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representative of one more specified groups -- Norm Reference Testing -A. Developmental Norms 1) mental age - a child's score on a test corresponds to the highest year level or age level that he can succesfully complete 2) grade equivalent - assigns achievement on a test or battery of tests according to grade norms 3) ordinal scale - are designed to identify the stage reached by the child in the development of specific behavior B. Within Group Norms 1) Percentiles - are edpressed in terms of the percentage of persons in thhe standardization sample who fall below a given RS. It indicates the individual's relative position in the standardization saple 2) Standard Score - are derived scores which uses as its unit the SD of the population upon which the test was standardized. eg. T- score Stanine scores - standard nine Sten - standard ten 3) Deviation IQ - is a standard score on an intelligence test with a means of 100 and SD that approximate the SD of the Stanford-Binet IQ distribution. How far you are(sd) from the Mean. -- Criteron Related Test -- by Glacier (1975) - specified content domain when a test is identified as valid and reliable
Item Analysis - reduce the number of items without reducing the validity and reliability of the test A) Index of Item Difficulty - will tell you whether this item is easy, average or difficult - knowing whether they are E A or D helps us come up with a test that follows the spiral omnibus format B) Index of Item Discrimination - into determining whether an item can actually differentiate one examinee from another - whether this item can tell me that this examinee is more intelligent than this examinee - can discriminate one examinee from another - which item is useful and can be do away with C) Spiral Omnibus Format - ex. CFIT exam - dictates the easy items on top, and average in the middle difficult in the end - it has a motivating factor, knowing that you can finish the easy one first, and so on and so forth, rather than starting with a difficult one. Rights of the test takers 1) informed consent - requires the examiner to inform the examinee of the very purpose why he is taking the test and the very use that will be made of the results. 2) relevancy - using the right instrument for the right purpose 3) confidentiality and privacy - all the results we have coming out from the psychological assessment are highly confidential therefore we do not just divulge the information with anybody else - however if it is a question or a matter of life and death and the court will demand you to discuss the case, you have to inform the examinee that you would have to discuss the
assesee . relatively enduring way in which one individual varies from another State .most especially when there are conflicting information. scoring to interpretation of test scores .an approach that encourages theraperutic self discovery and new understandings through the assessment process C.viewed as expert about his or her current views and remembered life events B.any distinguishable. Collaborative Psychological Assessment .variance from true difference (p.Stick to what is less stigmatizing Psychological Testing .Assumptions about Psychological Testing Assessment --1) Psychological Traits and States Exist Trait .Are not supposed to be released to just anybody .201 file ( yellow personal data sheet ) 4) behavioral observation . you would have to persuade him.long standing assumption that factors other than what a test attempts to measure will influence performance on the test (p.situation.140) INCREMENTAL VALIDITY.extent to which a particular trait.use of psychological tools in the therapeutic situation .important to knoe the reason for the release of the results of the test 5) least stigmatizing label .gathering and integration of psychologyrelated data for Tools of psychological assessment 1) psychological test 2) interview 3) case history data . will require you to conduct observations with different environments 5) role playing test . characteristic or attribute exists in the population (expressed as proportion) (189) HIT RATE.proportion of people a test . behavior.observing clients while they are playing in a room 6) computer assisted psychological assessment ££ Process of Assessment ££ A.everything from administration.variance from irrelevant random sources (p.process of measuring psychology-related variables by means of devices or procedures designed to obtain a sample of behaviour Psychological Assessment .140) ERROR VARIANCE. 4) results . Therapeutic Psychological Assessment .degree to which an additional predictor explains something about the criterion measure that is not explained by predictors already in use (184-185) BASE RATE.Concerned with what the test measures ERROR.A model and philosophy --.distinguishes one person from another but is relatively less enduring 2) Psychological traits and states can be quantified and measured 3) Test-related behaviour predicts non-testrelated behavior 4) Tests and other measurement techniques have strengths and weaknesses 5) Various sources of error are part of the assessment process 6) Testing and Assessment can be conducted in a fair unbiased manner 7) Testing and assessment benefit society D. Valid .101) TRUE VARIANCE. Dynamic Psychological Assessment .partnership between the assessor and assesee -.
all of the factors other than what a test intends to measure that contribute to scores on the test : a variable in all testing and assessment. moods or mental state over time VALIDITY COEFFICIENT: a correlation coefficient that provides a measure of the relationship between test scores & scores on a criterion measure EXPECTANCY DATA: information. deciding how many factors to retain.an assumption is made that each testtaker has a true score on a test that would be obtained but for the random action of measurement error (106) DECISION STUDY. the component of variance attributable to random sources irrelevant to the trait or ability the test intends to measure in an observed score or distribution of scores : common sources of error variance include those related to test construction. usually the form of an expectancy table. collective influence of all of the factors on a test score measurement refers to a long ± standing assumption that factors other than what a test attempts to measure will influence performance on the test ERROR VARIANCE: (140) in the true score model.a miss wherein the test predicted that the testtaker did possess the particular characteristic or attribute being measured when in fact the testtaker did not (190) FALSE NEGATIVE. or dimensions on which people may differ (198) EFA (EXPLORATORY FACTOR ANALYSIS). illustrating the likelihood that an individual testtaker will score within some interval of scores on a criterion measure EXPECTANCY TABLE: tabular form INCREMENTAL VALIDITY: (184-185) used in conjunction with predictive validity.proportion of people the test fails to identify as having or not having a particular charac.developers examine the usefulness of test scores in helping the test user make decisions (158) ERROR: (101) collectively. or attribute (189) MISS RATE. an index of the explanatory power of additional predictors over & above the predictors already in use.accurately identifies as possessing or exhibiting a particular trait.a factor structure is explicitly hypothesized and is tested for its fit with the observed covariance structure of the measured variables (198) TRUE SCORE THEORY. administration & test scoring and interpretation (assessors & assessees can be a source of error variance) TRUE VARIANCE: (140) the component of variance attributable to true differences in the ability/trait being measured that are inherent in an observed score or distribution of scores TRANSIENT ERROR: (a source of error attributable to variations in the testtaker¶s feelings.estimating or extracting factors. characteristics. and rotating factors to an interpretable orientation (198) CFA (CONFIRMATORY FACTOR ANALYSIS).an estimate of the degree of error involved in predicting the value of one variable from another (115) FALSE POSITIVE. degree to which an additional predictor explains . behavior. characteristic.a miss wherein the test predicted that the testtaker did not possess the particular characteristic or attribute being measured when the testtaker actually did (190) FACTOR ANALYSIS. or attribute (190) SEE ( STANDARD ERROR OF THE ESTIMATE).class of mathematical procedures designed to identify factors or specific variables that are typically attributes.
of the extent to which a particular trait. characteristic or attribute exists in a population HIT RATE: (189) proportion of people who are accurately identified as possessing or not possessing a particular trait. characteristics or dimensions on which people may differ EXPLORATORY FACTOR ANALYSIS (EFA): (198) class of mathematical procedures employed to estimate factors. characteristic or attribute based on test scores : a ³miss´ in this context is an inaccurate classification or prediction.something about the criterion measure that is not explained by predictors already in use SELECTION RATIO: a numerical value that reflects the relationship between the number of people to be hired & the number of people available to be hired BASE RATE: (189) an index. ability. ability. a system of assumptions about measurement that includes the notion that a test score (and even a response to an individual item) is composed of a relatively stable component that actually is what the test or individual item is designed to measure as well as a random component that is error : its proponents seek to estimate the portion of a test score that is attributable to error DOMAIN SAMPLING THEORY: a test¶s reliability is conceived of as an objective measure of how precisely the test score assesses the domain from which the test draws a sample : its proponents seek to estimate the extent to which specific sources of variation under defined conditions are contributing to the test score *DOMAIN of behavior: or universe of items that could conceivably measure that behavior. behavior. behavior. frequently employed as data reduction methods designed to identify factors or specific variables on which people may differ : specific variables that are typically attributes. behavior or attribute when in fact the testtaker DOES NOT FALSE NEGATIVE: (190) specific type of ³miss´ characterized by a tool of assessment indicating that the testtaker DOES NOT POSSESS or exhibit a particular trait. may be subdivided into false positives & false negatives FALSE POSITIVE: (190) an error in measurement characterized by a tool of assessment indicating that the testtaker POSSESSES or exhibits a particular trait. usually expressed as a proportion. can be thought of as a hypothetical construct: . when in fact the testtaker DOES FACTOR ANALYSIS: (198) class of mathematical procedures. behavior. behavior or attribute. characteristic or attribute based on test scores MISS RATE: (190) proportion of people a test or other measurement procedure fails to identify accurately with respect to the possession or exhibition of a trait. extract factors or decide how many factors to retain : rotating factors to an interpretable orientation CONFIRMATORY FA (CFA): (198) class of mathematical procedures employed when a factor structure that has been explicitly hypothesized and is tested for its fit with the observed relationships between the variables FACTOR LOADING: conveys information about the extent to which factor determines the test score/s TRUE SCORE THEORY: (106) also referred to as TRUE MODEL/CLASSICAL TEST THEORY.
this research is designed to explre the utility and value of test score in making decisions : examine usefulness of test scores and tell the test user how these scores should be used and how dependable those scores are as a basis for decisions. think rationally c. memory and abstraction Intelligence(Weshcler) An aggregate or global capacity of the individual to: a. act purposefuly b. character and interest in learning and culture Intelligence(Binet) Reasoning. judgment. depending on the context of their use STANDARD ERROR OF THE ESTIMATE (SEE): (115) an estimate of the degree of error involved in predicting the value of one variable from another Nature of the test Academic Intelligence Verbal ability.to test or generate hypotheses about the presence of organic brain dysfunction and psychopathological conditions .one that shares certain characteristics with the sample of items tha tmake up the test ITEM RESPONSE THEORY: its procedures provide a way to model the probability that a person with X ability will be able to perform at a level Y GENERALIZABILITY THEORY: may be viewed as an extension of true score theory wherein the concept of a universe score replaces that of a true score : based on the idea that a person¶s test scores vary from testing to testing because of variables in the testing situation GENERALIZABILITY STUDY: examines how generalizable scores from a particular test are if the test is administered in different situations *FACETS: number of items in the test. amount of training the test scores have had and the purpose of the test administration *UNIVERSE SCORE: exact same test score should be obtained given the exact same conditions of all the facets in the universe (according to the gen. problem solving ability and social competence Everyday Intelligence Practical solving problem ability. deal effectively wi his environment -WECHSLER TESTS WPPSI (Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence) WAISE-III (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale) WISC (Wechsler Intelligence Scale For Children) Wechsler Intelligence scales The principle goals of a wechsler scales admistration are threefold .to assess current and or premorbid levels of intelligence . social competence. theory) : analogous to a true score in the true score model COEFFICIENT OF GENERALIZABILITY: represents the influence of particular facets on the test scor : similar to reliability coefficients in the true score model DECISION STUDY: (158) conducted at the conclusion of generalizability study.
. observe the client. Low score means the child gets easily distracted . .revised 18-75 Wechsler intelligence scale for children 6-16 and 11 months > Performance picture completion picture arrangement block design object assembly coding (mazes) > verbal information similarities arithmetic vocabulary comprehension (digit span) all wechsler scales are capable of providing the VIQ( verbal intelligence).. PIQ(performance intelligence quotient) and FSIQ( full scale intelligence quotient) all wechsler scales contain the verbal and performance test. meant to identify the cognitive level Wechsler adult intelligence scale ..to make predictions as to how these conditions will affect the client's response to treatment . which is why you cannot administer it to a lot of people at the same time.. ... the answers. take note of the timing. not meant to measure the personality ...Freedom from distraction intelligence(FDI) further help in determining whether a child is suffering from ADHD. has to be mixed to avoid boredom follows the spiral omnibus format ..
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