193) the triple apses have no aisles. two at each end. the central column under the apse however is a quatrefoil The vault is cross-groined with flat transverse in plan.2O cologne. and aisles. a manifest improvement on S.



There is more carving though they preserve the cubical form of the cushion type. xvm] GERMAN ROMANESQUE 21 by continuing the four planes of the triangular inclined spaces till they meet between gable and gable. . Romanesque nave and striking in transept. but all the arches are pointed. and was well advanced that style imported from the I3th century it finally gave way to the foreign which resulted in the France. but the Romanesque style lingered long hard in Germany. and at the corners of the choir are two round turrets. and there is more variety in the nave arcades which are divided by piers between groups of arches on columns. The fine churches of S. in the capitals. and died change. with additions in the I2th. making the triangle into a diamond. at the Saxon Church of Sompting in Sussex. with its its its five towers. one reaches the last stage of German Romanesque. a very lantern of glazed stonework. and the turrets are almost reduced There are evident signs of a comingto pinnacles. There is the familiar central tower over the crossing of an eastern transept enclosing a dome on squinches. it till was not cathedral of Cologne. is i4th century one of the most of Europe. and choir. Godehard i at HILDESHEIM which date from the middle of the ith cen- tury. There is an unique example of such a spire in England. It lies outside the limits with their Germany proper but its apsidal transepts . Michael and S. are in some respects more highly finished than the great churches on the Rhine. strassburg which was apparently re-built early in the I3th century. though they cannot compete with them either in scale or in exterior magnificence. The vast cathedral of TOURNAI.CH. With the eastern part of STRASSBURG Cathedral.

the orthodox style. those in the lower arcade of a convex form. and above them is a real triforium under the aisle roof with small plain openings under a colonnaded arcade towards the nave. in The nave The nave 72) was dedicated 1066. much grotesque animals. kinds. xvm great flanking to the style of the Rhenish churches. and if the Romanesque choir were. with interlacing foliage. of these storeys are vaulted.22 Toumai GERMAN ROMANESQUE towers attach it [CH. and are surrounded by ambulatory aisles parted from them by cylindrical columns 2' 1 1" in diameter carrying round arches of two orders. knots and twists of various elaborated and highly finished. styles of northern France and Germany. as no doubt it was. but some of the details are hardly consistent with so early a date. They have a diameter of 32 ft. Those of the upper galleries have the concave outline and angle volutes of a more advanced kind than one would expect from so early a date. There are however some like them at the Thetran- seps contemporary churches of William the Conqueror at Caen. nave on the other hand has more affinity with the churches of Normandy. The nave piers have half-columns on all four sides and between them in reveals are detached octagonal Each shaft of the group carries its own order in shafts. here quite as large as the arcade below. apsidal too. The capitals are richly carved. . the plan would have been like that of the three trilobate The churches of Cologne. It has the large open-arched triforium of the Norman Both churches. so that Tournai serves as a link between the Romanesque (Fig. The semi-dome is supported by converging ribs from the piers between the windows. The apsidal transepts are later than the nave and were built about 1146. These transepts are as fine as anything I know in Romanesque architecture.


have a sort of sublimity about them that is all their own .. thing to be found in contemporary works in Italy. 73- Their sky line. which is strong. unlike many early buildings which are low and stunted. . sturdy style. one and want of grace both in general design and in detail which one does not find in the rudest work of the early French and Italian schools. except in certain wellknown instances. gallery Externally they have considerable richness of is the little colonnaded design. very lofty. the naves with a span of over 30 ft. They are generally on a grand and they are scale. where even to a later date the exterior. xvm esque those on great early German churches.24 Character GERMAN ROMANESQUE The [CH. broken by the numerous towers. virile and positive though in the At the same time even cannot but feel most successful efforts the presence of a certain clumsiness wanting in the finer graces. gathered has a picturesque effect unlike any- together in groups. German Romanesque is an honest. especially when there which with its black intervals and well-defined a brilliant arcades and colonnettes always has effect Fig. especially the Rhine. was less thought of than the interior. and they bear marks of their Lombard though which places them parentage they have an individuality in a class by themselves.

In the later of the designer. xvin] GERMAN ROMANESQUE German churches of capitals 25 Internally the beyond almost any buildings are plain and severe Severity of the time in other itoSSS esque and plain impost mouldings take the place of carved capitals. 7 3). Andrew at Cologne. and in In the earlier churches the aisles were vaulted. and Cologne Cathedral. though perhaps intended. mingled with other carving which approaches the standard of French work. They are all vaulted now. The over. but in old No doubt in their present bald and bare condition they teach the useful lesson that a building may be made impressive and architectural without ornament. in which the architecture remains stubbornly Romanesque. and square piers of countries. and a frieze delicate imposts to the door of the ANDERNACH of scroll-work runs along the walls over the nave arcades of S. but admits decorative features of the new style which had been developed across the England. absence of triforium also increases the bare effect of the all days they were painted and would then have had plenty of colour. but a vault over the nave. was not Vaulting buttresses achieved it till a later date. imitating and .CH. and remarkable that they stand perfectly well without of the nave at Laach indeed flying buttresses. Cushion masonry that of walls. richly surround the doorway at BOPPART (Fig. 74). frontier in France. and could not make too much of them . cylindrical or clustered columns. It is a curious jumble of archaic and progressive art. but I have noticed no sign of weakness elsewhere. German work There are carving comes to the aid some very 1 beautiful and Carving of 3th century church at carved Byzantinesque borders (Fig. France when flying buttresses came into fashion ran riot. The vault is is tied in with iron from side to side.

Fig. xvm b o^doing buttresses beyond ^ reasonable limit. 74- there were any they were never fashionable.26 GERMAN ROMANESQUE the inutatio. and when aisle roofs as they are were if possible hidden under the . is [CH. y .

None of the Byzantine churches which have the finest mosaics in Constantinople. Gloucester has but two on the south side of the nave and they are hidden under the aisle roof Worcester has some placed irregularly where the construction seems to need support and there are none at all : . . at xvm] GERMAN ROMANESQUE 27 Flying But many of our great vaulted churches Winchester. and consequently the mosaics are well seen and hold their own. have none. Ravenna. Moreover the windows detestable. and the artist must choose between them. filled with coloured glass. Salonica. have any but clear glass in the windows. As a rule you cannot even see it. thus mixing up two inconsistent modes of Colour by reflexion in mural painting is decoration. are two perfectly incompatible systems. killed by the overpowering brilliancy of colour transmitted through stained glass. Decoration by mural painting or mosaic. Venice.CH. at Tewkesbury. It is doubtful whether we should have admired the in their original paint as Mural great German churches much result as pam mg we do now. Most of those in Cologne have been painted and the have been is lately or are being painted now. and decoration by painted glass. To grasp at both and try and use them together is inconsise p 2nted glass an inartistic blunder. or if I remember in Rome.

and south-western parts. The poet Ausonius at Bordeaux and Sidonius Apollinaris at Clermont in the 4th and 5th centuries lived in the midst at of a cultivated literary society. Lyons. none did it show more Gaul vigorous growth than in Gaul. and Bordeaux were pre-eminent in the empire during the 5th century and are described as the last Aries. 1 strongholds of Roman learning in the west of Europe The native language had given place to that of Italy. anything superior the amphitheatres at Nlmes and theatre Aries. p. and still more those of Toulouse. and the stupendous aqueduct of the Pont du Card which dwarfs those of the Campagna. Narbonne. and e" the settlements of Frank and ment s Burgundian barbarians do not seem at that time to have interrupted the life 1 of the great Dill. gothic kingdom. especially in the south. Roman nobles seriously. Guizot Lect. The schools of Treves. and the Latin of Bordeaux was said to have been the . the Provence is still purest in Gaul. 407. of Roman architecture.CHAPTER XIX FRANCE IN no province of the culture Roman in Roman Empire was and in Latin more firmly rooted. Italy itself cannot show to the temples at Nfmes and Vienne. and full of splendid remains great Orange. . of which their writings a Hvely P icture The establishment of the VisigiV6 ' . and the Auvergne.

Elysii campi. where one may still walk as Dante did between rows of stone coffins capable of containing heresiarchs.CH. we ^ Gaiio a phagi dating probably from the time of Constantine. a youthful beardless Roman. Nlmes In one sarcophagus. The figure of Christ repeated in each panel. being occupied by an is orante. the central panel trees or female figure with hands extended in the attitude of prayer (Plate XCIV). safe to assume that these fine sarcophagi which . In the delicacy and refinement of the sculpture that adorns them we may trace the effect of Greek tradition. with whom he dined and diced. and the superiority of the art here to that at the neighbouring city of is remarkable. Sidonius has living left an amiable portrait of the Gothic King Theodoric II. evidently a conventional representation like the Pastor bonus at Ravenna. sometimes with a shell-head. in one instance round and straight-sided alternately. and with figures in all cases of the classic Roman If it is type. Other sarcophagi have the compartment divided by columns or pilasters carrying arches. divided into seven compartments which form a beautiful arboreal canopy. well executed. such as preceded the time when that divine portraiture was attempted which became stereotyped in later religious art. They have been brought thither from the famous sepulchral avenue of Aliscamps. without nimbus. xix] for FRANCE find 29 them still retaining their possessions and on good terms with the new comers. The remains of early Christian art in this region consist mainly if not entirely in the sarcophagi. are by represented six miracles of our Lord. for Aries was an appanage in old times of the Phocaean colony at Marseilles. of which there are splendid specimens in the museum at Aries.

in the there 4th century. At the beginning of that period we find on the great nobles of Auvergne and Aquitaine living houseand their estates in lordly villas with large retinues describes his country house in Sidonius holds of slaves." Martin built scale was the famous basilica of S. PHn. Ep. Greg. baths with domed roofs for the ladies. by 60. Ep. apartments rooms for the maids. Ducange. He gives a long list of churches built at this time by Bishop Perpetuus and others. Of jt re mains. Parietes ad altarium opere sarsurio ex multo marmorum genere exornatos habet. The walls with 42 windows. sarsurius=musivum opus. roof. The Tours church built by Bishop Namatius in the 5th century at Clermont-Ferrand is described by Gregory of Tours as measuring 1 50 ft. and 50 ft. for the by Bishop Perpetuus in 472 at Tours. X. it is But of course been brought museum at resemblance between one of those in the Aries and a sarcophagus in the Lateran Museum. which Gregory the historian and bishop himself re-built after a conflagration. and there is certainly a close Indtth centiries For the architecture of the fourth and three following for nothing centuries we must trust to description only. Turon. Apoll. was cruciform and apsidal. saloons and verandahs. in height to the It had side aisles. xix carved in once furnished the Aliscamps at Aries were show a very flourishing state of art provincial Gaul. Sid. on for winter and for summer. they at least equal to that of Italy. describes Auvergne much as Pliny 1 his Tusculanum to Sidonius speaks of dining rooms his friend Apollinaris. IL ii. France the finer sort may have possible that from Rome. The odour of sanctity was On church exhaled "the sweetest scent as of aromas. and spinning graceful columns. 1 2 . 2 were adorned with mosaic of various kinds of marble . 70 columns and 8 doors. a still larger patent to the senses. v. Primitive at Nor was church architecture behindhand. 16.30 FRANCE [CH. 6.



windows scanty details and the enumeration 1 Sid. Apoll. of which he The church was lofty. who like himself was a great Gallo. He 2 Primitive at Lyons pope or bishop of that city. 1 "Perpetuo durent culmina Perpetui . xix] It FRANCE ft. . Sid. remotiora Claudunt atria portions secundae. church Sidonius at the bishop's request had inscribed what he calls a tumultuarium carmen. of which unhappily no traces remain.Roman noble.. at Martin Tours or cloistered forecourt. and though the description is very obscure we can make out that it was lined and paved with various coloured marbles. t 31 Church of S* longer than that at Clermont. and seems to have been preceded by an atrium r i was 10 i . and sends Hesperius a copy. was orientated the gilded ceiling vied with the sunshine. Ef. Et campum medium procul locatas Vestit saxea silva per columnas. it had 52 windows. II. though not * T so lofty. This church at Lyons. The concluding lines seem to suggest an atrium surrounded by a forest of pillars 3 .. in Sidonius celebrates this church an ode of which he sends a copy to Lucontius." writes to his friend Hesperius an account of the dedication of a church at Lyons built by Papa Patiens. than those of Galla Placidia at Ravenna. probably preceded Justinian's buildings at Con- very stantinople by some 50 years. ending with a pun on the name of the founder.. 2 3 Ef. 120 columns. Beyond these little and was later of columns. iv. that the aisles were divided by columns of Aquitanian marble and that the glass of the windows : shed a greenish light on the interior.CH. x. and had used his wealth liberally to On the walls of the help the poor in time of distress. and quite 8 doors. . xviii. Apoll.

much longer. Viollet-le-Duc. "not as a valley is is ravaged 1 5' . Decay of The the 5t j1 letters of Roman culture culture in Gaul. Franks. Rais. like a continuous series of Proyin- styks^ France find it impossible At first a whole. information just enough to tantalize us. we nearly they short of it. p. France was not an united country. 162. Diet. In the states. or fell approached the standard . have nothing to tell us what the churches of Perpetuus and his contemporaries were like nothing to show how of Ravenna." says M. VIII. . ?toch tenure possess only very churches on the soil of primitive vague downFrance. In the next century no such church as that of built at Pope Patiens could have been Dearth of ve Lyons. Civilization in France^ Lect. but as the infiltration of a foreign substance by the continual The arts shared the fate of the general culture and sank with it. Guizot. And when we do meet with anything examples. and indeed for of the several provinces in very different During the whole period of Romanesque Art. and that it is only from the loth century wards that we can form a passably exact conception of Viollet-le-Duc ideas of the 2 remarks that we what they were like. which lay more open to colonization by Teutonic invaders. Burgundians and 2 Guizot. vol. 1 Goths. but a group of independent.32 FRANCE [CH. or semi-independent Nor was the population homogeneous. to treat of French architecture as Latin influence was paramount. C entury Sidonius are the swan-song of Roman in The society that still existed polite flowing tide was gradually submerged beneath the " Roman society was destroyed of barbarism. in Gaul. most solid body disorganized by a torrent. xix and doors. but it affected the we architecture ways. In each province of France they differed considerably. north and east. v.

all German or Scandinavian tribes. and the school of each province has to be studied by itself. in Normandy and in Provence. where. Charlemagne's Capella Palatina in Austrasia. though the Goths had overrun the country and reigned in Toulouse. II. introduced at Aix-Ia-Chapelle by Charlemagne. in the Isle of France." the south moreover there still remained important muni- cipalities of Greek or Roman origin. "was In essentially Roman. bishop of Orleans. preserving traditions unknown or obliterated in the north. The basilican type Byzantine was the favourite. of a Greek cross inscribed within a square. The Byzantine plan. the people had a stronger infusion of German blood than those in the south. Guizot. as Viollet-le-Duc points out. "The south of Gaul. A. and prevailed even in the churches of Aquitaine which borrowed the Byzantine curious instance however of Byzantine influence at an early date is afforded by the church of GERMIGNY adopted in France dome." says M. did not establish itself in France.CH. its resemblance is very slight. the old Gallo-Roman stock survived in greater purity. which dates from the beginning of the It was built avowedly in imitation of 9th century. 3 . the addition of a nave which destroyed the west side like its prototype Theodulph's plan was that original building. and which however. with a drum of the and the four arms of the cupola on four isolated columns. the north essentially Germanic. to at Aix-la-Chapelle. as it probably does to this day. in the Auvergne. it is an exotic on The church was enlarged in 1067 by Neustrian soil. xix] FRANCE 33 Racial Normans. One DES PRES (Loiret). by Theodulph. cross are raised above the small squares that fill the J. in Burgundy. Consequently architecture fell into very different forms in Aquitaine.

Batsford. Mark's at Venice that there can be no ^or 1 ^ sec ^nd church 2 (Fig. 75). influence are afforded by the mosaics on a gold ground and by the stucco modelling round some of the windows. I This church is illustrated it by Rivoira.34 FRANCE [CH. I. p. Front in Architecture East and West. 217220. and latterly Gascony. At the west end there remains part of a basilican church S. 472. VIII. Here however the four arms end in more than semiin plan horse-shoes. of which there are remains in the apse. It which probably finished eastward had transepts which still exist as detached buildings. of different dates. vol. Spiers gives a conjectural restoration of the plan of the See his article on S. all exactly as in the angles between smaller churches at Constantinople such as S. Origin^ 2 Mr Phen Latin church. and the most It it remarkable instance of s. so closely modelled on the plan of S. I. 1905. apses. the original crossing between them and the eastern parts having been destroyed to make way Theresemblance Mark's This later building is a g ve d ome d cruciform building. the Angoumois. is the well-known church of engueux FRONT at P^RiGUEUX which stands alone among French exam pj es> j t cons ists O f two parts. Rais. Theodore and the Pantocrator. says is unique on French soil 3 . most of Guienne. was in this district that the influence of Byzantine art was most strongly felt. which are and some of the interior arches are also of that circular Further traces of Byzantine or Italo-Byzantine shape. myself. the Limousin. Front. Diet. with nave and aisles. xix desPres the arms of the cross. of which The mosaic he Viollet-le-Duc gives an illustration. AQUITAINE The The territory of the Dukes of Aquitaine in the western and west-central parts of France. have not seen . included Poitou. etc. 38. with three apses.

RIGUEUX G. BE. (Spiers) A. ' was taken down . Nave old church. 75. DATE Fig. The five domed church of which the apse Porch of old church. Confessionals. FRONT. NEW BUU>IG AFTER | FIRE OF II2O. F.I ANCIEKj WORK PR*OR TO 10^7. PLAN OF S. 33 . in the I4th century. H. of. PF. Cloister.

thanks to their stone roofs 1 It was in of this disaster that the consequence re-building of the 1 Hoc tempore burgus Sancti Frontonis et monasterium cum suis ornamentis repentino incendio. with the passages through them at two levels. and the pendentives have a curious winding surface instead of the Byzantine spherical form. This Bishop Froterius the Latin. II. The great arches that the dome. are slightly pointed. Front. instead of with beds radiating from the centre and normal to the curve. (976-991) began the earlier. except the aisles. two correspond only in plan but in dimensions the Verneilh has observed that the and De very nearly. FRANCE AQUITAINE and fa d ^{3 [CH. . alone escaping. the aisles . Front was not a Greek himself though differences of he worked on a Greek model. xix ^^ Not doubt the architect had seen and measured the Italian best to reproduce it on French soil. Gallia Christiana^ vol. moreover. atque signa in clocario igne soluta sunt erat tune temporis monasterium ligneis tabulis coopertum.36 s. and are for the most part built with horizontal beds. measurement are practically such as would arise from the difference between the Italian and French There are certain variations in the construction foot. is this. In 1 1 20 this which even melted the church was consumed by a terrible fire bells in the campanile. and in the great arches that spring from them there is a manifest imitation of the construction at Venice (Plate The history of the church XCV). peccatis id prom erenti bus. of the domes and pendentives which seem to show that the architect of S. was consecrated in 1047. conflagravit. which seem to have had barrel vaults placed with their axis at right angles to the nave. But in carry the four great piers at the crossing. The domes are not hemispheres but are raised to a point. church which it is recorded was covered with wood.



and especially with Venice where alone in Italy the traditions of Byzantine art lingered. i. something that might be compared to the great church on the lagoons of which the fame had church in its present at the western engueux reached the west (Fig. and these countries were then the great mercantile centres of Europe. and in the new part the opportunity was taken of building something much grander. veyed to Limoges. . line of commerce with the East -^ i that we find a school of r i 1 i r introduced France architecture in France which deliberately made the dome a principle in church architecture though S. form was begun the older church end was partly retained. and and from Rochelle to the British Isles. The Venetians had a bourse and their memory was preserved in the names of streets and gates even after they themselves had disappeared It cannot be a mere coincidence that it was along this at Limoges. The dome to . : and their assistants supposition that the architects were Frenchmen and not Italians or Greeks is confirmed The by the character of the carving at Perigueux more Romanesque than Byzantine. 1 . were to be seen as late as 1638. Front alone has adopted the plan of a Byzantine church as well as the domical covering. xixj FRANCE AQUITAINE . 51. U . -. It is well known vol. p. ^ goods colony of Venetian merchants was planted at Limoges about 988-9 their were brought to Aigues-mortes on the Gulf of : A were conLyons. Eperon houses de Venise. 231). Front. whence by mules and wagons they forwarded to the north of France. that the south and south-west of Trading with the France had during the early Middle Ages commercial relations with the Byzantine empire.CH. and says that the ruins of the Venetian Architecture Byzantine en France. 37 s. at Limoges. while that which at is much Venice 1 De Verneilh mentions Rue des Venetiens. Porte de Venise.

76. where they are treated rather as mere vaults. Cognac. but are often like other vaults covered with wooden externally. roofs. xix cut by not imported from Constantinople was certainly It is Greek Peculiarity of French domes confirmed also by the peculiar use made of the domes in other churches of this district. [CH. nor are they raised on drums or pierced with windows as in the later Byzantine examples. instead of forming a central dominant feature like the single domes of Salonica and Constantithe church was squarely grouped nople round which .38 if FRANCE AQUITAINE chisels. often repeated several times in a row. At Solignac. making no show Le Puy. and Angoul6me a single . At Souillac. and . Fig. cupola emerges as a lantern above the crossing the rest are concealed by the roof.

. for the domes are treated very architecturally on the outside. of which the ornament shows even less in solid stone. and subarches carry a narrow gallery in front of the windows and decoration has been discovered through the piers. Perigueux constructed of ashlar and crowned with finials 1 (Fig. carried on piers that project from the side walls to receive them. Cathedral Front. having been consecrated m . 39 s. Abadie. . xix] FRANCE AQUITAINE all . ribs converge as at Byzantine manner. 1 De Verneilh shows a pine-cone finial. lateral arches are shallow barrel vaults. time of the re-building in is a great tower. the west end. Byzantine feeling than that of the rest of CAHORS is a few years older than The cathedral S. Fontevrault the domes are hidden. and painted The domes are the dome. in which the figures are arranged in the S. Front however is an exception in this respect. 76). and the whole church is roofed of S. after Justinian determined when re-building S. ^ illustrations. ofCahors 1119. The domes The the arches that carry them are slightly pointed. 77). Sophia the fire to have nothing combustible about it. The pinnacles now crowded almost on the exterior are due to M. It is an aisleless church. . S. Painted in one of the domes. Front. dating from the the 1 2th century. the year before the great fire at Perigueux. and the most striking feature of a Byzantine exterior disappears. Sophia on the crown of shown externally. At of the work. so the As builders Front excluded from the construction anything that would burn. with a diameter of about 60 feet. The angles of the arms of the re-built and a good deal of which De Verneilh gives cross were originally finished with pyramids. consisting of two domes and an eastern part much altered in the I3th or Hth cenhave regular pendentives and tury (Fig. by whom the church has been altered in design. but are covered with timber and slate.CH. over the Latin church.

The apse is : . round inside and polygonal out. and has chapels opening from it without an ambulatory. xix o ignac The church of SOLIGNAC near Limoges (Haute Vienne) on the contrary has three domes on pendentives that have They rest on pointed always been hidden by the roof. The central one is polygonal outside and round inside like the parent the rest including two on the apse arches. CAHORS (from 77.40 Abbey of FRANCE AQUITAINE [CH.

are aisleless cruciform churches covered with a series of domes on pendentives resting on very slightly pointed arches. . thrust of the domes is taken as at Cahors by deep side arches with passages through the piers in the on the top of an arcaded set-off (Fig. Angou- (Fig. which The cathedral of ANGOUL&ME ft vrault d Fig. De Verneilh. resembles it so closely in it De Verneilh 1 conceives design and dimension that must have been deliberately copied from it. Bishop This church and that of the abbey of Fontevrault. p.CH. At Fontevrault the pendentives remain but the 1 domes have been destroyed. 276. 78). same way. 77) was built by Gerard who occupied the see from 1101-1136. xix] FRANCE AQUITAINE 41 Soiignac The side transepts are semi-circular inside and out. 78.

HILAIRE at p OITIERS (pi ate XCVI I) which was re-built after a fire and consecrated in 1059. that on the south has been It opens by a re-built. dome over on a drum as a lantern.42 Angouiame FRANCE AQUITAINE The at transepts and choir [CH. junien still standing province of P^rigord at least fifteen are church of S. JUNIEN (Plate XCVI) near Limoges The fine . There are many other examples of true cupolas on In PERIGUEUX itself the old pendentives in Aquitaine. There is arcade as at Solignac and Cahors. and though the vaults are constructed with the Gothic ribs and panels. At first it seems to have 1 s.Leonard dome on pendentives under the western of its two towers. 1 S. originally a lofty Angoul6me are covered At each end of the transept was tower. fluence goulme has a single nave without aisles. LEONARD has the same over has a true both transepts. Hiiaire. 276. . The central superb. TIENNE st iH preserves two of the three cathedral of s< domes it once possessed. they are raised so high in the middle as almost to have the effect of domes. p. and the lantern tower over the crossing is carried by true pendentives. and chapels project directly from raised the crossing a high wall- p^rigueux cathedral the great apse without an ambulatory. destroyed and that on the north interior effect thus and the arch to the lofty produced is is transept. That of S. and De Verneilh reckons that of some thirty domed churches that once existed in the s. which is vaulted in large square bays. But even when we lose the true construction of the Angers dome on pendentives which comes from Byzantine inwe find the domical idea in various fashions still The cathedral of ANGERS like Anaffecting the design. The same thing happens at the curious church of S. with two round-headed windows in each bay. xix with barrel vaults. Poitiers De Verneilh.

Plate XCVl -5*?* S. JUNIEN .




springing not from real pendentives but from "tromps" or squinch-arches thrown across the angles. xix] FRANCE AQUITAINE 43 s. irregular octagons. domes. for the entrance doors were in a storey below the church floor. been roofed with wood. which date possibly from the roth or early part of the nth century. rising through a circular aperture in As an old monkish the floor in the middle of the nave.CH. The central door of this. the choir with the transepts. and two bays of the nave. The and have pointed arches instead of semi-circular. but have been much earliest part The transepts are barrel vaulted and the nave was originally covered in the same manner. and when in 1130 it was determined to vault the nave the span was reduced to more practicable dimensions by building an interior arcade on each side which was connected with the older side walls the nave by flying arches and small cross vaults. and the covering of the great much as A 1 i Le Puyen-Veiay cathedral there affords another instance of the influence of the domical idea. and left it by the ears. but so far as they go they are imitations of the true domes of P^rigueux and Cahors.VELAY does not strictly belong to Aquitaine 1 so to Auvergne.Hiiaire. the . This church was is built in three instal- ments. like those we have seen above in the churches of These of course are in no sense of the word real Syria. LE PUY-EN." that is by the side doors of the transepts. This in the brought the facade to the verge of a sharp descent rock. but there was a strong connexion between the two districts. and the of steps approach to the church was by an ascending flight from the central door. altered in the i2th. and indeed some way beyond. But was covered with polygonal quasi-domes. The next two bays were added in the i2th century. " chronicler has it one entered the church of Notre Dame by the nostril.

They are remarkable works of the time. on arches across the nave a very feature. right stage These domes are concealed under a common roof. A long- flight of steps is carried upwards under them which has a very dignified effect. and differs widely from the original design. to church though they are closed. giving the fa9ade a splendid elevation. except that over the crossing. Hilaire. the original doors of cedar remain. there is an upa sort of drum on which the dome is raised. which is carried up to form This however has been entirely re-constructed in the worst taste as regards the interior. on squinch arches. has g p O jj s Q f some ancient fabric. The jambs. The squinches being raised above the singular crown of the arch instead of being below it. At the time of this last addition we must suppose structions. their side walls being pierced with windows to form a clerestory. On the east and west sides they spring from walls brought up squarely to the plate level. The in 1 1 last 80. the approaches cloister and being now managed differently. the upright moulding that covers GAVSFREDVS ME FECIT PETRO SEDENTE. carved with gospel subjects bearing traces of colour and gilding and The artist explained by rhyming Leonine hexameters. that the barrel vaults of the older part of the nave were replaced by the present domical con- The nave (Plate XCVIII) is covered with a suc- cession of octagonal quasi-domes constructed rather in the fashion of S. .44 Le Puyeay FRANCE AQUITAINE porphyry columns in the [CH. In 1843 the repair and restoration of the church was a lantern in a kind of central tower. two bays and the west front were completed and are advanced boldly down the steep hill- side. xix original fagade. has carved his name on : the meeting styles There was a bishop Peter 1159-1191.

' .' 'Ir.1" ..V " L . ^-'"'. .. ' <^V\W.^>m~ in..Plate i ':. SJfB^'fe---^^ffiS^WfTSi LE PUY . W?'/^ . --^".ip-. .: li^-^iyfei^-f " irT I : K. -'..-.Sf\ ''*'.- : {' '. .^% :: f . i . v .I/ Jt-viv A.>\*>^C:\.. &: ^.''-' .-. f^''/" -r "f'^\ . "..'-"- W.'W ^ .*3*j'T"*r.


but he seems is substituted incongruous square chamber. But the most curious outcome of the tradition which is this kind of covering inspired the use of i the strange Manuscrit de tarchitecte Mallay. Mallay. 1904. The small church at POLIGNAC a few miles from Le Puy has a polygonal quasi-dome on squinches carried arches. Mimet. xix] FRANCE AQUITAINE M. repaired the north transept.CH. to much blamed. His editor Pabsoudre de toutes les critiques dont il a etc says "nous ne pourrons pas mais nous ferons des maintenant remarquer que les reconstructions 1'objet dans ^talent gnralement rendues n^cessaires par I'&at prtoire qu'il a faites. a good deal of new avoided. Poitiers. ruin the original apse of the choir in 1865. re-constructed the central cupola with its piers and the two domes of the nave next it. 45 entrusted to who re-built the south transept. Thiollier. and who that . . I 1 destroyed the present find 5th century apse in no explanation of the disappearance of the of the south choir aisle which I saw and sketched by pointed 1864 (v. this part of the building having settled and parted from the The cloister also was exolder part eastward of it The restoration has been tensively restored by him. LePuy- which seems to have been partly destroyed previously. The old semi-circular apse was enclosed in a square exterior construction and did not show outside. and work 1 certainly there might have been entitled to the credit of having saved the building from No excuse however can be found for M. on squinches in the west of France occur at Notre Dame. Cela resulte clairement d'un rapport de Violletse trouvait IMdifice. ed. and the two churches at Chauvigny. and re-built the lower part of the two western bays and the whole of the west front on new foundations." etc. : lequel le-Duc envoyd a Puy a l^poque des travaux. N. and an apse with a stone semi-dome Other examples of octagonal domes of a pointed form. Plate CXXIII).

mysterious as one looks up from below into their dark cavernous recesses. The two extreme steeples are carried up like ordinary two between them are vast campaniles. having nothing in common with the construction of the Byzantine cupola on pendentives. and consequently have no thrust. (Plate C) the fa9ade of the church of Notre Dame has figure sculpture in the niches and spandrels. xix church of LOCHES in Touraine. that they were inspired by Byzantine tradition. The capitals at S. Not real domes All these last mentioned structures are not real domes. as is built Front are remotely derived from Corinthian the case in all early work. hollow. Viollet-le-Duc are built with horizontal beds like the Gothic spire.46 Loches FRANCE AQUITAINE [CH. Solignac and Angoulme. being formed by a system at But all the same there can be little doubt of corbelling. addition of an apse at one end and a porch at the other. but though the church is on Byzantine lines the carving is free singularly is from Greek feeling and based more on Roman is types. which really consists of with the nothing but four steeples in a row (Plate XCIX). Of Poitiers. but the other dim and octagonal pyramids. figure sculpture in little this province there compara- At Poitiers during the Romanesque period. and in which traced to the its appearance can be commercial connexion which we know existed between those provinces and Venice and the East Sculpture Sculpture does not play so large a part in the churches of Aquitaine as in those of Provence or Burgundy. and the front tively of Angoulme is still more elaborately covered with figure . without windows. In fact the pyramids Loches according to M. Cahors. or with the domes of P&rigueux. for they belong to that side of France in which alone the true dome is found.





not to be in though a good many of the figures seem their proper place. though not in cathedral of Cahors has The in the north door. some admirable sculpture 47 carving. 80. and others are sadly mutilated. on the . and fa$ade (Plate CI) with some very beautiful carving.CH. At CIVRAY the church has a remarkable Fig. xix] FRANCE AQUITAINE my judgment so happily.

Junien Fig. and in general the sculpture in this district confined chiefly to the capitals. and sometimes of great excellence. or with fanciful Fig. while in the naves they are treated more simply with volutes and leaves descended remotely from the Corinthian type. 79 The shrine of S. especially in the apses. 81. are very commonly carved with figures. 80 another from Poitiers. shows one from the fagade of Angouleme. is These. and gospel subjects. xix one of the most charming fa9ades in western Romanesque. . But the west fronts of most of the churches that have been mentioned are singularly plain and unwhole adorned. and Fig. church at in the the town that bears his name has an interesting series of niches and figures (Fig. 81).48 civray FRANCE AQUITAINE this is [CH. animals.

J^vlv.? #\'l.!*.* ^ - te^y^cb. * ^-."" ^V'^^^. I ." j/^-. M Wm<. 1 J^ .. ' <*.'. x - t > .** kif* ^. "fe..N ^ ' * *# 4 Y^? Sfc!3fe:* f^--ilf J^S&> ' \^V' V : ' ^ l< ' '* '/ ^to ^W^*\ mfl 4 v^" . . 7^ X-' v f *? ^Hfef r -T - CIVRAY .Plate CI c^w jasaea^wa. .-.. >l . > ^^k-%^ >" ' '.


p. Danes. and probably resulted from intercourse with the Normans. illustration. and the This element points to grotesque makes its appearance. and other works of Byzantine art however we find in the 1 2th century a new influence at work. but Puy. consisting entirely of birds and beasts and 1 interlaced and gnawing and clawing one another which the sweet bespeaks an artistic motive far removed from Souillac. At one of the domed churches belonging to the group which we have been considering. derived no doubt from the woven fabrics. II.CH. 2 Ibid. vni. j. The interlacing patterns of scrolls and animals biting and intertwining with one another which play so large a part in the Saxon manuscripts are repeated in the carving of wooden churches of Scandinavia. a northern rather than a southern origin. a capital at Le it is singular that 2 Viollet-le-Duc illustrates which as having at last freed itself from Byzantine influence. there is a column little men. V. and on the crosses and monuments of the northern settlers And here in Poitou in Britain and the north of France. xix] FRANCE AQUITAINE 49 In many of the capitals of these churches the influence of Byzantine ornament is obvious. 199. 4 . 196. and Aquitaine this style of ornamentation seems to have encountered the other which came from the east. See A. should be almost identical in construction and design with one in the narthex of the church of the Constantinople by the Comneni at the Chora built at end of the vm. Gradually the Byzanseverity of Byzantine ornament. p. nth 1 century. line of Venetian and Appeargrotesque For grotesque is the fun of the north rather English. and this which found their way along the Mixed with Eastern commerce. French architecture became tine element weakened as Decline of more national and independent.-le-Duc. . than of the south.

the exterior wall of the church being retired This is in fact the to the outside of the buttress piers. Venice and S. Mark's in domes are soffit. from which three or more semi-circular chapels project. Several of them. eight of the fourteen finish with an apse. xix churches remains to notice a few other peculiarities of the churches Romanesque O f wes tem France. Sophia in Constantinople and at S. between which wide arches are turned. S. sup. but all have simple naves of wide span without side aisles. where . Front in P6rigueux the to barrel vaults. the old cathedral of be observed that the square end Romanesque period in the Con- o/French domes 3th century cathedral of Poitiers. to narrow barrel vaults A sufficient to stay shallow pilaster expresses the buttress on the outside of the building. Eastwards. P6rigueux and it may is also found after the 1 Etienne. Angers.5o It FRANCE AQUITAINE [CH. and it is not till one comes to the cathedral of Angers in post-Romanesque times. as for instance at Cahors and Solignac (v. 78). are cruciform in plan. In all these churches with true domes on pendentives the resistance to the thrust of the cupola is afforded ^ fa At e p interior buttresses. Souillac. Fontevrault alone having an ambulatory aisle with and of later date chapels starting from it. like Angoulme. Figs. . Byzantine principle of construction in a modified form. The same construction is adopted at the other domed single-aisled churches throughout the province. where the buttresses in these amounting The same are brought so far inwards that the lateral arches between them amount the dome. Of the 14 illustrated in De Verneilh's book not one has aisles. Five of the number have square ends. including S. Fontevrault. is sustained by arches set four-square having a wide principle applied churches of Aquitaine. 77.

it ended in the quasi-domes of Le Puy. Poitiers and Angers. as it actually did. been hotly debated whether this singular development of a domical style of architecture in Aquitaine and especially in P6rigord. would import into the execution much of their native methods of building. who followed the Or perhaps some French architect may have travelled eastward and studied S. Mark's and perhaps S. But in either case the work would have been carried out by the hands of native artisans who while following the general scheme given by the architect. native or foreign as the case might be.CH. so far from the scene of It has Byzantine infllience and without any connecting link be put to the credit of native artists or of foreigners from Venice and the East That it was inspired by the influence of Byzantine art cannot be seriously denied. Mark's at P^rigueux. and exterior buttresses take their place. and has really been superseded by a form of cross vaulting. The first of a better way of covering large interiors suggestion its original appearance. xix] FRANCE-AQUITAINE is 51 the domical construction that more apparent than real. We can understand how in this way the style would gradually drift. in the countries that intervene. preserve the idea of the oriental domical covering without its construction. Sophia. the interior buttresses disappear. and brought back with him measurements and notes of what he had seen. after beginning with a tolerably close imitation of S. farther and farther from strict Byzantine example and how. is to than the unstable barrel vaults of native efforts came most likely from Greeks or Venetians line of commerce through the district. It would seem that the dome did not make its 42 . which . but whether the artists as well as the art came from the East is less certain.

Savin There is no better example of this than the fine church of S. at The TEMPLE now sunk deep below POITIERS. as well as over the nave. thus forbidding a clerestory. and the aisles are cross-groined with a The church of single transverse rib dividing the bays. to have been built supposed by Bishop Ansoaldus (682686) but has evidently undergone repair and alterations. or without churches in combination with the dome. Junien. s. vault. JEAN. Montierneuf at Poitiers has vaults of the same kind.52 General barrel vaults FRANCE AQUITAINE in [CH. but before 1 the 2th century most churches of any consequence had stone roofs. and the older or to the nave. The still earlier type of covering was the barrel S. called. SAVIN. The two churches at Chauvigny have barrel vaults with cross-groined aisles and transverse arches that at Civray has barrel vaults over the aisles . Notre Dame at Poitiers has a barrel vault over the nave. which its kind of building is remarkable for lofty proportions and its Temple de This western side of France painted decoration (Plate CII). xix appearance remains in Aquitaine till the I2th century. Gregory of Tours DE S. still possesses one of the few buildings that go back to Merovingian times. streets. which may help us a little to understand the architecture so highly lauded by Sidonius Apollinaris in the and 5th. Hilaire at Poitiers. In consequence the upper parts of the nave are very dark. though the columns and a great part of the building are modernised. in is the 6th century. which has a high choir of later work. In all these churches except Montierneuf. one roof covers both nave and aisles in an unbroken slope. as it baptistery. Latin church at P^rigueux had originally a wooden roof and the aisles alone were vaulted. . which many it. is an ancient the level of the modern and bearing manifest signs of It is antiquity. and so has that at S.

Plate CH S. SAVIN .


capitals and the walls both in the ground and upper storey are decorated with blank arcading springing from similar colonnettes. The principal apse. but now formed The roof is of wood. gabled north and south. 82). towards the east. with apses projected from the east and the two sides. Light is given by a clerestory of windows. 82. once round-headed openings.CH. the deep baptismal piscina. though they are now rounded. which should be round as at S. xix] It is FRANCE AQUITAINE 53 a rectangular building (Fig. or of the floor is . On the west it has a narthex of later date. The arches opening into the apses spring from columns with Corinthianising POITIERS* BE Fig. is polygonal inside but square without. The plan is so unusual for a baptistery. 86). Leonard near Limoges (Fig. as the side apses may once have been. Sunk in the centre into circles.

of small stones. The perhaps time of Bishop Ansoaldus. The exterior quaintly adorned with fragments of pilasters carrying capitals proportioned to the original full length. and to the bands of thin Roman inlaid 1 Rector autem seu parochus hujus ecclesiae solus olim baptizabat omnes Gallia Christiana^ II. xix octagonal as at Ravenna expi anat i on seems necessary. and right and which is crowned with a modillion cornice that returns is across the base. infantes qui Pictavii nascebantur. Materials The whole made up of fragments of antique work But second- cut to convenient lengths and arbitrarily adapted. when we may suppose the into a baptistery and building to have been converted the piscina sunk in the floor. often nearly but this is characteristic of Roman work . and consists largely is square. that the rectangular series of halls in Italy. 83) is appareil. . (Fig. Poitiers FRANCE AQUITAINE and elsewhere 1 1 is [CH. a round arch contains left a cross within a circle mental panels. The masonry of the petit is well wrought. for excavation has disclosed the foundations of a rather extensive range of chambers attached to it. are triangular pediSimilar features appear in the tympanum. In the middle . 1228. which not constant throughout the building. that I some not improbable. hand notwithstanding this barbarous effect is distinctly treatment. date and were added apses are not of the original if not earlier in the in Carlovingian times. but very ill adapted to the curtailed dimensions of the shaft. and owes much general to the border of red and white that runs up the gable under the cornice. body of the building formed one of a belonging to some late Roman building. p. the it charming . whither all the people of 1 Poitiers brought their children to be christened .54 s. which seem to have no reference to the function of a baptistery. think. jean.

-/ ^-~~ ^ rtfi^"-^^'**''*^^ .."jr i ^ j Fig.CH. 83.^"Trrr-. xix] FRANCE AQUITAINE 55 _j?. .1 i^ / r .

p. remains of which Merovingian times were the Roman but the art even in Gaul contained so many examples : the 5th and 6th centuries had no doubt sunk into a very it aspired to imitate. with shallow transepts . poor resemblance to the models The ancient buildings served not only as models but also as quarries.56 s. Poitiers FRANCE AQUITAINE [CH. The design of this baptismal church influenced distinctly by Roman and not by Byzantine example which indeed does not seem to have made itself felt till a The models that were followed in the earlier later period. bear a strong resemblance to the domed top of the great campanile at P^rigueux. Diocletian's temple at Spalato : is decorated Constantine with ancient porphyry shafts cut short adorned his triumphal arch with reliefs from that of Trajan and the 70 columns of Bishop Namatius's church at Clermont. for the practice of robbing old buildings to furnish new ones was begun long before the Temple de S. The church itself is barrel. Front may. All three are covered with scaled masonry like the domes and tower of S. jean. The influence of S.vaulted. I think. and the resemblance is even stronger in the quasi-cupola of the central tower (Plate C. and are very unlike anything farther east in France. Jean. to classic regularity. Jean though perhaps with a somewhat nearer approach Ovoid pnnacies cupolas . 46). Front. and Bishop Perpetuus's 120 at Tours were no doubt rifled from Roman temples and other buildings of Imperial times. erSj w h ere t he strange conical pyramids that ^ surmount the two flanking turrets of the west front of the church of Notre Dame. be traced as as p o j t . and would have been put together : with something of the artless simplicity of the Temple de S. xix bricks that are coursed with the stone and formed into is Roman simple geometrical figures.



occur in the fagade at Civray is and there something of the same kind in the quaint and im- perfect front at S. Junien (Fig. Here however grotesque ornament plays a considerable part. covered with . which is arcaded something like Notre Dame at Poitiers but on a grander S. Diet. square below. the fagade of the cathedral of ANGOULEME (Plate CIII). itself felt in Front again makes and has on its two flanking towers what are half spires and half cupolas. octagonal above. The west front is richly arcaded. HI. rounded by pinnacles which are miniature copies of the The central cupola is also P6rigueux.CH. had the nave re-built in the i$th or I4th cen- retains a fine Romanesque tower at the west tury. and so is steeple at 1 the cupola of the Abbaye des Dames at Saintes On a smaller scale ovoid pinnacles of this kind. similar ornament. p. covered with scaling and surscale. and on the angles where the two parts meet triangular pinnacles like the 1 Illustrated by V.-le-Duc. Central towers in the form of lanterns over domes either Western on pendentives or squinches prevail in most of the churches But there are that have been mentioned in this district several instances of a western tower. xix] FRANCE AQUITAINE 57 and a lantern tower over the crossing. and though it cannot be said that the details show any about the whole trace of Byzantine influence there is design a distinctive character. 305. as has been already noticed at Souillac and Loches. Poitiers has S. derived from Normandy and the north rather than from the south. wers RADEGONDE at Poitiers. but end. 84). and covered with sculptures which are full of interest. decorated with scaling like those at P^rigueux. Rais. with a it touch of orientalism that seems to mark off from the Romanesque of the central and eastern provinces. vol. .


84). Fig. the church has been re-built SAVIN has besides its central lantern a Romanesque tower at the west end. though is incomplete. and S. which for the benefit of those of us less conversant than himself with such fearful wild-fowl he has considerately told us are lions. . which The rest of is a common Byzantine subject (z>. PORCHAIRE 1 though incomplete tower at the west end. 85). probably meant for peacocks drinking from a vase. and was intended probably to finish like S.U SrpOI\CHAlREj POITIERS. xix] FRANCE AQUITAINE S..CH. surmounted by a splendid Gothic has the same in the centre of its spire. i 59 in the s. On the amusing capitals of the doorway the sculptor has represented two animals. On the it is to see the two birds adjoining capital interesting same city has a i r fine i i 1 I/"*! -LL. Fig. Porchaire ears at the corners of a sarcophagus. JUNIEN the upper part singular west front (Fig. 85.

stands against the north side of the nave. [CH. Leonard is situated : of S. with an angle instead of a side to This device is peculiar to Limoges. . of square in the lower stages. though a little ungraceful in general outline. obliquely. and it The tower is S2XEONAHR BAPTISTERY- Fig. near which town the cathedral and the churches S. and the ground to the church consists of storey which serves as a porch arches on two sides with a clustered pier in the open centre. Michel aux Lions all have square towers surmounted by lofty octagonal stages set like this obliquely. FRANCE AQUITAINE LEONARD. xix The latter is a very fine structure It indeed. each finishes with an which recedes within that below. The octagon is set on the square not in the usual way but the front. Pierre and S.60 that of S. octagonal lantern surmounted by a low spire. 86.

Eight columns set in a circle carry a dome.CH. but the interior is less injured. 86). and with four this tower. . On one side of and the north the very remarkable baptistery of an earlier date which has already been alluded to (Fig. crossed by transverse ribs from each column to a slenderer shaft against the wall. and seems to date from the loth or i ith century at least. restored externally. and are surrounded by a circular aisle covered with an annular vault. filling the space between it transept. The capitals are of the very rudest kind and the bases a mere succession of slightly This building has been much overprojecting rings. is The aisle vault is apses towards the cardinal points. and partly built into their walls. xix] FRANCE AQUITAINE 61 Baptistery.

reigned till Provence was heirs. . and adoptive. but it or Aries. it to his second son. 12 it In had passed by marriage to the counts of Barcelona: afterwards to the king of Arragon in 1167. of Louis IX and This part of France therefore has a history of its own distinct from the rest. In 1245 Beatrice the sole heiress married Charles of Anjou. Middle Ages. Koch. After being governed by the French Dauphins as a separate principality it was finally united to Kingdom Provence * France in 1457. remained practically independent under the Lord or Dauphin of Vienne till Humbert the last of them in 1349 conveyed it with the consent of the Emperor to John. for it had not even that feudal 1 Hallam. for the title varied from time to time . Revolutions de V Europe. son of Philip of Valois. to the Emperor Conrad II Dauphin^ was bequeathed by Rodolph III who died in 1032. seized by Louis XI. and finally united to France by Charles VIII in i486 direct 1 . n the 1 1 Provence at the dissolution of the kingdom of Aries i ith century became an independent kingdom.CHAPTER XX PROVENCE Kingdom of Aries PROVENCE and Dauphin^ had formed part of the o f Aries. the last of the kings of Burgundy. the brother who bequeathed His conqueror of the Hohenstaufens. which early in the nth century sank into weakness and dissolution. or of Vienna.

covered by a pointed barrel roof domes of the later sustained by enormous buttresses. which the semi-independent provinces such as Aquitaine and Normandy acknowledged. and the till . the intervals which is between them having been turned into chapels. so much by Byzantine art as by that of Imperial Rome and this was natural in a country even now so rich in Roman remains. six bays long. and probably much richer still from the days of the empire down to the Middle Ages. The dome did not establish itself here for the typical covering. has a cupola of a kind. once exterior to the church. for which a did not readily lend themselves square base therefore had square base is necessary. resembling the drum or towerByzantine churches which have been This church consists of an aisleless described already. It is inspired not . 87). and being much east to west. they longer from north to south than from to a cupola. nave. but now included within it. construction however is exceptional in Provence. These bays are divided by wide transverse arches. xx] relation to the FRANCE PROVENCE 63 Kingdom Provence French crown. and thrown open to the nave. gathering over in a succession of concentric orders towards the centre the square plan was attained (Fig. Squinch arches reduce this square to an octagon on which the This touch of Byzantine lantern-cupola rests happily. Dame des Doms. as it did in Aquitaine. to be formed by a succession of arches turned from one Avignon. but the churches follow the basilican plan of The cathedral of AVIGNON.CH. however. and constitute a school of its own. It is therefore not surprising that the early architecture of post. Avlsnon rather a domed lantern. Notre Notre the western empire. or de^Doms.Roman times in Provence should differ a good deal from that of the rest of France. across the nave. cupola A of the great transverse ribs to the other.

xx Fig. 87 (Viollet-le-Duc). .64 FRANCE PROVENCE [CH.

The Byzantines got over this of Architecture^ vol. Pointed vaults 1 and that they have been assigned to a pointed arch later date than the real one. Hist p. to and and nearer to Fergusson's date. by antiquaries who think the . Fergusson. ceiling. II. S . and Viollet-le-Duc is probably nearer the truth in assigning it to the end of the nth or the I2th. and have their vaults constructed on the principle of the . " pointed arch came in with Abbot Suger at S. and to be difficulty made J.CH. 45. of wood. roof in one. instead of the independent timber roof of putting a pitched or gabled roof of this kind over a round barrel vault without overloading the crown naturally suggested the pointed later times. and and became impossible which are of course only applicable to barrel vaults. from the age of Charlemagne to that of S. The doorway nevertheless may be earlier than the church. section. of this nave to so early a date as the the construction 9th century. solid object of the builders was to cover the barrel vault with masonry. 65 Avignon. difficulty of and that the which a gabled covering could be fitted more It is however impossible to attribute closely lightly. not daunted by the pointed barrel vault of the nave for he maintains that " all the churches of Provence. A. so much so as to have led the unwary to Though obviously not antique. Louis were vaulted. e porc western doorway of the porch is distinctly based on Roman example. when cross-vaulting came in to Solid stone ro s raise the side walls to the level of the obliged the roof to be raised with them. Denis in the He points out that the middle of the i2th century. vault. it is hard to fix its date. II. These solid coverings of masonry. xx] FRANCEPROVENCE Roman work. Fergusson thinks both the doorway and the whole church were built not pronounce it actually He is long if at all after the age of Charlemagne. 1 crown of the vaults.

66 Soiidstone r FRANCE PROVENCE very different way. The style is very simple. forming a succession of hillocks and valleys protected by lead and But in the west this not very easy to clamber over. of a pitch more or less acute. like those of the Auvergne. of S. and the exterior is . Sophia date with their crocketing and finials. The thrust diminished in proportion it as the pointed section was made more acute and except on a large scale. . there is little ornament in the interior. There are ceiled with quadrant waggon vaults. this manner. when there was generally trouble. and where buttressing had to be applied to prevent disaster. The church buildings. and all the vaults and domes come to the surface. but a very poor late Gothic choir has replaced unworthily the original Romanesque apse. as they still they are disguised do at S. generally. Most of the old churches in Guernsey and some in south was done at Wales. The plan is cruciform with a massive tower over the crossing. one of these barrel vaulted and with a solid roof of side aisles. the arched ends of all the vaults show on the face. are roofed in out buttresses. s. Sophia. is universal. [GIL in the xx in a At S. This. pointed in section. and stand safely withit is Trophres . and East tS of dome and vault were exposed. the outsides The ends of the vaults ran out and formed rounded gables. many of these vaults stand perfectly well when the walls are substantial. as Autun and elsewhere. plan never obtained. masonry above. naturally loaded very heavily and by increasing its thrust made it more difficult to sustain. Mark's at Venice. which is said consecrated in 1152. TROPHIME AT ARLES. and the triangular gabled roof. which counterthrust the vault of the nave. though by the ogee pediments of a later At S. when formed with solid masonry over a barrel vault.

/<* > / S.Plate *****> ^*w *7~^ imt4 tjt. .Zj. TROPHIME ARLES .


It illustrates the advantage this part of France had over the rest in possessing so many monuments of ancient art. This portal dates from the 1 2th century. for nowhere else does sculpture play so important a part in the design. with the happiest effect. or attain the same degree of excellence at so early a period. has the well-known portal which is one of the glories of Provencal Romanesque. ornament does not run riot over the whole of the design as it does in some later French Gothic portals. Of the three parts into which the front is divided the lower is kept severely plain. The latter is a fine piece of sturdy Romanesque work (Plate CIV) so rising with three storeys hemmed above the roof. and it forms a magnificent band of decoration from side to side between the two plainer 52 . and may perhaps be a little later than the Portal of ^ rop church behind it. xx] FRANCE PROVENCE in 67 s. and marked by a cornice of little arches on corbels. otherwise plain. and the upper which contains the arch has a great deal of plain wall-space and hardly any On the middle stage sculpture except in the tympanum.CH. and a corbelled cornice finishes the design at the eaves A of a low pyramidal tiled roof. and there is a similar pilaster returned row of small openings round each angle of the tower. composition shows the hand of a consummate Splendid as it is. but has a very satisfactory effect. and the central tower make any show. the artist has lavished the utmost resources of his art. which may not be the covering originally intended. each stage set back considerably within that below. but is held well within bounds. The artist. Trophime ' by other buildings that only the west front. The west front (Plate CV). The top storey has in the centre of each face a flat pilaster with a Corin- thianizing capital.

great arch in the upper stage is very slightly pointed and consists of three well-moulded orders. FRANCE PROVENCE . xx Troph- ime. 1 In this series there is round the corner at the north end the figure of a naked man prostrate and half wrapped up in a bull's hide. s. The frieze is supported by a colonnade of detached columns between which are full-length statues them are lions rending men and animals and serving as supports for the saints and the of saints. Aries In the tympanum our Lord stages above and below it. and angels in pairs fill the flat soffit of the includBelow on the lintel are the 12 apostles.68 s. ing arch. and the angels already mentioned which indeed make no show till you stand under the arch. . between the four apocalyptic . Gffles by But this magnificent portal is rivalled if not surpassed that of the church of S. about half-an-hour from Aries by three doorways in the Here there are Trophime. of which I should be glad to know the meaning. with no sculpture but The a leaf round the label. The simplicity of this is masterly. - beasts. the trabeated design of the freize which rests on it. which the jamb. and produces a distinctly classic further emphasized by the colonnaded arrangement. low pitched pedimental moulding resting on consoles finishes the composition. and the bare wall space in which the arch is set contrasts admirably with the splendid stage below. and below columns 1 . . and right by the happy blessed. distant rail. same style as that of S. on the inner soffit. frieze forming a which is carried out right is and left to the extremity of the portal. [CH. GILLES (Plate CVI). r is seated within a vesica. . and the fluted and cabled pilasters of is A impression. very satisfactory to an English eye. . occupied on the proper and on the left by the damned.

M i w o > i .


ending with the washing of the disciples' feet on the proper right. copied from an old one now too early for the portal.inscription which lost. i 206. and there is something wrong with The central arch like that at S. but stops abruptly before reaching the third column at the jamb of the side door. or rather an aureole. p. in right sequence of event. A This must have been intended to support something. older 1 is facade of the church above it was not completed.CH. . proper 1 Mr McGibbon cites the following. colonnade. The phime springs from a frieze of figures. Gffles connected by a series of columns carrying a similar frieze. The central in tympanum has like that at Aries a figure of our Lord four apocalyptic sentation of the last supper. no pediment above. But it is said to be seems imperfect and the date ANNO DOMINI 1116 HOC TEMPLVM SANCTI ArchiL of Provence etc. xx] FRANCE PROVENCE trifle 69 s. and project in the same way. and makes one think of the lion and lioness that stand sentry on each side of the great portal at Trail. curious projection of two columns on a pedestal at each side of the great doorway (Plate CVI) carries a return of the moulded architrave at right angles to the wall. is a reprebeasts. which starts to run right and left over the colonnade. and scenes from our Lord's and passion occupy the continuations over the life a vesica. between the On the lintel-frieze. EGIDII ^EDIFICARE CEPIT MENSE APRILI FERIA 2 A IN OCTAVA PASCHAE. Trothe portal itself. and beginning again with the kiss of Judas on the betrayal in the garden and the left. frieze. and there but perhaps a . Had it gone farther it would have covered the mouldings of the side arch which springs at the lower bed of the There are also other signs of disturbance. The arches are round without the suspicion of a point like that at Aries.

if anything. The especially in the figures. both churches are based on the Roman in both the guilloche or fret appears. about They have nothing them of spirit of influence tine the Gallo. birds Roman the Byzantine school. along the edge of the architrave that runs under the frieze. quite unlike the and the flat surface treatment of sharp crisp acanthus. but it struck me. as rather superior. and rounded raffling. The ornaments of the Roman mouldings antique . and the scrolls are purely Latin and have nothing Byzantine about them. and at S. the relief is with consummate art kept so flat and slight that it observes the necessary subordina- podium is Theorna- tion to the statuary above at it. that the Greeks only on a miniature scale in employed ivories and triptychs . the west Byzantine architecture. a feature belonging to the west and pilasters not to the east. general design shows the same delicate sense of proHere too portion in the disposition of the ornament. it Now that Stfc % has been pointed out in a previous chapter ure sculpture on a scale played no part in large It is it. Gilles is very like that at S.70 The FRANCE PROVENCE The [CH. The life and spirit that In the figures however.Roman style. but breathe instead the the religious art of the East. the central stage is the richest . with their draperies in straight an(* deep-cut folds. is a series of little animals lions. dogs. xx sculpture at S. Many of them contain figures of and animals admirably posed. and though the base or ornamented with carved reliefs at the sides of the great door. which are admirable. and whelps of various kinds carved with it would be hard to surpass. the are fluted. Troats^Gines phime. are based on The capitals in particular Corinthian. there appears a character foreign to the classic art of the west. Gilles. with deeply channelled folds and pipings.

Plate CVf Q. GILLES .


European principalities finally at were established itself. But imitation of the conivories and tissues was Venus of Aries. A still more fertile source was found in Byzantine paintings. and regular commercial relations the normal established. including those of Britain. in recommend it to the clergy. . where figures were introduced without reserve and in illuminations of in which the Greeks manuscripts. and that of Byzantium and its very stiffness and conhieratic.CH. and we have already noticed and west of France trade between Venice and the south which furnished another link with the Eastern world. inspiration should be sought t 1 Byzantine art hieratic in on a large Byzantine art which repudiated sculpture scale and offered no direct models for imitation. and actual pictures. found way along It was therefore from these that the infant schools of France probably derived inspiration. vention would secular. as the i ith and i2th centuries. 71 Byzantine and such-like portable their of which a vast quantity the line of commerce westward. excelled the westerns as in the plastic art. regular or whose hands the arts at that time were . and 1 2th centuries opened Lastly the Crusades of the i ith a wider communication between west and east. xx] FRANCE PROVENCE articles. in fine It mav be asked why in a country abounding rr+ j i~ Ji J'J Provence and Toulouse undoubtedly did in statuary. at Antioch and Edessa and Jerusalem with which constant intercourse would be maintained. and Roman was art religious was regarded as Pagan. which were rich also in geometrical and floral patterns. rather than ventional figures of Byzantine much easier than that of the in the classic art near at hand. that were freely copied in the conventional ornaments of all the western schools. much as they fell behind them in Figures too were largely employed the embroideries and woven stuffs from Eastern looms .

are no These mere conventional figures at Aries and S. very unlike ours. of the isth century.cependant Partiste occidental ne pouvant s'astreindre & la reproduction hie'ratique des sait qu'il 1 e son me'tier. to into their work. . regard autour de is lui. Rats." as Viollet-le-Duc well Byzantine art in order to learn the figure ornament. [CH. but beautiful and interesting. till it culminated in the this intensely living sculpture of the I3th and I4th centuries. find in these ... has nothing to show comparable the to those of Canterbury or Gloucester. But Cloister. art. s. we . r the While however the artists of the i ith and 1 2 centuries 1 "went to school." The whole of the article excellent . while the statuary bears impress of Byzantium and the East. and saints. Diet. Gilles show already that makes them portraits. The best of them is perhaps that of S.. at all events. they soon got beyond mere copying.- thus it is that . " Sculpture. buildings a singular mixture of motives. xx between ornament statuary exclusively centred. But their arcades are of the I5th and i6th centuries the outer wall even of these sides seems to be of the Les statuaires du XI I siecle en France commencent par alter d des Byzantins. and the other two sides have been though re-built in late Gothic times. there are fine examples. II faut avant tout apprendre le z/^r.. France is perhaps not so rich in cloisters as England. The north and east walks are Romanesque.72 Contrast FRANCE PROVENCE And . which owing to the declivity of the stands high above the church floor and is reached by a considerable flight of stairs. rop ime Provence. and introduced their own ideas. . the ornament being based on Gallo-Roman example with little or no trace of oriental feeling. and breathed the breath of life puts craft of it . but are beginning to individuality and character which element grew stronger in each successive generation. . Trophime at south. and in in the north. especially in j ^ r es site (pi ate CVII).

TROPHIME-ARLES .Plate CVII Cloisters: S.


which is not necessary. There -^ rop are many of these tablets let into the wall. is proved. i 1 There Is a tablet on the N. and.CH. and another dated 1 183 seems name of the Canon who superintended building. though still thoroughly Romanesque. contains the bodies of the persons commemorated. which sounds " hollow below them. by historical documents It is evidently later than the to have been built in 1221. it is difficult to its There is one tablet in quite so late. Dean of S. i ET CANONICVS CERDOS OPERARI ET REGVLARIS TROP SANCTI ECCLESIE EO HIM ORATE PRO : i : | \ : 1 . ANNO DNI M C LXXXIII O BUT PONCIVS REBOLL SA : : __^ VII \ . : KL : IANVARII i : . east walk. but even in Provence. and one mortuary tablet if not more of the i3th.D. if the guide is to be believed. according to the Guide Joanne. to a : . cloister. for contains doors of I2th century work. of one PONCIVS DE BASCIO CAPVT SCOLE ET CANONICVS (?Les Baux) REGVLARIS SCI TROPHIMI ANNO DMI is to the memory j This agrees with the apparent date of the The north walk. to a Canon and Provost of the church. pier of the cloister to JORDANUS. eastern wall. MCXL. 1203 another on the east wall commemorates DVRANTVS a precentor and canon who died in 1212 there is one on the west wall. place it 1 which bears the date almost to give the its 181. where the Romanesque style held its own longer than elsewhere in France. it The oldest of these is in the north wall .W. which is the oldest side of the cloister. 1187: one in the north wall records GUILLELMUS CAVALLERIUS A. north walk.D. . Trophimus A. XX] FRANCE PROVENCE it 73 earlier date.

and another in the east wall. Miramas is a neigh. or with figure subjects from the Old or New Testament of which the series is continued in the later capitals of the two Gothic sides of the quadrangle. The great piers the bays. 1221. and a diagonal one in the corner where the two corridors meet. The of the Romanesque cloister resting on coupled columns. The vault. either with foliage. and their rigid conventional pose. but without an entasis. round or octagonal. and the capitals throughout are delicately carved. . so that they are the same distance apart at top and bottom in spite of their diminution. . These figures of Old or New Testament worthies serve straight like the to Persians or Caryatides of classic architecture The two support the load of the superstructure. bouring A. MIRAMARS. CVII. set one behind the other to take the thickness of the wall above. and they are set with an inclination towards one another. mixed in some cases with animals and human heads. so that the consoles it and cornice from which springs on the inner side are considerably in canon VEFRANO. and that of the large figures on the piers. from 6f inches at the bottom to 5f at the top. Gilles between the style of the ornamental ' which has no trace of Byzantine feeling. xx ime (Plates CIV.74 FRANCE PROVENCE sides [CH. are more Byzantine than Roman. which with the scrolls and foliage columnar folds of their drapery. VILLLMVS D I could not find any others. and the bay is subdivided into four arches.D. ramps. and those at the angles of the cloister dividing are enriched with figure sculpture. The shafts are of marble. There is the same contrast here as at S. are Romanesque walks covered with barrel vaults. 1239. strengthened by transverse ribs at each of the large piers. village. CVII I) are divided by massive piers into three bays each. tapered.

en W HI (^ .


not level as the eaves must have been were but falls quite sharply from west to east along the north side of the cloister. But when the west and south walks were re-built in later times the front wall was raised and a on the top of the flat terrace formed all round the court cloister. built under the severe Cistercian rule in a much more restrained style than the lovely work at Aries and S. Partly cut in the rock. half convent half fortress. The most interesting building here is the . 75 Cloister.CH. The stone channel to which the original pent-roof descended remains to mark the old level of the eaves. . All the arcading of the Romanesque part is roundarched. and partly built into the side of it below the mighty tower of the keep is an early chapel enclosing what is known as the rock-hewn hermitage of S. Gilles. and the shafts from which the vault springs have semi-classical capitals of an inThe great church on the summit of the teresting kind. as are also the sides of the capitals. but it must be observed that this stone channel is this the true story. On of Chapel Trophime 1 It has been necessary to confine the thrust of the barrel vault by iron ties. another mark of Roman rather than Byzantine Abbey majeiir influence. an insulated rock some three miles from Aries is the abbey of MONTMAJEUR. which may have been the original arrangement. rock is very plain cruciform. cloister garth higher than those over the arcading of the side next the 1 This seems intended to accommodate a Tr ph ~ ime sloping pent roof. The chapel is barrel vaulted. perhaps of solid masonry. and single-aisled. and the piers are strengthened on the outside by buttresses in the form of pilasters with Corinthian These are fluted. xx] FRANCE PROVENCE . piers. and it has a fine crypt. Trophime. This at least is the explanation given by Viollet-le-Duc.

.76 FRANCE PROVENCE [en. 88 (Viollet-le-Duc). xx CD-3^ X ^ **' tt ^'^^'"""''^ Fig.

89 (Viollet-le-Duc). XX] FRANCE PROVENCE 77 Cloister cloister. A curious Romanesque chapel but really dedicated attributed by a fiction to Charlemagne. . each containing colonnettes with an arcade of three arches on coupled is enclosed carved capitals like those at Aries. which it is covered with a pent-roof over a at S. plain cloister is Fig. suggested was the original arrangement stands the few yards from the abbey buildings of S. consisting of three bays on a side. CROIX (Figs 88 and 89). barrel vault. from pier The and unrelieved by a single moulding. Each triplet to under a single segmental arch.CH. Trophime. pier.

who take it to be a Roman temple 1 afterwards It is turned into a Christian baptistery Architecture of Provence vol. near Perpignan. and is besides the porch door there another in the side next have been the cemetery chapel of the abbey. being built w ith under the Cistercian rule 2 . 90). xx Groix of four apses. Riez Byzantine building. 3 McGibbon. TRINITE on the illustration 8 same island seems s. is described by Viollet-le-Duc as richer in sculpture than any remaining in that part of France. .Tnmte r M c Qib5 on s to be almost a purely Pantheon. 433-4. But the most remarkable instance of Byzantine work in Provence would seem to be the building at RIEZ near Draguignan known as the Pantheon. for hollowed out in the rock all around are shallow graves barely deep enough to contain to windows. A S. p. in. Cloister at Elne The cloister at ELNE. forming a quatrefoil preceded by a porch. which is illustrated by Texier and Pullan. HI. At THORONET between Toulon and Cannes is an interesting church that there is Mr McGibbon 1 a cloister resembling that at Montmajeur but with an absolutely ascetic refusal of ornament. 321. p. which I have not seen myself. 244.78 Monts. from three the little windows It light close together on one side. the central square being carried up as a tower The only is containing a square cupola. pp. 422 and McGibbon.-le-Duc. i FRANCE PROVENCE It consists [CH. similar barrel-vaulted cloister exists Church of 1 on the island of j Honorat. a square building enclosing an octagon and the Riviera V. It does not however appear from his illustrations and those of Cloister at any statuary. n 1019. seems a body. which if it were ever really placed in them must have been covered merely by a slab level with the ground.-le-Duc. p. The church from jyj of S. 279. It is illustrated by David Mac Gibbon. 322. 2 by V. (Fig.

with the plan of the Pantheon . Fig. which is not essential to a baptistery. 78. sup. the plan jected apse." at Riez. sup. p. Ezra (v. i. being brought a the angles of the The plan is so like those of the Christian buildsquare. p." four deep niches in the oblique sides. 90 (Texier). The surrounding into an has an annular barrel vault. xx] FRANCE PROVENCE 79 carried up into a of columns bearing round arches and aisle tower with an octagonal dome. 33> that of the Syrian church at church and belongs to the family of which the Fig. is of the cathedral of Frejus also has octagonal baptistery "an attempt. 6) is a more at Constantinople of SS. niches octagon by semi-circular in - Fig. McGibbon "to make the floor as square as says Mr and this again seems to have some analogy possible. vol. East that it is impossible to accept the ings in the But for the absence of a protheory of a Roman origin. 19).CH. advanced member (v. i. Sergius and Bacchus The vol.

"seemed struck with impotence.8o Byzantine limited in FRANCE PROVENCE The [CH. Gilles disadvantageous^ with portals . In Provence Gallotradition ruled so strongly that it seems to have prevented that development of architecture into some- Provence Roman thing further. those of Notre Dame at Paris. In Provence we have Romanesque art without its ruggedness. p. and Provence never adopted Gothic architecGothic not 1 ture." He compares these splendid at Aries and S. passed from Romanesque to degenerated the architecture of the Renaissance. We may not entirely agree with him there. . Rais. though no doubt he is justified in drawing a contrast between the progressive character of the northern school. is not so marked in Provence as in ^quitaine. Elsewhere 1 it is tinged with barbarism. however remarkable at its outset. " Viollet-le-Duc says Auvergne. the reflexion of an ancient civilization. xx impress of Byzantine art however. and produced nothing but curious mixtures of various imitations which could give birth to nothing fresh and in the i3th century it sank into decadence. and this last 1 Provence" the end of the architecture province which only became French at 5th century. At Diet. and the romance of the land of the Troubadours to which it belongs. having yielded only too late and too im1 perfectly to the influence of the monuments of the north /' He remarks that the Proven9al school. and the semi. Refine- But softness if about the latter there may be something it of the SeTproschool and languor of the south. vol. which took place in the rest of France. except in the matter of statuary. has also in a marked degree the refinement of the ancient art from which it sprang. 150. but for the cathedral of Clermont. where it affected not merely the ornament but the construction of the architecture. I.Byzantine stationary qualities of that of Provence.

The buildings we have been considering have a loveliness all their own. J. and in the great 12th century churches on the Rhine there is nothing to soften the hard barren outlines of the ponderous construction. xx] S.CH. II. and Norwich the scanty ornamentation of the piers only serves to accentuate their rudeness. and a certain poetical quality that is perhaps wanting in the later triumphs of architecture at Paris or even at Chartres and Amiens. Waltham. But the Romanesque of Provence has all the delicacy of an advanced art bestowed on the simple and strenuous forms of a round-arched style. A. FRANCE PROVENCE 81 Albans and Winchester. . At Durham.

including Languedoc. by the 1208 against the Albigenses whose tenets they favoured. Middle Ages. . fire her cities burned. a country for that age flourishing and civilized. Toulouse s. the differences of language and laws continued to keep the people of this was not 1229. her inhabitants swept away by and the sword It 1 . j The great church of S. Persecu- They were brought however in into cruel relation to them Aibigcnses the I2th crusade preached in century and afterwards. was ti me unconnected with the French crown.CHAPTER XXI TOULOUSE The f r it THE a l ng county of Toulouse. Languedoc. that the greater part of the territory was added to France. distance from Paris and royal domain. SERNIN at TOULOUSE i g t jie most m p ortant 1 mc) nument of the I." is therefore Romanesque Sernm. after the desolation province distinct from those of the north. chap. not surprising. "The war was prosecuted with every atrocious barbarity which superstition the mother of crimes could inspire. The first king to make any pretension to authority within its limits was Louis VII who had But the -married his sister to the reigning count. that the remains of architecture in the county of Toulouse are not abundant. and till wrought by the wars of religion. was laid waste. style in the Hallam.



aisle. and found it was set out on angles of 60 and 45. takes it he was entirely as a pattern of good proportion. plan of French ecclesiology. 62 . with double aisles to the nave. wide.. and it finishes eastward in an apse surrounded by an am- .. pp. which is a later addition. so pleasing that led to study it analytically. vol. (Plate CIX). the total and . XXl] FRANCE TOULOUSE i It is an immense cruciform church. 1 2th century (Fig. intermediate heights being given by isosceles triangles with 1 sides at the angle of 45. and by equilateral triangles Over the crossing rises a lofty steeple of octagonal and finishing with a spire stages set inwards one by one../. g i ). VII. To support this. and strikes one as Viollet-le-Duc however TOULOUSE ST SERNIM * ' ' ' ' ' ' fOf^ M/\U v"' '' ' ' ' ' ' '>'' ' ' 'i ^ ^ *s :i ' ' is 'i ' ! M>r >: -ddL' ^fR ^tll ---*-5 ^fe--\' V k i ** Fig. i i -i 1 s. and a single aisle surrounding both the sides and ends of the transepts. It with five semi-circular chapels projecting thus possesses every feature of the complete ft. 539~542. Serum. the four piers at the crossing have had to be enlarged at 1 Diet. Toulouse bulatory from it. Rais. The nave is less than 30 narrow for so vast an edifice.CH. 91.

directly with three apses for choir and side aisles. finish with an ambulatory and a single chapel projecting beyond it at the east end. sup.84 s. and no ambulatory or radiating chapels and this is the old built in the . Toulouse the expense of the interior view of the nave. built towards the end of the 1 2th century. a porch and doorway with a stilted round arch of two deep moulded orders on jamb the south side is On shafts. Ascension. have been without chapels. i ith century chapels appear in Souillac and Angoulme it (v. no chapels. ends Autun. Many of those in the south and west of France still end in plain apses like the cathedral of Angers. basilican plan of the Pantocrator at Constantinople. xxi Semin. with its ambulatory and chapels. The Greek church to this date only allows a The earliest cathedrals in France seem to single altar. In the apse. divided from by an ambulatory aisle as at . In the details classic tradition shows especially in the cornice with sculptured brackets by way The of modillions across the base of the gable. and scores of churches in Italy and Dalmatia. or even end square like that of Poitiers and several of the domed churches of Perigord. sometimes attached directly to the wall of the main apse as at Cahors. they encroach disagreeably. and indeed without ambulatories. The cathedrals of Sens and Langres. projecting we have the French chevet completely deThe earliest Christian churches of course had veloped. As early however as the greater number. on which . containing in the tympanum a marble relief of the itself. Fig. FRANCE TOULOUSE [CH. The nave has a round barrel vault counterthrust by quadrant vaults over the triforium which of course forbid IT 11 a clerestory. 77). sometimes Vignory. middle of the I2th century.

Plate CX ' " ' /'? """' H t 3 ' * * til J'*** rffo^ 'ITff A 2^ ( < **" ~**'w*4 ** * < ' "* J/!S2rtr * ^^j. < ^ ^* ^> "" !...i " S. ** ' j. BERTRAND DE COMMINGES . .^ i< .


and Le Mans has no fewer In England the chevet with radiating The than thirteen. just . and the churches of Auvergne. on a . They The were more numerous in conventual churches than in cathedrals or parish churches at first. successful. except of the four evangelists placed back to back The composed each holding in his arms the against a central shaft. JUST has At the foot of a fine Romanesque doorway with figures of saints in the to the archway. jambs serving as supports The slopes of the Pyrenees near Luchon are dotted s. BERTRAND DE COMMINGES. and nowhere else in detail is . but At Tewkesbury the attempt is more very ineffectively. But as time went on chapels clustered as thickly round the apses of the cathedrals as round those of the abbeys. attempted at Pershore. which is his emblem.CH. is At S. which necessitated the provision of other places for the people. mmges church ending in a simple apse. foot-hill i of the i i i i . The I2th century abbey cloister attached to it is in a sad state of decay (Plate is a single aisled CX). but Westminster though English French in plan. Agen. with a fine east regular English square termination. s. window. probably because of the from the choir which was re- chapels is found at Westminster. and the architectural or indeed of the very far short of the foreign model. xxi] FRANCE TOULOUSE 85 Fontevrault. Bertrand de C omPyrenees where they melt into the plain. many of the details being quite unrecognizable. but even there the resemblance to the French Something of the kind is chevet effect falls very imperfect. and rest on that in one case the pier is coupled columns. . and disproportioned are capitals which are large carved elaborately with scrolls and figures. jealous exclusion of the laity served for the brethren. apocalyptic beast the hill the little church of S.

sometimes of marble. Their towers. church of the mountain village of S. have mid-wall shafts in the windows. Just. and few of the humblest it. Occasionally as at S. village churches are without often very roughly worked. Bertrand the figures are really excellent. village churches dating from the i2th century They have barrel vaults with transverse ribs springing from flat pilasters to divide the and apses with semi-domes. 92. and S. Fig.86 with village FRANCE TOULOUSE little little [CH. is common. The doors often have sculpture. xxi churches with or no alteration. AVENTIN (Fig. 92) is a considerable building. and the apses are covered with semi-domes. when they have any. executed in a less grotesque fashion than contemporary work in the north. The arcaded cornice bays. with a central and The .

Plate CXI South Portal MOISSAC .


built in the At the west end however it has the original 1 5th century. It is 87 also a western both pierced by windows with a three-aisled basilican church. doorway are raised The jambs the scalloped. have each side containing sculptured figures which projects two arches on and a frieze over . which suffered severely during the crusades against the is . north of Toulouse. nave barrel-vaulted with transverse ribs. Romanesque tower. the date of carving. The abbey of MOISSAC. to which was added on the south side a magnificent outer portal. Trophime is very slightly pointed The arch and its three orders are divided by a slender reed-like feature that serves for shaft in the head.Abbey of Moissac aisled apsidal church. row of rosettes dished round a which has a Byzantine character. the mid. and at the same time the tower was turned into a fortress by the addition of a over the entrance. ecstasy which is expressed The rest of the space is occupied by the 24 elders who crowns and hold musical instruments. with the tour sits. in front and carries a barrel vault. and the aisles The proportion is narrow and lofty. the building ends eastward with three apses.wall shafts. and cross-groined.C O * and enthroned. J a single. in a very lively manner. imperially crowned who regard him with an typical beasts around him. Across the is i i 1 1 i" wear lintel a of fine central flower. Albigenses. parapet walk round it with crenellation Fortified churches are not uncommon in this district. like that at S. and curiously (Plate CXI). In the tympanum jamb and arch in the a band or knot being only marked by Sculpture JVlOlSS3. . . xxi] FRANCE TOULOUSE tower. shafts next the opening follow the the The sides of the porch. Christ assigned to it by Viollet-le-Duc.CH. of which the nave was re. the capital This has a later look than 1150. scalloped outline. t The portal is magnificently sculptured.

88 Moissac FRANCE TOULOUSE On one side is represented : [CH. one seems to see the seeds of growth art. On Presentation the Temple is the opposite side is the and the flight into Egypt. which has little trace of or Byzantine influence. Roman and of the future Gothic Cloister. though lively and very inferior to that of Aries and S. and the It is the modelling is wanting in breadth and simplicity. full of Gilles. The spirit. the beggar is table while an angel carries his soul to Abraham. but in which. xxi them. The like central column which divides the doorway and supports the tympanum composed of animals interlaced one at Souillac which has been mentioned above. The attitudes are forced and extravagant. work of a very either all its different school. The finest in cloister of since it France though was first built. Another touch of northern grotesque is the monster at each end of the lintel from whose mouth proceed the ends of the threads which form the border of the rosettes. and like the intertwined figures of Saxon manuscripts or Scandinavian carving. receives it Lazarus the parable of Dives and lying at the foot of the rich man's who in his in bosom. M D M R F * R F R F . with imperfections. which with : Moissac (Plate CXI I) is one of the it has been a great deal altered Its original its inscription given by an abbreviations expanded reads date is as follows ANNO AB INCARNATIONS JSTERNI PRINCIPIS MILLESIMO CENTESIMO FACTVM EST CLAVSTRVM ISTVD TEMPORE DOMINI ANSQVITILII ABBATIS AMEN V V V . the figures are attenuated and drawn out beyond all proportion. is figure carving here.

Plate CXI1 The Cloister MOISSAC .


and the old carvings were re-fixed in the new work. The sculptures and the capitals no doubt belong to the date of the inscription. but the cloister was re-built early in the 1 2th century.CH. No . when the abbey adopted the rule of Citeaux. The arches of the cloister are now pointed instead of being round and it is not vaulted but has a wooden roof. . xxij FRANCE TOULOUSE 89 explanation has ever been found of these mysterious initials they have puzzled all the antiquaries.

And understanding that the God of the Romans gave powerful succour to those who feared him. not as invaders but as allies of the Romans. 30. and after that the A nation Christianized fervently . but gross in their feeding. tells The ecclesiastical historian naively the story of their conversion. as not unfriendly neighbours. VIJI. but decided to turn to some God. urfv* Socrates. finally Their kingdom lasted till 532 when it was conquered by the Franks under the sons of Clovis. hairy giants." When the Burgundians therefore established themselves in Gaul in the time of 1 Honorius they did so peacefully. they all with common accord came to believe in Christ. and coarse in their habits and his fastidious They are described . and they even turned their swords occasionally in defence of the empire against encroaching Visigoths. in that they were Christians before their arrival. to a city of going Gaul they begged Christian baptism of the And bishop. Being ravaged " " " the Huns they did not he says fly for help to any by man in their extremity." subsequent victory over a vastly superior " host of Huns confirmed their faith.CHAPTER XXII BURGUNDY The Burgun mns THK sett ] ers j n Burgundians differed from other barbarian Q au ^ SUC J1 as t he Franks. genial and kindly. . The Burans m 5th century by Sidonius Apollinaris who visited their king Chilperic at Lyons about 474. EccL Hist.

Why Why 2 do they not throw them into the river . where the rule of S. monasticism ofMonas 1CLSm centres of Cluny. Felicemque Cui non libet vocare nasum. Inter crinigeras situm catervas. and at its first introduction into the west it was viewed with Monasticism is Eastern cism disfavour.CH." It was not till the first half of the 5th century that monasticism spread. a young nun who died " was said from excessive fasting. and Clairvaux the passion for an ascetic coenobite life spread far and wide. their noisy feasts. Carmen XII ad 2 F. and then it did Quid me . allia. The it funeral at Rome The of Blaesilla. Civilization in France^ Lecture XIV. says S. and the really established itself in 1 west . sordidaque cepae Ructant mane novo decem apparatus. nearly people. xxii] taste FRANCE BURGUNDY 91 was offended by their loud voices. Basil was established in the 4th century. Laudantem tetrico subinde vultu ******* Infundens acido Quod Burgundio comam Felices oculos tuos et aures. their habit of greasing their hair with rancid butter. C. cantat esculentus. a product of the East. CatMllinum. . Guizot... Jerome when will they drive this detestable race of monks cried do they not stone them ? from the town ? caused a popular riot in 384. curious to find that it was among the descendants & that Burgundy the home of this jovial easy-tempered people established itself more firmly than in any other part of western Europe. butyro. Citeaux.. Et Germanica verba sustinentem. and the fumes of onions and garlic from their kitchens It is 1 . their rank cookery. and thousands of convents obeyed the Cluniac or Cistercian rule in every part of western Christendom. Yet so it was from the great religious .

monastery that wished to enter the order was obliged to consent to receive his nominee Subject at struggle first to the when a vacancy occurred. Gilles. Bertin de Lille. whose rule was soon Jburope so completely. At the their won latter part of century the ancient abbeys of V&zelay. 909 by William Duke of Aquitaine. and acknowledged no authority but that of Rome. . and the policy was established of bringing other convents into head.92 FRANCE BURGUNDY : [CH. 1 the nth Guizot. bishops. Mauzac. and Tintern. convents in France. and S. Kirkstall. Poitiers. xxn so only sporadically but at the beginning of the 6th century the system was reduced to order at Monte Cassino Rule of S.Benedict in Italy * by < all S. Netley. and in was re i easecj from dependence on the parent The Cistercian rule was obeyed by countless abbey. monasteries Each ofconvents B urgun di an therefore was of these two great the head of a confederation that extended far beyond the limits of the Over it the abbot province and even of the kingdom. S. The Cistercians filial relation with Cluny as their was adopted by the daughter house of CITEAUX. Figeac. obeyed over western 111 that Abbey uny of Charlemagne caused enquiry to be made throughout his empire whether monks could be found of any other order The Benedictine rule had become lax in Burgundy when the abbey of CLUNY near Macon was founded in 1 . Byland. Rievaulx. and any . Furness. Moissac. Civilisation in France^ Lecture xiv. Benedict of Nursia. which was founded in 1098. ruled like a sovereign each subordinate the patronage of the headship of house was vested in him. Germain TAuxerrois. Limoges. Italy. Fountains. and Germany. the monks after a long independence of episcopal control. and in England it policy The same ^^ included the great abbeys of Buildwas. Stricter discipline was restored. beAffiiiation sides other and smaller houses. S.

who reigned like a temporal prince. 1 It and to fulfil every function of the must be remembered that they were Guizot. on the same level as self-denial and This was the great revolution which S. a land desolated by barbarian invasions and constant It will easily Effect of teneson art wars. building trade. " is the enemy of the soul. . masons. like the king of France himself. duty. In the nth century three hundred and fourteen monasteries and churches submitted to the rule of Abbot S. and that the peaceful arts and agriculture could be carried on without interruption. their walls were cleared and land was reclaimed and within them literature dragged on a feeble life. be understood that the existence of these had powerful half-independent institutions in Burgundy its effect on the civilization. Benedict manual labour obedience. or at all events but very rarely. at others in holy reading 1 . of the carpenters. Hugh. in that province.CH. xxn] FRANCE BURGUNDY 93 sought and obtained admission to the order of Cluny. glaziers. and consequently the brothers should at certain times occupy themselves in manual : Manual enjoined labour forests . Crafts cloister The of artizans that existed lay guilds or confraternities in Italy had not yet appeared in France. and disorder. to be where beyond the convent precincts were artizans found." he said. and each establishment had to rely on its own resources to supply its needs. and the inmates convents had to be their own builders. Laziness. Civilisation in France^ Lecture xiv. where society was sinking into a sort of chaos. and struck money in his own mint. it was only in the convents that any security could be found. and with it on the arts of In those ages of misrule." Round . and the manual Noarts were practised with gradually increasing skill. Benedict in" troduced into the monastic system. But more than this by the was actually made a rule of S.

a Fleming. The covered with a barrel vault like the churches already described there were double aisles two transepts with . [CH.94 Monks laymen FRANCE BURGUNDY necessarily ecclesiastics. Orderictis Vitalis. Hezelon. perhaps most. 1 Gui2ot. the number of monks having outgrown the No great church was built in those without a miracle. cited 2 Baldwin Brown. not many inmates of the convents were artizans. . one Bernard of Tiron who founded a religious house near Chartres. The nave was foundations. Lecture Xiv. Benedict they were to continue working at their crafts. and their efforts resulted as might have been expected in forming a school of architecture in which we find the first seeds of progress and the first signs of growth and development. The at In 1089 Abbot Hugh began to re-build the church CLUNY. from Liege. " craftsmen both of wood and iron. though they were not to take any pride in In the I2th century. Early Art in England. manner of cunning work . Civilization in France. carvers and goldsmiths. xxn Many. and S. vinedressers and husbandmen. and while the bishops in the 4th and 5th centuries took precautions to limit the ordination of monks. and according to the rule of S. the monks themselves sometimes regarded the priesthood as a snare which interfered with their duty of divine contemplation Therefore 1 . painters and stonemasons. Peter is said to have given days the plan in a dream to the monk Gauzon who laid the existing building. great church was finished by another It was the Clunist. . vastest church in the west of Europe. gathered into it them. even discouraged from taking orders." The rapid spread of the order gave the craftsmen constant and regular employment They worked with zeal and and others skilled in all 2 enthusiasm. of In the early time they were the monks were laymen.

It was not dedicated till 1131. vol. was . Cluny stood unaltered till The a few walls nothing now southern great transept with the tower upon it The arches are pointed. p.CH. I.-le-Duc. Diet Rais. see the effect of Roman example which can be traced throughout the Burgundian buildings. case in all similar attempts human nature was been the 1 V. and on the end wall was represented the Last Judgment. He says elsewhere that this the only instance in France of a double transept. and conventual buildings were all in proportion. the The refectory being 100 ft. Cluny had been founded by the reforming party the Benedictine order in Luxury of Clumacs its who tried to bring it back to But as has original unworldliness and voluntary poverty. one would side walls think. a row of pillars down the were decorated with paintings of biblical subjects. and portraits of founders and benefactors. and the tower is brought into an octagonal lantern and has rather a German look. by extreme west end two towers. though its influence was not strong enough to impede the further development of the style as it did in character. 258. in length by 60 ft. Over each of the two crossings of the church was a tower. but beyond remains except part of the mixed with others of animals and grotesques. The flat pilasters are fluted and have capitals of a Corinthianizing the Revolution. a chevet with ambulatory and five semi-circular chapels a large narthex ciuny or ante-church five bays a church itself. xxn] FRANCE BURGUNDY their 95 The h f apsidal chapels on eastern side. quite long. in width which The would require. and two more towers rose over the ends of middle. the western transept. and the narthex was only finished 1 in I22O at the . . In this we Provence.

so that the monks need not go abroad. The constitution of the order. . xxn too strong for the reformers and wealth it fell into ways and the new abbey church was made as stately and ornate as the art of the day allowed. In a letter an Emperor/' he says.96 FRANCE BURGUNDY . and retired to The fame a desert place and extreme simplicity of life. of S. and before he was 24 he was elected first abbot of the daughter house of CLAIRVAUX. : Abbot might wear our garments if they . Bernard He inveighs against the luxuriousness of the Cluniacs.000. a mill. especially after S. or " to William. 1098 grew rapidly. The church was to be of great simplicity there were to be no paintings or sculptures the glass was to be white . Bernard joined its ranks. as Cluny grew in power of luxury and ostentation. Bernard was born of a knightly He entered the convent of Citeaux family near Dijon. age of 22.Bemard In the year 1091 S. [CH. without cross or ornament. and the Emperor Lothaire who visited it with his suite was struck with its modest simplicity. of the order Severity of architect laid down strict rules for the buildings. Theoderic (Thierry). who were shocked at the growing luxury and splendour of the parent house. This departure from the original principles of the order. s. Benedictine rule offended the stricter members of the and led to a second reformation. and a garden. and the bell-tower was to be low and unostentatious. The abbey of CiTEAUX was founded in 1098 by one-and-twenty Benedictines from Cluny. which was drawn up in 1119. His new at the abbey was built strictly according to the severe Cistercian rules. S. and in twenty-five years the Cistercians had spread over Europe and numbered 60. The monastery ture Close was to contain all necessary workshops. " condemns the splendid dress of the monks a King.

and drinking your wine ? Could you not have a candle without carrying about your own candlestick. their onluxiiry Condemns tect^' lengths. he speaks of the immense heights of the oratories. quadrupeds with the there appears so great and strange a variety of divers forms that you may if you please read in marble instead of books. all this. not use the same vessel for sprinkling your hands. and seem to represent mainly the ancient rite of the their immoderate their sumptuous finish. and many heads on one body. their curious paintings. beasts. Condemns grotes Why Why Why men tail ? " these unclean apes ? Why these savage lions ? these monstrous centaurs ? the half-men ? the spotted tigers ? the trumpeting hunts- ^ es Why Why again of a serpent. 7 . or the offerings of the fruit." simple "Even on tread upon." Then he turns to the cloisters and their carving. in front a horse. which attract the eyes of the worshippers and hinder their devotions. and spend the whole day in looking at these things one by one rather than in meditating on the law j. "do we expect from the admiration of fools. great empty widths. and trample on the features of saints. Bernard were cut to his fashion/' He exposes the parade of the bishops and abbots. and also wait at table ? " Alluding no doubt to the great church then building at Cluny. which we spit in the face of an angel. and that of gold or silver ? Could not the same servant be both groom and bedmaker. Men the floor are images of saints. dragging half a goat behind. xxn] FRANCE BURGUNDY 97 s. who carry all their furniture and " Could you plate about with them when they travel. fish with the head of a quadruped. In short You may see many bodies with one head. Jews. n. Here a horned animal carries a horse behind. A.CH. "What " ? he continues.

and they illus- tectural design. FRANCE BURGUNDY Good God ! [CH. p. ed. xxn silly if you are not ashamed of such 1 influence ofCls tercianmie things. however. in those days it ran in the blood of both The utmost the Burgundian. 2 M. ^ V^zelay the art took a great step forward. Bernard.-le-Duc says that the church at Citeaux had a square east end. Cistercian rule did was to direct the character of archiit. Cluny and Clairvaux were apsidal. Diet. little Of Cluny. s ^ mQ t j me as ^e new church at Cluny. do Just as the Moslem managed to build beauti- and romantically though his religion debarred him from the resources of sculpture. but buildings they are not the less beautifully designed. not to hinder trate the great truth. and may. 2702. if required. have managed to leave us some of the loveliest buildings of the Ruin of ^ Middle Ages. seen. so the Cistercians. of which Abbey of ^ at the province fortunately possesses many fine examples 2 The abbey church of VEZELAY was begun in 1089. while obeying the severe restrictions of their rule in the matter of decoration. but . 1 While Sancti Bernard! op. vol. V. revolutionaries. . did little to check r the artistic ardour of the nth and I2th centuries. Mabillon. The great church of S. chiefly Clairvaux modern has been turned in one case into a penitentiary. The early Cistercian are plain and unadorned with sculpture. X. We can only conjecture their vanished splendours by the analogy of contemporary Burgundian buildings. Art i i i alive . why do you not grudge the expense ?" These Puritan principles. in the other into a prison. Frank and Provencal. was pulled down not by the but by the restored Bourbon king. vol. that architecture does not depend on ornament. I. as we have What is left of Citeaux and enough remains. so often forgotten. where he was buried. XII. I. Apologia ad Guillelmum Sancti Theoderici Abbatem^ cap. XI. Rais. without fully it.98 of God.

CH. The obvious way of in the I The 1908 fine same manner. and disaster followed. Toulouse. starting from a stout outside wall. and at S. but not effectually. When saw in its condition seemed very perilous. At clerestory the best this plan only allowed very small windows. and abutting on the nave wall The the main central vault against the springing of inconvenience of this is that no clerestory windows are and the nave. and many others the side aisles were vaulted with quadrant vaults. This was a for the further great step in advance. as also at Autun and other churches which were built 60 or 70 years later. At Autun an improvement was made by making the nave barrel vault pointed instead of round. half semi-circular. Sernin. is very possible. and the it church at Saulieu is vaulted with a pointed barrel vault walls have given way in consequence. lit only from the ends. which diminished the thrust. 72 . the nave was covered with a barrel vault. low down in the wall. To remedy this the next step was to raise the nave and to form a clerestory. dark. Pointed and before long resist 1 flying buttresses had to be applied to it . difficulty and a got rid at once of a constructional practical inconvenience. and paved the way development of vaulting into the Gothic construction of rib and panel. Consequently tinuous The vaults along in the churches of the Auvergne. below the springing of 1 the barrel vault. But in doing this the nave vault was deprived of the support of the aisle' vaults. the whole length of the wall. It a barrel vaulted nave difficulty of constructing for its thrust was conlay in the necessary buttressing. at xxn] FRANCE BURGUNDY 99 Cluny. at V&zelay for the first time the attempt was made to apply to the great nave vault the which had till then only been principle of cross-vaulting employed in the lesser vaults of the aisles.

and at the end of the I2th century flying buttresses had to be applied at the points where resistance was required. the bay of vaulting would not be square but oblong and consequently the transverse arch and cross difficulty. Ambrogio in Milan by making each bay of the nave vault as long as two bays of the aisle which brought it to a square plan. but this presented difficulties of another kind. but they give plenty of cross vault was room were high enough to good clerestory. and the intersection of two equal cylinders presented no fas ja j on> But the nave being perhaps twice as wide as the aisles. not the i. 58). The aisles had long been cross-vaulted after the Roman nave Their bays were generally square in plan. is p.ioo FRANCE BURGUNDY [CH. Fig. however. In this way a good light was acquired for the nave. xxn Difficulties vaulting ie getting large clerestory windows was to cross-vault the nave. where the nave vault way corresponds bay by bay with that of the aisle (Fig. vol. and their ramped upwards intersecting with the for a Resultant main longitudinal vault as best it could. that is on the piers that divide b a y from g ut t j ie S y Stem was not com pi e te. for the Itelross vault {^ builders of Wzelay did not understand at first the need of strengthening these points sufficiently to take this concentrated thrust and to their surprise the vaults : began to push the walls out. and the difficulty of the continuous thrust of a barrel vault was avoided. This. section would be so much wider than the wall arch and the longitudinal section that the two cylinders would not intersect agreeably. . No attempt was made to raise the side arches to the sup. 262. 93). For the effect of cross-vaulting is to concentrate all the thrust on isolated points. followed at V&zelay. the arches became distorted. This difficulty was got over at S. . and made the intersection regular (v. level of the transverse.

-le-Duc).CH. 93 (V. xxn] FRANCE BURGUNDY 101 Fig. .

102 Still FRANCE BURGUNDY . having run the monastery into debt to the amount of 2220 silver or . sombre round-arched and decorated with rosettes. with a nave and in aisles. vol. height The three bays long and two storeys aisles are cross vaulted in the lower storey. 1132. which is a triforium or gallery. appearance in the constructive features for All the nave arches are round. and the narthex which was In the benefiting by their the builders adopted a more latter. windows are all headed openings. secure way of supporting the main vault. between 1198 and i2o6 in a vigorous early pointed style. choir and transepts of V^zelay were re-built in the 3th century.600 of our money* . in one of the few instances of polychrome masonry France. and led on naturally to the further development of vaulting on more scientific i principles. aisles are in a The nave and style . experience of the nave. In the narthex the pointed arch makes the first its time. a favourite Burgundian ornament The piers are compound.-le-Duc. arches. xxn the vault the step first taken at V&zelay was a great advance 111 n on previous construction. as well as the transverse ribs of the vault are built with alternate voussoirs of white and dark brown stone. and the stringcourses and labels are heavy.45. like that at Cluny is a church by itself (Plate CXI 1 1). There is no triforium. He says the Abbot Hugh was deposed in the p. But the Romanesque nave which was J The 1 . while the upper. [CH. and the clerestory plain semi-circular out. dedicated about dedicated in 1 102 remains. with attached shafts and the . last year for livres I. of which they afford one of the finest examples. has a ramping vault that gives effectual abutment to the vault of the central nave. splayed round both inside and 1 A characteristic feature V. The narthex. 232. .

N H o o Q X <u .


The show the larger figures in their convoluted draperies influence of Byzantine art. reaping. . putting corn into a The outer order has a series of consack. Gilles. and directed Round them is subjects in square panels. the extravagant. which is There are two orders in the including of the Vesica. ventional bosses. P ra porting a horizontal circular lintel. and so on. or one might almost call it the label of the transverse arches of the nave vault. inner is filled with small figure-subjects in the arch : a semi-circle of figure interrupted by the top 29 little circles. work has not only an undeniable life and spirit but also a . And yet in spite of its barbarism. All trace of classic grace is gone. tympanum bestowing the gift of the Holy Spirit on His disciples. smaller figures on the lintel and in the com<> _ It is partments of the arch have defied interpretation. difficult to see the meaning of the men and women with The Figure sculpture . and thrown into attitudes that are forced and tioned.CH. and the design is rather The figures are attenuated. and the small outer order. and has the usual central pillar dividing the opening and sup- v&eiay. xxn] FRANCE BURGUNDY ro3 heralds would call it nebuly in the design is a wavy ornament that runs round the wall arches. representing the signs of the Zodiac. but the sculpture is far removed from the style of that at Aries and S. It is round arched. and the occupations of threshing. rays emanating from His fingers. atv&eiay or of the dwarf about to dog's heads or pigs snouts. The great west doorway leading from the narthex to the nave (Plate CXI 1 1) is perhaps the finest product of Burgundian Romanesque. a figure of Christ in a Vesica. mount on horseback with the aid of a ladder. is In the middle of the semi- typified by to them severally. and disproporbarbarous.

which gives them a very precious and delicate effect and apparently almost the frailty of paper. vin. the foliage. Chapter . the influence of Roman art is observable. the hollow abacus Sculpture and the rosette of the Corinthian capital (Plate CXIV). with its double tier of shafts below and figures above. certain delicacy is given its peculiar method of execution. . 211. There is no trace f Byzantine in the leaves. even more remarkably displayed in the Chapter House which dates from about H5O The great consoles or brackets from which the vaulting ribs spring have the 1 . The figures are by carved as treatment scrolls it were all in low relief on a flat surface which is then sunk round them lintels to some depth. This same in the beautiful Byzantinesque of the north and south doorways at Bourges where the leaves and flowers are carved with a may be observed on the very flat treatment. p. as distinct from that of the East. holding a large disc with a mutilated figure of the mystic lamb. and much undercut. classic frieze of the Roman arch at of the effect of this grand doorway is owing to the central pier. House later. the piping and the rounded raffling of Roman type. many. volutes.io4 FRANCE BURGUNDY A [CH. The influence is same observable in the vestibule or cloister its to which the Chapter House opens. which have the feeling deep the channelled folds. .-le-Duc. but it is . jambs. with 1 square fluted V. in the The same division into two tiers observed In t . for which the disc is formed a nimbus. the upper part immediately below the lintel being occupied by a figure of the Baptist. both Romanesque and r ^ .parts of the church. xxn kind of primitive refinement. There is the same treatment on the rather rude Susa. spreading out to great width as it Much rises .



. basilican in plan. style. The same broad Roman nave capitals in the fine details treatment characterizes the at Romanesque church famous western AVALLON This aisles and the church is of its portals. It 105 piers and arches (Fig. and owing to the slope of the site the floor descends from west to east instead of . Fig. one wonders whether they tapered and with an entasis may not be real antiques used at secondhand and in the . with nave and side each ending in an apse. which dates from the last year of the 1 2th century and is in a thoroughly developed pointed Roman The great columns of the apse are monoliths. has left its mark also on the later choir.CH. triforium of the apse and that of the north transept square fluted shafts occur among the ordinary round ones. 94. xxn] FRANCE BURGUNDY 94).

but some of the type on which . The the cross vault old system of the barrel vault has gone. The jambs have columns divided by a particularly beautiful upright acanthus leaf border. In the ornamental sculpture at V6zelay and Avallon c*Ha if we sculpture seern to see the early Burgundian school in three Success i ve stages. and the groins almost disappear. A band of the Guilloche or Greek fret runs round the lesser arch. All the main arches are pointed. and in Stages of r many un " ancient mosaic pavements. The nave is crossvaulted. Gilles. many of them of religious significance. The same ropy scrolls. In the arch of the smaller doorway ought the scroll-work has a ropy look which is not happy. and scale with the delicate the great rosettes on one order are coarse and out of ornament of the jambs. they have the effect of arched surfaces from one transverse rib to another. . The to the nave and a great portals. are full of elaborate but unequal detail. and coarse rosettes appear in the south aisle doorway at V&zelay. with transverse ribs only. some smooth is it others are polygonal and twisted.106 FRANCE BURGUNDY [CH. carved in that perspective manner which occurs also at S. Some of the columns are plain. and one spirals spiral and carved like chain mail which looks as if to collapse. In the nave at V^zelay the capitals in grotesques abound and figure stories. but they are so narrow that their vaults are longer than they are wide. and the plan might be adopted with advantage in modern churches where similar difficulties of level present themselves. otherwise than agreeable. and that of is being tentatively applied. xxn The effect of this is not ascending in the usual manner. and as the transverse arches are not much stilted. which consist of a large doorway lesser one to the south aisle. and the aisles also.

xxn] FRANCE BURGUNDY his 107 In the narthex. . Fig. so that one wonders whether S. though some of them occur too. . so that their later work is often nearer to Roman example than their earlier. they clung with determination to the model supplied by classic art. Bernard pours the Chapter House at V^zelay and at Avallon the purer Corinthian type prevails. The only tower is a piquant little turret and spire on one side of and the fagade which is treated with much simplicity a plain cross the great doorway leading to the nave has in the tympanum instead of the sculptures of V&selay.CH. while in so short a period as that covered by Burgundian carvers made a great advance in technique. or Some of the capitals in the nave are little Moissac. sarcasm. Bernard himself. Bernard's diatribes had their effect It is interesting to see these buildings the how. the foliaged capital begins to take the place of these storied But in compositions. S. It was built in the latter part of the i2th century with a severity of design that would have satisfied S.95- The Cistercian abbey church of PONTIGNY about Abbey of n gny 10 miles from Auxerre contrasts strongly with the splendour of the Cluniac buildings.

Moslem capitals in the forecourts of mosques at Constantinople severity the church is beautiful. Let S. but many are storied with figure subjects. runs below the triforium. The aisles are cross-groined with transverse ribs but no diagonals. A Of the capitals some are composed of foliage. than V^zelay. as has been explained already the church is consequently very dark. flat fluted pilasters in front of them rise ribs of the vaults. the glazier has revelled in fancy patterns of lead-work. 99). carry the nave arches and form the sides of the piers . twisted. and a smaller one above it is studded with round pellets. xxn more than geometrical (Fig. although in the arcades cathedral at is The AUTUN later the round arch has given way to the pointed (Fig. 95). 96). through triforium and clerestory to carry the transverse Smaller pilasters. Flat pilasters. re- verted and tied. where though painted glass was forbidden by the strict all foliaged capitals. and in the glazing of the windows. heavy stringcourse carved with simple rosettes like those at Wzelay and Avallon. in the chaste virginal restraint of the general effect. fluted. but the nave retains the pointed barrel roof on transverse arches of the early constructive method.io8 Pontigny FRANCE BURGUNDY blocks. as abstract as the [CH." all its But with the delicate proportions. in the few concessions made to sculptor's art in the matter of simply It itself in shows severity are admirable in their way. Bernard do his best with his spiritual fork. p. windows. is There and no . the artistic Burgundian nature nevertheless "usque recurrit. The nave barrel vault springs so low down that there is only room for very small clerestory (v. The bases are Attic in section and tolerably correct. flat and fluted like the others divide the round-headed arches of the triforium. which with their Cistercian rule.

xxn] FRANCE. .CH. 96.BURGUNDY 109 Fig.

At the west end is one of the fine porches (Fig. but the church finishes like a basilica with three simple apses at the ends of the choir and its aisles. . and two more The scene is the flying upside down at the head. A similar division of the good and the bad is going on below in a string of in is little figures along the lintel. or chevet of chapels. . other angels are blowing the last trump are receiving the blessed spirits Michael weighs angels them in a balance. porch or narthex a magnificent flight of steps reaching from side to side rises with dignity to the 1 The central doorway resembles portals of the church this . V&zelay a difference which expresses that between Cluny and like the V<zelay which were regular establishments. series of texts lintel Leonine Hexameters on the upper margin of the interrupted in the middle by the words G1SEBERTVS MOC FEGT 1 Mr Hamerton made says the steps are modern. The narthex has a central all nave and an aisle on each side like the others . 97) characteristic of Burgundy. but instead of being enclosed narthex at Cluny and that still existing at the front stands open with arches to the street. The tympanum contains a figure of our Lord in a vesica which is held up rather ungracefully by two angels at the foot. .no FRANCE BURGUNDY [CH. and Autun which was a cathedral and secular. Under the great portal of V^zelay. and that before they were the ascent was by a slope of bare earth. resurrection . A . are vaulted. and thrusting them into the mouth of hell. and devils are carrying off the damned. xxn ambulatory. the nave with a semi-circular barrel vault ribs that spring on transverse from attached columns. There are shallow transepts and a Pond and porch central tower over the crossing.

CH. xxir] FRANCE BURGUNDY i ii Fig. 97- .

ii2 Autun FRANCE BURGUNDY Of [CH. its technique. and helps the abutment. At VALENCE the construction of the cathedral is different (Fig. which consequently projects considerably into the church. has columns and capitals below. and the bay being much Valence W. xxn the including orders in the arch. There are strong transverse ribs cathedral in its curiously by short colonnettes bracketed out from the wall pier (Fig. 98). so as to allow of large side windows. one has a scroll. The columns in the jambs are diapered and scaled. interesting church of S. case a bishop supported by two angels. and Corinthianizing capitals. 99). and carry " storied " capitals. The apse is vaulted with radiating ribs between which the panels are arched. and the other little circles as at Wzelay with signs of the Zodiac and other figures in them. like that at V^zelay. to S. and figures above. The sen pture in this The same seems sculpture at j^^ as to ^^ ^ y^zelay. Autun does not appear and to be by the Gislebert. some of the angels being between 10 and u heads high. which is cross-groined. to ribs. The nave has a barrel vault with strong . The figures at Autun are even more attenuated and drawn out than those at V^zelay. the cross vault has to ramp up like those at V^zelay. carried There are no diagonal shorter from E. or Gilbert have reverted somewhat more closely to the Byzantine style in his finely folded and convoluted draperies. The bishop on the central pillar is in a more advanced style. and has no aisles. and the central pier. and though it no doubt preserves generally the original design one cannot base any argument on s. but it The has taken a step in advance of the vault. The church is cruciform. jean. but the whole of this pier seems modern. JEAN at AUTUN observes the Roman tradition in its fluted pilasters. than from N.

98.CH. xxn] FRANCE BURGUNDY Fig. . J. II. A.

which are cross- The light is given by windows with jamb the upper part of the shafts in reveals at the sides. the vault of which springs from the level of the crown of the aisle arch. a town It is interesting church Roman rich in Roman remains. i i attached to the other three sides and carry the round arches of the nave and that across the aisle. The apse has a semi-dome and windows are round-arched. There is neither high as the nave. is surrounded by a with four projecting semi-circular cross-groined ambulatory These are buttressed outside by square piers chapels. are nearly as . Throughout this All the vienne tradition runs strongly. Plate CII). surprised to find over the crossing a flattish dome on regular pendentives. sup. which gives the usual basilican proportion. triforium nor clerestory groined. from centre to centre of the columns. and in this district one is. The desecrated church of . aisles. the nave being twice as wide as the aisles. xxn transverse ribs springing from semi-circular shafts attached r r> -i ir to the front of a square pier. bimilar half columns are ir . some with coloured voussoirs. apparent also in the fluted pilasters and other features of the cathedral of S. MAURICE at VIENNE. with unusually long transepts. and there are eight bays west of the crossing. that of the aisles 14.n4 Valence cathedral FRANCE BURGUNDY [CH. construction has a certain resemblance to that in distant Aquitaine. with Corinthianizing capitals like those of the nave pillars. in The of S. another some churches Aquitanian feature. and in the blank arcades occurs the horseshoe trefoil of the Auvergne and Le Puy. and four times as long as it is wide. Consequently the great vault of the nave is well abutted by those of the large round-headed aisle walls. for the aisles. such as that of Savin (v. The church is cruciform. The span of the nave is 28 ft.

8-2 . 99. xxn] FRANCE BURGUNDY Fig.CH.

which Sidonius Apollinaris celebrated in an ode. carried on four great granite columns which are . the church of the abbey of AINAY from the loth and 100) a building of considerable interest. [en. one over the crossing. and the termination originally intended A plain tiled roof now forms is the covering. At later. is a fine Romanesque tower (Plate CXV). has been a good SAULIEU is a fine though imperfect tower. Over those of the top stage but one be noticed at Le Puy and in are the horse- shoe trefoiled arches that have been noticed at Valence and will the churches of the Auvergne. capitals The columns are cylindrical with of a rude At the east end are three Corinthianizing character. now the At the end. under the same roof. a matter for Among other Burgundian towers there is a conjecture. to the nave and aisles and covered apses corresponding with semi-domes. once preceded by The tower is further buildings now nearly obliterated. and of the two that originally flanked the west front. Pierre. rather arches. with barrel-vaulted nave and basilican aisles and cruciform. cannot now be traced. There are two towers. the centre of the old Burgundian kingdom. good one at V^zelay attached to the south transept. FRANCE BURGUNDY PIERRE. there remains in (Fig.n6 s. Abbey Lyons' of and with pointed At LYONS. low and square. dating nth centuries but much altered in is The plan subsequent ages. though it deal spoiled by modern work. one still retains its original upper part. built against the Roman wall and pediment. xxn museum. oblong. pierced with arches on plain square piers. having three windows in front and two at the sides. though the church of Bishop Patiens. was once a Roman hall which was divided into nave and aisles by two walls S.



-le-Duc. . 100. of perhaps be some of the Fulmenia Aquitanica superba form. opening * V. occurring also at Guebviller and in a more elaborate form at 1 Itomes. The top stage has round arched openings with coupled colonnettes. sup. two churches illustrated by Viollet-le-Duc and I found it in the mountain valleys of Dauphin^ at Monestier and in other village churches in the passes leading to The four granite columns in the interior may Italy. 317. 315. in. by way of pinnacles. and at the angles. p. of antiques resting and covering an octagonal dome on squinches with round-arched arcading like Le Puy. The other tower is at the west end and has a low pyramidal spire. which probably suggested their four curious Fig. XXH] cut FRANCE BURGUNDY short. 31). IV. and finishes with a corbel table and cornice. like those at the angles of a Roman sarcophagus. 117 Abbey Ainay. which Sidonius sings (v. those at Lyons "antefixae" or horns.CH. This seems to be a Burgundian feature. 453. consisting of the fourth part of a pyramid or cone. There is a western gallery over the porch.

been so much restored as a great measure. CAPITALS in of &BLA NJ3 NA 1 . with a to have lost its below. LVOJYS Fig. Blan- dina. Lyons The transepts are shallow and do not the aisles. xxn Chapel of S. roi. covered with a crypt cross-groined vault and perfectly . raised on four steps. Outside the south beyond wall of that on the south side is the chapel of S. Blandina which dates probably from the end of the roth century but has project the nave. It ending m an authenticity in consists of a barrel-vaulted nave apse.n8 to FRANCE BURGUNDY [CH.

102). and The sixteen carry the outer arcade between the aisles. the corners of the square being curiously cut off by curved plain. . 40. I2*iom. 18*30111. respectively were two other storeys like them. . BENIGNE Dijon. xxn] FRANCE BURGUNDY is 119 square but has a semi-dome. 101). round arches and forming an octagon. Rivoira. and rotunda was destroyed elevations of the complete building have fortunately been .. to contain the tomb of S. II. and between these apses and the 6th century chapel he constructed the round church storeys over it. . of which the crypt alone remains (Fig. S. The which has been mentioned. 6. At the extreme east end still remains a very early building of the 6th century with a crypt and two church of the same date to which this adjoined was re-built at the opening of the i ith cenand tury by Abbot William of Volpiano in Lombardy. and 60 ft. when the edifice was intact. circumambient aisles the lower at the floor level of the church. The capitals of these columns have escaped restoration and are very typical of at DIJON still retains the a curious round chapel originally crypt or lower storey or attached to the east end of a basilica which preceded the All the upper part of the present Gothic building. vol. It consists of two concentric aisles surrounding a central circles being approxispace. their period (Fig. The cathedral of S. The apse arches carried on small columns. Bemgne preserved in Planchet's Histoire gdndrale et particuliere de Bourgogne. p. the upper at that of the triforium. Eight columns surround the middle 1 . with three apses. carrying 1 The dimensions are given as 5'9om.CH. in 1792. the diameters of the three Over the mately 20. published in 1739. sections. His building was a basilica ending dedicated in 1018. Benigne. area. but plans..

I2O FRANCE BURGUNDY [CH.-le-Duc). 102 (V. . XXH Fig.

p. part I. architect Abbot William was an Italian of Swabian descent on his father's side. Two massive round towers projecting from the north and south sides contained winding staircases communicating with all three wall abutted. which have been preserved . cylindrical pillars are place after the central tower of the basilica fell in 1096. design of Abbot William's work is rude in the extreme. xxn] FRANCE BURGUNDY .CH. the sculptor has attempted something more ambitious but The architectural design howwith lamentable results. . Benigne 1 about 990. open to the sky a barrel and a vault part barrel and In the upper storey part cross-groined the outer one. must have been a very striking and lasted interesting monument. 121 Dijon. of He entered the abbey of Cluny noble Italian family. and was made Abbot of S. but that round the central area ran up as an octagonal tower. where re-construction took infantile. ever is far ahead of the decorative work. 1 Mabillon. The few faint attempts at sculpture are barbarous and Towards the west. against which an annular quadrant vault springing from the outer In later times a lantern seems to have been placed over the central opening. and displays When perfect. under Abbot Maiolus. in spite of great originality. storeys. but his mother was of a its barbarous detail. central space was originally vault covered the next ring. and the capitals of the mono- *The Rudeness 6 work mere cubes of stone with the four angles chamfered from square above to octagon below. this rotunda. A eta Sanctorum ordinis SanctiBenedicti^ vol. Two lives of him. and its construction which Its wmiam for nearly eight centuries was daring and successful. The arches are cut square through the wall without any moulding. 286. the outer ring of columns was omitted. causing considerable damage to the adjacent parts. VI.

probably despoiling older structures.. like this one at Dijon over the tomb shall It is . Sepulchre which enclosed a model of the tomb at Jerusalem. or like the Templars' churches with an obvious reference to the object of their order. Rivoira on the other hand who writes with the object of minimising 3 .-le-Duc. and was surrounded like that at S. 3 Ibid. . Holy Holy Sepulchre. multi ad eum : aliqui literis bene eruditi. 2 Item Coeperunt denique ex sua patria. and himself directed the work 1 Scholars. p. of S. The rotunda . Benigne. and Abbot William brought master craftsmen. Cronaca S. Spitilegium. 283. . His energy in building was not less than in bear witness to his activity clerks. alii agriculturae scientia praediti.. 381. n. * originally open to the sky m .122 William of pian FRANCEBURGUNDY in [CH. built over a tomb. hoc est Italia. there .. Benzgni Dwionensis. and skilled husbandmen 2 flocked to him in great numbers from his native Italy by whose art and genius we are told the place profited much. V. 1M r-^. and Viollet-le-Duc points out the resemblance between the two which suggests imitation Sigr. D'Achery.. . Quorum ars et convenire: operum magisterio ingenium huic loco profuit plurimum. seeing that not only opening schools his zeal for education. Benigne he took that as a divine call to re-build it. Finding the church of S. Sepulchre was . . via. in which connexion we Round churches hear of him again. . and collected all columns of marble and stone from about. . were imitated from Church of the the Church of the . the centre. or over a cenotaph like that at Neuvy S. whether generally . He died at Fecamp in Normandy. . alii diversorum docti. for xxn poor Burgundy but throughout all France they were deficient in knowledge of chanting and reading. 1 Reverendus abbas magistros conducendo et ipsum opus dictando. past repair Bishop Bruno of Langres found the means. craftsmen of various trades. said that these round churches. Benigne with concentric aisles. .

KOI e* ravT^s piarBbv \apftdvovrcs dirorpfipovrai. xxn] FRANCE BURGUNDY 123 the influence of the East on the architecture of the West Round during the Romanesque period. though which occurs S. thinks the suggestion came rather from the domed mausolea of Roman work such was built between and 329. Hist. and a school of architecture was founded of which the influence spread subsist 1 Rivoira. 32. Benigne and other round churches in the west of Europe in the nth century because it was based upon western examples of the 4th. c. Socr. vol. Sepulchri Jeroso limitani*" It was from the workshops of Cluny that architecture made a fresh start in France. and not as some suppose from However this may be it would the East to the West1 not follow that the rotunda at Jerusalem was not taken as the model for S. etc. m . Of Neuvy S. 3 on the wages they get thereby . But independently of the itself The shelter afforded by the cloister to the peaceful arts the turn Burgundians themselves seem to have had a natural The Byzantine historian of the crafts. He from Rome to the East. 3 eQvos ftdpfiapov ircpav rod Trorafiou 'Prjvov e^ov rrjv OIKTJCTIV^ BovpOVTOL (Siov dirpdyfJiova OKTLV del. Costanza has the annular vaulted aisle says that the fashion of Dijon. 30. 2 Archives des monuments historiques.-le-Duc. Origini. Sepulchre it is expressly recorded that it was built "adformam S. irdvrcs <riV. 283. and that of the Empress Helena.CH. Neither 326 of these however had an open eye in the centre of the as that of the Princess Constantia which dome. p." Under and the protection of the Church their native bent for the arts found full scope for its efforts. Eccl vi r. For they are nearly all of them craftsmen. rotundas with cupolas and annular vaults was imported at . n. vni.TCKTOVCS yap cr^e^ov yovv&coves KaXovvrcu. for the manual lead an easy life all 5th century says of them that "they their time. cited V.

was to be 140 2 . such science as the age possessed. to those venerable walls within which not even the clamour of arms could be heard to disturb the chant of holy men and Foreign the sacred service of the altar in " ! The regular clergy which were taught letters. "The church was to be . glazed the entrance. the almonry 60 feet long. chap. philosophy. At the end of the I2th century in the in architecture ceased to be hands of the clergy and passed into those of laymen France. part I. long with 1 60 windows. before forth to carry them into other places. says on the desolating violence which prevailed that reflecting 1 . conducted schools From this centre masters of the various crafts issued In 1009. 34 high with 92 glazed windows the refectory was to 6 feet high by 2\ wide each over be 90 feet long and 23 high. xxn and wide wherever the Cluniac order extended itself. as it had done long before in Italy. How must this right have enhanced the veneration for How gladly must the victims of religious institutions! internal warfare have turned their eyes from the baronial castle. Abbot Hugh the Venerable sent out a disciple Jean de Farfa with instructions and a of the specification for the buildings monastery 140 feet at in his native place. 1 2 Middle Ages. the great church of Cluny was built. IX. . . c arts Hallam. but till The the'refoge of the arts all progress in the anc^ in the spread of knowledge. there should have been some green spots in the wilderness where the feeble and the persecuted could find refuge. and the arts. the dormitory feet long. theology. the dread and scourge of the neighbourhood. forming a parvise for the to have two towers laity . This must have included in the height a ground storey below.i2 4 far FRANCE BURGUNDY [CH. while conc em ning superstition and other evils that attached to then the Cloister was the centre of ^ [ "we can hardly regret in the monastic system.

and goldsmiths the stables for the monastery 125 feet long by 25 wide and vital for guests 280 feet long by 25*. 125 the workshop of the glaziers." Convent workshops shows how wor s provision ps a part of the conventual system the crafts were considered in the nth and I2th centuries. i Burgundy 1 L'Abb Cucherat. at all events at the rigid rule of S. besides the natural capacity of its people n r for the arts.CH. those that were being raised by the new schools that arose outside the Cloister. 1. The Cistercians were not behind the Cluniacs in the The matter of architecture. during /- stagnation tecture Material in i . . 125. jewellers. cited V. - . and tended to become stereotyped. In subduing the decoration they followed. Nowhere perhaps did the crafts of and in the masonry reach higher perfection than there the succeeding bordering province of Champagne. Bernard and this had the effect of retarding the progress of Romanesque architecture during the latter part of its course. in lay hands the art had begun to develop new forms. so long as its practice first. Monastic architecture as time went on lost the life and freshness of its earlier Long after stages. . . Cistercians was confined to clerical hands. . . posregular establishments which sessed also great advantages in the splendid stone that was quarried there. Burpnndv. and how they were practised and developed within the protection of The ample made for the cloister side by side with the literary labours which have given us the splendidly written manuscripts and illuminations of those centuries. and the powerful influence of the great fostered their efforts. xxn] FRANCE BURGUNDY . Cluny au XI* silcle. and to employ novel principles of construction the monastic and lagged behind buildings bore a conservative character.-le-Duc. though one can always recognize one of their churches by its severity and restraint of ornament.

And in the quaint imaginings of the storied capitals. FRANCE BURGUNDY [CH.126 s. Every part of the construction shows complete knowledge of the strength of the material and exact appreciation of the imposed upon it. and the design task : savours more of engineering than of architecture. and strange stiff sculptures of the tympana to which archaicism seems to lend a mystery. one finds something more interesting and even more sympathetic than in the in the brisk caps a crochet. Wonderful as it is. xxn Urbam royes at In the church of S. betray. To it seems an artist's eye the work looks thin and wiry as if science were getting ahead of art. and the more facile sculptures of the later Gothic at the end of the I3th and in the I4th centuries. URBAIN period of the Gothic style. and seern scarcely equal to their work. The supports are reduced to a minimum. even if it be often superfluous. . TROVES we have a miracle of masonry. fuller satisfaction may I think be got out of the massive work of the Burgundian Romanesque where there is a more generous allowance of material and more obvious sufficiency of support. amid which the fancy of the carver ran riot. it by the side of which the earlier sculptures must be admitted. a spice of barbarism.

105) for the deep transepts instead of liarity of the upper part. rather later.of which except the Issoire. the province however has a The the Auvergne strong individuality. XXIII AUVERGNE county of Auvergne. The crossing is singular. may be The architecture of known examples are those of Notre Dame du is Port at all Clermont-Ferrand. Nectaire. named. 1 Hallam. I. last and Brioude. S. and in the decorations of Notre Dame du and the group of buildings belonging to the same class. 104. Middle Ages^ chap. Port Aquitaine. with Clermont for its till the middle of the loth century recognized the of Aquitaine as its feudal superior. The plan is cruciform. and the churches of The best said to have a style of their own. Duchy I2th century however the Counts of 1 The political Auvergne again did homage to Guienne connexion with these different powers at different times early part of the . does not suggest the pecuground plan (Figs. which date from the beginning of the lath century. but the management of the and very beautifully contrived. . and after that In the the Counts of Toulouse got possession of it.CHAPTER THE capital. by the domes of at Clermont. explains to some extent the which at Le Puy seems influenced architecture of the province. . appears to be affected by the Byzantine traditions of the south.


transept* corresponding to the nave aisles. seems to afford it a good broad base to stand upon. have only their inner part. which it does with a very dignified effect. 103 B).CH. xxra] FRANCE AUVERGNE 129 rising in the usual way for their whole extent to the same The height as the nave and choir. 1033). These half-barrels in their turn have their thrust resisted ways to by them over the lower part of the transept . where it finishes with a pyramidal roof This break in the height of the transept is an admirable contrivance for setting off the central tower and spire to the best advantage. Instead of this the short high transept. r i continuous half-barrel vault over the tnfonum of the . the aisle below being cross. while so of the transept as projects beyond the. j. for windows to light the central part of the church. diminished by the unequal and an opportunity is afforded is supported on four great arches which are steadied by the barrel vaults of the nave and choir on two sides. 9 A. and carried up as an octagonal tower to a considerable height. At the same time the floor space is not affected or height of the transept roof.vaulted. and also that of seeming to carry the tower on the roof itself. . aisles is kept lower (Fig. constructed as a true dome. barrel vaults running crossConstmctionofroof The barrel vault of the nave is supported by a * 1ir . and on the other two by half-barrel vaults over the raised parts of the transept. All four arms of the building are covered with barrel vaults which are stopped at the much central crossing by a tower and This is not cupola. and to form a sort of shoulder to support it. but an octagon is formed by squinch arches. 103 A). /- aisles (Fig. ii. which pitch The central tower against it (Fig. carried up. not much wider than the tower. It escapes the fault of appearing to bury the tower between converging roofs.

but are they have proved effective the very massive.. could easily be covered with a gabled roof.1 3o FRANCE AUVERGNE - [CH. especially when pointed as it was in later examples. The i sanction slightly buttressed. In Constantinople and the East the curved back of the vault would have been allowed to in the smaller show itself. without any timber construction such as was required when the art of The cross-vaulting with rib and panel was perfected. t r n entirely on the stability of the outer walls. but this fashion never obtained in western Europe. Not only are the arches made with black and white voussoirs alternately. and as construction may be pronounced to be in perfect equilibrium. and the lead or tiling would have been laid on the back of the arch. which are . where the gabled roof its defects is universal is The drawback to this mode of construction that the half-barrel vaults over the triforium.. xxin The Auvergnat con- strength of this construction consequently depends . and the spandrils of . in order to abut the great central one over the nave. had to pitch against it at such a height as to make a clerestory impossible . but the gables. is volcanoes of the of the district Situated as they are among the extinct Puy de Dome. the black basaltic rock in their construction it . used as a freestone and advantage white stone in is taken of this to mix with yellowish mosaic patterns on the exterior walls. and the only light the church could receive was by the lower windows in the aisles. those at the east and west ends. and what little stole in through small windows at the back of the triforium* Poly- masonry is Another striking feature of these Auvergnat churches the polychrome masonry with which they are decorated (Plate CXVI). as it does temple of Diocletian's palace at Spalato. barrel vault. is On these vaults the roof laid directly.

^ *. -i ^' A"\' ^ " ' -i..Plate CXVI f /r -->^ '>?. . rr ! : v: l/tu*--> r 1 ' * *- k i '..'A "*r'.^^Sp^^jp-^r^^^i*^ >f^r.\ fA : - .i .^f?:*r^^^^ ^-e^^SHiii^^ ^ ..'/^ 1 fc .-^ r^ . 4.A'-ri '-//Jj^' _ j ^. r~ BRIOUDE . f ^ rr^ / ^^v.


140). and in that English architecture is perhaps richer than Except to respect French. which have a considerable the exterior There is Classic projection and are carried on regular modillions. out the curled shavings resulting from Some such incident of the workshop probably suggested the design. and with a dismal effect of colour. leaving a bracket in the middle. white marble are introduced with good effect among the This form of decoration patterns of black and yellow. This fancy 92 . struck with the possibilities of so unusual a material as the black basalt. at Notre Dame du Port. p.CH. but had left off before cutting the operation of his chisel. one may imagine it the tinctly a result of some fortunate visit to the Auvergne of a Greek Poly- or Venetian. Michel. a strong classic feeling in the cornices of of these churches. not unlike those at the Byzantine palace of Constantine Porphyrogenitus (Plate XXIII. little bits of s. for mosaic was dis- Byzantine art to begin with. and persevere in the kind of design so happily begun. i. in happy idea of contrasting The Auvergnats did not masonry a certain extent at V&zelay I know no other instance of polychrome masonry in France. which crowns cornice. and who. and the carpenter had begun to sink the sides. nor indeed did it continue even in this district. vol. Michel rliguiiie seems to suggest an oriental origin. xxin] FRANCEAUVERGNE 131 the arches are faced with mosaic in geometrical figures. the later cathedral at Clermont is built entirely of basalt without any relief. to whom the sight of mosaic was familiar. These. so picturesquely its needle of rock at Le Puy. conceived the it patterns with lighter stone. As the fashion for polychrome masonry did not spread in France. and a fine wide frieze of it is carried round the main apse below the In the little chapel of S. are queerly fashioned as if they had been of wood.

not peculiar to Auvergne. with transverse ribs from each groined pier to attached wall-shafts. I have seen an old print which shows nothing above the roofs of nave and restoration.132 FRANCE AUVERGNE is [CH. The church of NOTRE DAME DU PORT. small light. 104 (V. and the piers are square with an attached shaft on all four sides. 1 and opens to the nave with a triple give arcading of slits though a very satisfactory one. and in that of the Notre Dame du Port. ancient baptistery of S. a the nave runs up as if to carry a transverse arch aisles are lofty which and are crosswanting. xxin however S. has barrel vault the arches are plain and square in section without mouldings. . It is and the transepts are broken in height to form the shoulder or base for the tower over the crossing 1 which contains . or it quadrant vault described above it is . The triforium is covered with the halfis however The barrel. This tower modern transepts but a small wooden belfry. is the best Clermont known example of all these Auvergnat buildings.-le-Duc). of which that towards . Corbels with these curious curled sides occur in the cornice of the church of Radegond in the outskirts of Tours. the local pecucruciform. Leonard near Limoges. 104). at CLER- MONT-FERRAND. and exhibits liarities that have been mentioned. The nave NOTRE DAME DU SCAUB or recr Fig. an octagonal dome on squinches (Fig.



is the central bay eastwards having a window This arrangement occurs instead of the usual chapel. is one of which much : perished. but not niched and above are two groups of small figures. In the centre of it is a conventional temple with altar and hanging lamp next to it on one side is a group of the Presentation. such as that of Bishop Handegis at Pola. lintel is The sunk 1 sculpture on the very deeply cut. which also is a favourite Auvergnat plan. 330. The pedimental one of some of the Byzantine doorheads. with the Infant Saviour. and in the solid the other figures are planted on the Muste du Trocadero. v. Right and left of the door are single figures into the wall. from this. on brackets under a hood. and On the Baptism with angels holding towels. The CX VI 1 1) is beautiful. The apse barrel-vaulted with a semi-dome. and at the west end is a gallery over a vaulted porch. to the other side is the Virgin beyond it whom the three Magi approach with offerings. and has a chevet with an ambulatory which is cross-groined withFour semi-circular chapels project out transverse ribs. Sophia. 332. xxm] FRANCE AUVERGNE 133 Notre Port columns carrying the horse-shoe trefoiled arches which are a characteristic of Auvergne and Burgundy. Illustrations in the . Plates 181. lintel and very reminds carved . also at the church of Chamalieres on the way to Royat a crypt below the choir with a double descent. south door (Plate characteristic of the style. Inscrip- tions in hexameter verse describe the subjects. both inside and out of the All . is There opening to the nave and feature of the aisle.CH. the capitals are carved with figures of sacred The scupure church 1 subjects. Above under a horseshoe arch is a seated figure of our Lord between two six winged Seraphs recalling those in the mosaics at S.

105. but here it is little taken off. and over the crossing is an octagonal dome on squinches. group. and position. Fig. and studded in the head of the arches with sections of basaltic columns. 105) the largest of the ISSOIRE *' x Li - L - LJ . xxm The face of the wall in a wall has been Dame du Port typical of the style. piers are square with attached shafts. east end in rough mosaic lava and white stone than any other church of is more richly decorated with Auvergnat style (Plate CXVII).134 Notie FRANCE AUVERGNE manner [CH. but there is no transverse rib to There is a western tower. more than a square with the corners The choir as at Clermont and Brioude is lower . but the description of the construction at Notre Dame du Port will apply almost word for word to this The nave is lofty and barrel vaulted. the building also. restored but the figures are not would seem they are in their original The The work this Issoire side walls are arcaded outside. much it touched. of which that on the nave side runs up. . a porch across the front the transept is of two heights. and a gallery over rest on it. is The church at ISSOIRE (Fig.




Plate CXIX 1 . NECTAIRE . ? '' '* S.

A single roof as usual covers both nave and aisles in an unbroken slope. The four arches of this tower are adapted to the so that over height of the choir and not that of the nave. this church an two towers at the west end which give On the whole its fellows. Nectaire struck of all me as the most pleasing Brioode these Auvergnat churches (Plate CXIX). and is reached by a drive of about two and a half hours from Issoire. semi-circular chapels. cross-vaulted aisles. 130) is the latest of the . and the upper part the others are open arcades The nave has a triforium is very dark. The construction here is exactly like those already deis scribed. Dame S. Rude s. p. ambulatory. instead unlike the other four which This central chapel is square are semicircular.CH. individual character among the interior of S. and the columns. about the sculptures are dotted storied as at Notre are exterior walls. quadrant vault over west gallery opening by arches over a porch into nave and aisle. simple There are storied capitals are confined to the east end. chapel at the east end of the chevet. In one respect Issoire differs from Clermont : it has a of a window. BRIOUDE (Plate CXVI. xxni] FRANCE AUVERGNE 135 than the nave.Nectaire almost Alpine. that on the east being a window while looking into nave and transepts. and the capitals du Port. which allows the central tower to be well seen. 106) has the smallest church of It is situated on a lofty rock in scenery that this group. chevet with and exterior mosaic. triforium.^. them on all four sides is room for a triple arch. with horseshoe trefoiled arches. and a central tower with dome. through a fine country. with barrel vaults to nave. Here however instead of compound piers the nave has cylindrical with Corinthianizing capitals. NECTAIRE (Fig.

136 FRANCE AUVERGNE [CH. 1 06. . xxm Fig.

but some the pilasters are fluted. There is gallery at the a western tower as at Issoire. with a barrel vault above and a cross-groined vault below constructed in ashlar. The The pointed and is open as a lantern to the floor. in which the attention of the architect seems to have been chiefly bestowed on the eastern end with its chapels. The advanced style of this church appears in the windows. On the south side is a fine are mostly Corinthian izing. which instead of the plain round-headed openings of Clermont have two orders of shafts and arches. and are vaulted in two heights. and a good deal hidden by houses built up against it. transepts do not outrun the aisles. and a circle above and if have prevented a barrel vault. be. in a village now houses to Clermont. and some of common in Auvergne. xxm] in date. Two bays of the nave next the crossing remain in their original state one has three blank arches where the triforium should . and the central tower. has escaped rejoined by storation. The west front is very plain and simple. FRANCE AUVERGNE 137 Brioude group and has not only suffered a good deal of renovation in modern times like the rest. fa9ade church of CHAMALI&RES. and a porch and west end.CH. but was also a good deal pulled about in the I4th century. with an east . It has little The Chama- lines of an ambulatory and four apsidal chapels. . when the nave was ceiled with rib and panel vaulting. and this is simplicity characteristic of all these Auvergnat churches. central tower over the crossing rests on four arches. which is porch of simple design. forming a gallery. but is in a sadly dilapidated condition. this is original it would The other bays have a clerestory into which Gothic traceries are inserted. The not capitals are storied.

xxm window The nave has the original barrel and panel vaulting and flying buttresses. outside of the building. is a church with central tower. a central tower. consists of three aisles four ribs. the domical construction of the nave which has been described in a former To that of the former chapter. except no apsidal chapels attached to the ambulatory is that there are aisle. Royat The choir is church at ROYAT single raised peculiar. not seen it. for I have side regularly fortified like a castle with parapet and machicolations. The There is by nine steps above a vaulted crypt. transepts. At S. has characteristics of the styles both of Auvergne and To the influence of the latter school belongs Aquitaine. and barrel vaulted. bays long. Three arches at the west end open into what may have been a porch or narthex as at Notre Dame du Port and the other churches like it. but the choir has rib s. but at present there is no exit and the church is entered by a vault. square ended. It is cruciform. a triplet of round-headed windows and above them a Fortified church i3th century. like and an ambulatory. It The crypt is extremely interesting. and on the cusped i sex-foil circle of the The i 11 south side is a castle yard or bailey. in all respects the other churches that have been described. may be traced the polychrome decoration of the masonry . SATURNIN. [CH. cross-groined without have capitals of an early type. aisled.Satumin In other respects the building conforms to the Auvergnat type. as shown by a photograph. square.138 chama- FRANCE AUVERGNE in the centre. an apse inlaid with mosaic. > and the columns The cathedral of LE PuY as has been said above. surmounted by an The east end has octagonal stage carried on squinches.

Plate CXX LE PUY .


and figures of men and animals. The keystones of the outer order of the arch are orna- carved with mented with little figures.CH. holding her tail in her hand. The voussoirs are of black basalt and white stone alternately. It is not all of one date. with plain cross-groining. The (Plate cloister at is Le Puy on the north side of the nave Cloister. and CXX) dating according to Viollet-le-Duc from the loth century. that in the older walks being simpler than the others. and in the earlier part have the leaves raffled in the The Roman fashion with distinct pipings. % among which is a mermaid. 107) follows. the middle order in the later arcades being replaced by a singular band of ornament like an exaggerated bead and reel. the other three were re-built in the I2th. Above. and the spandrils are filled with a rough mosaic of basalt and red brick in various patterns. The cloister is covered capitals are rude and distant copies of Roman Corinthian. xxm] FRANCE AUVERGNE 139 which forms so important a part of the design. LePuy though it has suffered a good deal from the severe restoration of M. A in the capital in the north transept (Fig. that on the west side being the latest. In the decoration by polychrome masonry however one may suspect a trace of Byzantine influence. heads. the southern walk next the church being the oldest. one of the most charming in France. and both here and church are capitals with a curious resemblance to some we have described at Ravenna and Salonica. The columns are diminished in the classic fashion. is a cornice delicately scrolls. though at an immense distance. both of the exterior and interior. the construction of one at S. and carry round arches of three orders in the earlier walks. Demetrius in Salonica (Plate VIII) with the selfsame convex band . Mallay.

140 FRANCE AUVE RON E [CH. . 108. xxnr Fig.

Plate CXXI South Porch LE PUY .





Capitals of South






of scroll work below the stage of the volutes and in a capital from the cloister at Le Puy (Fig. 108) with its

Byzantinesque birds dipping into a cup, and its leaves thrown sideways, is it too fanciful to detect a suggestion

from the blown leaf capitals of S. Apollinare at Ravenna, and those in S. Demetrius and at Salonica? (Plate III, vol i. p. 52).






of the most remarkable features of this church

Le Puy,

the south porch, with its singular detached ribs within p^ch the true arches of the construction (Plate CXXI). They

spring from columns, like themselves detached from the main jambs. The capitals of these columns and of the

whole group of shafts carrying the arches are very strange, and unlike any other French examples known to me, and in their semi-barbarous richness remind
one of Indian work rather than that of any other school

Some of the shafts are fluted, others (Plate I). are covered with small reticulations of sunk chequerwork, and one resembles on a huge scale the ornament that has been noticed in the cloister like an exaggerated
version of the classic bead and reel.


Close by this porch


the great campanile (Plate The which dates from the end of the nth century. campanile 1 1), built mainly of the lava of the district, and is

remarkable for


extreme diminution as


rises storey

by storey. This is managed by four interior pillars which rise through all the stages till they take the reduced structure of the upper part, so that it has no These pillars are steadied by being united false bearing. to the outer walls with arches and vaults forming galleries round the interior of the tower. It has in the upper part the same steeply pedimented windows which occur in the steeple of Brantome near P6rigueux, and those of



S. Junien in Aquitaine,




Leonard and

and which are

found also

the steeple of

at Chartres, farther north.

Venddme and the old steeple Lower down in the tower are

windows with the horse-shoe trefoil heads which occur at Notre Dame clu Port, Issoire, and the other Auvergnat churches, and are to be seen farther east at Vienne and


Fig. 109.

Distinct as the schools of these several provinces are in the main, they nevertheless overlap in minor details

such as these. Another instance of it is afforded by the steeple of Uzerche (Correze) in Aquitaine, which has the high pedimented window of Brantdrne, Chartres, and Le Puy, and also at the corners of the square stage the horns, like those of a Roman sarcophagus, which have

been noticed above


Lyons and




sup. p. 117.








\l "v








CH. xxni]



a wonderful pinnacle of basaltic rock (Fig. 109) that rises in a suburb of Le Puy is perched most picturesquely the little church of S. MICHEL DE L' AIGUILLE,
dedicated to



gu iiie

the saint of

such airy


which was

founded by a dean of the cathedral about 963 though the present building can hardly be older than the
Its plan or earlier part of the I2th century. adapted to the irregular shape of the summit, which



occupies entirely, but contrives to have something like a central tower and a semi-circular aisle. lofty tower


rises at one corner.




by a long

flight of steps

cut in the

and room is walk round the building defended by a stone parapet. The entrance (Plate CXXIV) is by a door at the

found on the summit for a narrow

head of a steep flight of stairs under a horse-shoe trefoiled arch, and the whole of the little fa9ade is decorated with mosaic of basalt, white stone, red brick and little bits of
Grotesque beasts project on consoles, mermaids are carved on the lintel, and above is an
white marble.

arcaded cornice with figures in each little arch, springing from corbels which are formed of human hands. The

same device occurs

in the cathedral porch.

has tapered columns carrying capitals the cloister, but with a stronger spice resembling those Some have birds of Byzantine feeling (Figs, no, in).




1 See GalUa Christiana^ vol. n. Dioc. Anidensis (Le Puy), where the deed of foundation is preserved, "...quoniam ego Truannus Aniciensis ecclesiae Decanus, in quadam praealta silice quae usitata locutione vulgi Acus vocatur, prope Aniciensem urbem sita, ubi quondam vix ag ilium hominum erat adscensus ecclesiam collocare gestiens, etc., etc.... sic enim

viam ampli

itineris in


silice constituens, in


Sti Michaelis

Christ! faventi auxilio, in Archangeli ecclesiam intuitui cernentium gratam, Acu fundare studui." It was afterwards an Abbey: then annexed to the Cathedral and allotted to one of the Canons.

in the angles.




of plain cross-groining




without ribs (Plate CXXV). it will have During the Romanesque period sculpture, a part in the been noticed, does not play so important and Burgundy, school of Auvergne as in those of Provence of statuary are Examples or even that of Aquitaine. art is confined chiefly to very rare, and the sculptor's which are very largely carved with figure capitals, in the eastern part of the churches.
subjects, especially

and Painted decoration appears to have been common,





there seems to have been

some warranty even

for the

It excessive modern painting at Issoire and elsewhere was however in architecture that the Auvergnats excelled,

and they developed within
of their own,

their province a distinct style

so original and so satisfactory that one wave of Gothic architecture that came to regrets the In such able hands one might have it away.




would have led to some further development
to the

of surpassing interest.
At various times down

5th century the Capitular hall of

Le Puy

was painted with admirable frescoes,


a great measure preserved.



comes upon and the great Gothic one as a surprise. itself Gothic Gothic architecture however never established generally in this part of France. for one finds Romanesque work everywhere. and at the same time a geniality that one fails to find in the more scientific construction . and seems out of the Nor does it gain by contrast with of the province. 10 . xxm] FRANCE AUVERGNE 145 Perfection And yet the style is so complete in all its parts that one does not see an opening for anything to proceed from it and in this respect it may resemble the art of Provence. an have been describing. A. GotMc contrasted of the later style. the generous solidity of column arch and wall. One feels the same at Limoges on entering the great Gothic cathedral there after wandering among the Romanesque buildings of Poitou. cathedral at Clermont. the Limousin and Indeed in these provinces and in the south Perigord. At all events the . After spending some Romanesque weeks among the robust round-arched churches that we place. which after splendid achievement in its early days sank into stagnation and decay. the grandeur of unbroken surface that gives the earlier Romanesque a dignity. and except in certain J. one finds the Gothic of the cathedral at Clermont thin and unsatisfactory. without any of those variations which appear in the successive schools of Gothic to prepare the way for a new departure in art. and so very closely designed on one model. of France generally one may forget Gothic. ergnat style Auvergnat churches are so nearly all of a date. though I am not sure that the west front with which Viollet-le-Duc has completed the imperfect nave is not the best part of it but one misses the broad simplicity.CH. that it is doubtful whether the style had not played its part. It is undeniably a fine church. and done all there was in it to do. II.

. intrusion of Gothic at Limoges causes surprise at Clermont it seems almost an impertinence. you will find that the stalwart Roman- The esque has put you out of conceit with them. all events. when you do come across them.i 46 FRANCE AUVERGNE [CH. at Here. xxm And isolated places Gothic buildings are exceptional. disenchanting. if I may judge by my own experience. the passage from Romanesque to Gothic is .

Pagans themselves. Willelm Normans shouted with laughter. and had to be redeemed with 685 pounds of gold and the treasuries of all the abbeys were exhausted either by pillaged. deportavit ad os 1 militi pedem regis osculari. declining a contest with the English. a fresh leader in the roth century. requiring only an act of feudal homage for it. standoque defixit osculum. suurn. from Alfred a settlement of half his kingdom. followed the example of Alfred of England.CHAPTER XXIV NORMANDY THE Normans were the last and most ferocious of the barbarian races who conquered and founded settlements in western Europe. which the Franks did not venture to resent. Normann. Charles the Simple. xvn. invaded northern Gaul. regemque jecit Gemmet Hist. Repressed with severity by Charlemagne. defence. Lib. Cap. The supinum. and ceded to these freebooters the province they had already conquered. Towns were was besieged. : : Jussit (Rollo) cuidam arripiens. or Norman Gang. Paris itself . rapine of the Danes. and. or by exactions for purpose of In 918 the French king. and performed with insult . the Normans the paid no respect to the sanctities of the Christians abbot of S. Rollo. which was 1 accorded with difficulty. qui statim regis pedem 10 2 .Roll. the Danes or Normans returned and ravaged France under his degenerate successors and in England after a long struggle with the Anglo-Saxons they obtained . n. where he committed the most disastrous ravages. .churches and monasteries were rifled. Denis was carried off and held to ransom.

both civil and religious. in the conquered territory remains of Carlovingian . To " all they did they imparted found. their and their language and within a religion. just as in England they became English and in Italy Italians. Rollo and his Christians. says Hallam. But no sooner were firmly established in their arts of the new country than they adopted . xxiv Settle- Normandy province of Normans settled down and this part of the Neustria became Normandy. and though they had been remarkable for their ferocity towards the priests they became in the second generation most devout Christians. and own from they their rude homes. men became and with that extraordinary adaptability which was a Norman characteristic. the Energy of conquered race. and learned the French tongue which rapidly superseded the old Norse language. Viollet-le-Duc observes the energy with which they pushed their enterprises an end. century and a half they had covered the land with buildings." says the a distinctive character. " They same writer. of unusual splendour. The conquerors took French wives they had. as they did their culture.i 48 FRANCE NORMANDY Here the [CH. the Of all the barbarikn settlers in France Normans who had been perhaps the most savage showed the greatest capacity for orderly government. so that their buildings are not left half-finished but are completed. The earlier barbarian inroads had all desolated ^ an s the country. and melted into the body of the people. With such a any Norman of G^n?s history it would be vain to look for architectural remains in Normandy older than the 1 1 th century. made widows enough and their children were brought up in Christian ways. differing in that from those of the to southern races in Gaul. they soon became Frenchmen. the buildings were probably the new settlers brought no art of their old in ruins.

xxiv] art. . They had planted -n r i themselves firmly in the conquered province of France they had made themselves masters of Sicily and Apulia. and ornaments found in the Roman baths at Bath are do in probably favourable specimens of what art could There was the northern A provinces of the later empire. the northern architect to therefore nothing to inspire rival the portals of Aries or S. and the Norman remains style was based originally on Gallo-Roman examples. or Avallon.CH.-le-Duc. and figure sculpture . shows itself. where it almost wiped out all traces of the older Saxon work. . Trophime. Provincial Roman work declined in quality as it receded i of farther which the and farther from the Capital.. Character of Norman ornament is either wholly absent from barbarous. and became a great European power. positive. would have been coarse and inartistic. i i grand. . is a fitting monument of their greatness and activity. or if present In decorative carving also the same sterility There are no foliaged capitals like those Norman of S. 138. and the buildings Normans had to guide them were no doubt In particular the very inferior to those of Provence. Gilles. . . Their peculiar style of architecture which they afterwards brought with them to England. vol. work. and sculpture The figures there would have been but little of it. and shaken the throne of the Eastern Empire and in the latter part of the century they conquered England. FRANCE NORMANDY it i 149 Norman conquests but they infused into i their national genius. . Byzantine architecture had not made any impression Poverty Roman TXT on the northern provinces of r ranee. i." The nth century was the period of the utmost expansion of the Norman race. but in the earlier Norman work only plain cushion capitals. a trine savage but nevertheless free and un1 fettered . made by squaring and 1 V.

scandalized by the dissolute life of the canons of F6camp. to come and reform the convent to the rule of S. Richard II required by the abbot. recj a taste frQm the more ^j^ ^^ Qr cu j ture they Qf p rance> goug^ instructors Duke Richard J (943-996). zig-zags. Anjou. invited Majolus. instruc- When t the Normans had established the rule of order tionsoug Burgundy an(j ac q u . Abbot of Cluny.Roman. which has been described in a preceding chapter. the case was the reverse of that in Aquitaine. Benedict. than the sculptor. and though architecture influence it cannot claim a high place in the scale of it serves its purpose. but it more the work of the mason is used with skill and feeling.Roman while the ornament is derived from Byzantium.1 5o FRANCE NORMANDY : [CH. Front. repeated the invitation to William. for instance at S. bosses. Several writers point out the analogy between the more advanced Norman ornament and the patterns of oriental stuffs. This fell through owing to the extravagant conditions The next duke. xxiv and when in truncating an inverted cone or hemisphere later instances attempts were made to produce sculptured capitals the result inartistic. The Norman settlements . for billets. Abbot . was consisting of arcadings. in Italy and Sicily would tend to familiarize their kinsmen in the north with the products of the East and the trade with Venice and the Levant. and itself. where the architecture is Byzantine the though is sculpture is Gallo. (996-1027). diapers. The richness to a long while extremely rude and ornament which gives a decided ordinary early Norman work is purely conventional. whereas here the architecture Gallo. and the borders of Normandy if not into the duchy On these the Norman ornaments are based. rosettes. brought the fabrics of Syria and Constantinople to Poitou. and channellings.

but in the architecture 2 the Duke. was an Italian. Acta Sanctorum S. on the godly man at table . where the Duke received the menials. 302. men by were more used to overthrow churches than and savage." . and was probably maintained Lombard under Abbot John. Ord S. waited himfrom heaven. sent saddle horses and pack was long. 152. Benedicti. Benigne at Dijon. Lexoviensis (Lisieux). and a great r in the rebuilder. overcome by his perseverance. and sending away horses. Michel which was burnt that same year 1001. vol. to build them. Haec enim auctore Guillelmo Abbate Fiscamensu. vi. among them that of Mont S. He heard already. having went with them to gathered a suitable number of monks. Gallia Christiana. 3 Mabillon. and his influence was felt not only 1 self Abbot William's influence 1 i J. His personal direction of the building of the abbey at Bernay is recorded. to destroy and drive away rather than to Also collect and cherish congregations of spiritual men. hearing this. p. and in the re-building of which Abbot William's hand may no doubt be detected. Italy whom at the duke's request William sch o1 when he retired to appointed to the abbey of Fecamp." William. 2 Dioc. parts 1 8 about Ravenna . understood that the the journey and he had no horses or beasts of burden for transporting the brethren and their chattels. Benedicti. him "as an angel Fecamp. Mabillon. Many other religious houses were put under his rule by ." The Duke. Annales.CH.-L formation of the monastery. p. four miles from the Po.qui in locandis fundamentis non modicum praestiterat consilii auxilium. of William was at afraid to go. as we know. his brothers vol. u he had said nature cruel Norman Dukes. William and founded an Abbey on their paternal estate of Volpiano in a "ut fructus bonorum operum quae "solitary place. for John came from the in his old his native age. The influence of the Lombard school was thus introduced ^ence into this part of France. and William. xxiv] FRANCE NORMANDY whom we have first 151 Abbot O f Dijon of S.. pars I. IV.

-i i . are others rudely carved with angle volutes distantly derived from ancient example.152 FRANCE NORMANDY [CH. n. which has remained almost untouched by later work. is But in the entrance to style. Le Puy in the which was founded between 1050 and 1066.Georges Auvergne. Here. The architecture seems too advanced in its style for so early a date. MICHEL and CERISY-LEFORT date from the earlier part of the i ith century. were extremely plain. the last province to all. among cushion capitals. p.. Rivoira illustrates the tower of Fruttuaria which is all that remains of William's church. It appears also in the fine church of S. the chapter house. He returned to die at Fecamp.. vol. which in a later we find human figures attenuated serving as colonnettes like those of Henry I and his queen at Rochester (Plate CXXVI). 1 Rivoira. which was not replaced by stone till a later age. If the aisles were cross-vaulted nave was originally roofed with wood. 286). of whom they letter A had great need to enable them to finish the buildings The earliest churches in Normandy they had begun. Sign. but with a difference. .Unde et Fructuariensis locus est vocatus" (Ibid. cathedral of Winchester. which is found also in the . p. ibi ille gerunt sibi et illis esset abolitio peccatorum. xxiv In the loth century art throughout France was very rude and backward. Rivoira 1 believes it to have been re-built about 1116 in its present form. though barbarous enough in design and execution. GEORGES DE BOSCHERVILLE. was naturally the most backward of from the abbey of F6camp implores the monks of Dijon to send them craftsmen. and Sign. become settled. The churches of MONT S. and it may be regarded as especially a Norman feature. Something like it occurs at s. and in stone the The transept gallery the latter has the A peculiarity of a gallery at the triforium ? 1 level across the transept ends. 171. and Normandy.



in its The capitals are of the plain cushion type is : and but the ornament confined to simple billets or dentils simplicity it is a majestic piece of work. The abbey The building the west front and the nave still remain. but in the lower part of the west front and in the nave arcades and triforium . or S. the two great abbeys founded by Duke William and his queen Matilda to reconcile the Pope to their marriage within the prohibited degrees. was re-built and the wooden roof of the nave replaced by stone vaulting in the I3th century. tienne. the conqueror of England. Lanfranc was a great builder. but the nave was roofed with wood. aisles are cross-groined. Caen has been a good deal altered in later times the choir . with which he replaced the more modest structure Under of the rude Norman knight and monk Herluin. A Lombard.CH. and in 1077 the new abbey of Bee was consecrated. xxiv] FRANCE NORMANDY 153 of JUMIEGES on the Seine was begun in 1040. The connexion between Normandy and Lombardy was continued when Lanfranc of Pavia came to France and settled in the Duchy with a train of scholars and In 1042 he retired to the abbey of Bee. his rule Bee became a seat of learning famous throughout Christendom. and the arts were not neglected. detect his influence in the Conqueror's buildings at re-built his We Caen. and consecrated in 1065 in the presence of Duke Of the original William II. was con- It Ho secrated in 1077. like his predecessor Abbot William of Dijon and Fecamp. and Lanfranc was its first abbot. The ABBAYE AUX HOMMES. a associates. foundation which in him and his successor Anselm was destined to give the see of Canterbury two of its most famous prelates. as Lanfranc showed both there and afterwards when he came to Lanfranc Abbey England and may metropolitan cathedral.

The fagade of the Hommes. any French work we have wide as less in height. It is only when the sculptor wanders away from these foliated designs and attempts the some skill. dating apparently from the first quarter of the i2th century. Proportion is he betrays a hopeless The y^gj^Q that proportion of the triforium to the arcade below different from that in and arcade considered. is xxiv we have the : earlier work. the hollow sided abacus. Caen sternest simplicity two tiers of three wide round-headed windows light the by a tower on windows below the eaves either west end of the nave. we Norman style ^ n<^ t ^ie Norman at style already advanced toward a greater degree of refinement. Norwich. and a block representing the rosette of the Corinthian capital.154 Abbaye FRANCE NORMANDY still [CH. in spite of its abstract severity. Southwell. we find the angle volutes. Above this is a storey simply decorated with plain strips of masonry carrying narrow semi-circular arches. lower arch This nearly high and the upper 17. the below and not much ft. Progress In the interior. and Winchester. which is flanked hand flush with it. Under the heavy spreading super-abacus which answers to the Byzantine pulvino. figure of man or beast that childishness and imbecility. as for instance at Ely. the coronal of leaves. and with similar level. for the triforium arch is as it. They are carved with and are not devoid of architectural beauty and propriety. being about 22 Peterborough. some attempt The capitals are carved with Roman example. in Above two splendid spires of i3th century work which are the dominating features of the town of Caen rise the (PlateCXXVII). of the two storeys is one characteristic equal proportion of Norman work in England. It . The next two stages are a later and more ornate style of Romanesque.

' ii-ift > # i : : : ^- f f : -f y ''!:% ^--.ii^^^ A.UX HOMMKS CAEN .-<^iw "'** .


or La S. p. ancient below. The crypt however. like those early Norman churches. The Norman triforium at Gloucester cathedral is covered with a similar half-barrel vault on transverse ribs. They have deep soffits and are carried by detached columns with a narrow passage behind them. but the were vaulted. The capitals are rude imitations of Corinthian. which was finished in its present form during Lanfranc's lifetime. somewhat similar arrangement occurs nearer home in the nave at Tournai where the triforium arches are actually larger than those of the main arcade and are surmounted by a row of small openings forming a second triforium (v. Ambrogio at Milan. and with . significant A 23).CH. The church is with an incongruous and ugly upper part. The nave at S. sup. and is now mainly a I2th century building. Fig. The the other foundation of the Conqueror and his wife. and the triforium is of all aisles covered with a quadrant barrel vault like those of the Auvergne. is Two tiers of five surprised to encounter so arches each surround the apse. with an underlying transverse arch at each bay springing from an attached pilaster on the outer wall. a wooden roof. which has Corinthianizing capitals is perhaps of the original date. but finished like those described above. and the arches are decorated with a kind of embattled fret on the face of the outer order in the lower storey. The choir is aisleless. a feature which one far north. and ends in an covered with a semiapse dome. with a central tower and at the transeptal west end two flanking towers. 72. Abbaye Dames. Caen ABBAYE AUX DAMES. Iitienne had originally. xxiv] is FRANCE NORMANDY of the like 155 Lombard connexion that there is the same proportion in the church of something S. Trinit at Caen has been more thoroughly altered than the Abbaye aux Hommes.

six in a bay.i 56 FRANCE NORMANDY [CH. building. has a tower and spire of the same date and with a similar . over the apse. represented by a series of which are not very interesting. NICHOLAS is the in Caen and the neighbourhood. s. The nave has three storeys. off. with its curious lofty semi-cone most remarkable of them. xxiv Abbaye x Da mes. richly shafted and moulded windows would seem of the towers of S. and the great arches are decorated with the embattled fret that occurs in the choir. the triforium being narrow openings. are divided by a wide transverse rib springing shaft. plain square pilasters be coeval with the upper storeys tienne. Caen ' other conventional ornaments. las Nicho- There are other Romanesque churches of interest S. 1 12). Michel e roof. from a wall and the groining is plain quadripartite without diagonal ribs. The church of S. windows and a passage upper with lofty round-headed window in in the wall The bays continued from that round the apse (Fig. s. as well as a roll-moulding There was originally a wide round-headed elsewhere. a few miles style. while that below has the sunk panelling between narrow strips of which mark the Conqueror's work on the same village of S. MICHEL DE VAUCELLES in the suburbs au ~ ce iies has a beautiful tower and spire in architecture. contest The CONTEST. There are two bays between lights have the the apse and crossing. each bay both above and below but the lower been blocked. the lower storey a blank wall. when the workmen had gained greater skill and freedom in dealing with their material and the style the later style of Norman had begun to abate its its The belfry stage with to severity (Plate CXXVIII). rising like the half-section of a steeple above the s.


Toulouse. . not looking much to preceding styles for example. unnecessary to dwell Normandy Distinctive itself. but working out a satisfactory result with simple means. of a great future : and ponderous majesty it another by comparison with styles more refined and ornate. It has none of the wealth of sculpture which plays so large a part in it Provence. for no sooner in England as in Normandy.i 58 FRANCE NORMANDY own growing* out of the larger one. xxiv spirelet circular stair-turret at one corner surmounted by a of The 1 its studied as well styiTin England not better. in its magnificent simplicity and gains in one way what it loses in . and honest building. and restrained. longer on the Romanesque of which does not differ appreciably from that which the the Channel. conventional. or in the Auvergne with its barrel vaults what little ornament it has is abstract. and Burgundy challenges none of the constructional problems solved in Aquitaine with its domes. differing not much more widely from the in England than from the other schools of Romanesque architecture in France. and it relies for effect on a sturdy straightforward practical mode of construction. j^^ t ^ e invaders settled themselves firmly on the con- quered soil than they set to work to cover the country with vast buildings on a scale not only far beyond what they found there but even greater than those they had It is therefore left behind them in their own country. transported to the other side of In either country it has a distinct character Normans of Norman of its architec- ture own. The Norman style however may be if [CH. It is a style full of originality and pregnant with promise Saxon work .



Seine The six great peers of et Marne. Hallam. Civilization in I. the Dukes of Normandy and Burgundy. and the adjacent districts.. Bourges. Middle chap. and Normandy. but were more or less independent or had passed under other allegiance. His territory comprised only the modern departments of Seine. most of Guienne and the Angoumois.CHAPTER XXV THE ISLE OF FRANCE The THE royal domain during the Romanesque period was confined within narrow the Somme. Oise and Loiret were the Count of Flanders. His son Louis VIII conquered Poitou and attacked Guienne the Albigensian . His grandson Philip Augustus took Artois and Vermandois from the Count of Flanders. Seine et Oise. whose territories France reached from the Scheldt . the Count of Champagne. The great The firmer establishment of royalty began with Louis VI. and Anjou from John of England. . and the Duke of Aquitaine who included in his domains Poitou. 1 . Maine. Ponthieu and Vermandois and others had held directly from the Carlovingian kings. France^ Lect XI II. When Louis VI (Le Gros) came to the throne in 1108 the royal domain scarcely extended beyond the cities of Paris. 1 Guizot. The Counts of Anjou. the Count of Toulouse. though the king exercised a more or less shadowy supremacy over the great feudatory dukes and counts whose dominions and power exceeded his own. Orleans. and latterly Gascony. Limousin.

-le-Duc. the English were driven out of Guienne in 1451 but it . The expansion of the monarchy under Philip Augustus and his father and grandfather was marked by a corresponding expansion of the art of architecture. Arras. Tile de France. I. nearly all of which were finished before the close of the Scarcity of 1 I3th century . Diet. . which has just been referred to. Coutances. Noyon. and its boundaries bore no comparison with those of the greater feudatories. to a conclusion.160 FRANCE ROYAL DOMAIN [CH. Rais. which 1 V. Chartres. and spared neither church nor But the absence of earlier monuments is monastery. Meaux. In the nt ^ century the territory had been laid waste by the terrible Normans. which brought the Romanesque style in that part of France. and the reign of Philip Augustus. who till the latter part of the also acquired Brittany Philip ugusus by marriage. Soissons. Cambrai. 1180-1223. Tours. the whole period of the Romanesque style During t jiere fore t^ rO a l domain was of y very limited extent. was the cradle of French Gothic architecture. which swept away all the principal churches in the older style. Laon. xxv wars brought Toulouse into subjection in the i3th century. Dauphin^. saw the foundation of the cathedrals of Paris. and Bayeux. and before long in other parts as well. due still more to the extraordinary outburst of building . Rouen. 140. Amiens. Bourges. esq^work de France The Norman ravages There are therefore comparatively few remains of Romanesque architecture in this part of France. Seez. and replaced them by structures in the new style of the day. to France by Louis XI and his son Charles VIII. was not 15th century that and Provence were finally united Burgundy. who besieged Paris and ravaged to the country round about. The royal domain.




.! ^W7 ' LE MANS .Plate CXXX 1 ' V f < i ''>VuJ^.

consisting of plain round arches resting on square pilasters with no capital. LE MANS did not strictly belong to the royal domain when the nave was built in the nth century. n. The nave aisles have some very simple wall-arcading. Each bay of the aisle and of the nave clerestory has a wide roundarched window.CH. The BASSE QEuvRE at BEAUVAIS is the nave of the Basse original cathedral. Rats. . nave and aisles. vol. recessed part enriched with bands or mouldings in The upper is within several receding faced with reticulated masonry relief. I. The front has probably been altered at a later time. impressive. The roofs were and are of wood. 1 It is illustrated by V. but it may be taken in this Le Mans connexion.-le-Duc. p. and according to Viollet-le-Duc It is so plain and devoid of detail in the 8th or gth. divided by piers of plain square masonry carrying round arches which are not moulded. * I j. A. Only three bays of the building remain. and they have been so extensively restored as to have lost nearly all trace of The walls are faced with the petit appareil antiquity. xxv] FRANCE ROYAL DOMAIN 161 excites was worked with a passionate earnestness that our wonder. 89. arranged to form patterns (Plate CXXIX). with a round-headed doorway surmounted by a great orders. but only an impost moulding at the 1 The capitals of the nave columns (Plate springing . The west a good example of well front is simple but window opening. Diet. which was built according to some in the 6th or 7th century. that in the absence of any documentary evidence we can only say it might have been built at almost any time It is a basilica in plan with within those four centuries. It is developed Romanesque. of Roman work. the voussoirs being of stone alternating with tile.

at Aries. is a member of support. and the capital there is capital as before. finial : Evremond The next we have step was what we see here the pilaster pier. and the apses The development of the buttress. EVREMOND (Plate CXXXI) on an which has by way of buttresses EvLiond island in the river at Creil. xxv CXXX) are of a Corinthianizing character.i62 Le Mans FRANCE ROYAL DOMAIN [CH. and the arenas of Nimes and Aries. which shows of classic art was felt here very from what we found in Normandy. a greater projection was given to it the architect was evidently puzzled to know what to do with it at the top. and this is what he did with the square buttress-piers outside the cloister of S. whereas it in this case carries nothing. preserving the tradition of angle and intermediate volutes. which plays so The an " of the i3th and large a part in the succeeding style arrived at by very timid following centuries. but is merely a sort of unmeaning at S. logically. recalling at Valence. those of the cloister piers with classic capitals. The Romanesque buttress was a ^qu e buttress was O ft en so shallow that it was taken up to the eaves and stopped against the cornice or corbel course. Sometimes it was rounded like an attached column. It the Roman tradition of the theatre of Marcellus or the Develope buttress When Colosseum. Abbey ruined The same influence may be detected in the abbey of S. for Trophime at Aries (PI. CVII. p. and of inferior that the influence execution. 72). That however is evidently an unsatisfactory finish. but above the a sloped . although differently in this part of France the remains of Roman art must have been far fewer than in the south. was only and tentative steps. thus preserving flat pilaster. wide but with very little projection. Having the attached column still in his mind the natural thing seemed to him to be to crown it with a capital. the capital.

S .


But the architect seems to have thought his new device wanted some sort of explanation or and apology. xxvj FRANCE ROYAL DOMAIN 163 weathering taken back to the main wall. though without the imitation of tiling.. and which must be that of Dagobert. on the inside of the apse walls. " had been used in building a church of which the foundations of the apse have been There found.CH. fourth in descent from Clovis. With the abbey of S. traces of painting representing draperies very coarsely drawn in grey on a white ground. weathering throws the water off. but a construction indifferently put together. which clearly is a great improvement not only in appearance but in for the raking construction. le-Duc 1859 during the restoration under his direction." This Merovingian church had become ruinous in the 8th century. Vitry et Bri&re. tiles. and covered with an illmade coat of plaster 1 . II 2 . was an apsidal basilica. which would otherwise lie on the flat top and do harm. The original church. Of precious marbles not the least fragment. to French kings from Dagobert the burying-place of Abbey of S Dems the Revolution. he carved it with scolloping in imitation of roof At Valence some of the buttress-piers are square and some round. These debris. might still be seen. composed of debris. but they all have the weathered top. as its slope reminded him of the roof of a house. and was re-built 1 U&glise Abbaticde de St Dem's. founded or perhaps re- founded by Dagobert.. Several worked stones and foundation walls were discovered by Violletabout 625. he says. which had belonged to a Gallo. DENIS. so..Roman edifice. we ' bring the tale of Romanesque architecture in France to a close. which consisted to a considerable degree in undoing the in injudicious repairs and false embellishments of his predecessors.

and S. A the famous Suger was elected Abbot of contemporary of S. Guizot points out. Milman classes him in the quartette of Saint. as M. In his and owing partly no doubt to his wise administration. Normans in being probably better built than decessor. and again in 886 during the siege of Paris. cloister. Demagogue. The abbey of S. the regal authority over the great feudatories began to time. xxv s. Denis about 750. to be a public power to control and regulate feudalism. his worldliness. 1 Civilization in France^ Lecture XII. Bernard. practised the austerities of a monk in his own person. wrote to reprove the abbot for abbey/' he says. and during the absence of Louis On the crusade he was for two years Regent of the kingdom. Denis. Abbot uger In 1 1 22 S. and high Ecclesiastical Statesman which represents the age. inhabiting a humble cell. Abelard. alarmed at the part it played in secular affairs.1 64 FRANCE ROYAL DOMAIN [CH. Denis became the political 1 centre of France. be something more than nominal. which it Merovingian preseems also to have surpassed in size its and adornment. when the monks had to fly for safety to Rheims. Though sacked by the 856 and 858. Attached from his youth to the royal interest he became the chief counsellor of the king. and for the protection of the weak. and grew. but not completed and dedicated till 775 in the presence of Charlemagne. but chapel. . and observing all the severe rules of the . and Arnold of Brescia. in the interest of justice. the Carolingian church lasted till the 1 2th century. "is thronged not with holy recluses in continual prayer within the or on their knees within their narrow cells." Suger himself. however. " The with mailed knights even arms were seen within the hallowed walls. Philosopher. Bernard.

avoid this inconvenience. Abbot Suger writes that on the days when the relics were exposed the pilgrims crowded and crushed one another to get near the shrines. hosque et rnulti alii tarn abbates quam religiosi viri lapides suos imposuerunt." Suger. and to glorify the martyrs whose relics were so attractive and profitable." The cult As Ages. injudicious. Ipse enim Serenissimus Rex intus descendens propriis manibus suum imposuit. The first stone was 1 by King Louis VI (Le Gros) and the building was finished with such rapidity that in 1144 it was consecrated with great pomp in the presence of Louis VII (Le Jeune). As Louis le Gros died in 1137 the rebuilding must have taken at least seven years. and for that time the speed his laid HIS new church was marvellous and. Swithin at Winchester brought such crowds thither that Bishop de Lucy at the beginning of the i3th century what is practically an additional church at the east end of Walkelyn's cathedral. women shrieked. quidam etiam gemmas ob amorem et reverentiam Jhesu Christi. Even nowadays twelve years would be little enough for so great an undertaking. as 1 it turned out. and generally supplied the motive for re-building and enlarging the cathedrals and abbeys of the Middle vast concourse of pilgrims to Canterbury after the murder of Becket demanded the eastward extension of the cathedral to " Becket's crown. and if it was begun as some think in 1132. xxv] FRANCEROYAL DOMAIN as 165 Sugar's soon he became abbot he began to contemplate the re-building of his church on a sumptuous scale worthy of its famous relics. Letter. five years more.CH. he re-built church on a magnificent scale. " decantantes Lapides pretiosi omnes muri tui. The of S. . and the monks could hardly resist the built To pressure of the faithful or protect their treasures. Pilgrimages to adore shrines and relics were great sources of wealth to monastic communities.

xxv Denis Why this haste " ? and suggests Suger anticipated the decline of the monastic system.166 s. . by and magnificence that S. Clunisians had effected. and precious stones. Denis that they first appeared as the ruling motive of design on a large scale. instead of decrying art with the Cistercians and S. and it may fairly be said that although pointed arches had been used elsewhere. and something other must be done than what the . From its social and political importance the abbey of S. but in the construction the pointed arch gains on the other. In the fa$ade (Plate CXXXII) round and pointed arches to appear together. mosaic. and felt that "the glory of the royal abbey must be that renovated by some great undertaking that something more. the religious orders should be in the van of progress and new " its display of art hitherto Suger's writings attached to his building. The question to include all may be widened 1 the famous churchmen Viollet-le-Duc. Denis occupies a foremost place in the ranks of mediaeval buildings it is its scale : still more remarkable as the place where the adoption of the pointed arch. FRANCE ROYAL DOMAIN ViolIet-le-Duc asks " [CH. The One is himself had in this artistic naturally curious to learn what part Suger revolution. and the system of Gothic construction was first shown on a grand scale. with their wealth of But it is not only gold. Bernard. and tentatively. which he wished to rival the ideas. vn. Denis gave a powerful impetus to the new school which was beginning to free itself from the classic traditions of Romanesque art which the monastic orders persistently clung." show the immense importance he 1 splendour of the Eastern basilicas. and that on the other hand. it was at S. and lead the way to a unknown ." on one hand. Lectures on Architecture^ Lect.



" He tells us that he watched Abbot and surveyed the work with the greatest care. and that he directed the sculptured and other ornament. and decoration but it is not likely that any amateur. all renowned for several arts. should be the author inspiration. and supplying the inscriptions. carpenters. Denis goldsmiths. and timber from the forest of Yveline. arrangement. smiths. struction 1 . like Hugh of Avalon at Lincoln. whose names are connected with great building movements that led to fresh departures in art. But though Procopius. the glass painters. like a good courtier. One may imagine that Suger that he watched and played a similar part at S. practical master the real architect of the building.CH. the stone from Pontoise. skill in their went himself to choose the materials. One reads in Suger' s life that he gathered round him "from different parts of the kingdom workmen of all kinds. painters. : : of a fresh constructional movement in architecture. however accomplished. that he parTirTth founders. 1 ov yap eVrt prj^avtic6f Procop. dressed in white linen with a handkerchief round his head and a staff in buildin s to have been who ts his hand. described as haunting the work. and William of Wykeham at Winchester. The suggestion must have come from some mason. and lapidaries. . xxv] FRANCE ROYAL DOMAIN 167 s. Denis directed the work and gave many useful suggestions for plan. He seems at S. Denis what Justinian was at S. giving their subjects to the carver. attributes to Justinian some sagacious suggestions which he does not scruple to say must have come by divine for the emperor was not skilled in conhe attributes the design to the real architects Anthemius and Isidorus. the goldsmiths. De Aedif. who was to Suger and Bishop Hugh what William Wynford was These enlightened prelates to William of Wykeham. masons. Sophia.

With the pointed arch came the opportunity of adaptation to any span and any height. nothing remains but the west front with the two bays that and badly put together. uncertain. and have each two single-light windows. the round arch not lending itself. though not themselves the inventors of the new system. struction fitted may fairly The chapels are between radiating buttresses. instead of ignoring it and strict adhering to formula of tradition as the monastic In this schools would have done. xxv s. extremities of the church between these two was re-built from the design of Pierre de Montereau. or more likely to imperfect building carried out with too great bunding haste. The whole we find traces of Romanesque ornament. and the work which was begun about 1231. is of course in fully In the earlier work of Abbot Suger. developed Gothic. and not finished till 1281. which have pointed arches though those of the crypt are semi-circular. as may easily be understood. is now form a sort of narthex. to combinations of arches with unequal span. the pointed arch this principle could only be applied imperfectly. as we see at V^zelay. regarded as instrumental in opening a way they may be new chapter in Remains 8 the history of art. Denis are nevertheless entitled the credit of having recognized and valued and eagerly seized the opportunity for a forward step in art. pointed which is is tecture architecture. equilibrium of the main principle of what we call Gothic Till the adoption of fully recognized. whether owing to accident. Of Suger's work.1 68 FRANCE ROYAL DOMAIN to [CH. and at the other end the ambulatory round the apse with its radiating chapels and the crypt below. and the greater elasticity thus attained led on . but the conbe called Gothic. In the construction the system of forces ^ Beginning of arc.

as was first. which indeed never achieved more than In Aquitaine and a partial triumph over the native art. In find Romanesque art still running its course. the general design still clung to ancient tradition. xxv] FRENCH ROMANESQUE : 169 Develop- rapidly to all the infinite varieties of vault that followed. when this movement to- wards a new we Burgundy. In Auvergne the round arch skill it still reigned supreme. took place in the central domain. but the admirable of the architects of that into province had refined and developed a style of their own so interesting and original that one regrets the Gothic invasion. sturdy round-arched style own. though the pointed arch had been admitted in style esque the narthex of V^zelay. With all these changes be raised to the same height if the art passed rapidly into a new phase. to Loches in Touraine where as late as 1 1 80 the church was covered by what spires. owing but little to Roman dignified. the rest being pointed could necessary. practical. The old-fashioned barrel vault disappeared a square n the GotWc vault bay was no longer necessary vault at : for setting out a cross it if the semi-circular arch were retained. and the round arch still ruled the design. is of hollow practically a series the In Normandy its followed a line of tradition. for the diagonal rib. all. If we look round the other parts of France in the Summary middle of the I2th century. and may be traced Anjou the domed style still prevailed. into which at sculpture hardly enters movement at all had been made Lastly in Provence no in the direction of . and severe.CH. and they were not much less. leaving the generally raised to a height vault to be only slightly domical. and in the great burst of cathedral building which marked the reign of Philip Augustus we find Romanesque tradition has little or no place.

xxv was strong. many The cases by grants of charters from their Count of Nevers. and was feudal lord. granted them a constitution to attach them . long neglected.I7 o FRENCH ROMANESQUE classic tradition its [CH. The enfranchisement of the commons at- tac ked feudalism on another side: and since the monasteries Commons had long given up the pretence of poverty. for the security of the labouring people. and Romanesque Gilles date held portals of Aries and S. says Suger. who disputed with the Abbot of V&zelay the suzerainty over the burghers of that town. and had become great feudal potentates they came in for their As the towns grew in wealth share of popular odium. He first undertook to feudal outrages and police the kingdom. on the real needs of the as haunts of oppression/' first He Church. and power bought in their assistance became valuable. by repressing " taking or reducing to submission the castles conspicuous of the Capetians made feudalism and superior royalty a real power. and showing a care. different from to it. . and also The new royalty by the teaching of Abelard and though the two had little in common. from the middle or latter part of the I2th century and show no sign either of decline or of further developGothic: own. being intent. ros j^g^ ^ new rO y a lty. the artizans. age of an intellectual upheaval : was taking The I2th century was an of aspiration after liberty for it was marked by the both of thought and civil life movement for enfranchisement of the communes. and helpless Feudalism was thus reduced to something like poor. they arose at the same time from With Louis le the same stirring of the human mind. Enfranchisement ot tne obedience. The Coincident ment The passage one incident in of architecture into a new phase was that the social revolution place in other departments.

and reproofs addressed to the Bishop of Autun whom the Pope accused of being the instigator to his side .CH. bishops ranged themselves and the cathedral became a civic institution.." With this encouragement the burghers attacked the monks and sacked the convent. who were exempt from episcopal The decline control. a building 1 Constituitque illis Principes vel Judices quos et Consules appellari censuerunt. monks were gone and the abbey destroyed " and pluck" Were the whole hill of ing a hair from his raiment V^zelay sunk in the abyss. Eugenius. and beginning throughout Cathedral S s ig!nof r The 3th century. threats of excommunication against Count and people. etc. I would not give this hair to save it. the cathedral was open to all. and responsible to the Pope alone. and the rise of popular communities gave the bishops . 171 Revolution at they complained that the monks in revenge would not grind their corn or bake their bread. of the 1 ^fran- from the principal parts of which laymen were rigidly excluded. XVII . Hist. . Vizeliacensis. When eze ay 2 of the outrage For the bishops and secular clergy had long been jealous of the regulars. Spicilegium Hist. in spite of the thunders of the Pope. per yistinctum et incitationem tuam habuerunt exordium. Efiiscopo Eduensi." he said. Epist.Qjxmes molestiae atque vexationes quas dilecto filio nostro Pontio Abbati Vizeliac. I. grind him in the mill. of popular independence. VizeL in. Burgenses ipsius villae ausu nefario praesumpserant. Lib.. or if the miller opposed "I wish. of monastic and feudal influence in the I2th century. xxv] 1 THE SECULAR TRANSITION . France at the end of the I2th. "the them. an emblem Unlike the conventual church. on the side of the burghers. 2 D'Achery. the Count told them if anyone hindered their baking they should put him on the fire. Antagonscalar regular cler ^ . an opportunity of which they were not slow to avail The great outburst of cathedral building themselves. was a popular movement. Spicil.

But would not prevent their siding with the popular party. the centre of . : both in outward form and inward Romanesque in France was mainly a monastic art only shelter of the cloister could art have survived art in the in the confusion of the dark ages: and with the decline of monasticism it passed into other phases more expressive of the tendencies of the age. without any affection for their principles." This is disputed by M. Diet. new methods. The change was most rapid and complete in the royal domain.a la fin du XIl siecle avaient a la fois un caract&re religieux et civil et la. 1 tait entour de ses voiles. . xxv pride. for political reasons. rien n'obstruait la vue. "Les cathe'drales . and though in the remoter provinces Romanesque art lingered longer and in some parts can hardly be said to have quite disappeared. new principle. They were originally to the had at first been their own workmen when all skilled labour was in their hands.172 in THE SECULAR TRANSITION which the burgher could take 1 . Working now under builders free conditions and in a freer atmosphere the discovered and master-masons gave new life to the art. they had long given that up and had trained craftsmen to work for them.. the new art finally triumphed and made itself felt from the the English channel to the Pyrenees. Luchaire is no doubt had any democratic sympathies. The two views do not seem this irreconcileable. and developed a new style. 227. right in not believing that the bishops M.. e V. for though the monks now passed from the cloister workmen. as being his own Practice Architecture Lcture' SS Fay hands trained lay guilds of no doubt in the convent workshop. ill. new social and political movements. as the Popes did with the Guelfs. sauf 1'autel qui . Luchaire (Social France at the time of Philip Augustus) who thinks the secular canons in the new cathedrals enclosed their choirs from the first with tapestries if nothing more. Rais. [CH.-le-Duc.

following Richard of Cirencester. and in the stations along the Roman and await us at Verulam. it will readily be understood that they left behind them traces of their rule not only in the civil constitution of the towns. of which thirty-three were especially distinguished.bis denis. 1 Caerwent. They show also by the difference between their plan and that of Italian villas that their design was accommodated to the climate. wall. The houses were large. chap. withdrew from in the reign of Honorius the this island. which was modelled on the Roman system. .CHAPTER XXVI ENGLISH ROMANESQUE BEFORE THE NORMAN CONQUEST WHEN governed and colonized it for 400 years.. civitatibtts ac nonnullis castellis. The whole country was dotted with Roman villas ninety-two considerable towns had arisen under Roman protection. Excavation at Silchester has brought to similar discoveries have been light a British Pompeii . and . and comfortably made at warmed by hypocausts. only accounts for 28.. handsomely finished with mosaic floors.. . bisque quaternis follows.. but also in the architecture and other arts which they had brought with them and cultivated for so long a time. 1 whom Bede . a period as long as that from the reign of Henry VIII to our own day. Gildas however. Prologus. after having Romans finally Romano- ^h? tecture possessed regular municipal privileges The remains of towns and country houses throughout England testify to the refinement of society under Roman government. XXXI.decorataGildas. Gibbon.

after the invaders had been checked by the British victory at Mount Badon. Among the princes whose vices Gildas castigates we find side by side with the Celtic names of Vortiporius. when the natives were left to their own resources. and turned their swords against one another when the general danger was removed the British victory at 1 . et peccatorum onera sustinenda.174 British isor er ROMAN BRITAIN Of the [CH. A the corner of the veil only lifted for a moment by monk Gildas. sicut et nunc est. civil wars took their place 2 . . 26. xxvi mysterious period of British history that followed the departure of the Romans. but there is nothing to tell us whether they were Romans who had stayed behind. and while the issue of the struggle was still doubtful. but it would be vain to look for any Britonsnot native architecture. The let Britons had not assimilated an " izeT Roman culture like the Gauls. any. ut inftrma esset ad retundenda hostium tela. who wrote during the lull that interrupted the career of the Saxon conquest. Epistola 19. Gildas. 1 All foreign artisans had probably departed Moris namque continui erat genti. which was 520. or castles for marauding chieftains. et fortis esset ad civilia bella. Cuneglasus and Maglocunus. we know just enough is to tantalize us. From him we gather that the Britons were with difficulty united in the presence of the enemy. arts of peace. In such a state of society there was no room for the Buildings left by the Romans might be turned into defences against the Saxons. 2 Ibid.four years after Mount Badon Gildas describes the country as laid waste and the cities no longer inhabited as formerly. many Romans. so that his history was written in 564. if and it is not likely that the legions go without them. or Italianized Britons. he tells us he was born in the year of the battle of Mount Badon. the Latin Constantinus and Aurelius. but deserted and ruined. Writing forty. for though foreign wars had for the time ceased.

XXVI ROMAN BRITAIN 175 4=5 S Si CO d <s ^ sf ^ .CH.

the west and the entrance at the east end. p. leisure. vol. only 42 ft. facing the people and looking eastward. etc. walls are 2 ft. Pancras (Fig. to carry on the arts and industries that had flourished under Roman rule. which dating as it must from some time between Constan tine's Edict of Milan in 313 and the at Silchester in 1893 departure of the Romans in 41 1. thick. may fairly be considered the earliest ecclesiastical building in England of which we have any trace. and the altar with nave and aisles. I ArchaeoL am indebted to the Society of Antiquaries for this illustration. and had churches of which some remains have come down to us. Both church and narthex are paved with mosaic of plain red tesserae. Although two churches of British Christendom were found at Canterbury by Augustine and repaired and them had. no doubt. The narthex. was on the chord of the apse. . except for a square with an elegant pattern before the apse. apse. 53. but they show only very humble architectural skill. xxvi British any of the Britons were able. on which or in front of which the altar would have stood.1 76 rest. the position of the priest being behind it. Small as it is. Excavations with the even their civil wars gave them Siichester exposed the foundations of a small basilican church. been swept away at the return of Paganism with the Saxon conquest In S. 1 13)*. and transepts. The Britons it was true were Christians. church of S. it is in miniature a perfect basilica. but restored to use. ROMAN BRITAIN and few if if [CH. wide. 114) can though if any part of it be Roman it was a little good 1 deal altered after the arrival of Augustine. Martin's the traces of Roman work are dubious. of flint rubble with tile coigns Conformably to primitive rule the apse is at (Fig. most of the plan of the be made out. 563. in length with a nave 10 ft.

the conquest the abbey was again re-built an inscription was placed on a column to record the exact size and position of the primitive chapel. Such a structure apparently existed in Dunstan's time. Th Saxon invasion Roman complete their conquest the remains of suffered considerably and as the Saxons. 114. 60 ft. seem to have been taken by S. in ^centy. J. of which Bede is built a humble ignorant.CH. p. 12 . Its dimensions. A. Sir Gilbert Scott at the Saxon churches of says they are nearly the same Brixworth. has it that Joseph of Arimathea earliest The ury fane of wattle and daub. Worth. and was so highly revered And when after that he enclosed it in his new church. Patrick model for several churches in Ireland. 1 Mediaeval Architecture^ vol II. were a rural and not an architecture . 19. like must have the Slavs in Eastern Europe. and Dover to During the two centuries which it took the Saxons 1 . II. STPAHCRAS. XXVl] ROMAN BRITAIN church in Britain 177 Giaston- according to tradition was at Glastonbury. CANTERBURY r Fig. <*e SP as the by 26. where a legend.

where the Roman Thermae workmanship. When still the time came itself for re-building. and the great Corinthian capital which it belongs to is excellently modelled. Roman art. Other miniature figures appear to have filled the corners of the pediment. the architecture and its decoration are not inferior to the contemporary work of the later 2nd or 3rd century at Rome itself. xxvi Neglect of 11 cidef urban people. the Roman cities were probably left to decay. is very The helmet on one side. felt and the need of to architecture made once more. the remotest province of the Empire. quite out of scale with the large "Victories" that support the disc. well as . failed and Southern Gaul. Bishop Stubbs says that London and York preserved a continuous life as some other cities and when the land was ravaged Danish invasion the Saxons were driven to take by refuge in the towns and restore their fortifications. The tympanum of the temple (Plate CXXXIII). it is supposed.1 78 ROMAN BRITAIN [CH. Roman 6 to reach the standard of Provence Many of its remains are of very rude but at BATH. hating towns and living in the country. as might be expected. although in Britain. Nothing nearly so . hams. and thorpes" among our villages testify. would have been scalp ill-balanced on the other by the little crouching human irregularly composed. to Sul-Minerva (Deae Suli Minervae). as the many "ings. figure whose left hand holding a staff remains in front of the owl's wing. with the of some wild beast drawn over it. dedicated. were on a really magnificent scale. except so far as some of the old British population may have been allowed to linger there. the land must have been covered with examples of Roman work inspire the efforts of the builder. But though the tympanum does not reach in point of mean a very high classic standard composition or execution it is the work of no craftsman.

s * 1 .


from the confusion of Sol and Sul.CH. which led to Bath being called Aquae Solis but this does not explain the snakes and the star. buildings. on the ground of the snakes. still need explanation. the proper president over the healing waters. but Sul was a female deity. subterranean . You will find everywhere. just as Caesar makes Mercury the chief deity of the Druid Pantheon. but Medusa has no need to add wings and a pair of moustaches to her other charms. and adorned with fine buildings a gigantic tower magnificent baths remains of temples. and the star into which Jupiter turned I him after killing not account. him with a thunderbolt. Some think it the Sun. other theories do 122 . some see Sul. enclosed by fine walls partly still standing. but their ruins must have been for many The Roman succeeding admiration. . venture to suggest Aesculapius." he says. after their fashion. much of its ruins. the old Urbs legionum. ducts I of water and channels underground and what thought especially noteworthy. and places for theatrical shows. xxvi] ROMAN BRITAIN in Britain 179 Temple Bath at good was done 1 during the next nine hundred years . instead of Aquae Sulis . and the head is a male one. and the centre of Caerieon- upon " Usk Arthurian romance. as still retaining in 1188 Roman magnificence. having been originally erected by Roman princes. on the strength of the snakes in the hair. all . centuries sufficiently imposing to excite Giraldus Cambrensis describes the city of Caerleonupon-Usk. . I confess. the native deity of the hot springs. Others see in it the Gorgon. you may see everywhere stoves contrived 1 In the central head the whom Romans. as well as those in other parts of the by Kingdom. though apparently in " you may see. The owl is appropriate to Minerva. "Here immense palaces magnifithat once with gilded pinnacles of their roofs imitated the splendour of Rome. identified with the Minerva of their own mythology. both within the circuit of the walls and without. many traces of former cence . buildings at Bath were no doubt wrecked the Saxons. and for which the The wings.

and they probably showed greater in dealing with timber facility than they did in masonry.. EccL Hist. xxvi Roman a so that certain lateral and very narrow 1 the heat / passages secretly exhale It was therefore natural that in England. citato opere construxit. was to revive that art of Ancient Rome which was their only model. having been originally a seafaring folk like In 627 king Edwin was their cousins the Northmen." and Giraldus on the strength of this passage is accused of exaggeration. EccL Hist ill. xiv. The earliest Saxon buildings were of wood. as in France with wonderful he mod eV and Germany. 3 Bede. while that in the Saxons proudly called building more Romanorum. in 652 built his church of timber and thatched it with reeds Bede says it was done 1 in the manner of the Scots 8 . Henry of Huntingdon (Book l) writing about 1 135 says "Kair. nunc autem vix moenia ejus comparent. was very far beyond their feeble powers of imitation. wood was described as in more Scottorum. So when Finan. he replaced it by This a larger and more splendid basilica of stone. non de lapide sed de robore secto totam composuit.. xxv. the ambition of the tecture. and we know he was there with Archbishop Baldwin recruiting for the third Crusade. a material in this so abundant in England as to influence our architecture The Saxons' word for (j own to a i most modern times. 5 [CH. baptized at York in the church of the Apostle Peter. atque arundine texit Bede. under the advice of Paulinus. and which even Wooden tecture of the Saxons remote province.i8o ENGLAND SAXON PERIOD art. as infant schools of archi- soon as they came into being. 2 Quam ipse de ligno. had experience of more solid work. Quam . who as a Roman . But he says he saw these things. Giraldus Cambrensis. 2 Soon afterwards. bishop of Lindisfarne. to build was getymbrian.Legion in qua fuit archiepiscopatus tempore Biitonum. more Scottorum. Itinerarium Cambriae. which he had built hastily of wood however. tamen. though it had none of the grand structures of Southern Gaul to show. V. n. Cap.

Greensted church of timber. p. Bede. replaced the linen or pierced boards of the windows with glass. regis the surname is curious in one (Proceedings of the ArchaeoL Inst. i i i 1 Tumba lignea in modum domunculae facta. Qp . Giles. Again. and brought them back with him & i made that within a year service was held in the new church.CH. was charged by king Egfrith to build a monastery at the mouth of the river Wear. morem ed. 1845) says who was not a bishop. qui lapideam sibi ecclesiam juxta Romanorum. and in 669 Wilfrid repaired it. postulavit. Benedict return to his native Northumbria from a third journey to Rome. The style first serious step towards a in was taken Saxon Romanesque when Benedict Biscop on his 674 2 . but it occurs in the ancient genealogy of the kings of Lindissi. Edmund in 1013. accepit. 366. crossed to Gaul where he succeeded in finding Such speed was them. to whom he may have been related. shaped like a little house near Ongar in Essex there still exists a humble church o . After a year's work in of finding masons laying foundations. Benedict. nobili stirpe gentis Anglorum progenitus. attulit. when the building was ready Benedict 3 . in despair in England. Kemble Biscop. 3 Caementarios. quern 2 Florence of Worcester (anno 653) calls semper amabat. and whitened the walls above the whiteness of snow. but perhaps the wooden church near Aungre mentioned in the chronicle of Bury as receiving the relics of S. Benedictus he thinks may be a name earned by the frequent pilgrimages to Rome. Even the tombs and shrines of saints were made of wood. was buried in 1 At Greensted a wooden tomb. facerent. not indeed of this early date. Its wall consists of balks of timber set close together side by side and resting on a wooden cill. covered the roof with lead. bishop of Lichfield. In 672 Ceadda. xxvi] ENGLAND SAXON PERIOD efforts 181 The at first of the Saxons in masonry were Wilfrid's naturally not very successful York In 30 years Edwin's church had fallen into disrepair. . him Benedictus cognomento Oswiu minister.

pictures of the gospel-story for pictures of the Apocalyptic vision for the north. I. vol. for the Benedict also brought back from Rome many pictures adornment of his church and the edification of people: a painting of the Virgin an illiterate and the Apostles. even if ignorant of letters. the south the church. for nothing of the sort was to be had church from at home. Benedict him- ome a fourth journey to Rome. and brought back innumerable quantity of books and relics he introduced the Roman mode of chanting/' and even made an " : persuaded John. and 1 before Hist. Giles. all But even Gaul did not furnish furnishing and adornment of self he wanted for the his church. whichever way they turned should either contemplate the ever lovely aspect of Christ and his Saints." From abroad also this religiosus emptor purchased the sacred vessels of the altar and the vestments for the clergy. though only in a picture.182 Monk- ENGLAND SAXON PERIOD [CH. to return with him to teach the English clergy. xviii. having of the last their eyes they might judgment remember to examine themselves more strictly/' Rome was at this time under Byzantine rule. iv. which stretched from wall to wall. "so that all who entered wall. Among his pupils was the youthful Bede who tells the story 1 . cl. p. ed. Vita. the art unknown in Britain at that time. Eccl Lib. xxvi sent messengers to Gaul to bring glass-makers to glaze the windows of both church and monastery. but taught the English how to do it for of glass-making being " It was done : . Peter's and Abbot of S. the arch-chanter of S. Martin's. came and not only did the work they required of them. c. themselves. . or should with more watchful mind revere the grace of our Lord's incarnation or else as it were the trial .

tury. and entered the new convent when he was seven years old. Rome. Eight years a fresh endowment by king Church at a second monastery. was the best they could S. give a lively picture of the state of the Arts in England in the . Masonry wooden walls. even as late as the I2th cenwith thatch . Vita S. later. vol. was a forgotten art windows closed with linen or shutters. 1 though I. the Saxons had no native art of their own and Early had to begin again and build one up afresh. Paul. removing thither as soon as it was built. CuMerti. Maria Antica. which shows how much S. in 682. 204. for Bede was born three years before Biscop brought over his French masons. 17- Bede. and the earth and rough timber covered dwellings within were of 2 In Ireland. In a fifth journey to Rome. . i. which he dedicated where the Venerable Bede lived and died. The new a art progressed but slowly. monastery at Lindisfarne in 684. thatched roofs. Cuthbert built surrounded by a circular enclosure made of rough stone and turf. sup. Roman tradition was eone. a floor probably this till Biscop and of bare earth strewn with century. five miles off at Jarrow.CH. Egfrith enabled Benedict to found to S. travelled in those days than we are apt to Biscop brought back further treasures. with 1 . xxvi] ENGLANDSAXON PERIOD 183 be seen in Byzantine influences were strong there as may the mural paintings of the lately excavated church of their Greek names and inscripThese paintings which Benedict brought back tions from Rome would probably have been Byzantine works. Mr Petrie thinks there were stone churches See Papers of the British School at v. more people suppose. These contemporary accounts. from Monkwearmouth. do. p. : Wilfrid came to the rescue. vol 2 p.

to the present day. were the imposts of the Saxon chancel arch. 1 . who died in 1148 began to build exclaimed in astonishment our country this? a chapel of stone at Bangor near Belfast. and no doubt ended square. The tower arch of S. It is orientated. is What levity What work ? means Monkmouth church How " will you. when S. are rectangular chambers squarely ended and in the square end of the English church. The nave. find will live to see it to finish and who brought to perfection ? Benedict's church at MONKWEARMOUTH. and 68 x 22*8 ft. into is ? good man. was no doubt the wonder as the place of the age in The England though according to our ideas it was a modest enough achievement It remains to a great extent to this day. the natives "What has come over you. 115). xxvi s. Bene'fs at 1 Cambridge has two beasts Deerhurst at the springing. we have a survival of the primitive Christian temple such as the oratory of Gallerus and the It has been suggested that two blocks. The plan was simplicity itself. now fixed in the vestry wall. [CH. exactly three times as long as its width. there of such proud unnecessary who are but a poor man. was preceded at the west end by a porch over which was a tower (Fig. an unbroken rectangle about 60 x 1 9 ft. not Gauls. G. Patrick. together with the chancel arch The square end and western porch conat that time. Original church of S. but the original Saxon chancel was pulled down and re-built by the Normans. came to be called. which has continued as a national characteristic .Maiachy angor as early as the time we are speaking of. inside. and so has the chancel arch at . carved with lions.1 84 ENGLAND SAXON PERIOD Q f Armagh. F. which go back to the time of S. that you should introduce such a novelty We need are Scots. Monkwearmouth. Peter. Malachy. outside. Browne. it. The little oratories of Scotland and Ireland. form to the primitive type of British church architecture.

dimension probably imitated from the primitive Christian chapel at Glastonbury. a Fig. Patrick for one of his churches.mouth length corresponds almost exactly with the dimension of prescribed by S. xxvi] ENGLAND SAXON PERIOD The 185 rude chapels on the western Mr 60 ft. including the west The doorway. mouth isles of Ireland Illustrated by Monkof the church at Monkwear. 115.CH. but only the lower part of the tower is original. for porch . is now generally admitted to be Biscop's work. The western part of the church. Petrie.

runs across the wall above. however. with porch under the tower the its axis east and west. now much defaced. n 6. In the tower wall above this archway was apparently . 116).1 86 ENGLAND SAXON PERIOD : [CH. A frieze sculptured with animals. is still Saxon work though of the nth century. xxvi Monkwear- mouth marks In the masonry show that it finished with a gabled roof above the second storey the upper part. They carry a massive impost from which the arch springs. and doorways on all four sides. has a barrel vault. and they rest on block the wall and carved with upright slabs reaching through two curious serpentine creatures intertwined and with beaked heads. the jambs (Fig. baluster shafts in western one having very remarkable The Fig.

in Lofty propor lon Deerhurst urc church of DEERHURST on the Severn. with an arch to the another to an apsidal sanctuary which has now looks like preparation for The . the door of which. high. The proportions of the church are very lofty. and difficult to explain. There seems to springing have been a western gallery. of which however the lower half only is original. a central tower. which was founded before 800. and been defaced.CH. but Saxon sculptures at Headbournand Deerhurst. This feature of great height both in the body of the church and in the tower is a characteristic of Saxon architecture. Three walls of the triangular openings in the west and side The tower nave are nave. The chancel was arrangement disappeared. still looking blocked. the tower has a two light window with Lorsch (v. but probably altered a good deal in the nth century when it was restored after being damaged by the Danes. art. and a narrow and lofty nave. Worthy. though there seem to have been Saxon aisles before them. The same lofty proportions are found at the Saxon is pitch of the roof steep. 187 Monkmouth a figure carved in relief about 6 the fate high. arches are small and semi-circular. from simple impost blocks. but the wall and arch separating the chancel originally square. now Above. and the both respects contrastvery ing very strongly with the usual proportion of the churches in the Norman style that succeeded. sup. xxvi] ENGLAND SAXON PERIOD ft. to which aisles were added in the I2th and I3th centuries. 6. between Tewkesbury arid Gloucester (Fig. It has a western tower 70 ft. straight-sided arches like the arcading at increased p. Plate LXXXIII) the resemblance being by the fluted pilaster which divides the lights. appears in the tower wall into the nave. 117). It it would have has suffered been a valuable specimen of Saxon of similar Bitton.





from the nave which would have formed the west side of the central tower has disappeared and there is now no
division (Plan, Fig. 1 18). or chancel, for a central
similar square compartment tower, occurs at the Saxon

Fig. 117.



Dover Castle and





thwaite believes that these and other

Saxon churches, of
for interior

same type had two towers, the

CH. xxvi]



and possibly for habitation in the upper part. At the church at Ramsey Ramsey " built in 969 there were two towers quarum minor versus
dignity, the western for a campanile,

occidentem... major vero in quadrifidae structurae medio," 1 At Dover the place of a second tower at the &c., &C.


west end is supplied by the Roman Pharos, which was once connected to the nave by a short passage.








//> ,t<^




ter ^

BufeYv/ort-) 60 70 SO

Destroy eb.


stzurco^fe ^
1 1 8.

Deerhurst has another Saxon building, the chapel of dedicated to the Trinity by Bishop Aeldred 2 It consists of a nave and chancel communicatin ios6 ing by a round arch on plain jambs with impost blocks simply chamfered on the under side. The arch has a


Duke Odda,



1 2

Hist. Ramsiensis, cited Micklethwaite, Arch, Journal, Dec. 1896. The date and name of the founder are preserved on an inscribed stone


preserved in the Ashmolean


at Oxford.



[CH. xxvi

and the entrance doorway


The windows are splayed both inwards and The total length is 46 ft,, the chancel is u


and the nave 16
Long and

wide and 17 ft. to the plate. The in Saxon coigns are of the long and short work frequent for I have seen some at building, though not peculiar to it,
in the

a church



Aosta, and the same construction

has been noticed at Pompeii, at Tours, and round about It consists of alternate courses, one being long Caen 1

and narrow,

set upright, like a small post,

and the next a
into the

stone set



bed and bonding back

The Saxon

These long and short coigns are not found in the Saxon churches, and are a sign of later date.


tower at the west end of the nave


almost an

essential feature of the later

Saxon churches

built in the

loth and



occurs at Earl's Barton,

Barton-on-Humber, Barnack, Brixworth, Wittering, CorAt S. Andrew's bridge, and Clapham in Bedfordshire.


the tower of S. Regulus or S. Rule has a strange likeness to the Lombard Campaniles, and might have been trans-

planted bodily from Italy (Plate CXXXIV). Like the Lombard towers the English pre-conquest

towers have no buttresses, but rise four-square from base It appears that in some cases they formed to summit.
TheTower the actual

nave of the church, which was completed by a chamber on the west, and another square chamber square on the east, one being the baptistery and the other the The upper chamber in the tower, often as at chancel. Deerhurst furnished with windows looking into the church, and treated with some attention, may have been


tecture in

Baldwin Brown in the Builder of 1895. England, No. VII.

Notes on Pre-conquest Archi-












CH. xxvi]



used for habitation 1




have been of

church at Barton-on-Humber form originally 2



sometimes arranged

slightly projecting strips of stone strip-wprk decoration in various patterns, is a curious




Although strip-work of a the way it was the Saxon architects is quite original and employed by 1 Mr Micklethwaite who elaborates this theory credits the tower church

feature of




be seen

German Romanesque




Earlier history of Barton- on- Number, R. Brown, F.S.A., with tions by Prof. Baldwin Brown.



[CH. xxvi

owes nothing





best specimens of

are at the two Bartons that have been

just mentioned,


and in the tower at EARL'S BARTON and Fig. 1 19) it is so profusely used that ^p late CX It occurs also it almost deserves to be called splendid.



in the little

Saxon church of CORHAMPTON




Fig. 120.



where the strips are framed round the doorways with They are six rudely moulded bases and capitals, inches wide, and project three inches from the wall face.
Attempts have been made to see in this strip-work decoration a survival of the forms of timber construction,

which however


seems to bear no resemblance.

It is

- g. ii." The Saxon tower of BARNACK (Plate VI). The bases and capitals of the wall-strips no doubt only a device hampt<m architect's mind pilaster. xxvi] ENGLANDSAXON PERIOD 193 Cor- Corhampton show that what was in the was not a wooden post. and may possibly have been suggested by them. A.CH. but a stone at for decorating the wall. is decorated with this strip-work. and has window slabs of pierced stone very like one I saw and sketched at j. like the blank arcadings of Toscanella and those of the brick buildings at Ravenna. with its beautiful i3th century upper part. near Stamford. CX XX I3 . 121.

121). preserved in the Library of are often used as mid-wall shafts. The tower arch. of which the stone bears distinct marks. markable. MICHAEL in the Cornmarket at OXFORD (Fig. BENE'T at CAMBRIDGE and W j t j1 b a us ter ]j shafts in the windows. away in Istria (Fig. far [CH. They are turned in a lathe. 122). where Bishop Adhelm founded a church in 705. and They they may have given the suggestion for these. and measure 2 1 inches 10 inches in diameter. Many more of the same kind are now built into the vestry wall. The and chancel. very re- Cam n ge ^ The Saxon church a tower of S.Bene't's. a fine tower arch (Plate The with two animals at the springing CXXXVII). with its curious imposts of is several courses of thin stone unequally projecting. 120). perfect on-Avon and remarkable pre-conquest build- - t g RADF oRD-ON-AvoN. and two others in the are Durham cathedral Baluster shafts are not unknown in Roman work. BeneYs at probably after the conquest is obviously the work of Saxon hands. Those doorway at Monkwearmouth are placed in in height by pairs side by side. so that here again distinct national feature. xxvi S. s. Bradford- we have a The most .i 94 ENGLAND SAXON PERIOD Lorenzo in Pasenatico. which though built S. Nothing like the Saxon baluster has been found out of England. It is well built with fine . and that of S. And probably it once had a corresponding porch on the south which has disappeared. with a porch on the north side (Fig. existing building with its strange sculpture and arcaded walls is unique as a It consists of a nave complete example of Saxon art. use of these The dumpy balusters in the windows is bSer another special feature of Saxon architecture. as in the tower of Cambridge.





. 122. xxvi] ENGLAND SAXON PERIOD 195 and the large masonry. . have something like door is similar. . : . . These arcadings are pilasters. and both arches a rude version of the classic architrave round them. which perhaps belonged to holding napkins in their hands. Fig. 132 . '. . " ' ' " ' ' ' . narrow and has the usual lofty porpora low and tion. some of not really constructed like arches. wood(PlateCXXXVIII). .CH. arch are fixed High up in the wall over the chancel two remarkable sculptures of flying angels (Plate CXL) . exterior is decorated handsomely with shallow blank flat arcading of round arches springing from dumpy which are fluted. faced both within and without. but are sunk in the The roof is of surface of the coursed ashlar of the wall. and the nave and chancel communicate by narrow opening with a stilted round arch springing from The interior is The porch a plain block impost (Plate CXXXIX).

Hexham was painted and carved with histories and But there certainly images in the 7th century. . far beyond the ordinary it The same Crosses at cas standard of British art at the end of the 7th century. The date of the Bewcastle cross is fixed by an inscription in j e an<T Ruthweii 670-671. and that of Ruthwell is coeval or nearly so. was a school of sculpture in Saxon England. ] j the draperies are well composed. The woven schoofof sculpture stuff were no doubt copied from some ivory or of Eastern looms. n ^ ot 1 Q f t j iem t le g ures are modelled in a good style. 665. thing has been observed in other instances explains the excellence of the figures on the stone crosses at Ruthwell and Bewcastle.196 Bradford- ENGLAND SAXON PERIOD [CH. where they are proved to be of Byzantine origin by their Greek 1 Four of them fly round the figure of Christ in legends . ready to receive the soul of the Virgin which These figures however the Saviour is offering them. and the proportions The cathedral library at Durham contains are correct. but a pair are placed face to face like these at Bradford. and Rivoira thinks. on each side of which they might Doubt has been thrown on the have been fitted. antiquity of these figures. the dome. xxvi a rood or crucifixion. 1 Illustrated in Dalton's Byzantine Art and Archaeology ^ pp. and so acquired a character : an(j gt yj e j n acj v ance of English art before the conquest. are in a Noith- much latter later style than those at Bradford. Palermo. These figures at Bradford have a very Byzantine look. they are not coeval with the church but date from the i3th century. and have nothing of the grotesque which came in with northern Teutonic influences. influenced by the foreign workmen who were Wilfrid's church at introduced by Biscop and Wilfrid. 409. Somewhat similar figures of angels with their in the hands similarly draped with napkins occur I2th century mosaics at the Martorana.





Also Professor Lethaby in the Architectural Review. ch. 1912. p. p. Canon Green well attributes this astonishing burst of artistic achievement in the Northern Kingdom to Italians introduced by Wilfrid and Biscop. 2 forget See on this subject Transactions of Durham and Northumberland Also Catalogue of SculpArchitectural and Archaeological Haverfield and tured and Inscribed Stone in the Cathedral Library. the men and that to who laid the foundations of Romanesque sculpture may have owed no 8 small part of their capacity . the effect which would be produced by the we .. mirabili caelatura decoratae positae sunt." The influence exercised by these smaller Byzantine works on the sculpture of the south of France has been 4 There can be no doubt noticed in a previous chapter Nor must that it made itself felt also within our shores. 123). the crosses umbnan school. xxvi] ENGLAND SAXON PERIOD less surprising. instead of the usual knot-work (Fig. . vol. 70. Introduction. and I think it was inspired by the art of eastern rather than It is confined to the Northumbrian Decline that of western Rome. XX. duaeque altera ad pedes ejus. IV. tinuity of classical tradition the lessons it was able to teach. Regum.CH. Aug. sup. and only lasted a short time there sch o1 found under the foundation of the Chapter House at : Durham.. a bishop of Hexham who died in 740". una ad caput. which must be dated between 995 and 1130 2 are barbarous enough It has been observed "that there was an epoch when m maintaining the conivory carving was almost alone . but I know nothing to compare with it in Italian art of the same period. is enriched with an arabesque pattern of singular delicacy and beauty. influence i ofByzantine in plastic art. Hist. . were brought hither from Byzantine paintings which cruces lapideae 1 Corpus vero ejus (sc. Accae) sepultum est. xxxiii. Greenwells British Museum. Durham. Catalogue of Ivories in the Society. 197 examples of ornamental work not The cross of Acca. 4 v. Symeon.

xxvi Fig.198 ENGLAND SAXON PERIOD [CH. 123. .

Wittering.} Micklethwaite. and includes Monkwearmouth. in an apse. The date of the Bradford building itself "r j uncertain. p. . Pancras the primitive church at Canterbury.U shows is very Date of Bradford- on-Avon skill.CH. some of them non-Roman. says positively that this is Adhelm's church Among the plans of Saxon churches two types appear. the work seems far too mature for the date of the original foundation by Bishop Adhelm about 705. the last having a transept. lo judge r from the design. 2 Notes in The Builder as above. holds that the existing building is Adhelm's. Reculver. Angl. Repton. 175). Escomb. and either without a basilican. ciassifica- Saxon acco^aSg todate 1 "Et est ad hunc diem eo loco ecclesiola quam ad nomen beatissimi Laurentii fecisse predicatur. whose example was as opportunity offered. Types of churches One has the square east end of Bradford-on-Avon. and others Romano. well. Professor Baldwin Brown places in the oldest class those which have narrow naves and square ended chancels. in the paper above cited." (Gesta Pontif. who must have known the building 1 . and the curious little church at Silchester which has been described already (Fig.British and 2 Those apsidal like Silchester and perhaps S. 199 no doubt followed For all hieratic by decorative work the schools of the East seem to have set others Rome by the example throughout Europe. The other is and Dover. One would naturally date it as well as the sculptures about the end of the gth or even in the considerable architectural And yet William of Malmesbury. a monk of Adhelm's kindred foundation only a few miles away. xxvi] ENGLAND SAXON PERIOD Biscop. Pancras . and S. which UJ-U-L. and the execution of the masonry which is excellent. ending transept like Brixworth. or with one as Worth. writing loth century. within a century after the conquest. 113.

It is curious. when Canute after his conversion set to to repair the havoc wrought by his father and his . p. TWO S The difference in the termination. Bene't's Cambridge. Cesario on the Palatine have the that as this same feature. and from the Scotch missionaries from the north on the The arch triple other.). 124). S. Stow. square or apsidal. either that of existing Roman buildings. . 1 77 sup. a triple arch supported by the two ruined church at The columns now standing in the the cathedral at Canterbury. xxvi with a cruciform plan. 232 236. ancestors and in this class would be the churches of Bosham. and may have imported the design to England. The square end on the contrary was derived from the old British church on one hand. The round end speaks of influence. Roman and who naturally inclined to the form of basilica they were familiar with at home. 1 Origini delV Arte Lombard^ etc. Pancras at columns (Fig. The same arrangement has basilicas. H. Deerhurst and Wootten-Wawen. and those with towers like Brix- worth which was by Peterborough monks in 680. or that of the Italian monks who came in with Augustine.200 ENGLAND SAXON PERIOD built [CH. and church was close to the convent whence Augustine came he must have been familiar with it. instead of a single wide arch. Corhampton. vol. Worth. had between nave and apse. Norton. churches of Saxon workmanship probably date from the nth work century. 1 1 4. been traced Rivoira 1 says the remains which have been identified with the church in other early Saxon of S. pan introduces another classification. pp. Reculver and Monkwearmouth belong to the 7th or early But the majority of the extant part of the 8th century. Canterbury had a similar triple arch. e RECULVER (Fig. which dates from 670. Wittering. but there were four garden on the north side of The church of S.

124. xxvi] ENGLAND SAXON PERIOD 201 and perhaps more than a coincidence that Kent. and the style is known to us only from We larger smaller buildings. . They dwell at the intricate building above supported on various columns. displaying a pleasing variety and wonderful beauty on the pentices and porticos on the three storeys. and the upper galleries with their winding : . the wonderful height and length of the walls on the capitals.CH. images carved and painted. one in the fine early English church of Westwell and another in the little church of Capel-le-Fern near Dover. at Hexham and Ripon are described in glowing language by Saxon and even by Norman writers. The great minsters built by Wilfrid Fett Fig. and the sanctuary adorned with histories and . where these two examples occur. length on the wonderful complexity of the fabric. on the chambers below ground of marvellously polished stones. possesses two instances of a triple chancel arch of later date. for they have all disappeared. can only judge of the architecture of the large The Saxon churches from description.

Saxon churches had the triple construction of arcade triforium. was 120 ft.202 ENGLAND SAXON PERIOD [CH. xxvi a multitude might be there without being From this we gather that the great seen from below. de A ding-don. both of them strenuous promoters of the authority of the See of Rome. very though historically it forms a fascinating subject. ArchaeoL Journal^ 1896. accoun t for the presence of a much stronger classic feeling in Saxon buildings." Chron. founded in 675. It would seem also that they owed a good deal to foreign workmen> for Wilfrid no less than Biscop. Abundance of It is Saxon remains on a it unnecessary however to dwell at greater length 11-1. Monast. seen both says it who had S. Examples of and there is no " Habebat in longitudine C et XX pedes et erat rotundum tarn in parte quam in parte orientali. which prevailed in all the larger stairs so that Foreign workmen Roman tradition Canterthe churches of the succeeding styles during the middle ages. instance of an English church with an apse at each end like those on the Rhine the abbey church at ABINGDON. 127) to which we Edmer s h ail have occasion to refer in the next chapter. all are found in 1 parts of the country. and that to the east being But there was another probably formed subsequently. . such as that of Bradford-onAvon. like those at Ravenna and in Ireland.has not much artistic value style which i - i . occidentali . Peter at Rome. SaS>n cathedral resembled the church of from his description to have appears had an apse at each end. Roman influence showed itself remarkably in the original cathedral of Canterbury (Fig. that to the west being no doubt the original Roman sanctuary. and clerestory. long and was round both at the east and west end 1 It is remarkable also that it had a round tower. imported workmen from Italy of various trades to help This will partly in carrying out these great structures. cited Micklethwaite. It : . than in the Norman style which superseded it.

and the Norman which The absence of buttresses. which architecture of the conimpelled them to despise the and replace it by their own vigorous work. and a spirit of pride. the third edition of 1835 mentions twenty. When we remember 1 have sunk into a sort of Byzantine that a period of 464 Churton's Early British Church. observation is remain : the first constantly adding edition of Rickman doubts whether to the list of those that there are any. Saxon art seems to immobility.CH. which contained the seed of all future development of much more thorough sweep made by English architecture. and the Destruo s'Son bmldm s s the Normans after not by mere love of destruction. and the triangular arches are all features peculiar to the style. without counting those in Careful Lincoln and Stamford. The style has many points of difference both from the 11 IITVT Roman work which preceded. i ! characteristics -L I. . the long and short coigns. ofSaxon high proportion of the walls in comparison with the length and width of the building. xxvi] ENGLAND SAXON PERIOD its 203 doubt that every town and village had the conquest. and justify us in claiming it as a native art however much it was at first inspired by the ambition to build more Romanorum. In Lincolnshire alone church before it is said there were 1 two hundred village churches. quered race. the conquest. or the monasteries . the balusters. the enormously followed it. the strip-work. the inroads of the Danes and Norsemen who burned houses and churches indiscriminately. and this number might now be increased. Parker's later edition names eighty-seven. Saxon architecture suffered from two great waves of destruction. the small western porch. inspired but by artistic passion. the slender lofty tower.

it caused for a time. and that there is but little difference between early Saxon buildings and late and when we think of the next 464 years with the tower of London at the beginning and Wolsey's Palace of Hampton Court at the end of that period. we cannot but feel that in art as in with all the suffering and politics the Norman conquest. and in the misery . was a necessary. end a wholesome awakening.204 UnprofhaScter x n f ar cht tecture ENGLAND SAXON PERIOD [CH. . xxvi years passed between the coming of Augustine and that of the Normans.

tower 1 is shown in the representation of the church in the Life of Edward the Confessor^ Rolls Series \ v. Normandy passed over to and made its first appearthe centre of all is English Edward in the Confessor had been reared as an exile Normandy during the reign of the Danish kings. and a central tower with winding Such a stairs covered with a roof of timber and lead. early times there had been a Western minster of S. so called to distinguish it from the From Eastern minster of S. Gleanings from Westminster Abbey. The confessor did not live to complete the nave. to avoid Edward's new church was England (Fig. re-build the scale at When therefore he resolved to TheCon5 WESTMINSTER on a more splendid Abbey he adopted the Norman style with which he was Abbey at familiar. Scott. ed. G. 125). Paul. . had a round apse with an ambulatory aisle. A nearly contemporary account written between 1065 and 1074* speaks of two storeys of vaults over the aisle. and when he returned to England he was more a Norman than an Englishman. Sir G. ance in the building which History. interruption of the services. raised in a style never before seen in It Eastward of this. and two western towers. a transept with apsidal chapels on its east side. a long nave. Peter.CHAPTER XXVII NORMAN ARCHITECTURE THE Romanesque art of England before the conquest.

which however is no doubt very conventional. Below it is a low vaulted building with a row of massive columns down the middle from which the groining springs to library range of his monastic building remains. which would be unusual in an English church at the time of the re-building by Henry III. Remains n" fessor's building by and the great school of Westminster.XXVII Bayeux tapestry. Though the Confessor's Church has disappeared a long WESTMINSTER ABBEY IN THE XI 75 CENT* Fig. The upper the storey. once the monks' dormitory. reaching from the south transept to Little Dean's Yard. but no . and this may account for the shortness of the choir. is now occupied either side. 125. The plan was probably coextensive with that of the present church .206 ENGLAND NORMAN PERIOD [CH. with plain flat transverse ribs.

which have an outer shafts later and cushion capitals. showing probably that there were partitions Fig. 126 (from Gleanings windows against them.CH. and many others described in former chapters. The capitals are thick flat slabs with a simple ovolo below. was to revolutionize the less than style William of Malmesbury. and the base is similar. Speyer. Some of the capitals have been roughly decorated in Norman times on one side leaving the other square. 126). effect of this building. Nothing can be plainer than the workmanship. There is a little better finish in the order with jamb of the upper storey. reinforced The by the Norman Spread art of -Norman conquest that followed. writing the country. But there are signs that it is than that below. xxvii] ENGLAND NORMAN PERIOD 207 diagonals (Fig. . like the crypts of Mainz.

1890. much of which is very bad. and leaving behind them an unmistakeable mark of well their superiority to the in as arms. Paper on the Norman Cathedral of Bath by ArchaeoL Association. Lincoln. Gloucester. Irvine. The Saxon conquered race in art as buildings were small The size buildings compared with those the conquerors had left behind them Normandy. 1 in towns monasteries rise in the new style of building . the first bishop far more are of Bath and Wells. n. Durham. J. [CH. Winchester.' 1 The No re-build sooner were the to pull residing they began Normans established here than down the existing churches and : them on a more magnificent scale. The general re-building was dictated by the ambition of impressing themselves visibly on the conquered soil. of v. you may see in villages churches. 228. so ji should be still S. xxvn a century first " says the church which Edward was the to build in England in that kind of design. There could have been no necessity for this re-building most of the Saxon churches only dated from the time of Canute. Paul's in London. site of the nave alone contains the present building 2 1 When T. than Norwich and many Norman the bigger over the sea.208 ENGLAND NORMAN PERIOD later. and could not have fallen into disrepair in so short a time. Albans. The Abbey Church at buildings Bath. was so vast that the . S. Malm. for the Saxon masonry is on the whole as good if not better than that of the Normans. 2 Brit . The churches they began and to a great extent finished within half a century after the Conquest. was now emulated by nearly all in sumptuous outlay. built about 1 100 by John de Villula. one Will. But they were not content to build here as they had built there their work on the conquered in : ngan vaster and grander." " Now/' he " says in another place.

one feels amazed at the enterprise of builders. 121) with its Oxford is baluster shafts. and compares these Norman their means. relic churches at Romsey. David's and S. and traces may still be seen of the two descending passages and the central tomb or in the earlier chamber between them which exist The square east end of the structures. and Waltham from Church towers continued to be built classical flutings . who could not only conceive but out undertakings apparently so far beyond actually carry buildings done in so short a scale of most of them. Norwich. *4 J. and so is the tower Michael's in the Cornmarket (Fig. v. like those at Deerhurst and at Cambridge. Peters in the East at Oxford is very like Wilfrid's Confessio at Hexham and those at Repton and Ripon. xxvn] ENGLAND NORMAN PERIOD number of 209 thinks of the time. A. II. . tecture 1 . The crypt of S. Saxon in character. BeneYs at Cambridge.CH. Cross speak of Saxon influence. Frideswide's. and with the few appliances and slender resources of the nth and 1 2th centuries. The castle tower of S. that Edward's dark cloister at Westminster is more influences Saxon than Norman he traces the more Roman character of Saxon work in the vast round piers of Gloucester and Durham. S. older English architecture suddenly disappeared on the contrary the Saxon mode of building went on for a long time side by side with the Norman. placed mid-wall like those at Earl's Barton and S. S. and derives the curious spiral channelling of the columns at Durham. It is not to be supposed that all the traditions of the : Survival f C. which was itself archi* tecture Professor Freeman observes largely influenced by it. and the same Norman 1 Freeman's Norman Conquest^ vol. of the enormous them with the scanty population which even two hundred years later is estimated at less than two million.

and just before his arrival an opportune fire had completed the ruin into which " But though from age. quam cum prefatum incendium turn vetustas inutilem fecerat. A description of it has been left us by Edmer who saw it pulled down and its successor built. and relying on his strength of mind. in ury abbot first whom Pavia. of Bee. with Anselm. and enlarged. which was recovered to Christian use by one 1 Saxon at Canter- bury Augustine in 602. Peter there. The church which fire and age had made unserviceable he pulled down to the foundations." The re-building was accomplished by Lanfranc in seven years. cited Willis. the greatness of the misfortune drove him to despair. funditus destruere et augustiorem construere cupiens. was a native of During his native city youth he would have seen rising in arcaded walls. William made his archbishop. re-roofed. England was the Lanfranc the Italian monk. The humble church of Augustine satisfied neither him nor his master. his of the fine Lombard Romanesque. desiring to build a more noble . rich in marble and sculpture. and restored by Odo about 950. and had seen Constantine's church of S. What Lanfranc destroyed was the ancient Roman church. etc. The resemblance between two churches so vastly different in scale 1 and execution could only relate to points Ecclesiam Salvatoris. Edmer. Lan franc's at Canter- The second Norman church cathedral of CANTERBURY. he recovered himself.210 ENGLAND NORMAN PERIOD [CH. and afterwards of S. Architectural History of Canterbury Cathedral . xxvn national tradition in time supplanted most of the apses with which the Norman cathedrals began. Etienne at Caen. and he says the to He had been Rome church at Canterbury was in some part imitated from it. he disregarded his own accommodation and completed in it had fallen haste the dwellings needed by the monks.

Peter's (v. decenti fabrica a Edmer. aulam ecclesiae porrigebatur. 211 the plan of Resema with that of s. Clemente and S. 1 and behind it some height and reached by against the wall was the Pontifical Chorus psallentium in freqiientia turbae seclusus. we compare structed from Edmer's account (Fig. two flanking towers have S. and i. raised steps. Maria in Cosmedin in Rome 1 The and the excavated basilica of Salona in Dalmatia . Peter's. which Edmer tells us was raised over a crypt or confessionary like S. 127). peter's supra vol. 127. cited Willis. Peter's. those at S. p. This chorus cantorum was in the nave like the singers. and had to be reached by many steps from the choir of Fig. xxvn] ENGLAND NORMAN PERIOD . 19. it would seem to be confined to the presbytery.CH. nothing in common with At the west end Edmer tells us was the altar of the Virgin. 142 . Fig. 2) atRome the Saxon church at Canterbury which Willis has conif of ritual arrangement S.

which may have been the original presbytery before orientation became the rule. 11 now to was a basilica ending i in an whole plan was very like that at Westminster (Fig. To them we owe all the Norman work now visible above ground (Plate CXLI). Fig. correspond very closely with those of S. xxvn ury Willis conjectures that this implies a western apse. [CH. cathedral but a few patches of masonry opposite the fell. cited Willis. of which Lanfranc had been the first abbot. CANTERBURY CATHEDRAL. 128). and which was is built under his direction.212 Canter- ENGLAND NORMAN PERIOD 1 . 128. qui 1 . Etienne at Caen. Lanfranc's Nothing however be seen of anfranc tojo-wj] * ffrnuff* Ce?irw) . Edmer. windows and the rich interlacing wall-arcades we see an Ad hoc altare cum sacerdos ageret divina mysteria faciem ad populum deorsum stabat ad orientem versam habebat. and the greater choir spot where Becket The In the slender jamb-shafts of the part of the crypt. On the east of each transept was an apsidal chapel. Willis observes that the dimensions of the new Cathedral so far as can be ascertained. and a central tower over the crossing. chair The new cathedral Lanfranc's . glorious was pulled down twenty years after its completion and re-built on a much grander scale by Priors Ernulf and Conrad between 1096 and i no. and the . new cathedral apse with transepts.

Plate CXLI ' '\Vy. rt|'^ *FfH CANTERBURY South-east Transept .



. A .f ii. . ii f . .





advance of the style towards greater delicacy and

of the colonnettes are twisted, some octagonal, and others are enriched with diaper ornament. Some of the capitals are rudely carved, but most are of

the cushion form though often relieved by fluting. The crypt (Plate CXLII), the finest in England and The
vaulted with cross-groining among carried on monocylindrical pillars with plain transverse ribs between the bays. Many of the shafts are enriched
the finest in Europe,


with fluted patterns, scaled, zigzaged or twisted, and the capitals are either plain cushions, or carved with rude
Corinthianizing foliage, or storied with grotesque beasts. On one a devilish goat plays the fiddle to another, who This Norman is riding on a fish and blowing a trumpet.
crypt of about iioo extends under the smaller transept, and stops at the eastern apsidal end of Prior Conrad's


rest of the present crypt eastwards


of the

later building after the fire of 1 1 74. The great church at WINCHESTER

had been

re-built win-

by Kynegils king of Wessex on his conversion in 635, and it became a cathedral shortly after when the see was transferred thither from Dorfor the third time










mason named Godus


but no sooner touched the top to bottom of the structure, ground than he rose unhurt, wondered how he got there, mounted the scaffolding, signed himself with the cross, and taking his trowel continued his work where he left

It is

described in an elegiac


of 330 lines by

Annalts de Wintonia, Rolls Series. These miracles are not peculiar to A workman on the Parthenon who fell from a height was cured by a medicine which Pallas revealed to Pericles in a dream, (Plutarch,

Christian legends.

Life of Perides.}

2i 4
winthe Saxon cathedral





Wolstan, who following the similar descriptions of Wilfrid's churches at Ripon and Hexham, enlarges on


y Ster j ous intricacy of the



to go, so

casting a hither and thither he stands transfixed wandering eye with amazement at the fine roofs of Daedalian art, till

knows not which way many doors stand open to invite him and
arriving in the courts

some one

familiar with the

Here he marvels,

place guides him to the crosses himself, and with


breast wonders how he shall go out, so and various is the construction. As Wolstan splendid

only conducts his visitor to the threshold of the church, all this mystification would seem to belong to an atrium


may have had

chapels or other monastic

apartments opening from
Bishop Walkclvn's

to puzzle strangers.



was not good enough

bishop Walkelyn, a cousin of the a new cathedral in 1079. In 1086

Norman Conqueror, who began
for the

was ready


The king had given the bishop leave to take roofing. much timber from Hempage wood as he could cut
three days and three nights, and cut down and carry off the whole


Walkelyn managed



within that time.
in extasi factus,

The king coming soon






was quasi

said he,


not here a delight-




learning the truth he was in furorem and Walkelyn only obtained pardon by the most


abject humiliation

The new

church was finished in


in the presence of nearly all the bishops

103 and consecrated and abbots of


Saxon church was

standing close

Postrcmo Rex, "certe,"

acceptor," Monastic^ vol. n. p. 34, Rolls Series).

et tu nimis


Walkeline, ego nimis prodigus largitor, Annahs de Wintonia (Annales




chester cathedral

Till demolition was begun the next day. 111 r then, there would have been the strange spectacle ot three great churches of cathedral size in one enclosure





for a

few yards away, so near that the services of one church disturbed those of the other, stood Alfred's NewMinster, which

was not removed



outside the




little later.




^ 3^-:









:: '




Fig. 129.

the longest or the longest but one in the kingdom, but Walkelyn's west front Its reached 40 ft. still further westward (Fig. 129)*




its size

occasioned gigantic proportions were probably

by the






This to the shrine of S. S within. great flow of pilgrims saint good bishop of Winchester was a very popular


c anter b ur y

for a long while

had no

relics so attractive


and the monks were furiously jealous of the their in the older capital, which threatened


possession of a great was the fortune of a convent. Gloucester for a long


while was as badly off as Canterbury, till Abbot Thokey the body of the murdered king sagaciously begged Edward II, which from fear of the queen had been

and he was denied burial at Malmesbury and Bristol rewarded by a stream of pilgrims to the shrine of the

Lord's anointed which


the coffers of the



was even

that the

Abbey monks of

Canterbury regarded the martyrdom of

Becket as a

them to eclipse all other blessing in disguise, enabling in England, and almost in Europe. places of pilgrimage



of S. Swithin



however did not languish, accommodate the swarms of pilgrims that
built the beautiful retro-choir,

Bishop Godfrey de Lucy
almost a church by






3th century..


dicular casing: but the transepts and the crypt have preserved their original form unaltered (Plate CXLIII). The aisles were vaulted in rubble masonry, with trans-



fabric still remains, greater part of Walkelyn's disguised in the nave by Wykeham's Perpen-

verse arches dividing bay from bay, but no diagonal ribs. The upper roofs were, and in the transepts still are
ceiled with




are rude, almost bar;

Absence of

the masses of masonry enormous ; No sculpture decorates simplicity itself.







the only it, a kju et or dentil such as any mason could




North Transept





chop out. The columns have mere cushion capitals formed by squaring off the four sides of an inverted and truncated cone or hemisphere. Those in the crypt
strangely primitive, and seem rude imitations of some Doric capital that may have survived from Roman


Venta Belgarum.


Across the end of each transept (Plate there is the peculiar feature of a gallery,
transept gallery

formed by returning the arches and vaults of the aisles r r with nothing over them, so as to form a terrace from





The same


occurs in


at S.

tienne in Caen, at the fine church of

Boscherville and in that at Cerisy-le-For6t, from which it would appear to be a feature peculiar to Norman
exists at

though an instance of something like The isolated column Le Puy in Auvergne



the Martyrdom/ at the middle of the north transept, Canterbury, which together with the vault it carried was



convenience of the pilgrims, belonged and there was a corresponding to a similar structure
for the



south transept. The two storeyed apsidal on the east side of the transept at the Priory chapel church of Christchurch suggests a similar arrangement
in the


design of the transepts, which once The extended to the nave, is a good example of the import-

The Norman


ance given to the triforium in northern Romanesque. In the south of France, in Aquitaine, Provence, and Auvergne, either there is no triforium or it is very small
In Italy it is generally the same thing, at all events the church during the Romanesque period, except where



under Byzantine influence as
Le Puy however


Mark's, and
been brought



not in


original state but has







S. Vitale,

their galleries differ

somewhat from the

northern triforium.
In the east and in

Ambrogio also is an exception. the Greek church the gallery plays an

important part as the women's quarter, but it is to account for its appearance in the north, where


were not separately provided


the crypt (Fig. 130) we can recover exactly the form of the eastern termination of Walkelyn's church. It was apsidal with a sweep of great mono-cylindrical




the base of one of them



be seen in

It had an ambulatory aisle, Bishop Gardiner's chantry. and seems to have been flanked on each side by a small

square tower.

Eastwards was projected a Lady-chapel, and apsidal. The canted end of the decorated
to the original apsidal plan,





the eastern piers rest in great measure, though not The piers entirely, on the original Norman foundation. of De Lucy's work bear on the walls of the Norman

crypt below the original Lady-chapel. The crypt is one of the largest in the /J &






the crypt




which spring flat of rubble work, plastered. It has an ambulatory aisle like the superstructure and its continuation eastward
under what was the Norman Lady-chapel, is divided down the centre by a row of columns, carrying crossgroining like the rest. There is no ornament of any kind, and the capitals are as simple as the rest of the work.

with immensely massive piers, from plain transverse ribs, and cross-groining


Winchester had a central tower which






soon after


was begun



was built The recon107, and the new tower

beautifully decorated inside with







nave and one of each transept Alan de Walsingham's octagon. but now hidden by wooden groining of 1634. xxvn intended to have been seen as a lantern from the church. constructed after the fall At Winchester the nave of the Norman tower in 1321.220 wincathedmi ENGLAND NORMAN PERIOD [CH. Ely cathedral begun at the same time as Winchester by p rior Simeon who was Walkelyn's brother. who was 87 when he went to Ely in 1081. though Winchester alone had an ambulatory round it. and there are few facades so grand and so satisfactory as that of the south transept. did not live to carry his walls very high. occupying the of the transept. but even there the capitals of the great round columns (Fig. Abbot Simeon however. and four in the transepts. and a later style of Norman than his brother's church at Winchester. At both churches the transepts have aisles on both sides. both ended with a short choir and an apse. After 1093 no abbot was appointed by . which is in an earlier style than the upper part. 141 inf. and as was natural there is a certain resemblance between the ELY cathedral was Norman work at the two places. has lost one arch through the setting back of the west front of the nave At Ely one bay of the have been absorbed by by Bishop Edyngton in the middle of the 1 4th century. But originally both cathedrals seem to have had 13 arches in the nave. Probably the only part work is the lower storey of the transepts of Simeon's the cathedral is in (Plate CXLIV).) show an attempt at decoration beyond anything Simeon's death in to be seen at Winchester. There is even some ground for supposing that Ely had the same bay last gallery from triforium to triforium. Rude as the work is at Winchester the general effect of Walkelyn's building is magnificently impressive.

Plate CXLIV ^m ELY North Transept .


is a second transept of later Norman work. which is there supplied by a second apse and choir. with an apsidal chapel on its eastern side and two round Norman turrets at the end. which is now superseded by a later building. and still remains a Norman church. and are still ceiled with timber. reminding one of the great churches on the Rhine. who finished the eastern The part. agreeable variety to the piers. but are alternately composed of clustered columns. NORWICH cathedral was begun by Bishop Losinga in 1096 after he had moved the see thither from Thetford. This is a singular feature. nave and the Norman stages of the western tower were William completed by Bishop Riddell (1174-1189). ^ Norwich e m on a superb scale.CH. when the national square east end took the place of the Norman The Norman pillars of the nave have shafts runapse. and mono-cylindrical This gives an columns with small shafts attached. is wanting here. and the design included a wing on either side. At the west end if all alike. At Ely the nave and transepts never received their stone vaults. ENGLAND NORMAN PERIOD 221 Ely and the office remained vacant till it was filled by Abbot Richard in noo. ning up to the roof to mark the bays. though the motive for a western transept. which would. It is built . and with two chapels attached to the A similar chapel those at Canterbury and Gloucester. with a great tower in the middle of the west end of the nave. with an eastern apse surrounded by an ambulatory sides of it like aisle. The greater part of the nave and transepts is still of the original building. of which only the southern one now exists. but the eastern limb was re-built and prolonged by Bishop Hugh de North wold between 1229 and 1254 in the Early Pointed style. have been monotonous. xxvn] II.

and the choir. is and . The principal piers are formed of a cluster of attached colonnettes with cushion capitals. placed alternately. undivided into two lights by the usual almost if not quite equal in height to the arcade below. revealing similar flutings behind those at and there seems no doubt that like Durham these huge round columns once alterit. with the apse and the original chevet. some of which run up to as at The intermediate the roof and serve as vaulting shafts. but flying buttresses that support the I5th century clerestory and vault of the choir. its style is very archaic for that date. resembling in this the proportion central column. but with a single vaulting shaft only on the nave side starting above the capital. as The is supposed. with four bays before the If apse. makes the exterior of this cathedral The nave is some half-century exceptionally picturesque. is longer than the usual Norman proportion. Originally seem to have been huge mono-cylindrical columns they without colonnettes attached. but they pillars have been cased and altered. nated all down the nave. later than the eastern limb . remains In the eastern bay of the nave on each side one column in its original state (Plate CXLV) with a simple spreading cushion capital and spiral flutings. the nave was built by Bishop Eborard (1121-1145). the bases of the colonnettes that were added being of i5th century work.222 Norwich ENGLAND NORMAN PERIOD Our Lady 1 [CH. The triforium consists of great open arches. also now have attached colonnettes. it is enormously long and has 14 bays. pillars Ely are of two kinds. The casing of another column has been cut into. xxvn for at the east end probably completed the it was replaced by a larger rectangular one in the 3th century which has in its turn disappeared. The central tower is crowned with a later spire which was added in the 1 5th century and this.

Plate CXLV NORWICH South Nave Aisle .




. and where S. The wide soffits thus formed give space for several attached shafts with cushion above its capitals set side by side. xxvn] ENGLAND NORMAN PERIOD m i i 223 of those noticed in preceding chapters at Tournai in Norwich cathedral i r TVT T*I Normandy. and its superb position on a rocky promontory round which the river Wear sweeps in a grand wooded defile. first bay of the nave. and the The western side of the transept. within an picture of enclosure of 1 stone and turf wandered. v. carrying with S. Carilef. 1 Bede. Cutkberti. before they found a temporary resting place and it was not till 995 that they at Chester-le-Street . and i reigns here as at Winchester and Ely the capitals are of the plain cushion form. which seems a survival of the Saxon method. where S. mp. both in the triforium. 183. who laid the first stone of a new minster The Before his death he had completed the eastern part as far as the crossing. Durham enormous bulk. Terror of the Danes drove away the monks in 875 from Lindisfarne. Vita 5. makes perhaps the most impressive any cathedral in Europe (Plate CXLVI). Cuthbert in 684 had built a monastery of rude huts of timber and earth. This was destroyed by William of S.CH. Aidan had been established by King Oswald. including the east side of the transepts and the monks continued the work afterwards. with its three massive towers. . p. the second Norman in 1093. below in the arcade and The exterior of DURHAM. For eight years they them the precious body of . In 999 Bishop Aldhun built the first stone church there. The same stern simplicity Belgium. Cuthbert. finally settled on the impregnable site of Durham. bishop. and the arches are little more : than square-cut openings through the walls. completing the transepts and central crossing.

and are elongated as if they were segments of aside wall. The choir The Norman choir had four arches in two double . bays east of the crossing the main piers have attached half-columns. of the main arcade are rather cluding order over two sub-arches with a central column. running up to the top of the wall. is plainer than the other and has no r . their work. The triforium has a moulded inapse.' style. . xxvn which . The capitals are all of the cushion type. The choir now ends of the Nine Altars. aisle. 131) where some of the original shafts remain. 182). the cylindrical columns are eight-sided. p. vol. is i. Maria in Cosmedin at Rome. showing that though the aisles were vaulted the central The aplta s span was intended to be covered by a wooden roof.} which are not moulded at all. and in 1875 having an ambulatory might be expected. 3 an eastern transept. The design of Carilef s work is continued in the transept (Fig. The two side apses seem to have been square externally though round within. Norman The details are plain. as the case at the Euphrasian basilica of Parenzo (v. but those of deficient in projection. it finished with it was discovered that instead of like Westminster. the church ended with three apses like S. which makes them and gives them a curious bluntness of effect. and the intermediates are circular with spiral and zigzag flutings. A later bay occupies the place of the though the arches richly moulded.224 Durham cathedral ENGLAND NORMAN PERIOD is [CH. Canterbury. an advance on those of Winchester (Plate CXLIII sup. as an apse. and the churches of the Greek rite. the " chapel built in a vigorous Early Pointed in Originally. and Norwich round the central apse. The clerestory windows are very plain and in the choir have no mural passage.

II. xxvn] ENGLAND NORMAN PERIOD 225 Fig. .CH. 131. A. j.

is double finished supposed by some to have been dates from the I think it more probably before 1133*. I. and the succession of Galfrid Rufus in 1133.monachis open instantibus. Eo tempore navis ecclesiae Dunelmensis. The rib and panel conwhich is thoroughly developed with bays. It has many peculiarities. Ralph Flamand shows an advance in technique on opposite by colonnettes . the intermediate with zigzags and are other ornaments in The vault grouped They columns being cylindrical. and fluted or enriched with stone vault. I am not aware of another instance of this arrangement great transverse arches are pointed. a pointed arch could This again only be got by dropping the springing. 1 or at the earliest from the time of Bishop 3th century Pudsey (1153-1195) the builder of the Galilee. peracta est Symeon. there was nothing but the vault left for them to do. orders instead of one . xxvn bard (1099-1 1 28). implies that the present vault was not the covering originally contemplated. struction. Canon Greenwell argues that at the death of Flambard continuation Cap. the earlier work. the triforium has two including and the main arches are enriched (Plate CXLVII). He quotes Symeon of Durham. but they are segmental the height being given by the side walls and : The the round arch of the central tower. who says the monks completed the nave between the death of Flambard in 1128. . with a central ing is handsomely replaced by the window. 1897. channelHngs in chevrons or chequers. The simple clerestory of Carilef s builda triplet. 131). 1 Canon Green well. (Fig.226 Durham The "nave' ENGLAND NORMAN PERIOD The nave was built [CH. Durham Cathedral. There is a heavy transverse arch one double bay from another and between dividing them are two quadripartite vaults with no transverse rib The same plan obtains in the transept to divide them. and a narrow arch on each side arch carried by the next bishop. p 36. but this seems a large assumption.

Pfatc CXLVI1 DURHAM The Nave .



DURHAM The Galilee .

which have the two detached marble shafts without the addition. less than a hundred years after Bishop William laid the first stone of his ponderous arcades. 132. The original arrangement remains in the responds. xxvn] ENGLAND NORMAN PERIOD . 190.CH. The names They William. Richard and Greenwell. 48 15-2 .it i developed into when greater experience and riper constructive power enabled the builders to design in a lighter and with more elegance (Plate CXLVIII).. 132) only the are original. of Bishop Pudsey's architects are recorded. op. and it shows a fairly Indeed the architect rapid advance in architectural skill style 1 . Of the present Fig. vol. cathedral. The i. Some only of the capitals have the abacus broken out over the additional shafts . like the entablature over the coupled columns at S. cit. several still retain the simple straight abacus belonging to the two marble shafts. reduced his supports dangerously. r the precipice..Durham . 227 Galilee chapel outside the west end. i. It was built by Bishop Pudsey about the year 1175. Costanza in Rome 1 (v. p. are called wgeniatores. shows what the Norman style was i i . Plate XLIV). which over. quatrefoil columns (Fig. and the stone shafts were two marble shafts added by Cardinal Langley (1406-1437) to strengthen them. and where he the bones of the The hangs Venerable Bede. p.

ground At Pittington they are sunk instead. At Norwich in height.228 Durham e ENGLAND NORMAN PERIOD The development . but they are The spirals Durham chased into the cylindrical outline. improved rti n ofthe storeys The advance at Durham on the transepts of Winchester by the infinitely better proportion of the At Winchester the triforium and the three storeys. [CH. his simpler work is succeeded in less than another 20 years by Bishop Flambard's more ornate and refined work in the nave. is shaft. The interesting church of PITTINGTON. is said to have been another fluted work of Bishop Pudsey. xxvn The -' omlment of ornament however did not keep form in the Galilee pace with that of the architectural arches we have still only the conventional Norman zigzag. behind that at Canterbury. with its huge ficent result. The plain unmoulded lags tradition Durham In this respect the to sculpture. and the . and half a century later Bishop of tranPudsey's elegant Galilee brings us to the period sition from Romanesque to lighter Gothic. great arcade are nearly equal *s shown also they seem quite so. time Romanesque Winchester and Durham between them furnish an e itome of Norman Romanesque. some five or gjx church m ji es from D ur ham. with the result that except where left in and do not mar the relief. consist of four plain flat leaves which and the capitals hardly amount Progress e from whxChester to by had almost been forgotten. where work at this P orders of Bishop Walkelyn are followed some 20 years arcades at later by Bishop William's well-moulded Durham . At Durham the great arcade is raised at the expense of the upper storeys with a magniIn that splendid nave. inspired by the earlier carried out differently. no artist can stand unmoved. The work and spirally adorned columns of the nave (Plate CXLIX) at seem at to have been are Durham. Pittington towering columns.

o EH .


by Abbot Paul between 1077 and on the edge of pier and arch. Norman work in England is that of the f IALBAN s. i i i i i cathedral Here there are 1088. . The capitals even here do not way rise above a version of the cushion type (Fig.CH. absolutely no mouldings The material employed had no doubt something to do with Roman city of being chiefly brick from the Verulam. and the remains of the Saxon church which this. of which the earlier part was built * s. and the Fig. 133). xxvn] ENGLAND NORMAN PERIOD roll 229 putington the spiral reaches it disagreeably. in that The days the capital overhangs the shaft of this spiral ornament were artist trying to do something original has bungled. 133- The Abbey sternest at S. really over.

The central apse still exists.230 ENGLAND NORMAN PERIOD pulled down. though the primitive nave at a period when elsewhere the style was changing into Early English is apparently an archaicism. and the nave It is the end of the I2th century. and ended eastward in three apses like the original plan at Durham. The church is basilican. [CH. usual cushion capital Peter- PETERBOROUGH was not begun was not finished till till 1 1 1 8. The western part of the nave in fact was hardly finished in the Norman style before the well-known west front was begun in the Early Pointed manner. practically a style of the Norman church still. been noticed as peculiar to a smaller scale the same simple unadorned Norman construction is shown in the fine church of ELSTOW near On Bedford (Plate CL) where the square-ordered arches without even the spring from a mere impost moulding. though a good deal altered to make it harmonize with the Perpendicular retro-choir at the east end. xxvn of the Abbot Paul Saxon Eistow Among them are many balusters which have already architecture. .





wooden nettes. is extremely impressive. which was begun by Abbot Serlo in 1089. 134). the cushion capitals. but devoid of any ornamentation. unprepared for by with plain roll mouldanything below. The is lofty proportion of the triforium stage been noticed at which has and other Norman churches Winchester maintained here. with plain round unornamented of still simpler detail than those at capitals. and dedicated in noo much is given to the nave arcade it attains greater importance a stately proportion at the expense of the triforium. ceiling of The nave Norman times. and the aisle vaults have diagonal as well as transverse ribs cathedral of a heavy roll section. others the several orders of the arches. but in many carrying cases. zigzags. and arches . retains its painted The columns are massive and have attached colon - rising as vaulting shafts. At GLOUCESTER on the other hand. From these capitals all the orders of the arch spring. which are universal in the Norman part. though the gradation of the three Gloucester ** storeys is more pleasing at Peterborough. xxvn] ENGLAND NORMAN PERIOD show progress in 231 The details refinement. and are decorated and billets. are broken out for the orders. which . where the correspondence of order and shaft is some of them not observed.CH. if a little ings. the TEWKESBURY Abbey has same huge cylindrical ury columns in the nave. diminished to very small coupled lights under an The columns are enorincluding arch (Plate CLI). though the main pier below remains a plain cylinder or octagon (Fig. is mous cylinders built of small masonry and with plain round capitals. which are neither moulded nor carved. The general effect. severe and cold. The Peter- triforium arches are graceful and prettily decorated.

M ( &r*JW'''>' >' Fig. * 'lij ' ' ' > .. ". i////// .. 135.. .232 ENGLAND NORMAN PERIOD [CH. xxvn .

and Malmesbury. pinched however is not original. and others at Fountains. Abbey Dore. and S. Hereford. The magnificent west front with its deeply recessed arch of many orders and its two piquant pinnacles. . at ABBEY DORE in Herefordshire. (Fig- HEREFORD and MALVERN have the same massive . Norwich. Buildwas. cylindrical columns with a plain or nearly plain round capital at Gloucester. Malvern. still further Maivem Maimes- Abbey enriched. 1 These I am indebted to Mr Raffles Davison for leave to reproduce his beautiful drawing. and Waltham. Bartholomew's in Smithfield. xxvn] ENGLAND NORMAN PERIOD 233 Tewicesury and the triforium is quite unimportant. together with the grand central tower over the crossing make this one of the very finest examples of Romanesque architecture in existence Gloucester. Tewkesbury. seem to form a distinctive west country type differing In many particulars from the cylindrical columns already noticed at Durham. and the Norman clerestory design may have been different. Hereford that at cylindrical columns with simple round capitals Hereford however having attached shafts on one side and At Malmessurface carving on the ovolo of the capital.CH. The up against the clerestory window-sill. and there is a similar capital. bury the round capitals are scolloped in imitation of the cushion form.

ROMSEY is remarkable among Norman churches for its square east end. central column into two sub-arches under an including here is one. . The lofty proportion of the triforium like that at Winchester. and a fine I5th The century tower has been added at the west end. rectangular masses of masonry with attached colonnettes and the triforiurn is divided by a . The nave piers 4th and i$th centuries. and the nave is roofed with wood. but the eastern arm and the chapels beyond it were re-built with splendour in the There was perhaps a Norman disappeared. The same peculiarity exists in the church of the Christ- Hospital of S. so that a pier comes in the middle instead of a light.CHAPTER XXVIII ENGLAND NORMAN PERIOD OF ey shire the two great conventual churches which Hampboasts in addition to her cathedral. The Norman roof was replaced in the I4th century by a handsome one of timber. was probably begun by Ralph Flambard in the time of William Rufus. which has the further anomaly of containing two windows. now much decayed. Peterborough. The nave and transepts (Plate CLII) of the original building still remain. and hidden by sham vaulting of lath and plaster. Cross near Winchester. the Priory of TWYNHAM or CHRISTCHURCH. aisles are vaulted. and Ely. The other Hampshire church. central tower which has 1 are very simple. which is on the scale of a cathedral.

.p. p B H m s ffi .



i--lH'Xx "I - CMRISTC1IURCII PRIORY -North Transept .r ? i Fi '.

for it has the peculiarity of being open to the aisle. at Caen. so that both the lower arch of the nave arcade and that which should belong to a triforium look into the same side aisle. p. but with roll mouldings in relief. The nave of ROCHESTER (Plate CLIV) which. The chapel of S. which occurs also France (v. forming a reticulated pattern on is CLIII) N. as S. sup. Plate CXXI X). shows an advanced stage of Norman Romanesque by its clustered piers. though the aisles were subsequently vaulted at the level of the lower arches. oiastons. or rather the arch which at Le Mans in Rochester represents the triforium. in which the shafts correspond to the members of the arch they carry. The capitals of the arcades on this buttress form an instructive series of early Norman carving. represents the which used to church supposed to have been built by Joseph primitive It stands at some distance west of the of Arimathea 1 . M c ape 1 -z/. at He suggests that in the same arrangement cathedral may have been adopted Lanfranc's Canterbury. and by the graceful enrichments of the spandrils of the triforium. Joseph's. no floor to the triforium. They have the square abacus and preserve the tradition of the classic volute. 177. a feature of rare interest. angle of the north the surface. in its present form. Mary be known at CLV). At Rochester. xxvin] ENGLAND NORMAN PERIOD is 235 One work (Plate of the most remarkable features of the Norman turret at Christchurch at the the round staircase which transept. . richly decorated not only with arcading. p. sup. Professor Willis observes that originally the same peculiarity existed in the Abbaye aux Hommes. dates from 1115 and onwards. there being a passage way is formed GLASTONBURY (Plate through the piers at that level.CH.E. 1 60.

in doorheads. and clung to it with conservative zeal. the convex outline of Norman work and adopted the concave form. It was consecrated in 1186 and affords another instance of the conservatism of the monastic orders . have discarded for they Giaston- The of the coming cap & crocket of Gothic architecture. xxvra s" Mary's chapel great church. At Fountains though in Fountains y the clerestory windows are round-arched though the arcade below is pointed. The aisles there are vaulted in a very primitive way. and billet of the older art. and something of the springing character The mouldings. springing from round Castor arches turned from pier to wall There is no richer example of late ture than the tower of Norman architec- CASTOR church in Northamptonshire .236 Giaston- ENGLAND NORMAN PERIOD [en. The monks especially loved it best. and Buildwas though we have the massive cylindrical columns of the Attachthe round arch Norman they carry pointed arches. less lingered The round period arch neverthe- on in unconstructional features. this chapel at Glastonbury is round-arched and adorned with interlacing Norman arcades. the mouldings are enriched with the zigzag . and to the end of our period. to which it was joined by a Galilee porch. zigzags. by barrel vaults with their axis at right angles to that of the nave. matters of construction the superior convenience of the pointed arch could not be denied. and billet capitals alone betray a later taste. This brings us in fact to the meeting of the two styles. same spirit of archaicism shows itself in the architecture ey urya of the great church which was built after this chapel for though the arches are pointed. and trefoil cusps appear in the triforium. and ornamental arcadings. for while at Canterbury English William was building in a style of advanced transition towards Early English. Fountains. windows. At Malmesbury. Romanesque and Gothic.

Plate CUV ROC11KSTER Nave .




Plate CXXVII) and that at S. Mr Sharpe 135. one of the very few architecture where polychrome masonry of decoration. xxvin] ENGLAND NORMAN PERIOD 237 Castor The church was dedicated in 1124. Etienne at Caen (sup. unbroken by This stone seems not to be numeral The last in its original place or state. not in relief like the rest but scratched very rudely into the stone. PETER at NORTHAMPTON. . more mason's work than sculptor's. with a very happy east 1 effect. stone informs us which is built into the south wall of the It resembles the later work in the upper storeys of the steeples of S. The church of S. which dates as early as is 1 s. p. 154. for its square end is is a perfect basilica (Fig. as a (Plate CLVI).CH. It will be observed that the ornament however rich is purely conventional. CXXVIII) and the tower of the south-east transept at Canterbury (Plate CXLI). Peter's. but others with more probability about 1180. It is remarkable on instances in many accounts. 136. northern Gothic is used as a mode The strong orange-coloured iron-stone of South Northamptonshire is employed in conjunction with white free-stone in bands and alternate voussoirs. The church but 136). Fig. Michel des Vaucelles (Plate chancel 1 .

arches springing from them across the mediate columns are cylindrical. The tower (Plate CLVII) at the west end is not but was re-built in the t6th century with old materials and not on the original site. which one runs up and they once had aisle. roofs. The round arches on columns. of formed of four attached to take the tiebeams of the trusses. with The inter- an enriched and M ^^^ ysZe^Ss ' 1 &t moulded band or ring surrounding them about mid-height. eastward. which in some cases have toes. but farther in its original state. It has . [CH. cutting off half of the next double bay. Petet's. ENGLAND NORMAN PERIOD arch. They all have stilted attic bases. xxvm any chancel with ampton wooden plan.238 s. and principal columns are quatrefoil in shafts.




''. \f$w*>~~^^T''r %...^-!It|^ r^ 1 ^-Ifpi ' I /&$&^\h : t . ' '. iit-^.' ' 'Hi' '" .. '' ' ''' ' S.r:f^:f i-lra^l^^TvVf i'.- i: .. tiu"'' *'...> I ' . . r. PETER'S NO RTJ I AM I'TO N .

but they are so far as I know unique in England. The church is illustrated in Sharpe's Churches of the Nene Valley. quite inartis. arranged . sculptured capitals of this church are interesting Norman 6 examples of what the early Norman artists could achieve. and remind one of those of Notre Dame at Poitiers. The clerestory on both sides is handsomely arcaded outside. the best are covered with ornament They have half-way between foliage and strap-work. Plates C. columns can hardly have been invented in the i6th century when the tower was pulled down and re-built. 137) : over a perpendicular window. Another ampton richly decorated arch of four rings and a label in the west wall once probably surmounted a west doorway but these rings are now merely inserted flat (Fig. xxvni] ENGLANDNORMAN PERIOD 239 a magnificent Norman arch of many orders decorated. by the Rev. M. 138) and on a design more or less conjectural 1 . with the zigzag. and the carving takes the form of surface ornament as The They it animals tically Some of them have figures of dfd in Byzantine work. Peter^ Northampton. CI). little ordered arrangement such as classic example very History of the Church of S. Originally would probably have been recessed as orders. of a convex or cubical shape. and in all probability they formed part of the original Norman into the wall Columnar structure . they The two western angles of the tower are buttressed each by a group of three round columns running up to the These buttress top stage which is of the i6th century. sup. R. and Civray in Poitou (v. and the arcades are carried on to the east end which has been reconstructed on the old foundations (Fig. Peter's. 1 Serjeantson. as s. His book contains in an appendix Sir Gilbert Scott's report and account of the various stages of construction and reconstruction.CH. are well proportioned. others simple attempts at foliage. . are all the others in the church.


In sculpture Indeed the Norman school. where the remains of Roman j.CH. *6 . the rudimentary Idea of vegetable growth is ignored. At first it was A. 241 this Norman sculpture would have illustration In the capital shown in 139) there is to be sure a leaf to mark the angle. and the beasts are placed symmetrically. lagged far behind those of the South of France and Burgundy.' 139- while most of the sprays branch off as they ought in the direction of the main stem others start from it backwards. art afforded superior instruction. for 7 PETER'S NORTHAMPTON. g. xxvm] ENGLAND NORMAN PERIOD taught. and (Fig. but the scroll-work wanders loosely over the surface. n. whether here or in Normandy.

and billet or dentil mouldings. ically with tails that and showing but promise at first of future excellence. The front of CASTLE RISING church in Norfolk example of this kind of decoration. that these figures (Plate in Suffolk are not 1 . CLVI 1 1 ) WORDWELL much worse than those animals are not at Cividale in Friuli Animals ' The Norman : attempts at much better they are generally grotesque lions treated heraldbranch into foliage. or shall we say I painter. where its profusion is someaffords a pleasing Figures in what tedious. and on the other what seems Agnus Dei. Nowhere is it so lavishly employed as in the little village church of IFFLEY near Oxford. which the simple carvers soon learned to treat with much skill and refine- and the earlier churches seldom got on(^ cus hion capitals. and the same 1 I have to thank Mr Keyser for Plates CLVI II. and at it is only fair to say. or Edward the Confessor and the pilgrim.242 Norman sculpture ENGLAND NORMAN PERIOD [CH. masterpiece of a post-impressionist have in former pages observed the same the difficulty in dealing with the figure in the Lombard school. xxvm rarely attempted.^ t k ese symbolism scu jp tures k ut ^ w ithout much success. The early efforts of the Norman sculptors at the human figure are deplorable. and are like the efforts of the street boy with a piece of chalk on the palings. It is attempted to read a symbolic meaning . Christ giving the benediction. CLIX. STOW LONGA. in advance was the introduction of such The next ment. (Plate CLIX). barbarous enough. there is with on one side an animal apparently mounting a little at Their to be an pedestal or altar. Huntingdonshire In the tympanum a queer figure of a mermaid. to That at Wordwell has been variously interpreted mean the sacrament of marriage. ^ step conventional ornaments as the zigzag. and CLX from in Great Britain- his work on Norman Tympana and Lintels .

s w .



o H .

In the. but the figures are placed on the surface anyhow a leaf finishes one angle Peter's. 140) there is no attempt to express decoratively the form and function of a capital.CH. example from Castor (Fig. XXVTIT] ENGLAND NORMAN PERIOD New 243 license of interpretation may be accorded to most of the Norman 8Cnlptarc others. how architectural ornament far superior in technique the is to the sculpture in the purely tympanum. capitals gradually grew from the simple cushion At first the ornament type into something more artistic. 16 2 . door-head from Stow Longa. as for instance in the Byzantine example. is a favourable instance. 140. . Subjects from the Old or Testament are sometimes attempted with miserable success. The improveatshiot capital was S* treated superficially like the cubical capitals. of which the example given Byzantine already from Northampton. Fig. In many cases the ornament is applied without any constructive idea whatever. and now and then the design seems based on It will be observed.

The next step was to break up the cushion . but though nothing could well more advanced than anything by his brother at it is Winchester. Fig. be simpler Simeon's work. ment of the cushion capital by fluting and then the semimarked a decided advance it. There are precisely similar angle leaves in Enrich- the capitals of Ernulfs crypt at Canterbury.244 Uncon . and on the leftwith nothing to balance it on of foliage at one hand capital is an ill-designed piece nature and no relation corner with no resemblance to much more barbarous. which were decorated circular ends of the cushion so divided by sunk carving as at Ludlow. to anything. xxvra the other. in the arcading of the . 141. capital is abstract form of leaf with corners are adorned by a very This is said to be part of Abbot a simple scroll turn-over. 141 from ELY. ENGLAND-NORMAN PERIOD [CH. Nothing could be the cushion An early rudimentary attempt to decorate where the shown by Fig.

142- Fig. lost its convex form. suppressing real foliage. xxvin] ENGLANDNORMAN PERIOD 245 round chapel (Fig. 142). and curled stalks of vegetable the different divisions becoming almost was to treat the rounded end the next Abandon- growth . in which stalk altogether and substituting the . often In addition the abacus was enriched by diapers as at S. Peter's BEDFORD where also the shaft and the arch mould are (Fig. little jewel-like Fig.CH. DAVID'S (1176-1198) the divided cushion capital over on a concave line. 143) decorated with spiral and zigzag mouldings studded with Later as in Peter de Leia's nave bosses. 144). and step as a plaque for sculpture (Fig. 143- at S.

where is it had been used by William Wykeharn Its as a plain facing stone with the carved part finish remarkable. (Fig. almost like that of . such as diapers and Normans showed Nothing in this way great skill and ingenuity. can be better than the ornament of the blank arch on the west face of S. the ornaments. of which I have never seen an example beyond these shores. and towards the end Gradually.246 Noiman sculpture ENGLAND NORMAN PERIOD [CH. capital. Barfreston church (Plate doorway Kent was probably carved by workmen from Canterbury cathedral. except at Bayeux. In conventional panelling. cathedral. where Romanesque architec- ath century we find it more nearly abreast of the other schools. of which the four sides are shown by Plate CLX I. 137). xxvm appears that curious Early English trefoil leaf. Peter's tower at Northampton already. was lately taken out of the south aisle wall of WINture CHESTER of inwards. which has been referred to rl though slowly. The splendid at BARFRKSTON of the i CLX) in Capital from Winchester was already giving way to the The pointed style. the school of Norman sculpture advanced to better things.





Another wall in the capital (Fig. they are well Chester modelled. original cloister of much . which was built into the same way with the carved part inwards. in the fabulous r i creatures 11 element 11 m Win- represented. 145). of which the planes are cleverly managed. the sides being shaped Fig* 145. into a trefoil. similar capital from Ernulf and Fig. shows a refinement of the cushion capital. may very likely have belonged to the though their style is the abbey.CI-L xxvni] ENGLAND NORMAN PERIOD for the grotesque i 247 Capitals fr an ivory carving. 146 shows a very Conrad's crypt at Canterbury. These two capitals at Winchester being carved on all four sides and prepared for slender colonnettes about 6| inches in diameter. and allowing .

[CH. In the Livre des Creatures of Philip de Taun. 1 afford : . which was in its turn destroyed in the i6th century. CANTERBURY CRYfT Fig. written in the i2th century. One explanation is that " it means the Harrowing of Hell" Sagittarius is an emblem of Christ and the dragon's mouth is Hell-mouth. According to tradition the cloisters were destroyed in Queen Elizabeth's time if so Wykeharn may have pulled down the Norman cloister and built a new one. xxvni than that of Walkelyn's arches which opened from Symbolism in sculpture the cloister to the chapter-house The centaur shooting an arrow into the monster's mouth is said to be symbolical.248 later ENGLAND NORMAN PERIOD 1 . Wykehanfs perpendicular facing of this wall is no doubt full of similar relics of the work of his predecessors. 146. Sagittarius drawing his bow is said to These carvings were discovered when the stones were drawn out to bond for my new buttresses in 1912.

rtatc Cf.Xl fe .^ f NVI'NtM I KSTKK .


And yet it is curious that the centaur shooting into a dragon's mouth. . 147). and whether the sculptor had anything 1 |S!?ffi2?t NCOTT. nor the trident with . One wonders whether most of this far-fetched symbolism was not invented by clerics to give a meaning to the sculptor's fancies. 264 and 2nd series. pp. all who This far-fetched and confused prison events does not explain the griffin in this is shot in the chest. No. xxvin] ENGLAND NORMAN PERIOD 249 Symbolism an e scuiptu? express Christ's vengeance on the Jews. should be of not uncommon In occurrence. 4. and his arrow points the way his spirit departs through Hell-mouth to the spirits in theory at capital. Gilles in Provence which has been illustrated above Papers by Mr George C. 30338. 1 which the other monster is defending himself. collection of Mr Keysets Norman door-heads however there are many subjects with Sagittarii and other archers.en. as at Kencott in Oxfordshire (Fig. S. vol xvi. which seem to have no symbolic meanThere is a Sagittarius in the portal of ing whatever. in his mind but a sporting subject. LXVI. Fig. 147. Druce in \h& Archaeological Journal^ No. 1 vol.

ROCHESTER (Plate CLXII) highest level to which Norman architectural The correspondence of jamb by the shafts below their respective logical and the execution of the ornament shows the work of a skilled hand. but Quid feri leones? Quid monstruosi Pro deo! Quid maculosae tigrides? si non pudet ineptiarum. . 152. Bernard at he attached no symbolical value tk e to them. Georges de Boscherville in Normandy (sup. where on the two extreme crosses are carved the figures of the thieves. Gilles. cur vel non piget expensarum ? Apologia ad Guillelmum Theodorici abbatem^ Cap. Quid ibi 1 immundae simiae? centauri? Quid semi-homines? . Plate CXXVI) which would perhaps be contemporary. The clear Rochester west door centaurs in Romanesque among It the is barbarous figures which S. a lamb carrying a cross. attenuated figures of Henry I and his queen which serve as shafts to the inner order resemble those of the western portals at Chartres which are a little later. p. but for the most part in earlier work represented by a symbol. the two last illustrations. The tympanum is occupied by a figure of Christ in an imperfect vesica supported by an angel on each side and frieze of little figures along the the apocalyptic beasts. or even by a simple cross as for instance at Christ is Hawksworth in Nottinghamshire.250 (stop. XI I. The and those in the chapter-house doorway at S. stag it would be draw any moral from sculpture are ridicules 1 . but any direct representation of our Lord seems to have been m It occurs in later examples as in studiously avoided. [CH. In Saxon architecture the representation of Christ on the earlier Norman sculpture the cross is common. and Aries. xxvra Plate CVI) who difficult to is shooting at an innocent that. lintel resembles in miniature the arrangement at S. to arch is recognized orders. A Christ in sculpture V&zelay. 70. The west doorway marks sculpture attained. ENGLAND NORMAN PERIOD p.





T - Sculpture i i i i atMalmesbury side. and an Christ. of foliage surrounding the arch reminiscent of Byzantine design. have draperies with thin folds. late MALMESBURY has a magnificently sculptured porch of r r Norman work with figures of the apostles. which from their style probably belong to the end of the nth or to the isth century. and of scrolls and interlacing enriched with many devices which small figure subjects are introornaments. though they to have been supposed by some be earlier. There are other examples of early sculpture in the fagade of Lincoln cathedral. in attempt has evidently been made to give them variety of Local tradition attitude and expression (Plate CLXIII). of The attempt at greater naturalism speaks of a more advanced stage of art. the same duced. and the hand is turned back in the same impossible way as those the apostles. 251 It between them is a plain cross with no figure on it will be remembered that the same unwillingness to attempt the divine portraiture was characteristic of the earlier 2 Byzantine work . op. and is inconsistent with an earlier date than the middle of the 12th century. is among The flat border tit. much convoluted. and in the tympanum of the doorway a figure of The figures a vesica supported by angels. of the doorway has the same convoluted drapery. The is Prior's door at beautiful piece of late ELY (Plate CLXIV) is a very Norman work. and some have thought them to be Saxon. xxvinj ENGLAND NORMAN PERIOD 1 .CH. has it that the sculptures of the apostles are older than the doorway. 2 *> SUP. In the tympanum Sogguie the arch is subject as at Rochester. I see no reason to doubt their being of the same date as The figure of Christ in the head the rest of the porch.v l L PP. six on a T. Plate 94. and on slabs that have been found at Chichester. i Keyset.4*> "4- .

Durham. Winchester. and squatting on his back is a naked human I figure with his back outwards. Ely. and S. remains to point out a few peculiarities *n English Romanesque. Carlisle. The * quar e It has been already observed that the continental type of church was apsidal. and S. All the rest just named were once apsidal. xxvm jamb shafts rest on what are now decayed projecting blocks of stone. Norwich. know not why. as is and Worcester. but when in later times alteration S.252 Eiy. Peterborough. Canterbury. originally finished an apse. not projecting from it in the Italian fashion. Lichfield. Exeter. Maria Maggiore at Toscanella. Alban's. and possibly Southwell. we cathedral. the colonnette with his arms* is Pecuof embracing This quasi.Pnor's ENGLAND NORMAN PERIOD The bases of the [CH. Frideswide's at Oxford were also so planned. but which seem at first sight to have been little lions like those in the portals of S. Rochester seems to have been planned by Gundulph with a square end. Hereford. which gradually converted into a distinct national style one originally imported from across so far as know unique it In conclusion the channel. Cross. to this country. and Gloucester still have their apses. David's or re-building was called for the continental apse way to the square end of the Saxon and the gave Celt before him. With the help however of the i8th century illustration in Bentham's Ely they resolve themselves into a group on each side. proved by the crypts of some and foundations that have been discovered in others. and this was the type the Normans brought with them. Romsey. in though now squarely ended. .Italian feature EngHsh in England. Chichester. Chester. consisting of a lion placed parallel to the wall. though the last named conceals it under later work. and S.

Plate CLX1V ELY The Prior's Door .


. . But it is not the length of the choirs more than that of the naves that makes our great cathedrals remarkable. wooden roof over nave and transept. or abbot of the convent or college. xxvin] ENGLISH ROMANESQUE 253 Aisles only its Ely still has Originally only the aisles were vaulted. Winchester over has the old It vau te the transepts. One remarkable feature of the English cathedral or abbey church is its great length. the bishops and the regular clergy such as that we have Here alone the two were united the noticed in France. when the choirs of Canterbury and Winchester were lengthened by Prior Ernulf and Bishop de Lucy. and Winchester. Alban's. Abroad there are no such long drawn naves as those of S. which forms a distinctive characteristic of the national style as compared with that It is no doubt less marked in the earlier of France. This may be accounted for in by the peculiar constitution of our ecclesiastical establishIn England there was no antagonism between ments. English ps aiso abbots of bishop was not only the pastor his diocese but the consequently townsmen a solid wall pierced by a door in the centre divided it into two parts. and the eastern part was the monks' choir. Norman for was left the succeeding age to accomplish the vaulting of a nave. and Peterborough ceiling with painted decoration.CH. but the choir screen remains still in those of our cathedrals which have not suffered from the mischievous craze of throwing everything open to be seen at a glance from end to end. Nowhere can this arrangement be observed better than at Christchurch Priory. Ely. was his cathedral The great church of each diocese Lay part was shared between the monks and the churches head and the abbey church church with its own altar against the screen. proportion to the church Norwich. while the people had the nave for their . Length of churches work than the later.

while the whole face of the land was being covered with buildings in the new Between the transepts of style. and ten years later Bishop Hugh of Avalon built his choir at Lincoln. For the first eighty or ninety years after the conquest. xxvni explains the long drawn naves of our Effect in 16 chmhes English minsters. featureless simplicity of the nave of S.. Mary at Glastonbury ten years later. English . which bears no trace whatever of Romanesque architecture. And yet before the nave of Peter- borough was finished the Temple church consecrated. but for a long while the Norman little sign of further development. Winchester in 1079 and those of Peterborough nearly a century later the difference is much less than might have been looked for. The connexion of the bishops with the monasteries has no doubt been the means of saving the buildings. . Alban's in 1077 to the elegance of the Galilee at Durham in 1 175. In comparing cathedral churches with those English went on with but . At the suppression of the convents in the i6th century those abbey churches which were also cathedrals were of course spared. others like Bath. or of French any influence. Malvern. but with these and similar exceptions most of the old abbeys are now in ruins. we shall find that it was most rapid towards the end of the period. Progress ofNorman archi- n ^ Romanesque from the bald and _ In tracing the progress of refinement in r ** . a in London was work of pronounced transitional character with pointed arches.254 This I ENGLISH ROMANESQUE take it [CH. and the chapel of S. it changed very little. and Christchurch were given to which like the people for parish churches. for episcopacy was not threatened those : Peterborough were made the seat of new A few bishoprics were also preserved for that reason. When the change came the old style melted away style rapidly enough.

and though the round arch was retained elsewhere in 1184. The in long low line of position in the level fen country. and Peterborough suits its its great west front has no parallel field Gothic art. but the west front in which two of them are placed is unique. for for a moment mistake one at a brief glance of these buildings whereas one may be forgiven doubting whether a photograph represents the portals of Amiens. Godfrey de Lucy began his presbytery at Romanesque a hard fight for it. bury in conjunction with foliaged capitals of a Gothic type. the cathedrals of Sens or Auxerre. or perhaps More than 20 years before then a few years sooner. great and so wide a variety in general mass and outline. and York have each three towers. and the steeples of Chichester. and so are the central towers of Gloucester. the and three spires of Lichtowers of Exeter are Nobody can for another. made We . If one runs ch^cLs greater over in memory the general form of our great churches of France their diversity will seem surprising. Rheims. and was given up with reluctance. No other school can show so Salisbury. Wells also has three. xxvin] ENGLISH ROMANESQUE 255 we find In our own a greater variety.CH. Lincoln. and Norwich. in which the pointed arch was used for the main arcade. but they are not in the least like one another. The two transeptal unmistakeable. or Paris. where English William finished the eastern part the round arch But the pointed arch finally triumphed. End Generally speaking Romanesque architecture came to of an end in Bishop Winchester in the early English style in 1202. and a Variety of freedom both in plan and design. Canterbury. find it at Glastonespecially by the monastic orders. or the facades of Siena or Orvieto. and Hereford. England in the last quarter of the i2th century. William of Sens had re-built the choir at Canterbury. Durham. . Worcester.

Many of them are almost wholly in that style. in towns monasteries rising in the new style of building. except Wells whence all Norman work has disappeared. the side arches that are round at S. while the central doorway retains its 1 semi-circular head Many instances of the same kind are become to . there is perhaps none of our cathedrals in which Norman work does not play an important part." 1 Ketton is illustrated in Parker's Rlckman. a few miles away. 85. p." he says. while there are very few village churches without at least a Norman doorway. Every- where do we see us was going on in his day. Nearly all. Everywhere you may see in village churches. . LEONARD'S PRIORY at zigzags and shafts and capitals of the we have all 1 STAMFORD (Plate associated with the slender CLXV) 3th century. be found throughout the length and breadth of the land. Never perhaps was there a time when so great a burst of architecture took place as in the period ^c tecture we have mark ^^ considering. ed 1848. and in the very similar west door of KETTON church. Leonard's have pointed. or perhaps only a window slit that dates from still Romanesque times. "try to rival one another in sumptuous buildings of the style which Edward the Confessor had Malmesbury tells evidences of what William of " first introduced into this country.256 ENGLISH ROMANESQUE it [CIL xxvni In S. and Salisbury which was built in post- we Norman times. or a chancel arch. and if The Norman style has left its on the majority of our cathedrals and parish churches to this day. often creating problems as to the date of a building to Extent of an provoke the antagonism of archaeologists.

Q & O CO Q O .


17 . precious marbles gave the walls a loveliness all their own. based on the style of the old Roman world. A. and it was fully developed after the conquest of Justinian and the establishment of the exarchate. to subordinate functions and con- fined to capitals. it advanced further under Theodoric and his Gothic kingdom. New Sculpture was relegated forms of decoration were adopted. Vitale. n. The wooden roof gave Byzantine tecture way to covering with stone or brick. friezes. and the mighty dome of S. and purely architectural features. and above all mosaic. The decline of native art in ITALY was followed by a gradual revival Adriatic: Its itaio- when Byzantine adoption began art passed across the JcS? tecture at Ravenna with the tine buildings of Honorius and Galla Placidia. Sophia at Constantinople.CHAPTER XXIX CONCLUSION IN the preceding pages we have traced the rise and Summary development of a new art In eastern and western Europe. j. together with linings of Painting. which led farther from the parent art. which after many tentative experiments resulted In the discovery of construction by pendentives. it ever farther and In the Empire of EASTERN ROME the basilican plan of Constantlne's time gradually yielded to the influence of the art of the Asiatic provinces. but following widely different principles. when the dome made its appearance at S.

. where we find versions of the Lombard and in the churches on the Rhine the galleried apses of Lucca and Como. the cathedral of of duomo Zara Pisa. provinces of the Roman Empire. but took a fresh line and we know as Romanesque instead of Byzantine. Rise of When. country began to enjoy became what art revived also. xxix Lombards and Franks art declined. German From Italy Romanesque architecture passed the Alps into GERMANY. wider arches took the place of narrow intercolumniations. and sculpture. In FRANCE. and this paved the way for all future development. and kept Byzantine alive in Italy. and Venice reached its bathos in the 8th century. and in S. and the churches of Lucca and Rome the basilican plan reasserts itself. a step which removed in Dalmatia. Ambrogio a grand at Milan we find it combined with vaulting on the scale over both nave and aisles. tower. Chapelle had no following in Gaul or Austrasia. last weakness of basilican architecture. the most classic of But in each province of the disunited kingdom Roman- esque art fell into separate schools. In the S. attained a high degree of excellence. The old ranks of columns had to be superseded by more solid piers.258 BYZANTINE AND ROMANESQUE Under the [CH. Miniato at Florence. Roman example inspired the rising art of the period that followed the barbarian settlement. and the all German church French an " fsque is basilican. In Provence it obeyed the influence of the Roman art in which the province abounded. Venice alone art adhered to the Eastern Empire. with good models to follow. with the rise of the Communes the an " fsque tenure a freer and more prosperous life. Charlemagne's attempt to introduce the Byzantine his domed church at Aix-laplan was not successful .

art in which Charlemagne's renaissance attempted to revive Gaul and Austrasia. deficient in want of ancient example. and the rest of that group. and made an ever widening breach between their work and their models. It was from Burgundy that architecture was carried into Normandy. xxix] BYZANTINE AND ROMANESQUE 259 In Aquitaine. The Roman round arch gave way to the pointed only 172 .CH. where a school arose owing less than any other to Burgundy Normandy Roman example. which though it had a certain national character possessed little vitality and showed little promise of further progress* of Romanesque architecture was in. passed with the conquest English where it speedily suppressed and almost wiped out the Saxon architecture of the conquered race. In Italy. and from the cloistered workshops of Cluny and the Cluniac monasteries not only in France but beyond its borders arose a school of architecture which affected the art far and wide. as was Roman art It was Roman O n5mannatural. and reached Le Puy in the Auvergne. to precedent. robust and virile. Roman tradition was strongest. on the line of trade with the Levant. history The fluenced . and dependent on simple constructional forms and mass for effect.TWO two opposite principles on the one hand by ancient Roman example held the artists fast-bound. as esque far as it could. on the other the necessities and possibilities of the time drove them into novel experiments. this art From Normandy into England. Burgundy was the seat of monasticism. we Angouleme. Solignac. To build in the manner of the esque Romans was the ambition of our Saxon forefathers. which inspired the domed churches of P^rigueux. following a line of sculpture for its own. find the construction influenced by the Byzantine school.

by the and the absence of either means or skill to continue the art which it was desired to imitate. and looked for inspiration to oriental sources rather than to . Restraint The f its surviving influence on Romanesque architecture classic origin may be seen in a certain restraint lost in the which was 1 succeeding styles of the Roman 4th centuries. in which there was no room for daring flights of imagination. . Romanesque art was inevitably committed necessities of a new state of society. grouped round a the classic orders were forgotten. Byzantine t0 Romanin es<jue originality respect of originality ^is c ^ n gi ng to the antique places the Romanesque schools below the Byzantine. of which there can hardly be said to exist any trace whatever in Justinian's buildings at Constantinople and in the Exarchate. * The Byzantine churches of the from Roman 5th century are already far removed example. iiiir Rome. and central dome . and the builders loved it best. The long-drawn basilica from that time disappeared east of the Adriatic. or desperate 3th and architecture was eminently a 1 revolts . The remains of Roman work were still his model He had no other. the change to which .260 BYZANTINE AND ROMANESQUE [CH. decorative sculpture assumed forms that were quite novel in character. sane and orderly architecture. and widely as his work differed from the antique it was strongly affected by it from first to last. The eastern school was influenced It must be confessed that in from another direction. and used it in decorative features even where they had to give it up in the main fabric.. xxix under stress of constructional difficulties. was involuntary and possibly at first to some extent unconscious on the part of the artist. and gave way to the square church. In the east the breach with the past was deliberate and voluntary but in the west. .

xxix] BYZANTINE AND ROMANESQUE And the 261 from precedent. a trace of barbarism. Viollet4e-Duc a indeed. some But in other of which are comparable to the antique. open traceries and from the Gothic tabernacle work.CH. work. respects the comparison is not all in favour of the later we have already obof S. Worms with AngoulSme and V^zelay with Amiens and Rheims. vol. 419. Rheims. period. in the fervour of the early 1 The Renaissance. vn. Romanan Gothi c compared esque could : Poitiers. Notre Dame at Romansculpture . pare impossible Ed harmo pifc il modo da parer fatte di carta ch' elle si possano reggere* Iddio scampi ogni paesi da venir a tal pensiero che di pietre o di marmd ed ordine di IavorL. and Paris. i& Rats. which prevents its ranking with the figures at Chartres. niches and canopies. and the nave of Gloucester with its choir. Cologne. 1 RafFaelle writes to Pope Leo X in the same strain. it it Romanesque and art style which sprang from distinguishes inherited a sobriety simplicity which of the following The masses of its buildings are plain and solid. Trophime disadvanserved. compares the portal which is only tageously with that of the Virgin at Paris. Not that Romannot be splendid enough and indulge in ornament as well as Gothic the fronts of Angoulfeme. from which. and Civray are as richly decorated as those of Paris or Rouen. . In point of technique and execution no doubt Romanesque sculpture must yield to the later school in the statuary at Aries and S* Gilles with all its dignity of expression it must be confessed there is something archaic. with plenty of bare wall-face. contrast is that of Pisa with Milan. and none of that efflorescence into airy pinnacles. Vasari prays heaven to defend us .. p.facevano una malediaione di tabernacolini I' un sopra r altro. con tante piramidi e punte e foglie che non ch' elle possano stare. but the ornament is economised and used with discretion./V#mz0 deli ArchiUttiira. as 1 ^.

a product of the arte fluence . For French portals something absurd in the conventional French portal. the middle ages and becomes at last tedious. and even those 1 v. in the later school makes one forget some absurdities. Diet. the figures are often actually detached and hung up by metal hooks This mode of the French portal with niches and little treating figures in them round the arches. I. vol. and not housed in % that tumble overhead while in the later French portals of this kind. for it was begun under German in- the great churches of Assisi.262 BYZANTINE AND ROMANESQUE . come toppling over one's head in a succession of concentric orders with an admired disregard of the laws of gravity. and the arches as a rule Compared Romanportals are simply moulded. but I think after a candid comparison of the two we must admit that the Romanesque portals are more reasonable. Tedesca. and therefore more in keeping with true artistic principles. excellence of the details. as they should. especially of the sculpture. upright. In the Romanesque doorways the figures stand. 1 . lasted through tabernacles . p. [CIL xxix a few years later in date but as architectural compositions the Romanesque portals are in many respects saner than The the more luxuriant portals of the succeeding style. but they are carved in relief on the arch stones. standing on pedestals that lean at an angle surely there is of 45. Milan after all is exceptional. for the on Italian Gothlc Gothic style when it did make its way there was more subdued. Rats. . brilliancy by affording sharp points and so produces a picturesque effect. It gives a of light and shadow. Viollet-le-Duc. 53. where little figures in niches that ought to be upright. At Angoul6me and Civray it is true angels on the wing do circle round the arches. and so do lfr^ e ures of saints in the doorway at Lincoln. influence In Italy the contrast is not so observable. once invented.

the north it held its own. (v. is a nearer imitation of the Roman type than that at Lucca (voL L p. where remains were frequent. 255. nor in the speaking cities the Gothic period till at the Renaissance. the classic in already of the survival of classic influence. which was finished in Pisan Romanesque in the i$th century. which dates from the end of the 2th century. 258) might have been cut by a Roman chisel. 148) on the Roman west portal at Mantes. it Italy indeed never really died it out.CH. p. panels In France abundant examples have been given 260. Classic details appear in Italian architecture all through is The fine scrolls on the portal of the the middle ages. and their splendour is confined to the sculptured and inlaid fronts. apse of the cathedral of Lucca p. and on the Gothic pulpit in the 1 same building. Plate LXIX. xxix] BYZANTINE AND ROMANESQUE 263 of Siena and Orvieto are comparatively simple in mass and outline. Fig. might have been built two hundred years earlier while . erected after 1320. and But even in perhaps some Greek traditions lingered. One would think that Roman period. Baptistery at Pisa (Plate LXXIV. is purely Romanesque. voi 251). coeval with the chapels of Eton and King's College. voi i. tradition. 58) while the 1 . The In vitality of classic tradition as Romanesque Italian expressed by the work both in France and Italy is remarkable. made by Nicola Pisano in egg and dart appears. and but for the foliage of its capitals. while the sculptured are distinctly based on Roman models. still laid descending through the Romanesque a restraining hand on extravagance of Classic design. of Dalmatia. especially classic the south. the upper part of the front of the cathedral at Zara. but lasted through met the returning flood of classic The i. and the scroll (Fig.

when the pointed arch finally triumphed hardly the Engcould his arches pointed Fig. p. xxix capitals of the interior are as Corinthian in motive as those of Avallon or V6zelay. shows but little trace of classic in- fluence except in its stubborn ad- herence to arch. there is nothing . lish architect make enough . And 195 sup. Classic The esque land.). Romanof influence weak in Norreasons English Romanesque mandy and Engfor that have been already explained. the round due mainly to the natural conservatism of the monastic orders- There is a much closer connexion with in Roman work the preceding style for Saxon as in- shown stance at Brad- ford-on-Avon (Pi CXXXVIII. 148.264 BYZANTINE AND ROMANESQUE [CH.

and our of the round abacus put an end to all adoption possible imitation of the Corinthian capital. as the durability of In this their work attests. at Paris. . which lasted longer in France where the square abacus was retained. work in considers Romanesque respect Viollet-Ie-Duc of the latter he says that to Gothic France superior m mg no longer executed with that minute with that attention to the choice of care Jn the details. like the cathedral Hasty con- edifices like the S. In actual execution apart from r constructive skill Excellence of Roman- Romanesque work compares favourably with ^ Gothic. and their barrel vaults pushed their walls out and had to be sustained in But later ages by flying buttresses and other devices. esque Their materials were well selected. when construction had become scientific. when the architect economised substance almost as closely as the engineer. In constructional skill the Romanesque builders were beyond the seas UncoSruc- of course 1 far behind their successors in the I3th. in skill by solidity of mass but in spite of their enormous piers and thick walls their towers fell.CH. Chapelle Rheims. xxix] BYZANTINE AND ROMANESQUE 265 like our sharpest lancet work. Romanesque no problem of masonry was left unsolved. when with monastic at the lay architects were still imbued If we set aside some rare traditions. we $j^ Gothic . the solidity of Romanesque with their sturdy columns and massive proporbuildings tions will often satisfy the artist eye better than the more inferior as slender and ingenious constructions of a later day. i4th and 5th centuries. materials which strikes us in buildings of the end of the the architecture is 1 " 2th century. both in England and France. and the due equilibrium of forces was understood and skilfully emThe earlier men made up for what they wanted ployed. they are in science. like certain parts of the cathedral of Paris.

that attachment to precedent which to a certain extent tied the artists down to the imitation. original. recognizing change of circumstance. the builders are in a hurry to enjoy. which tended to break with the and converted what began on mere imitative lines past. which is after more vital one. as brusquely One finds no again with great changes of design. have dwelt upon one guiding principle of Romanesque architecture. who did not begin a building till they had collected their materials long before. to was much be done. I. good or bad. and chosen them carefully. with unequal joints. without taking time to choose. leisurely wisdom of the masters belonging to the regular orders.266 Hasty con- BYZANTINE AND ROMANESQUE monuments [CH. and done with they raise little money . all the Reason the same principle which lies at the root of all the principle of development of architectural styles It is . monuments half dressed. and hasty filling in. and ripened their plans by study . p. and accommodating 1 V. done promptly. Rats* vol. Diet. using all sorts of materials." NO such in EngUnd This contrast between the execution of Romanesque and Gothic building does not I think occur in England. and the mortar In my own experience I much I better. xxix shall find that the ofTrench Gothic of the I3th century are often as careless in their execution as they are cleverly There designed in the system of their construction. 150. . and had provided money 1 sufficient. They snatch the stones from the masons' hands foundations rapidly. It so far as they could manage it. into a new. of ancient example. The begun more that constructions are brusquely interrupted. have generally found the early English masonry as good as the Norman. remains to notice the opposite principle.-le-Duc. and living art. they neglect .

Lucca. in finds fertile In novel new and better appliances. suggestions for The old Roman architecture had become impossible in the 5th and 6th centuries and indeed sooner than that. opposing vault to vault. 267 Reason 1" the art of the day to satisfy and express requirements. the architect lecture his happiest sources of inspiration. This new motive pervaded the architecture so as to remodel Its outward form. xxix] BYZANTINE AND ROMANESQUE it. The old Roman Roman use of the orders as an unmeaning surface decoration The column. motive principle of all succeeding architecture during the middle ages. the colonnades of the basilicas at Salonica and Ravenna. r j . piers and wider arches replaced the vault was the dominant factor in all the Thenceforth schools of Romanesque art and of the Gothic that followed. Adopting the arch as the main element of design the masters of the Arch con- new style carried it it. and the most artistic invention. This again gave as the art of way to a different form of construction The vault and stronger vaulting wider spaces was gradually acquired. New modes construction had to be devised. .CH. thrust and thus beginning that method of construction by equilibrium of forces which was the to thrust. the basilican colonnade. from being a mere surface was forgotten. orders abandoned decoration as at the Colosseum. and Genoa. and the builders had to do the best they could in other ways. much farther than the Romans. from whom they took Instead of reducing it to a passive weight-carrying feature they made it an active member of the structure. was again brought into as a working member service. and we see it doing duty of construction in the arcades of S. and this necessarily of led to new forms of design for at the root of all radical : changes in architecture will be found some reason of construction. and the churches of Pisa. Sophia.

construction. Neither Romanesque nor Byzantine architecture can be regarded as perfected styles they are rather to be . had begun to fall into decay before it was overwhelmed by the Moslem conquests. all minds To those who does not appeal to value consistent obedience It and precedent. But Romanesque. i5>manst^es'of transition j v ewe d as styles in transition. especially n Northern Europe. a violation of all rule. xxix and from the exigencies of that form of construction arose all Classic the later schools of western Europe. indeed. and propriety. . in its earlier its Byzantine almost attained stages to the last development was arrested. tradition. to strict canons of orthodoxy. never shook off the roughness of * the barbarous time out of which the thorns and briers clung to it it came.268 BYZANTINE AND ROMANESQUE [CH. vention fr * Byzantine and Romanesque art was in fact a revulsion m convention to the unaffected expression of natural an(* doned aw met ^ods of alike. Romanesque. had a and it stronger life and was more fruitful of consequences . and of which splendid of a kind but perfection . will and a rebellion against not wholesome authority it To others wedded to appear the natural and reasonable outcome of an altered state of society. and an Herculean infancy it developed at last into that Gothic architecture which was the glory of the after middle ages. according to certain accepted in other words in the strict classic purist formulas to authority . struggling upwards through its imperfections. to which the old Roman Byzantine architecture would be inappropriate had it not been impossible. correctness. both Byzantine and Romanesque art will appear debased so and lawless.

Constan tine's regular triumphal classic.. The Ursian Baptistery. materials second-hand. A Sophia^ CtMShwtiMpki dedicated. arch in Roman Debased from sculpture. Rome* S. sculptures in tolerable classic aisled basilica destroyed in 1734. le Mura. by Galla Placidia. 432. Lorenzo f. mausoleum at Ravenna Her . at Bethlehem. Classic with many irregularities. FOUNDATION OF CONSTANTINOPLE. The inner wall. Agata Ravenna. Emp* Cmslan^lu^ foundatitms hud 34 ywrs fie/ore* A fauttm built by 380. The double wall western church. 330. Neon. Rome. Some 312. with mosaics. monuments* EDICT OF MILAN. The by 447* Constantinople. S. Giorgio. re-built 432. Toleration of Christianity. S. 432. Salonica. 410. *o* now the nave. Much II. Mosaics re-built Maria Maggiore. le Mura. Rome. added by Archbp. A five-aisled basilica built by Constantine. Since raised. A round house for the Princess Constantia. SACK OF ROME BY ALARIC. Costanza. 425-430. The Ursian Cathedral A five- Hljwith style. Burnt 1823 and 360. Rome. by Sixtus III. Death of Galla Placidia. restored in 588 by Pelagius 353. Sixtus III. Lorenzo f. Evangelista. re-built on the present plan. do. S. since re-built. 425. S. RAVENNA MADE THE CAPITAL. Eski Djouma. Maria Maggiore. domed. and mosaic in arches &c. built as a tomb- Church 350-360. by Theodosius IL Basilica. Constancies churches of Irene and tkf Apostles. 1216. church by Constantine. Rome. Salonica.CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE OF ARCHITECTURAL EXAMPLES fiuiMings that no longer exist are in italics BYZANTINE ITALIAN 300-305. AND ITALO-BYZANTINE Diocletian's palace. Constantinople. do. 450. S. S. Spalato. Rome. Rome. Paolo f. le Mura. TheodosiusPs of Thothmes pedestal to the obelisk 404. 335. St Petefs^ S. 425* Columns with pulvino. 324. Ravenna. Reliefs partly taken older 313. 413. 379*395. S. Baptistery. Constantinople. and Porta Aurea. the eastern church. Ravenna. Giov.


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e Th hes. Pe pa . 275 ing ed.^ ?5 5 s KI -bu foll Witt 2 Q C .33 < Venice.3 . wen. Camb TE.J CO ^ e c nave. Worth. o ^ 'A cK d g o ifio 8 P i-d"-e1|s. ge. JH 18. s O O S5 > ft>U > . ^* op S o O t3 Domed ouleme nted elay. ng. t: u . A of e.CO *d a5 ."a . g HJ s X g C3 4 J2 -Nd o'g gcogu^J M ^tfirtifS r o d f^-MKrtO *.s II cfi arc 'o> <U 3 Denis.- e ugh.g% w ^ TALIAN j_j iiis o Jsj XJ^^D O-TJHb^dJ Po finish ! hi i| to 4) zj "S js II . . bo ENGL CANUT churches &c. rt 1 ft) general BeneVs 17. u P *- *4 . Abbot .- <|B S . ft>^ 03"" J a o . . ern a <N a N 73 con- na v conse- w U J5 M P* . fe x_g g-S a. building. "2 O r Mark K.O CD 18 2 .274 tj a. -9. 1144. ng o S 20 lls-P^ u M M M co CO u) co"S M O M T3T3 S ft) s a < O -g s g . Bosham. S.g.8 s ootte "a ^ <y " js 2g X3H .


276 277 .

183. S. n. II. II. Georges de. II. at Ravenna. Aries. II. n. 66-68. . I. 205.. i. Barfreston. 214 Autun. I. II. . Irene. 41. 129. 161 Bede. i. 1. 23 Basilican plan. Apse. n. 130 Barton-on-Humbcr. churches. II. 25 Angers. 190. : Baldacchino. 127 peculiarities of architecture. prevalence in Italy. 109. Saxon churches. 245 Bema. n. 57. Jean. 209 Balusters. 162. 197. n. 48. n. 18. 202 Bishops. u. in So. the predominant element in Roman its I. II. 246 Agen. . 42. 135 Britain. n. Cross of Bishop. 141. 178. II. the Roman. 1 08. I. 129. 28. Constantino's church at. I. S. II. 271. n. at S. 31 Autharis. 194. 241 IL . 164 his attack on luxury and architectural ornament. 258 .. Ravenna. 183. fects double apse in in. 3. 165 268 use in earliest time. 90 . 11. IL 181. 130. 28. II. in England. II. 47. 217. II. its simplicity and its unprogressiveness. n. I. II. 50 AngoulSme. 108. 161. u. 127. cross at. 112 Auvergne. 249 AtriumjatlS. 133 j prevents a clerestory. 173 Burgundians. n. 25 Borgo. 34. 93 Bergamo. the German n. 226 208. 177 at Parenzo. 228 . 169 Avallon. 100. 273 Boscherville. 6. I. Arch. n. Roman Thermae at. . French. 256. IL 105 Avignon. Roman. 8. II. 171 Bitton. 46 architecture. 107. n. 82.62-67 Arnolfo del Cambio. I. 96. 199. double. Donnino. n. 198. Saxon abbey at. n. king of Lombardy. n. Persecution of the. Barnack. 16. 199 Bath. 202 Aqui tain e. I. 20. 24 Bewcastle. I. 209. abbe)''. 84. S. I. capital at. 198 85 Agnellus of Ravenna. 87 Amiens. 183 at Milan. 9. IL 187 Boppart. 1. n. 33 Albigenses. 28. 10. 63 . 193 Barrel vaulting. Bathos of Art i. 272 Bernard. II. 261 9 1 n. 18.INDEX Abingdon. I. Sophia. de1 1 . 202 Acca. 29. n. . in France. II. 191 France. 32 103. I. 81 Ancona. n. 252 . I. L 205 II. 258 in France. art at I. 250 Brantdme. 262 j in Germany. n. Architecture 259 169. 251. 52. 206 . n. 190. 8. 99. 98. 250 Bethlehem. 90* 147 Benedictine rule. n. 230 Barbarian settlements in Italy. the Venerable. 108. 269. I. the. ii. 257 Andernach. his buildings. their struggles with regulars. 33. Arian Arbe. IL 96. England. I. the model for early Christian churches. n. the Saxon. kingdom of. in 84 . I. 24. 186. n. 227 Bedford. 63 in Germany. I. 149 Aix-la-Chapelle. 56. 134. I. S. II. 196 Biscop Benedict. 38. 145. 254 in Italy in 8th century. 155. . r. 142 Brioude. 149. Norman of. II. 51. the Basse CEuvre.93. I. n* 152. Beauvais. 80.

n. 8. 239. 233. 184. I. 25. 126 S. IL I77 199. 185. I. 213 i. Clapham. 94. 39. 142. 274 Cerssy le Fore't* n. 212. I. 27 . 18. Christ. I. 235. Abbey of. 250 Chauvigny. 245 Buttress. 150. 190. &5> 258 Chartres. n. R. IL 49. . 130. 124 S. 47. 17. 56. 247. 242. I. 50 report on present state. Byzantine. in Ruy de. 162 Byzantine Art. n. 212 &c. 15. Abbey of. 142 Cloisters. 234. 236. I. n. 170 Como. 233. L 121 n. IL 47. 237 Sophia. 152. 196. 73. Sophia.INDEX Burgundy. S. 4 Cimabue. zi. L 102 S. IL criticisms on. Bene'1% n. I. 18. 253.. slow progress at Rome* L 146 Cicero. 217. II. IL 258 Constance. 131. 215 Cefalfc. I. IL 49 S. IT. 100 Cologne. n. I. 133 jseg. Abbey of. 239. 130 S. L 129. 194. H-79 S. Theodore Tyrone. rapid progress in the East. IL 92. 42. in England. 40. 279 i. 66. construction of buttresses. condemns images. n* 202. 199. . his remarks on S. 29 Chamalieres. 217. i. 8o 87. 70* 74. Comacini Magistri. Maria Diaconissa. peace of. 9. $Q> 84 Canterbury. L *S> *86. 1. Roman. his visit. third Council of. 52. representation of. L 122. 29. L 256 . 209. 132. IL 20 Cockerell. 244* 355? capital at* n. 139. 96. i. IL 94. L 41. 210.> 174. cathedral. n. 143. I. 57. development of. 254 Christianity established. n. at Venice. L 134 Cistercians^ n. IL 177. 30. n. L 122. IL 217. n. 215. . 264 Brixwortb. I. 179 Cahors. 127 Domestic work. 269. 37. 98. 232 Church of the Chora. other churches. 139 S. German. n. Caerleon-on-Usk. IL 25 Comacina Insula. 239 . 153* %*?> 235. n. 123 199 . 33. 72. 211. 227. I. Communes. 125. 98 Bradford-on-Avon. 84 Chora. Saxon cathedral. i. 92 . ni$ attitude towards the arts. Irene. 260 Coblentz. 250 Christchurch Priory. X33 *37 Charlemagne. n. n. 126. 1 5. John Bapt Studion. IL 92. i. I. 204. 194. 18. I. 64. 28. L 100 . 200 Busketus. 211. architecture *23* 259 in. 115 S. n. n. L 41. Clermont Ferrand. I. 26 The Apostles church. IL 8x. 142 S. I. 62. 130. 52 Chevet. 98 130 Saviour Pantocrator. 106. Theodosia (Gul Djami). L 27 . 179. L 58 Castle Rising. rise of L 211 I. 260. I* 41. IL 242 Civray. 78. 1 8. 32. 199. 139 Cluny. 250. 251 . Saviour Pantepoptes. L 241 n. I* 234. 127 SS. I. it 22. n. L 68. 88. 78. 248. 173. 152. conquest of Lombards. Maria in Capitolio. S. . 78. 260 Constantinople. 200 Caen. 239. r 74. 96. L 116. the French. Cividale. seventy of their architecture. 190 Clavigo. 57. his buildings. founded. I. 125 Citeaux. I. 109. Thecla. Cambridge.91 construction of dome. 131. IL 45. II. Maria Pammakaristos. in France. n. 67 S. IL 96. C. Pancras. 51. 183. 200 exported from Constantinople. 76. Sergius and Bacchus. 5. church of the. 198 \ its hieratic character. 15 Greek city. 272. French. 52. its influence at Rome. 127. IL 84 S. Norman cathedral. L 122. L 121. Lombard. 72. 63. Maria Panachrantos. 98. n. 82 and II. I. 49 . 1. 34. 107. Roman remains. S. 118 a Constantinople. 93. 242 Castor. 4&> . II. 104. its originality. 240 Clairvaux. 176. j Capitals. 243 Cattaro. 122. in. 15. 217 Chaqqa* palace at. 97.


Entablature, returned as impost, I. 23 dispensed with, I. 22 Escomb, II. 199 Eton College Chapel, u. 263

Constantinople (continued) Mosques, I. 143 II, 108 Tekfur Serai, I. 140; IL 131 Walls, I. 54; Porta Aurea, i. 55, 138 Contado, Contadini, I, 260 Corbridge, II. 190 Corhampton, I. 218 ; II. 192, 193, 200 Crypt, I. 219, 246; n. 14, 15, 20, 209, 212, 2l8 Ctesiphon, palace at, I. 36 Curzola, I. 209, 271 Cushion capital, I. 269, 273 II. 149 improvement of, n. 243 Cuthbert, S., n. 183



influence on




Etruscan Deities, survival of their tombs, I. 217, 225 worship, I. 147 Exarchate established, I. 172

Exeter, n. Ezra, church n. 79





34, 37, Si







Fergusson, his view of

Roman archi-

Dado, of marble and mosaic,



Dalmatia, I. 241, 250, 271 Dedication of temples as churches, I. 44 Deerhurst, IT. 187, 188, 190, 200 Dijon, S. Benigne, I. 192; II. 118, 152 Diotisalvi, architect, I. 258, 259, 273 Dog-tooth ornament, i. 222 Dome, Eastern origin of, I. 34;
various modes of construction in Greece, Rome and the East, I. 34 ; construction without centering, I. 37 domes on pendentives, I. 39 at S. Sophia, I. 97 ; at Ravenna, I. at Venice, I. 240 ; Pisa, I. 150, 174 244 1 in Southern Italy, I. 273 ; in Germany, IL 3, 13, 19; in France, n. 34, 35, 36, 39, 42, 50, 52, 63, 114; the tower dome, I. 129; dome on drum, I. 73, 108; IL 42 Domical plan prevails over Basilican in the East, i. 73; yields to basilican plan in Italy, I. 205, 240, 205

tecture, I. i ; on early French vaults, n. 65 Fiesole, i, 247 Figure sculpture, absent in Syria, I. 41 and in Byzantine churches, L 114; barbarous in Italian Romanesque, 215 ; in early Norman,



Florence, S. Miniato, II. 258 Baptistery,






Flying buttress, IL

25, 27,


Fontevrault, n. 39, 41, 50, 85 Fortified Churches, n. 87, 138

Fountains Abbey, II. 236 France, Gallo- Roman culture, II. 28; Roman remains in, its decay, II, 32 n. 28 effect of barbarian settlements, IL 29, 30; dearth of early Christian buildings, n. 32 its separation into provinces, II. 32 Byzan;
j j


tine influence in, n. 34, 37, 51, 63, 70, 78, 80, 139 ; decay of, n. 49




Germany, n. 8



Frejus, IL 79




Dosseret see Pulvino Dover Castle, church

in, n. 177, 189,


IL 81, 208, 223

Earl's Barton, I. 218 ; n. 190, 192 Eastern empire, essentially Greek, i. 26 ; spread of Christianity in, i. 27 ; strong Asiatic influence on its art, I. 28 Eginhardt, n. I, 5, 10 Elne, n 78 Elstow, n. 230 Prior's door Ely, n. 1 54, 220, 244 at, n. 251

Galilee at Durham, II. 227 Galla Placidia, her tomb house, n6j 152 Galleries, exterior arcaded, i.



244, 250, 251, 254, 256, 257, 266, 269,


n. 9, 13,24,258



L 162




immigration, L 32
1 1.




German Romanesque,

IL xj the double apse,

beginning, 9, 10; the

IL 8l
spire, n,







free cities of the


Jumi6ges, n. 153 n. 38, Justinian, at S. Sophia, I. 85 167; his reputed skill in con;

Germany des Prt's, IL 33 Gernrode, n, 9 Gi&gleswick, dome at, I. 37
Gildas, n. 174

struction, Ravenna, 1. 173, 179; his character, I, in, 112


86; at

Kahriyeh Djami,

Giraldub Oambrensis, n, 178 GLihs, coloured, I. 180; its abuse, n. 27 in Gaul, n. 31 Glass-making, revived in Britain. n. 182

i. 121, 130 Kencott, door-head, II. 249 Ketton, n. 256 King's College Chapel, n. 263

Glnstonlniry, n, 177, 185, 235 Gloucester^ i. 222; n. 27, 208* z\(\ 231 Gothic, its origin in L'lle de France, 60 ; not adopted in Provence II,

Laach, n. 12, 16, 25 Lanfranc of Pavia, IL 153, 210 Langres, n. 84 Laymen as Architects, L 253 n. 172 Lcighton, Lord, on German apses,



and Auvergne,
Grado, L

So, 145 66, 183, 235; S. Maria in,

artists at


Rome, L

Le Mans, n. 85, 161 Length of English churches, n. 253 Le Puy, n. 38, 43, 51, 138, 142;
S. Michel de 1' Aiguille, n. 131, 143 L'lle de France, n. 159; cradle of Gothic, n. 160; scarcity of Roman-

5; in Italy,


Greek church and ritual, of Greek church, i, 46

44; plan

Greenslcd church, U. 181 Grotesque, the, \l. 49, 57
Gukletto, architect at Lucca, L 253,

esque, II 1 60 Limoges, i. 241 ; n. 60, 145 Venetian colony at, 1 1, 37 Lincoln cathedral, IL 208


259 Guuot, on Gallo- Roman France, n.

Lindisfarne, n. 183


Lions at portals, Loches, n. 46


223, 271


n. 252

Gynaecomtis Matroneiun, or women's
gallery, L 47, 57, 84, 95, 177, *97,

204, 205

Ha&iobgy, the Christian, I. 167 Hawksworth, IL 250 Headbourne- Worthy, n. 187
Hereford, IL 233

I, 267, 273 n. 258 Lombard invasion, i. 210; fall of kingdom, I. 227 Lombardy, cradle of communal








Paul's, n.




Long and

short work, n. 190

Hcxhain, Saxon minster Hildesheim, n* 21

IL 201

Iconochsm, L
Iconostasis, ! Ifflcy, n. 242

66, 114-120, 227, 228; not hostile to art, L 119


Insula Comacina I. 211 Ireland, early churches in, n. 177, *B3 Issoire, u. 127, 134, 137, 142-144 Italian Art in 14th century compared with Byzantine, I* 133

Lorsch, II. 5 Lucca, cathedral, i. 245, 250, 251, 257, 263 S. Michele, i. 250, 254, 257; S. Pietro Somaldi, I. 254; other churches, I. 254 towers, i. 257, 267; fagades, i. 273; n. Ludlow, capital at, IL 244 Lyons, n. 28, 31, 32, 116, 142








7, 9, 10, 12, 15,


Malmesbury, n. 251 Malvern, n. 233, 254 Mantes, II. 263, 264
Marble, use of coloured, I, 10, 48 facing and mosaic, L 63, 64, 126, 141, 176, 180, 190-191, 238, 244; imported by Charlemagne, IL 2


Jarrow, Monastery

n. 183






Odon de

see Gynaeconitis Milan, Edict of, I. 186 Milan, seat of Empire, I. 14? *43

Deuil, his account of stantinople, i. no, 142


destroyed, I. 261 ; head of Lombard league, I. 261; S. Ambroglo, I. 261, 267, 273; n. 154, 258; S. Babila, I. 268, 269 S, Eustorgio, r. 269; S. Satiro, I. 268; S. Se;

Orders, the classic, abandoned in the East, I. 40, 142; Gothic, subordination of, I. 265 Ornament, extravagant use of, by






147, 201 269, 271, 272

Oxford, S. Michael's, n. 193, 194, 209 S. Peter in the East, II. 209

Mithra, cult



Moissac, it. 87, 88 in Monasticism, its origin, n. 91 refuge of the Burgundy, n. 91 Arts, ix. 93, 124

Padua, S. Antonio, L 240 Paganism, its duration at









n, 184, 199, 200


Montmajeur, n. 75-78
S. Michel, n. 151

MonzajTheodelinda'schurchatjl^H Mosaic of marble see Marble Mosaic of glass, I, 49, 57, 5$, 64, 7*>
75,98, 115, 119, *32> 149) I5* *53> 164, 179, 182, 203,249; relation of those at the "Chora" to Italian I. art, 133 ; inconsistency with coloured glass, n. 27 ; example in France, II. 34 Mosques of Constantinople, I. 143 inconsistent with Mural-painting, coloured glass, n. 27 Murano, I. 235

Palermo, Papacy, its growth, r. 226; its breach with the East, L 227 acquires the Exarchate, L 228 Parenzo, i, 66, 181, 195; n. 224 Paris, Notre Dame, n. 80 Parma, I. 250, 266, 268, 271, 272, 273 Patrons of Art, their place in design,

in Italy, I. 134, 205 L 244, 245* 2 74


1 66,


i, 156, j8o, 184, 198,208, 220; n. 173, 176 Pavia, I. 210, 215, 266, 272, 273 Pendenti ves, I. 39, 73, 240, see Dome II. 34, Pdrigueux, S* Front, I* 241 S. its influence, 1 1. 56 ; 50, 52


Etienne, II, 42, 50 Pershore, n. 85 Perugia, S. Angelo, L 193

architecture, its character, n. 149, 158, 169, 208, 159 Normans in Italy, i. 273 j IL 149 ; in France, n, 147, i6oj in England, n. 149, 205 Northampton, S. Peter's, n, 237, 246 Norwich, IL 81, 154, 208, 221 Nymeguen, n, 8


Narthex, I. 46, 56, 68, 95, 124, 132, 177, 191; IL 176 Neuvy, S. Sepulchre, n* 122, 123 Nevers, Count of, his disputes with Vdzelay, n* 170 Nicaea, first council of, I. 26 second council of, restores image worship, I, 119 Nicomedia, church at, I. 17 Nimbus, its use, or absence, I. 71, 75, 77, 167, 179 Nimes, I. 7, 8; n. 28, 29

Peterborough, II. 154, 230, 254, 255 Philip II (Augustus) of France, IL 159 Pilgrimages, their value, n. 165, 216 Pisa., I. 242 Duomo, 242, 273 II. 258 its influence on art, i. 245, 250 ; campanile, II. 258; baptistery, n* 258, 259, 272; n. 263; Capella della Spinu, n. 251 Pisano, Nicola, I. 134, 250, 259 ; n. 263
; ;

Odoacer, end of the Western pire, L 146, 161, 172


Pittington church, jr. 228 Plutarch, on social status of artists, I* 3 Poitiers, S. Hilaire, II* 42, 44, 52 ; Notre Dame, u 45, 46, 52, 56, 240, Montierneuf, n. 52 S. Radegonde, n. 57; Temple de S. Jean, n. 52; cathedral, 1 1. 50 Pola, i. 218 Polignac, n. 45 Polychrome masonry, n. 102, 130,



245, 272, 273


184 Pomj>o,s*% Ponlitfny* u. 107


Poivhrs, tlu




27 3

IVoropius his account of &, fcJ L 82 of other churches, by Justtnian^i, 109, no; n. 16*7; the HiMoria Arcana, I. 112
Provence, its history, ir, 62 Roman remains, IL 28; architechiiNe in, IL 63, i6g, 258 Pulpit, at Tasranella, i, 224 at Pisa, i. 259; at Milan, I. 264 Pulvino, it^ invention, I. 51, 171 ; at
; ;

4; influence on formation of i. 5, 6 Roman architecture, the only ancient style of use to us, I. 1 1 ; universal use throughout the empire, I. 13; strength of its tradition, u. 180, 259


Rome, contest for the bishopric, 1. 187 Rome, Baptistery, the Lateran, I. 189.
Byzantine influence at, I. 204 S. Agnesefuori le Mura, i. 186, 193, 203 S. Clemente, i, 186, 198, 209 n. 10



57, 62




S. Costanza,!. 52, So, 119, 158, 189

192,205, 249; IK 123, 227
S. S.

108; at RiLvrsnna, I, 50, i 54, 164, 176; at Rome, I. 191 at Venire, I. 233 at PHITOWB, I. 182


Francesca Romana,
Giorgio in


V elabro,
fuori le



202, 207, 209


S^ Giovanni

Quail)- Lou/ct, 1. 41 QucuiiHoiKlti I. 32

in Laterano, I. 188 SS. Giovanni e Paolo, I. 201, 207, 251, 271

193, 204,







148; n. 32^




50, 66,



A poll mare

in Classc, 1 53, 131,



S Maria Antica, I. 204 n. 183 Maria in Cosmedin, I. 197, 207, 272; n. 10, 224 S. Maria in Domnica, I. 201 S. Maria Maggiore, I. 24, 167, 186,


S. AKftt.x,

I. 156, 165 Baptistery, l. 148; II Basilica Ursiarui, i. Ivory throne, I* 158


S. S*


Paolo fuori

in Trastevere, le Mura,


16, 24,


(rulla Pkiriclia's



u6, 152

165, 171

Evangel ista,


186, 187 S. Peter's, i. 18 and^,, 24, 96, 186 S. Prassede, I. 202 S, Sabina, I. 195, 218 S. Stefano Rotondo, I, 191, 205

S, Mari.n in

Cosmedin, i, 163, 167 Kcclewiu lUitriuna, legend o*f, 1*159 S, Ptero Chrysologcj, r. ij 7 Rotunda, i. 168 S. Spirits, f, 157 S. Vitalo, L S3> 167, 173, 2J89. 240; n. 3, 257 Ravenna a school of art, L 1169, 170







Campaniles at Rome, I. 207 Ronasey, it 234 Round arch, monastic adherence to, n. 236, 255 Round churches, n. 122 Royal power, extension of, in France, It. 159, 170 Royat, n. 138 Ruthwell, cross at, II. 196
S. S. S. S, S. S. S. S. S.

Rcrulver* H. 199, 200

Report on structural condition of S. Sophia, Cor* stan tint op le >4 l. 102 Repton, II, i%9t 199 Ricz, !L 78 Ripon, Saxon minister, it aot Ritual, growth of Chnstla.ii, I. 45;
in the Greek church, I. 406 Rochester, 152, 235, 250

Saintes, IL 57 Alban's, n. 81, 208, 229 Andrew's, n. 190 Aventin, n. 86

Bertrand de Comminges, IL 85 David's, II. 245 Denis, II. 65, 163

Evremond, IL 162
Gail, u.










272; IL


68, 80, 103,

attitude towards the arts,

249, 261

S Junien,

Squinch, L 38 Stamford, S. Leonard's, n. 256 Stow Longa, dooihead, n. 242
Strassbur^, n. 21 Strip-work masonry, n. 191 Stucco, ornament in, L 183, 185; IL 34 Suger, abbot, n. 65, 164 Sul, British deity at Bath, u. 178

n. 42, 48, 52, 57, 59, 142 S. Just, ii. 85 S. Leonard, n. 42, 52, 60, 142 S. Lorenzo in Pasenatico, II. 192, 194 S. Nectaire, II. 127, 135

138 Savin, n. 52, 59, 114 Sagittarius, n. 248 Salonica, Eski Djouma, I. 46, 56, 65,

S. Saturnin, n,





Church of the Apostles,

in sculpture, II. 248 influence on Byzantine art



rite of,

233 Church of S. Demetrius, I. 48, 53, 60, 74, 181, 206, 233; n. 139 Church of S. Ellas, I. 127, 136 Church of S. George, I. 46, 69 Church of S. Sophia, L 53, 73, 115, II. 139 171, rSi Sarcophagus, patent for, I. 170; Christian, I. 109, 216; n. 29 Saulieu, II, 99

85, 231 Theodelmda, Queen, i, 214, 215, 247 i. Theodora, 173, 179 Theodoric, king of Italy, r. 161, 173, 228 his care for old buildings, 226, I. 162; tomb, i. :68j palace at Ravenna, I. 163, 165, 106; n. 2

Taurobolium, Tewkesbury,


n. 180 etc., 202, 203, 259; the its ingreater churches, II. 201 fluence on Norman, n. 209 Sculpture, Byzantine, L 51, 57, 62, 93799, i.54> 176, 234, 241; liyzantme avoidance of human figure, i. 41, 51; n. 70; in Lombardy, I. 215, 264, 273; in Aquitaine, u. 46; in Germany, n. 16, 25; in Provence, II. 70, 80, 88 at Moissac, II. 88; in^ Burgundy, II. 103, 106, no, 112; in Auvergne, II. 133, 144; in Normandy, n, 149, 154; in Saxon England, n. 196; in Norman England, II. 240 etc., 251 Sebenico, I. 32, 271 Sens, 11. 84 Sidonius Apollinaris, 11. 28, 30, 32, 52, 90, 91, 116, 117 Silchester, n. 173, 175, 199 Sinan, architect, L 143 Solignac, II. 40, 42, 50 Sompting, n. 21 Souaideh, I, 32

Saxon architecture, its characteristics,

Theodoric II, n. 29 Theodostus the Gx*eat, edicts against Paganism, I. 147 Theodosius II, his walls at Constantinople, I. 54 Thoronet, n. 78 Timber, scarcity of, in Syria, I. 29; use in Saxon architecture, n. iSo

Torcello, i, 206, 218, 235 Toscanella, S. Pietro, I. 216; II. u, 193; S. Maria Maggiore, I. 221, 27 1 \ Canonica, i. 221; other buildings, I. 225 Toulouse, n. 28, 82 Tourmanin, I. 41 Tournai, IL 21 Tours, n. 30, 56 Towers, at Ravenna, I. 155, ry8; at

Rome, i. 207; at Lucca, i. 257; Lombardy, I. 267, 268; IL 190; Dalmatia, L 268 in Germany, IL 9, 12, 17; in Saxon England, XL
in in



38, 49, 50,


Southwell, n. 154 Spalato, Diocletian's palace, i. 21, 31, n. 56 41, 163 tower, L 268 Speyer, i. 251; n, 9, 12, 14

190 Trabcation, its use by the Romans, L 822 weakness of, r. 9 Traii, L 41, 209, 268, 271; IL 69 Triforium, IL 154, 202; proportion



217, 222,




Spire, in Dalmatia,


268; in Ger-

many, II. 20 Square end to church, in France, n. 50; in England, IL 184, 199, 209, 252

Triple chancel arch, JL 200 i. 38 Troyes, church of S, Urbain, 126





Ursus, bishop of Ravenna, L 148

Valence, n. 112, 162, 163 Variety of English churches, n. 255 Vnsuri on Gothic architecture, li.
of building without 36; German, n. 25; French barrel, n, 65, 99, 108; Byzantines H. 66; cross vaulting, n, ioo, 108; its influence on architecture, n. 267 Venetian dentil, I. 238 Venice, attachment to Eastern Empire, I. 229; early government, I. 230; S. Mark's, i. 50, 53, 230, 240; ** S^i S^; imitated at Perigueux, II. 36, 51; peculiarity of Venetian architecture, L 229, 238, 239 Fondaco del Turehi, i. 235, 238, 239; her commerce, I. 240; colony at Limoges, I. 241; n. 37 Vcrccili, i, 267 Verona, I. 271, 273 Wzelay, n* 98, 131, 169, 170


Waltham, n. 81 Wnrburton, Eliot, his remarks on
Sophia, Wells, il.


261 Vaults, mode centering, *

ir, 255,


Westminster Abbey,




his buildings,

181, 183,

20 1, 202 William of Volplane, II. 119, 121, 154 Winchester, I. 243; n. 27, Si, 154, 208, 213; capital from, u. 246, 247


slabs, pierced, II. 192 II. 190, 199, 200 Women, their place in Greek church, I. 47, sea Gynaeconitis Word well, door-head, n. 242 Worms, i. 251; n. 9, 10, 12, 15;


the Jews Synagogue, II. 14 Worth, II. 177, 199, 200 Wykeham, William of, II. 167 Wynford, William, n. 167


Vienna, II. n Vicnno, IL ^*S, Vignorv, U. ^4

York, early churches


n. 180, 181





241, 250, 257, 268; n. 258,




iemarks> on Kaily n. 32, 265

263 Zig-zag ornament, 240, 242, 256
















s 115785 .

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