Outcomes from the EPECentre Workshop on  Power Quality in Future Electrical Networks

June 2009

www.epecentre.ac.nz

DISCLAIMER This document was prepared by the Electric Power Engineering Centre (EPECentre) at the University of Canterbury in Christchurch, New Zealand. The content included in this document is based on a Power Quality workshop held in April 2009. The EPECentre takes no responsibility for damages or other liability whatsoever from the use of this document. This includes any consequential damages resulting from interpretation of material. Electric Power Engineering Centre, University of Canterbury, New Zealand

Published by Electric Power Engineering Centre (EPECentre), University of Canterbury, New Zealand. First edition, June 2009 Authors and Editors: Assoc. Prof. Neville Watson, BE(Hons), PhD, CPEng, Int PE, SMIEEE, MIPENZ, EPECentre, University of Canterbury, New Zealand Prof. Vic Gosbell, BSc, BE(Hons), PhD, CPEng, MIEEE, FIEAust Integral Energy Power Quality and Reliability Centre, University of Wollongong, Australia Dr Stewart Hardie, BE(Hons), PhD, MIEEE EPECentre, University of Canterbury, New Zealand Acknowledgements: Joseph Lawrence, EPECentre, University of Canterbury Tas Scott, Orion NZ Ltd Assoc. Prof. Sarath Perera, Integral Energy Power Quality and Reliability Centre, University of Wollongong, Australia Bill Heffernan, EPECentre, University of Canterbury Peter Berry, Executive Director, EEA Ken Smart, University of Canterbury Dudley Smart, EPECentre, University of Canterbury Sponsors and participants of the EPECentre Power Quality Conference and Workshop, 23-24 April 2009, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.

Electric Power Engineering Centre University of Canterbury Private Bag 4800 Christchurch New Zealand T: +64 3 366 7001 E: info@epecentre.ac.nz www.epecentre.ac.nz

© 2009 Electric Power Engineering Centre, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand. All rights reserved, no part of this publication may be reproduced or circulated without written permission from the Publisher. Outcomes from the EPECentre Workshop on Power Quality in Future Electrical Networks

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Outcomes from the EPECentre Workshop on Power Quality in Future Electrical Networks

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Outcomes from the EPECentre Workshop on Power Quality in Future Electrical Networks

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..................2......................2 IEC 61000 series of Standards and Technical Reports..............4 Harmonics............................................3........2.........................2.......................................................7 1..........................3 Power Quality standards........................................................................................................4 Wrap-up........3................................................19 1..............................................................................................................................................................................43 Outcomes from the EPECentre Workshop on Power Quality in Future Electrical Networks 5 ................4...............4 Emission from existing equipment..........................1 What is Power Quality?.......6 1 Introduction to Power Quality......................Electric Power Engineering Centre Outcomes from the EPECentre Workshop on Power Quality in Future Electrical Networks Contents Preface...............13 1.............1 Steady-state voltage...............2 Industrial equipment...............................2.................................................11 1......................4 Future equipment.4...19 1......................................................................................................................................................................3 Question 3: Responsibility for Power Quality issues ..................................1 Question 1: Identification of significant Power Quality issues ....................................................................................................2 Power Quality issues..............2 Question 2: Data acquisition and use .....................10 1.......................................................................10 1.......................................................................1 IEEE Standards ......................................................5 Immunity of equipment...........................................................2..............................4...................................3.......2...............................................................................10 1.......................................11 1...................................................................29 1..................42 4 Bibliography...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................38 2...............35 2...................................................................2 Voltage dips (sags)................................................................................................................................................................................................................7 1...................................................31 2 Summary of Power Quality Workshop............40 2............................3 Distributed generation and inverters................6 Transients...2..18 1...1 Residential equipment....30 1.......................................................................................................3 Voltage imbalance......................................3 New Zealand standards.15 1.............................5 Interharmonics..............................................................33 2.....................................................................................................................................7 Light flicker due to voltage fluctuations..........................................................................................................33 2....4.................................................................5 Future challenges.....................................11 1......................................................................................................10 1.......................................13 1.......................................7 1........................................................41 3 Conclusions and future work.......................................................................................................27 1...........

Assoc. as well as making useful contacts. a comprehensive list of books on Power Quality is given for further reading on this subject. As a primer to the Power Quality area. Moreover. It was a great time of learning from each other. Neville Watson Associate. However. Power Quality issues have been around for a long time. This document contains a summary of the workshop group discussions. Prevention is far better than curing problems after they occur.Preface First of all. so that you can be aware of the likely impact equipment will have if widespread use is made of it. which we hope you will find informative. thank you to all those who attended the Power Quality in Future Electrical Networks workshop. a summary of the international standards and the concepts underpinning them is included. Finally. Your presence and participation made it the successful event that it was. hence the focus of this workshop. Electric Power Engineering Centre. University of Canterbury Outcomes from the EPECentre Workshop on Power Quality in Future Electrical Networks 6 . Prof. the measured characteristics of existing and up-and-coming electrical equipment is given. most of the time it does not feature in people’s thinking until problems are experienced.

flicker etc). ElectroMagnetic Compatibility refers to the ability of electrical and electronic equipment or systems to function satisfactorily in the environment. harmonics. Each of the more common Power Quality problems will be introduced in the following sections. or more accurately Voltage Quality. steady-state voltage. Therefore in Power Quality only conducted interference is of concern.1 Introduction to Power Quality 1. the former term being used in Europe and the latter in North America. Traditionally. This allows transformation to higher voltages for efficient transmission of power. The classification according to IEEE standard 1159 is displayed in Figure 4.g. 1. as well as a certain level of immunity to interference which must be expected from other equipment and systems in that environment. Any deviation from this is a Power Quality issue. Emissions can be in the radiated or conducted form. Phase-to-neutral Voltage (Volts) 325. Thus it implies that a limitation of emissions from equipment or systems is required.1 What is Power Quality? The geometry of synchronous generation results in a sinusoidal EMF being generated. for example the threshold between under-voltage and interruption is 1% of nominal for IEC and 10% for IEEE. however many would argue that the ultimate poor Power Quality is having no voltage. hence Continuity of Supply is shown on the boundary in Figure 2. All equipment connected to the electrical network is designed to operate with a sinusoidal voltage at rated value. Power Quality is the degree to which the supply voltage waveform conforms to the ideal sinusoidal waveform (including magnitude and timing). Although power systems can be sources of radiated emissions. as shown in Figure 1. radiated emissions from outside sources rarely affect the voltage waveform. as depicted in Figure 2. Power Quality.2 Power Quality issues Power Quality events can be classified into those that are discrete events (such as voltage dips/sags) and those that are continuous (e.27 230 V Figure 1: Ideal voltage waveform (also showing RMS value). Power Quality is a subset of ElectroMagnetic Compatibility (EMC). without introducing intolerable disturbance to that environment. The principal phenomena causing ElectroMagnetic Compatibility issues are listed in Table 1. is essential for electrical equipment to operate correctly. Note that Voltage Dips and Voltage Sags are synonymous. Continuity of Supply (Reliability) is considered as a separate class from Power Quality. Outcomes from the EPECentre Workshop on Power Quality in Future Electrical Networks 7 . Note that the boundaries are somewhat arbitrary. One suggested classification of voltage magnitude events is shown in Figure 3.

Inter-harmonics • Signalling voltages • Voltage fluctuations • Steady state voltage • Voltage swells • Voltage dips and interruptions • Voltage unbalance • Power frequency variations • Induced low frequency voltages • DC in AC networks Radiated low-frequency phenomena • Magnetic fields • Electric fields Conducted high-frequency phenomena • Induced CW (continuous wave) voltages or currents • Unidirectional transients • Oscillatory transients Radiated high-frequency phenomena • Magnetic fields • Electric fields • Electromagnetic fields • Continuous waves • Transients Electrostatic discharge phenomena (ESD) Nuclear electromagnetic pulse (NEMP) Outcomes from the EPECentre Workshop on Power Quality in Future Electrical Networks 8 .ElectroMagneticCompatibility (EMC) Continuity of Supply Flicker due to Voltage (Reliability) Surges/ fluctuations Electric Steady-state voltage Swells Fields Impulse and Switching or more accurately Transients Frequency Deviations Power Quality Voltage Quality Unbalanced 3-phase Voltages Harmonics Sub-Harmonics Inter-Harmonics Waveshape Faults High Frequency Noise Magnetic Fields RF Radiation Figure 2: Power Quality as a subset of ElectroMagnetic Compatibility (EMC). Table 1: Principal phenomena causing electromagnetic disturbances. Conducted low-frequency phenomena • Harmonics.

Event Duration 1 to 3 hours Figure 3: Suggested definition of voltage magnitude events. (Source: M. Bollen. Outcomes from the EPECentre Workshop on Power Quality in Future Electrical Networks 9 .Transient Very short over-voltage Short over-voltage Long over-voltage Very long over-voltage 120% 110% 100% 90% Normal operating Voltage range Notch/transient Very short under-voltage Short under-voltage Long under-voltage Very long under-voltage 1 to 10% 0. Event Duration Sustained Interruption 1-3 hours Figure 4: Definition of voltage magnitude events according to IEEE Std. 1159 (1995).) Transient Swell Over-voltage 120% 110% 100% 90% Normal operating Voltage range Notch/transient Voltage Dip/Sag Under-voltage 10% Momentary 0.5 cycle 3s Temporary 1 min.5 cycle Very short interruption Short interruption 1 to 3 cycles Long interruption Very long interruption 1 to 3 min.

) o e . The large current flowing through the system impedance causes a depressed voltage until the fault is cleared or the motor gets up to speed.1 Steady­state voltage Long term over-voltage or under-voltage is a major problem in many electrical networks around the world. Outcomes from the EPECentre Workshop on Power Quality in Future Electrical Networks 10 .2.3 Voltage imbalance There are a number of causes for the phase voltages to be imbalanced.4 Harmonics Any periodic waveform.2. it is classed as an interruption instead of a voltage dip. The magnitude and phase angle of the nth harmonic is given by: c n = an b n 2 2 =tan −1   bn an 2 1.5 0 -0.5 -2 0 V ltag (p . Due to the geometry of overhead transmission lines.2 Voltage dips (sags) A voltage dip is typically caused by a fault on the system or a large motor starting. If the retained voltage is very low (<10% IEEE or 1% IEC). 1. Even with transpositions.2.2. 1. 1. Hence a voltage or current waveform f(t) can be expressed as: f t = a0 ∞ ∑ [ a cos n t b n sin n t ] 2 n=1 n where an and bn are the Fourier coefficients.1.5 -1 -1. such as the waveform in Figure 5. In New Zealand. the supply voltage is required to be 230 ±6%. can be considered to be made up of a fundamental with harmonic components.5 1 0. unequal loading can create unbalanced voltages.u 50 100 150 200 T e (d rees) im eg 250 300 350 Figure 5: Example of harmonic distortion. the electrical parameters are different for the different phases unless transpositions are used.

e. Voltage fluctuations due to amplitude modulation can be mathematically described by: v t = 2 V  1mt   cost  Consider for example the fundamental modulated by a purely sinusoidal voltage fluctuation i. 1. i. will cause light bulb flicker.7 Light flicker due to voltage fluctuations Voltage fluctuation that causes the fluctuations in the magnitude of the voltage envelope to have a frequency component in the visual perception range (< 35 Hz). 1. i.2. i.2. 2. but the most widely used is the Total Harmonic Distortion (THD).2. : TDDI =  ∑ I2 h h=2 50 I rated For calculating the interference on telecommunication systems caused by harmonics and interharmonics.g. used in Europe. a carrier and two sidebands: v t = 2 V 1M cos m m  cost  =  2 V  cost M cosm m cost   =  2 V cos t  1 1  2 VM cos  m tm  2  2VM cos  − mt m  2 Outcomes from the EPECentre Workshop on Power Quality in Future Electrical Networks 11 . This is demonstrated in Figure 6.6 Transients Transient phenomena is also classified into impulsive transients (e. 1. as shown in Figure 9. hence Total Demand Distortion (TDD) has been proposed as an alternative. Interharmonics can be also induced by some types of control signals. Psophometric weighting system proposed by the International Consultation Commission on Telephone and Telegraph Systems (CCITT).: 1.e. : THD V =  ∑ V2 h h= 2 n V1 THDI = ∑ n h=2 I2 h I1 The THD does not represent the ability to distort as it is a normalised index (normalised by fundamental level). two weighting systems are used. capacitor bank switching). Two examples are shown in Figures 7 and 8.e.5 Interharmonics With the introduction of Integral cycle controlled load and cyclo-converters.There are numerous Power Quality indices derived from the harmonic components of a waveform. C-message weighting system proposed jointly by Bell Telephone System (BTS) and Edison Electric Institute (EEI).e. the waveform is not periodic over the period of the fundamental and hence inter-harmonics and sub-harmonics are present. used in the United States and Canada.: mt =M cosm m  The voltage waveform can then be seen to be made of three sine waves.g. due to lightning) or oscillatory transient (e.

Figure 6: Cyclo-converter waveform which contains inter. Outcomes from the EPECentre Workshop on Power Quality in Future Electrical Networks 12 . Impulsive Oscillatory Figure 7: Voltage transients as defined in IEEE 1159.and sub-harmonics. Figure 8: A recorded voltage transient.

Mitigation guidelines. Mathematical description of the phenomena using indices or statistical analysis to provide a quantitative assessment of its significance. Description and characterisation of the phenomena. 2. 7.1 IEEE Standards  The United States (ANSI and IEEE) do not have such a comprehensive and complete set of Power Quality standards as the IEC. Testing methods and procedures for compliance with the limits. The IEEE Standard 519 is more specialised and is the IEEE recommended practice and requirement for harmonic control in electric power systems.3 Power Quality standards The development of standards and guidelines is centred around the following: 1.Figure 9: Sinusoidal modulation of the voltage waveform. Immunity or tolerance level of different types of equipment. Impact on other equipment and on the power system. 5. Outcomes from the EPECentre Workshop on Power Quality in Future Electrical Networks 13 . 1. Major sources of power quality problems.3. Measurement techniques and guidelines. 1. 8. IEEE 1159 (1995). contains recommended practice on monitoring electric power quality and categories of power system electromagnetic phenomena. 3. as shown in Tables 3 and 4. 6. 4. Emission limits for different types and classes of equipment. as shown in Table 2. 9.

0 100 to 1000 12.1 ms rise <5 kHz 5-200 kHz 0.1 to 1.0 5.2 pu 0.9 pu 0. For PCC from 69 kV to 138 kV.0 20 to 50 7. Steady-state 1-100th Order 1-6 kHz Broad-band <25 Hz Steady-state Steady-state Steady-state Steady-state Steady-state Intermittent <10 s Magnitude 1. IL refers to the maximum demand load current (fundamental frequency component) at the PCC.5 2.3 5.3-68.1 to 0.0 1. the limits are 50% of the limits above.5% >138 kV 1. > 1 min.5% 2.5-5 MHz Typical Duration < 50 ns 50 ns – 1 ms >1 ms 0. regardless of actual short circuit ratio.0% 5.0 7.5 0. sustained Under-voltage Over-voltage Voltage imbalance Waveform distortion DC offset Harmonics Interharmonics Notching Noise Voltage fluctuations Frequency variations Spectral Content 5 ns rise 1 µs rise 0.9 pu 1.5 1.9 kV 3.5 5. Maximum for individual harmonic Total Harmonic Distortion 2.0 1.5 1.0 >1000 15.0 2.2 pu 0 to 0.0 15. Even harmonics are limited to 25% of the odd harmonic limits above.0 3.5% Table 4: IEEE Standard 519 current distortion limits for general distribution systems in the range 120 V to 69 kV.0 1. Description Transient Impulsive Nanoseconds Microseconds Milliseconds Oscillatory Low frequency Medium frequency High frequency Short duration variation Instantaneous Sag Swell Momentary Interruption Sag Swell Temporary Interruption Sag Swell Long duration variations Interruption. > 1 min. Outcomes from the EPECentre Workshop on Power Quality in Future Electrical Networks 14 . All generation power equipment is limited to these values of current distortion.0 4.0 0.0% 69-138 kV 1.0% 1.0 6.0 50 to 100 10.5 0.5 cycle to 3 s 0.4 20.5 4.0 2.1 % 0 to 20% 0 to 2% 0 to 1% Table 3: IEEE Standard 519 recommended harmonic voltage limits.1 to 1.7 12.8 to 0. Maximum harmonic current distortion in % Harmonic Order (odd harmonics) Total Harmonic Distortion ISC / IL <11 11 to 16 17 to 22 23 to 34 >35 <20 4.6 0.Table 2: Overview of IEEE Standard 1159.0 2.0 ISC refers to the maximum short-circuit current at the PCC.3 to 30 cycles 20 µs 5 µs 0.5 8.5 cycle to 3 s 30 cycle to 3 s 30 cycle to 3 s 30 cycle to 3 s 3 s to 1 min 3 s to 1 min 3 s to 1 min > 1 min.

Outcomes from the EPECentre Workshop on Power Quality in Future Electrical Networks 15 . They also outline the equipment testing procedures to ensure compliance with other parts of the standards. Environment (IEC 61000-2-x): This part describes and classifies the characteristics of the environment or surrounding where equipment will be used. ◦ Harmonic current emission limits for equipment connected at LV with input current >16A and ≤75 A per phase (IEC 61000-3-12) • Testing and Measurement Techniques (IEC 61000-4-x): These provide guidelines on the design of equipment for measuring and monitoring Power Quality disturbances. based on the characteristics of their system and set a planning level which is lower to give an emission margin.1. ◦ Harmonic compatibility levels of residential low voltage (LV) systems (IEC 61000-2-2) ◦ Industrial plants (IEC 61000-24) ◦ Residential medium voltage (MV) systems (IEC 61000-2-12). Likewise an appropriate immunity margin is needed to give an immunity level which is larger than the compatibility level.3. ◦ Harmonic current emission limits for equipment connected at LV with high (> 16 A per phase) current (IEC 61000-3-4) ◦ Assessment of emission limits for distorting loads in MV and HV power systems (IEC 610003-6). Compatibility levels are often set as a level to be achieved at least a certain percentage of time. The rectangles show a range of possible planning levels and immunity testing levels that may be chosen. This is illustrated in Figure 10 where the compatibility level is set to give a high probability of electromagnetic compatibility. for equipment manufacturers to design their equipment to meet. ◦ Assessment of emission limits for voltage fluctuations and flicker in LV power systems – Equipment rated current < 75 A and subject to conditional connection (IEC 61000-3-11). ◦ Flicker (IEC 61000-3-3): Limitation of voltage change equipment connected at LV with low (< 16 A per phase) current. The compatibility level is the specified disturbance level at which an acceptably high probability of electromagnetic compatibility should exist. The IEC 61000 series of standards and technical reports are very comprehensive and the major subdivisions are: • • General (IEC 61000-1-x): The general section introduces and provides fundamental principles on EMC issues and describes the various definitions and terminologies used in the standards. These are at the discretion of the utilities and regulatory/standard setting bodies. ◦ Harmonic current emission limits for equipment connected at LV with input current ≤16 A per phase (IEC 61000-3-2). as demonstrated in Figures 11 and 12. It also defines the immunity limits for equipment sensitive to EMC disturbances. Each utility is to decide what emission margin is appropriate for their system.2 IEC 61000 series of Standards and Technical Reports ElectroMagnetic Compatibility (EMC) is the ability of equipment or system to function in its electromagnetic environment without introducing intolerable disturbances to anything in that environment (IEC 61000-1-1). ◦ Assessment of emission limits for voltage fluctuations in MV and HV power systems (IEC 61000-3-7). • Limits (IEC 61000-3-x): This section defines the maximum levels of disturbances caused by equipment or appliances that can be tolerated within the power system. It also provides guidelines on compatibility levels for various disturbances.

Outcomes from the EPECentre Workshop on Power Quality in Future Electrical Networks 16 . Disturbance Level Percentage Time = 100*(t1+t2)/tTotal x t1 tTotal t2 Time Figure 11: Example of calculation of disturbance level time percentage.Figure 10: Relationships between attributes of ElectroMagnetic Compatibility.

Class A: Balanced three-phase equipment and all other equipment. They contain both emission limits and immunity levels standards. Case 1 meets the standard at least 95% of the time. This is irrespective of Case 2 levels often being much lower than Case 1 levels for much of the time.Figure 12: Two case studies that demonstrate percentage compatibility. Outcomes from the EPECentre Workshop on Power Quality in Future Electrical Networks 17 . Class D: Equipment with a "special wave shape" and an input power of 75 to 600 W. It also describes the use of various devices for solving Power Quality problems. ◦ Harmonic and interharmonic measurements and instrumentation (IEC 61000-4-7) ◦ Dips and interruptions (61000-4-11) ◦ Interharmonics (61000-4-13) ◦ Testing and measurement techniques: Flickermeter – Functional and design specifications (IEC 61000-4-15) ◦ Power Quality measurement methods (IEC 61000-4-30) • Installation and Mitigation Guidelines (IEC 61000-5-x): This section provides guidelines on the installation techniques to minimise emission as well as to strengthen immunity against EMC disturbances. • IEC 61000-3-2 introduces Power Quality limits for four classes of equipment: • • • • It is not widely appreciated that some of these publications are International Standards while others are Technical Reports and hence do not have the same standing. except those listed in other classes. while Case 2 meets the standard only 75% of the time. Class C: Lighting equipment. including dimming devices. Generic Standards (IEC 61000-6-x): These include the standards specific to certain category of equipment or for certain environments. Class B: Portable tools.

ripple control).2 Outcomes from the EPECentre Workshop on Power Quality in Future Electrical Networks 18 . The code is split into requirements for when the Point of Common Coupling has a nominal voltage of less than 66 kV. This covers only allowable harmonic voltages and also indices covering telephone interference (EDV & EDI). Section 3 of this code of practice does give harmonic current limits. the limits in Table 5 apply. The equivalent disturbing voltage (EDV) shall not exceed 1% on any phase.3 1. harmonic levels. 2.1. which is cited in the Electricity Regulations 1997.e.0 0.3 1. issued by the Office of the Chief Electrical Inspector.4 0. frequency deviation) conflict with the existing regulations. All these limits are absolute. but only for 66kV. Nominal voltage of 66 kV or above If the nominal voltage is above 66kV.4 1. EDV =6. These at present are volunteering standards and some requirements (i. or 66 kV and above.3 New Zealand standards New Zealand was one of the first countries to pass regulations in 1981 to limit the harmonic levels in the electrical network (Limitation of Harmonic Levels Notice 1981.5 0. Harmonic order 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 to 21 23 to 29 2 4 6 8 to 10 12 to 50 Harmonic voltage levels (percentage phase-to-neutral values) 2.3 0. making it a mandatory requirement. Nominal voltage less than 66 kV 1. The phase-to-neutral harmonic voltage at any Point of Common Coupling with a nominal voltage of less than 66 kV shall not exceed 4% for any odd numbered harmonic order. 110kV and 220kV.25x10−5 ∑ 50 n=2 nP n V n  2 where Pn is the weighting given to each frequency (from Psophometric weighting table). New Zealand also has joint AS/NZS standards and these are clones of the IEC standard of the same number.2 0. Ministry of Commerce). however there is an exception for control signals (i. The Total Harmonic Voltage Distortion (THDV) at any Point of Common Coupling with a nominal voltage of less than 66 kV shall not exceed 5%.3.6 0.4 0. This Limitation of Harmonics Notice 1981 now forms the basis of NZ Electrical Code of Practice 36. This was due to the early installation of large rectification equipment in the form of a HVDC link between the North and South Islands and aluminium smelter at Tiwai point.8 0.6 0. or 2% for any even numbered harmonic order.7 0. not statistical. Table 5: Harmonic voltage limits for nominal voltages of 66 kV or above.e.

microwave ovens. This process is widely used in household appliances such as TVs. stereos. LED lighting. The problem is that market forces put pressure on to cut costs. and all types chargers (for cell phones.1 Compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) Block 1 Filtering and Protection Block 2 Rectifier Block 3 DC Filter Block 4 Inverter and tube Fuse PTC DIAC Figure 13: Block diagram of a CFL Power-Factor Control Drive No filtering Active filtering Passive filtering Improved Valley-Fill Figure 14: Various CFL filtering options presently in use.1. which results in a poorer rectifier.1.1 Residential equipment 1. Outcomes from the EPECentre Workshop on Power Quality in Future Electrical Networks 19 . compact fluorescent lamps. 1. PC’s.4. cameras etc). fluorescent lamps with electronic ballasts.4 Emission from existing equipment The rectification process by which AC is converted to DC is a common source of harmonics. The level of harmonic distortion is very much a function of the design of the rectifier.4.

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 0 0 C rren (m ) u t A 150 250 Basic.02 100 0 -100 -200 -300 -400 0 -200 -400 -600 0 0. no filtering 200 Active Power-Factor Control R S C rren (m ) M u t A 100 50 5 10 15 20 H arm ic O er on d 25 30 5 10 15 20 H arm n o er o ic rd 25 30 35 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 90 Basic.005 0.01 T e (s) im 0.015 0.02 Figure 15: Current waveforms resulting from use of different CFL filtering options shown in Figure 14.02 -600 0 0.005 0.01 T e (s) im 0.015 0.005 0. Outcomes from the EPECentre Workshop on Power Quality in Future Electrical Networks 20 . no filtering 400 300 200 400 Active Power-Factor Control 200 C rren (m ) u t A 0 C rren (m ) u t A 0.02 600 Basic.015 0. with filtering R SC M urren (m ) t A 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 Valley-fill or Equivalent R S C rren (m ) M u t A 5 10 15 20 H arm ic O er on d 25 30 5 10 15 20 H arm n O er o ic d 25 30 Figure 16: Current harmonics resulting from use of different CFL filtering options shown in Figure 14.01 T e (s) im 0.015 0.005 0. with filtering C rren (m ) u t A 600 Valley-fill or Equivalent 400 400 200 C rren (m ) u t A 200 0 0 -200 -200 -400 -400 -600 0 0.01 T e (s) im 0.600 Basic.

51 mSec Current 2.5 5.5 10.4. 2. Outcomes from the EPECentre Workshop on Power Quality in Future Electrical Networks 21 .1.51 15.01 12. Below is a measurement on a PC with a waveform with a THDI of 119%. Figure 18: Example current waveform and harmonics of personal computer components. 7.2 Personal computers The current THD for a PC is typically between 70% to 120%.0 0.5 0. Current 10 5 Amps 0 -5 -10 .0 DC 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 Harmonic Figure 17: Example current waveform and harmonics of a personal computer.1.01 17.5 Amps 1.0 1.

Figure 19: Example current harmonics of personal computer components.3 Microwave ovens Current 50 25 Amps 0 .53 10.51 5.4. 2.06 17.55 15.1.04 12. 1.02 7. Outcomes from the EPECentre Workshop on Power Quality in Future Electrical Networks 22 .57 -25 -50 mSec Current 15 10 Amps 5 0 DC 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Harmonic Figure 20: Example current waveform and harmonics of a microwave oven.

8% was measured and this is typical of stereos.1. 2.1.4. 7.51 15. Outcomes from the EPECentre Workshop on Power Quality in Future Electrical Networks 23 . Current 500 250 Amps  1Ø 0 .01 12.5 10.1.51 -250 -500 mSec Current 150 100 Amps rms 1Ø 50 0 DC 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Harmonic Figure 21: Example current waveform and harmonics of a stereo. 1.5 5.4 Stereos A current THD of 38.5 Heat­pumps Figure 22: Example current waveforms of six different models of residential heat-pump.01 17.4.

01 17.01 12.5 10. Outcomes from the EPECentre Workshop on Power Quality in Future Electrical Networks 24 . 2.4.1.51 -25 -50 mSec Current 20 15 Amps rms 1Ø 10 5 0 DC 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Harmonic Figure 23: Example current waveform and harmonics of a battery charger.51 15.1. 1.4. 2.1.5 10. 7.7 Digital camera Current 100 50 Amps  1Ø 0 . 7.01 17.6 Battery chargers Current 50 25 Amps  1Ø 0 .5 5.51 -50 -100 mSec Current 10 8 Amps rms 1Ø 6 4 2 0 DC 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 Harmonic Figure 24: Example current waveform and harmonics of a digital camera.01 12.51 15.5 5.

8 Mobile phone charger Current 50 25 Amps 0 -25 -50 .51 5.01 17. 2.4.01 12.4.04 12.51 15. 7.51 -25 -50 mSec Current 15 10 Amps rms 1Ø 5 0 DC 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Harmonic Figure 26: Example current waveform and harmonics of a cordless phone charger.06 17.1.1.5 10.1.53 10.55 15.9 Cordless phone charger Current 50 25 Amps  1Ø 0 . 1.57 mSec Current 20 15 Amps 10 5 0 DC 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 Harmonic Figure 25: Example current waveform and harmonics of a mobile phone charger. 2.5 5. Outcomes from the EPECentre Workshop on Power Quality in Future Electrical Networks 25 .02 7.

4.1. 7.4.1.5 10.5 5. 2.10 Electronic photo­frame Current 500 250 Amps  1Ø 0 .1.51 15. Outcomes from the EPECentre Workshop on Power Quality in Future Electrical Networks 26 . 1.51 -250 -500 mSec Current 30 25 20 Amps rms 1Ø 15 10 5 0 DC 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 Harmonic Figure 27: Example current waveform and harmonics of an electronic photo-frame.01 17.11 Television Figure 28: Example current waveform and harmonics of a television and video tape player.01 12.

5 5.01 12.1.1 Irrigation pumps 3 AC DC DC AC 3 IM Figure 29: Schematic of a Variable Speed Drive. Current 500 250 Amps 0 .51 -250 -500 Time mS Current 200 150 33.51 15.2% 8. 2.7% DC 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 Amps rms 100 50 0 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 Harmonic number Figure 30: Example current waveform and harmonics of a Variable Speed Drive. On dairy farms.2 Industrial equipment Another major source of harmonic distortion is equipment used in industry and on dairy farms. 1.2.4.5 10. Outcomes from the EPECentre Workshop on Power Quality in Future Electrical Networks 27 .5% 8. VSDs for driving irrigation pumps are a major harmonic source in rural networks with the 5th harmonic current often approximately 30% of the fundamental current.01 17. particularly the use of Variable Speed Drives (VSD).4. 7.0% 3.

The AC side harmonic currents are a function of the DC side ripple and the 5 th harmonic increases as the ripple increases.4. The machine had five three-phase thyristor bridges driving a purely resistive element and the 5th harmonic current was 40% of the fundamental. For example. DC and induction furnaces) as well as electroplating and refining processes. Outcomes from the EPECentre Workshop on Power Quality in Future Electrical Networks 28 . 1. one case that arose was in making a product out of plastics. 1.4. thyristor controlled heating elements were used.2. as shown in Figure 32. 3 1 3 5 R 4 6 2 Figure 32: Schematic of a thyristor controlled heating element. To ensure accurate control of the constituent compounds.4.4 Manufacturing In manufacturing.1.2 DC Drive Because of the simplicity and precise motion control capability of DC Drives. gondolas.2. they find applications in printing presses. and traction applications. conversion from AC to DC is often used.3 Metallurgical applications Many metallurgical processes have a large impact on Power Quality: arc furnaces (AC. as shown in Figure 31. 3 1 3 5 M 4 6 2 Figure 31: Schematic of a DC Drive system.2.

In some applications. and this energy can be fed back to the AC system. Outcomes from the EPECentre Workshop on Power Quality in Future Electrical Networks 29 . Inverters are often used to reclaim energy that might otherwise be lost. and similar schemes.4. It is clear that these waveforms are rich in harmonics and can detrimentally affect cables (due to extra I2R losses) and voltage waveform. Many papers have been written about the harmonics introduced by photovoltaic systems and this would be of great concern if the use of photovoltaic systems became widespread. a process can be used to generate DC. The design of the inverter that interfaces the DC source of energy determines the impact the distributed generation will have on Power Quality. Another Power Quality issue with distributed generation (particularly wind) is its intermittent nature and how it fluctuates. such as Whispergen. (a) (b) Figure 33: Example current waveform and harmonics of two commercial inverters. Some wind energy systems rectify the generator output and use an inverter to feed the energy into the AC system.1. These systems use energy sources such as natural gas to provide heat. Figure 33 shows measured waveforms and spectrum of two commercial inverters. These give rise to frequency stability issues and voltage fluctuations which cause lights to flicker. Electricity is generated from the waste heat and is fed back into the AC system via an inverter. One example would be in combined heat and power systems.3 Distributed generation and inverters Inverters are an essential component to allow the energy from renewable sources to feed into an AC electrical network.

They are also very flexible. A prototype LED system. The charging requires a higher current than available from the domestic 10A outlet and hence at present an electrician is required to wire in an outlet with greater capacity in order to charge these vehicles. Outcomes from the EPECentre Workshop on Power Quality in Future Electrical Networks 30 . Although the initial uptake of electric vehicles is expected to be low. The main barrier is cost.4 Future equipment There are several major future trends that could considerably impact on the Power Quality of the electrical network. There are also advantages for specialist applications such as in hydroponics. Various prototypes are already in service and full scale production will be within one year. Again they run on DC and hence require rectification. voltage dips and voltage stability of the system. such as the 2009 sample in Figure 34. are already a commercial reality with most manufacturers offering this alternative. as shown in Figure 35(b).4. and if widely adopted would mean conversion of a significant amount of the resistive loading of the system to a non-linear load. when the cost reduces and peoples' confidence increases. Hot-water cylinders that use a heat-pump rather than a resistive element. gives 30% more light for the same electrical consumption. The Power Quality issues associated with heat-pumps also apply to this. with the ability to colour correct and automatically adjust for lighting levels. they may well gain wide acceptance. LED lighting has the promise of giving higher efficiencies. shown in Figure 35(a). The charging circuit again requires rectification and the same issues regarding the design of the rectifier and its performance in terms of Power Quality is an issue. Figure 34: Mitsubishi Innovative Electric Vehicle. One of these is the widespread use of electric vehicles.1. particularly if they are heavily promoted. This has implications for harmonics.

The most wellknown is probably the 'CBEMA curve' (Computer Business Equipment Manufacturer Association). This curve was originally produced as a guideline to help CBEMA members in the design of the power supply for their computer and electronic equipment. Market forces however cause manufacturers to trim their costs to compete with their competitors and this usually reduces. 1. This can give substantial improvement in immunity of equipment relatively cheaply. Outcomes from the EPECentre Workshop on Power Quality in Future Electrical Networks 31 . It was used to evaluate the voltage quality of a power system with respect to voltage interruptions. Testing the immunity of equipment. The development of super (ultra) capacitors now allows a level of energy storage on the DC busbar that was previously unobtainable. The tolerance limits at different durations are very similar in both cases. dips or under-voltages and swells or over-voltages. known as the ITIC curve (shown in Figure 37) has been developed to replace the CBEMA curve. and hence easier to digitise than the continuous CBEMA curve. and at a low price. The main difference between them is that the ITIC version is piecewise. Also work on what is known as 'device hardening' has been performed. the equipment immunity (as well as device emissions).(a) (b) Figure 35: (a) Prototype LED lighting system and (b) hot-water cylinder that uses a heat pump (Source: Quantum Energy Technologies). shown in Figure 36. Over the years a number of bodies have developed standards for equipment immunity. CBEMA has been renamed as ITIC (Information Technology Industry Council) and a new curve. particular computer equipment for voltage dips has been reported in the literature. Other curves have been developed such as SEMI47 which is designed for the semiconductor industry requirements.5 Immunity of equipment Immunity of equipment is an important aspect and changing the design to improve immunity of a sensitive device (termed device hardening) is often more practical that reducing the disturbance level. rather than enhances.

5 1 c 8.001 Voltage Tolerance Envelope 106 87 0. Percent of Nominal Voltage (RMS of Peak Equivalent) 500 400 300 Prohibited Region 200 140 120 100 80 40 0 Voltage Tolerance Envelope No Damage Region 0.1s 0. Outcomes from the EPECentre Workshop on Power Quality in Future Electrical Networks 32 .5s 100 c 2s 1000 c Time in cycles & seconds Figure 36: CBEMA curve.001 1 us 0.5 s 110 90 10 s Steady State Time in cycles & seconds Figure 37: ITIC curve.1 1ms 0.01 1 ms 3 ms 1c 20 ms 10 c 100 c 0.01 0.1ms 0.33ms 10 c 0.Percent of Nominal Voltage (RMS of Peak Equivalent) 400 300 200 100 80 30 0 0.

G and despatch rules Economy Traditional network design vs future design Non compliance enforcement Outcomes from the EPECentre Workshop on Power Quality in Future Electrical Networks 33 . also considering excessive emissions. proliferation of VSD motors. quantifying in $$ cost of poor PQ Regulation influences Compliance with regulations Lack of equipment standards Lack of consumer understanding • • • • For UTILITIES. lack of transposition with high loads. TVs Less equipment immunity – Stricter regulations Standards – Different application thereof. and issues that receive the most customer complaints. developing and enforcing new standards Distributed generation – Wind farms voltage control Create awareness in community (education) Derated equipment (Transformers/cables) Uncertainty – Political. and a end-of-day 'wrap-up'. immunity. sags not so bad. future proofing. CFLs. network faults. CC = customer complaints • • • • • • • • • • Harmonics – Non linear loads. CC). voltage variation (CC). wind farms.2 Summary of Power Quality Workshop This section presents a summary of the individual workgroup responses to three sets of questions presented to them during the workshop. 2. trains. and present or future regulator requirements. protection relay response to harmonics. what are the most likely significant Power Quality issues to be faced in the FUTURE? Why? Provide details of Power Quality issues. environmental Future loads – What are they? D.1 Question 1: Identification of significant Power Quality issues  What are the most significant Power Quality issues YOU are facing NOW? Mark and describe those issues that have the most negative economic impact. loss of production Steady State Voltages – Low voltage and high load stressing networks (NEI. thermal failure. are they correct. single phase loads RF – Insulator design/sensitivity of equipment DC components in/by transformers Oversizing of transformers – Safety. harmonics Transmission – Unbalance (one phase loads. HVDC. high voltage Voltage Unbalance – High voltages (NEI) Flicker – Industrial loads (NEI. harmonics) Distribution – Flicker (short term soln CFLs). DC inverters. • • • • • • • • • • • • • Harmonics – Increasing levels More distorting loads – VSD. complex. irrigation drives. amplification due to capacitor banks Voltage Dips – Motor starting. NEI = Negative economic impact. CC).

• • Customer responsibility Evolving standards For each of the following CUSTOMERS (a) to (c). uptake of the Greenie effect Outcomes from the EPECentre Workshop on Power Quality in Future Electrical Networks 34 . air con) Education/good advice for customers More rubbish on the market – Need a star rating for PQ? High Voltage causing appliance failures and short life Shifting load profile (night time charging) – Use of ripple control? Expectation doesn’t match the supplier capabilities More sensitive equipment – Voltage control with DG penetration. what are the most likely significant Power Quality issues to be faced in the FUTURE? Why? (a) Industrial/commercial • • • • • • • • • • Voltage sags Compliance/standards Poor design and installation practices leads to production losses Education/good advice for customers Short interruptions Harden PLC Spending more on quality Increased penetration of sensitive equipment and import of PQ Upgrade requirements due to changing PQ levels (allocation) Embedded generation issues (b) Rural • • • • • • • • • • • Voltage sags Customer expectation Increased use of electronics etc in low fault level areas Education/good advice for customers Drive failure due to PF cap switching and voltage dips No filtering required on pumps and drives Designed to urban standard? Insurance stance? Expectation doesn’t match the supplier capabilities Disturbances die to interaction of different loads Differential PQ Standards (c) Residential • • • • • • • • • Voltage sags Infill housing and steady state voltages Increased non linear load (heat pumps.

2. B = highly recommended. indicate what that percentage should be. C = useful (a) Grid exit point Workgroup 1 2 3 4 5 % sites measured 100% 100% 20% 80% 100% 100% V Y Y A Y Y I Y Y A Y Y Steady state value A A A Y A Unbalance B A A Y A Harm B A A Y A Fluct B A B Y A Sags A A A Y A Transients C A C Y A CB Status – Time Stamp Another quantity (b) Town substation Workgroup 1 2 3 4 5 % sites measured 100% 10-20% 5-10% 30% 50% V Y Y A Y Y I Y Y A Y Y Steady state value A A A Y A Unbalance B A A Y A Harm B A A Y C Fluct B A B Y B Sags A A A Y A Transients C A B Y C Another quantity CB Status – Time Stamp (c) Rural substation Workgroup 1 2 3 4 5 % sites measured 100% 30-50% 5% 100% 20% V Y Y A Y Y I Y Y A Y Y Steady state value A A A Y A Unbalance B A A Y A Harm B A A Y B Fluct B B B-C Y A Sags A A B Y A Transients C B B Y B Another quantity (d) Industrial site Workgroup 1 2 3 4 5 % sites measured 0-10% 1% 50%+ critical Roaming 5% V Y Y A Y Y I Y Y A Y Y Steady state value A A A Y A Unbalance A A A Y A Harm A A A Y A Fluct B B A Y A Sags A A A Y A Transients B B B Y A Another quantity Outcomes from the EPECentre Workshop on Power Quality in Future Electrical Networks 35 . Weight the acquisition equipment/records as compulsory.2 Question 2: Data acquisition and use  At each of the following points of the network (a) to (g). highly recommended. A = compulsory. how much data acquisition equipment should be installed by a UTILITY in the next 10 years? What should it record? If only a percentage of multiple sites of the same class should have equipment installed. or useful.

5% Roaming 10 V Y Y A Y Y I Y Y B Y Y Steady state value A A A Y A Unbalance A A A Y A Harm A A A Y A Fluct C B Y A Sags C A A Y A Transients C B A Y A Another quantity Vn (g) Another location of your choice (if time is available) Workgroup 1 2 3 4 5 % sites measured V I Steady state value Unbalance Harm Fluct Sags Transients Another quantity Generator Connection: Wind Farms Third party Gen & Rural End User Y Y Y Y Y A Y A Y A Y A Y A Y A Other comments • • • • • • Innovative graphical presentations Envelope graphs Cost is assumed to be low for instruments main cost is in data retrieval and analysis Line Companies don’t own meters. (a) Steady state voltage variation • Graph monthly/quarterly/yearly Outcomes from the EPECentre Workshop on Power Quality in Future Electrical Networks 36 . what PRACTICAL techniques and processes should be used to CONVERT collected raw data into useful Power Quality awareness/knowledge of the network? Eg. 10 min averages. bar-graphs. for trouble-shooting. limits. cumulative. Also consider practical presentation of analysed data eg.1% ≤ 1% Roaming 10 V Y Y A Y Y I Y Y B Y Y Steady state value A A A Y A Unbalance A A A Y A Harm A A A Y A Fluct B B B Y A Sags A A A Y A Transients B B A Y A Another quantity Vn (f) End of LV feeder Workgroup 1 2 3 4 5 % sites measured <5% 0.01% ≤ 0.(e) Residential transformer Workgroup 1 2 3 4 5 % sites measured <5% 0. contractual arrangements for access to data Customer metering (non disclosure offshore particularly) – Data access represents “regulator risk” PQ monitors are relatively cheap and memory/storage is cheap A rapidly increasing amount of raw data is being collected from the power system. For each of the following scenarios (a) to (e). and much more data will be created in the future. planning and investment.

Consider low-level formatting of data. revenue meters owned by retailers Different devices . closed mentality. utilities can lose access to data. time stamping Standardisation of sampling/presenting According to standards – 10 min to 1 week period Lack of consistency So that effective technical mitigation options may be studied.Instruments hold data in different forms Low level formatting can be an issue – 10 min cycles Resourcing – Is there a cost benefit? Need utilities to take responsibility No litigation data distribution and data sharing International data format agreement International standards agreement Standardisation of sampling/presenting Regulator issues Planning – Working together with customers and regulators Who pays? Outcomes from the EPECentre Workshop on Power Quality in Future Electrical Networks 37 . • • • • • • • • • • • Barrier to sharing – Commercial. circuit breaker status. transients) • Continuous Other comments • • • • • • Exceedances to be reported Data used if network issues arise Perhaps trend PQ issue – Project. data standards and universal protocols. what are the barriers and good and poor approaches to obtain Power Quality data (and system network information) from OTHER UTILITIES or CUSTOMERS? Any specific experiences that have been witnessed that stand out? Consider high-level political/commercial/personal relationships and agreements for data access or acquisition. other signals.(b) Voltage unbalance • Graph monthly/quarterly/yearly (c) Harmonics • THD and 5th (d) Voltage fluctuations (flicker) • Continuous PST < 1? (e) Events (sags.

bus) Utility – Harmonic voltage. Costs = Manufacturer. (d) Wind farms: system frequency stability. Consider how harmonics should be allocated (device/site level. Why? (a) Rural customer's equipment that generate significant harmonic current injections. EQUIPMENT MANUFACTURER/RETAILER and CUSTOMER have for meeting future Power Quality conditions. first come first served. Should modified standards be introduced? What should they be? • • • • • • • • Forced drop out and soft start Manufacturer (not DOL) Quality over price Standard driven production Quality driven by refined standards Import guidelines – CF type tests? Utility = Min standard of network required. Customer = Ongoing Monitoring = IEC stds. Equip/Mnf = Standard. IEC declared customers)? Consider how allocations should be enforced? What problems are there with present standards? Should modifications be made to harmonic allocation levels in NZECP? • • • • • • • • Equipment – Harmonic current limits (with inf. Should modified standards be introduced? What should they be? • • • • • • • • Enforce import standards for Ih Manufacturer (not DOL) Quality over price Standard driven production Quality driven by refined standards Import guidelines – Tests? Utility = Min standard of network required.2. perhaps connection charges? Manufacturer. by agreement with utility Use allocated share Ratio of S/C capacity allocation Rural/Urban – User pays Utility = Standard.3 Question 3: Responsibility for Power Quality issues  For each of the following equipment scenarios (a) to (e). What about sub-20kW grid connected wind turbines. (c) Compact Fluorescent Lights generating harmonic currents. Consider large wind farms and small DG wind farms. manufacturer. Equip/Mnf = Standard Monitoring = Stds. what CRITERIA and WEIGHTING for responsibility/costs should the UTILITY. Costs = User. (b) Residential heat pumps causing voltage sag and generating harmonic currents. manufacturer. divided by expected number of connections. especially in remote network sections? • • IEC61400 – 21 Utility to require AS4777 Outcomes from the EPECentre Workshop on Power Quality in Future Electrical Networks 38 . utility. voltage sag and flicker. Costs = Manufacturer. Equip/Mnf = Standard Monitoring = Stds.

utility. Case studies. other? Please update later if further suggestions arise in the future. Customer = Ongoing Networks not designed for embedded DG at local level Ongoing monitoring/policing/teeth Monitoring = Manufacturer. (f) Another scenario of your choice (if time is available). Equip/Mnf = Network code. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Practical examples Examples with typical solutions Possible side effects Review of standards/summary Clarification and agreement of standards Publicly available book Increased awareness Communication to end users Equipment emission levels Assessment criteria Need to modify standards to suit NZ conditions Education to local Electricians Product standards heat pumps . Costs = Owner. new installation. ensures compliance Utility = Min level. Customer = Ongoing Monitoring = IEC stds. calculation methods. Equip/Mnf = Network code. Costs = Owner. Should modified standards be introduced? What should they be? • • • • • • A standard of some sort DG – more on safety. bench marking. • Utility should be ultimate “policeman” to protect other and all users What sort of information would be the most useful in a Power Quality guidelines booklet that helps plan and mitigate present and future Power Quality issues? Eg. preventative 5 year review Outcomes from the EPECentre Workshop on Power Quality in Future Electrical Networks 39 . same as d) Utility = Min level.• • • • • Large farms – Keep on line voltage regulation Small farms – Safety Responsibility – Grid operation.realistic Process flowcharts – Complaint. (e) Distributed Generation inverters at residential premises.

no techy talk). use solar water heating Windfarms – Need grid code to handle intermittent power injection • Routine monitoring levels • • GXPs (high need to monitor) – LV consumers (more statistical approach. hot water heat pumps. calc methods) Application – Case studies. road tax issues VSDs – also pumps in general. fault levels reference impedance.2. ECP36 • • Consensus to change it Requirement to update standards. merge with efficiency in the future? ANZS 61000 already available. but do not want NZ only standards (too costly for manufacturers to meet). charging currents and load management. Emerging issues • • • • DG – Political drive. current limits. grid code to handle intermittent power injection. subsidies. accuracy issues. straight forward Installation standards • • • • Connections – Factories. internal (HB264 starting point. the horse has bolted??. electricians (ENA guide. residential Appliance standards Extra categories in CEC star ratings. Heat pumps – Load management. farming. general agreement on harmonic issues. language.4 Wrap­up This section contains the Power Quality workshop end-of-day 'wrap-up'. sag issues for big loads on long lines. lobby standards committees for reasonable standards. It consists of whiteboard notes and floor comments about what were considered to be the important issues. smart metering Electric vehicles – Opportunities as well as threats. recommended practices. smart metering could help. loss of load control through ripple control. who pays for more accurate meters? Guidelines • • Target audience – Customers. therefore need international standards. need for utility smart metering?) PQ monitoring in smart metering. where is the generation. Except if there is good grounds to vary eg. are the numbers suitable for a compliance regime? Outcomes from the EPECentre Workshop on Power Quality in Future Electrical Networks 40 .

2.5 Future challenges What is the role of standards/regulations in Power Quality. or should a market approach be used? If standards: • • • • • • How is the permissible level set? Should there be requirements on an installation or on each individual device? Should the standard be absolute or 95% value? Who has the responsibility for policing the Power Quality level? How are interactions and resonances resolved? Which customers should have priority on allocation? 33 kV 11 kV Customer Customer Customer Customer A B C D Customer Customer Customer Customer E F G H Figure 38: Simple model of customers on a 11 kV feeder for Power Quality allocation purposes. Outcomes from the EPECentre Workshop on Power Quality in Future Electrical Networks 41 .

05 0.3 No data Outcomes from the EPECentre Workshop on Power Quality in Future Electrical Networks 42 . To allocate emission limits to installations and equipment while ensuring the disturbance level does not exceed the planning level requires knowledge of the system impedance.26+j0. it would be expected that a higher disturbance level would result with a smaller system (ignoring the possibility of resonances). A few people prefer a market approach to Power Quality arguing that one limit does not necessarily fit all. and the next question is whether it is above or below the equipment’s immunity level? New Zealand’s electrical network is a weak Island system due to our geographical isolation from other electrical networks. Country Canada (120/208V) USA (277/480V) Korea (230/400V) Japan (200V) Capacities<100A per Phase 0. There was common consensus that standards and regulations are required to ensure the addition of new equipment can be accommodated without any detrimental effects. This is because it is a more practical way to deal with Power Quality issues. and there are pitfalls with a market approach. as it controls for a given emission level. while current specification characterises the emission level. Tables 6 and 7 show data from this technical report.06 0.1+j0. Also the incremental cost is very low to dramatically improve the device performance in low power domestic appliances. hence minimum performance standards are required.08 0. how high the disturbance level generated is. At an industrial or commercial level it was felt that any standards should be on installations rather than on individual items of equipment. This is because application to each item of equipment would restrict availability or increase the equipment price. some of which is measured and the rest based on calculations.33+j0. This means that for a given emission level. Coupling these is the network characteristics.07 No data 0.67+j0. standards for individual items of equipment were deemed more appropriate due to the impracticability of expecting each installation to install mitigation equipment appropriate to the loading and the variability of the loading.2 No data Capacities>100A per Phase 0. Our system peak is approximately 6000 MW. Much of the future work revolves around investigating what a typical New Zealand electrical system can withstand in terms of steady-state and transient disturbance. Normally the voltage quality is the key quantity and the measure of the disturbance level.35+j0.2+j0. Table 6: Single-phase service capacities <100 A per phase.07+j0. which is interconnected. United Kingdom.21 Table 7: Three-phase service. Country Canada USA Korea Japan 100-120 V 0.13 200-400V 0.06 0.09+j0. North America and our nearest neighbour.3 Conclusions and future work It is clear that Power Quality is an issue and will be more of an issue in the future with the uptake of new technology.2+j0. while a more cost effective solution may to deploy to mitigation equipment in one place in the installation.37 0. Australia. This is very small considering Europe.42+j0.04 No data 0. The relevant IEC publication is IEC/TR 60725. entitled “Consideration of reference impedances and public supply network impedances for use in determining disturbance characteristics of electrical equipment having a rated current ≤ 75 A per phase”. On a domestic level. There are two sides to Power Quality: the emission levels and the immunity levels of equipment.39+j0.

M.J.R.R. Heydt Electric Power Quality 2nd Edition Stars in a Circle Publications 1991 C. Bollen Understanding Power Quality Problems IEEE 2000 E. De La Rosa Harmonics and Power Systems CRC Press 2006 R.S. C.A.F. Dugan.T. Fuchs & M.F.S.S. Masoum.C. Vedam & M.. Beaty Electrical Power Systems Quality McGraw-Hill 1996 Outcomes from the EPECentre Workshop on Power Quality in Future Electrical Networks 43 .W. Power System Quality Assessment John Wiley & Sons 2000 Arrillaga J. Sankaran Power Quality CRC Press 2002 F. Power System Harmonics 2nd Edition John Wiley & Sons 2003 B. and Watson N. Power Quality in Power systems and Electrical Machines Elsevier 2008 G. and Watson N.4 Bibliography Arrillaga J. Chen S. McGranaghan and H. Kennedy Power Quality Primer McGraw-Hill 2000 R.H. Sarma Power Quality: VAR Compensation in Power Systems CRC Press 2009 M.

S. G. Michalik Quality of Electricity Supply & Management of Network Losses Puma Press.J.A. 2007 Angelo Baggini Handbook of Power Quality John Wiley & Sons Inc. Short Distribution Reliability and Power Quality CRC Press 2006 A. Al-Mandhari Improving Voltage Dip Ride-through Using Super/Ultra Capacitors. M. Ghosh and G.B. Electrical & Computer Engineering Department.) Power quality : mitigation technologies in a distributed environment Springer 2007 By A. Anders. Khalsa and G. Kusko and M. H. 1997 T.J. 2008 Third Professional Year Project. Lawrence. 2008 Outcomes from the EPECentre Workshop on Power Quality in Future Electrical Networks 44 . Ledwich Power Quality Enhancement using CUSTOM Power Devices Kluwer Academic Publishers. T. Analysis and Filter Design (Hardcover) Springer 2001 W. 2002 Mohammed S. University of Canterbury. Thompson Power quality in electrical systems McGraw-Hill Professional. 2008 G. Mielczarski.Antonio Moreno-Muñoz (Ed. Melbourne.F. W. Wakileh Power Systems Harmonics: Fundamentals. Conlon.

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