Proud Dead Guys and Other Diseases

Addison’s Disease Addisonian Anemia Albright’s Syndrome Alport’s Syndrome Alzheimer’s Argyll-Robertson Pupil Arnold-Chiari Malformation Barrett’s Bartter’s Syndrome Becker’s Muscular Dystrophy Bell’s Palsy Berger’s Disease Bernard-Soulier Disease Berry Aneurysm Bowen’s Disease Briquet’s Syndrome Broca’s Aphasia Bronchiolitis Brown-Sequard Bruton’s Disease Budd-Chiari Buerger’s Disease Burkitt’s Lymphoma Caisson Disease Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Chagas’ Disease Chediak-Higashi Disease Congenital adrenal hyperplasia Conn’s Syndrome Cori’s Disease Creutzfeldt-Jakob Crigler-Najjar Syndrome Crohn’s Croup Curling’s Ulcer Cushing’s Cushing’s Ulcer de Quervain’s Thyroiditis DiGeorge’s Syndrome Down’s Syndrome Dressler’s Syndrome Dubin-Johnson Syndrome Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Edwards’ Syndrome Ehler’s-Danlos Eisenmenger’s Complex Erb-Duchenne Palsy Ewing Sarcoma Eyrthroplasia of Queyrat Fanconi’s Syndrome Felty’s Syndrome Gardner’s Syndrome Gaucher’s Disease
primary adrenocortical deficiency pernicious anemia (antibodies to intrinsic factor or parietal cells   B12 megaloblastic anemia) IF Vit polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty, café au lait spots, short stature, young girls hereditary nephritis with nerve deafness, Type 4 collagen defect (basement membranes) progressive dementia; tau proteins, neurofibrillary tangles, apolipoprotein E4 allele, narrow gyri and wide sulci (atrophy), occipital sparing, hydrocephalus ex vacuo, plaques in hippocampus and cortex, ↓Acetylcholine, Hiramo bodies (inrtacellular inclusion bodies in hippocampal cells) loss of light reflex constriction (contralateral or bilateral) “Prostitute’s Eye” - accommodates but does not react Pathognomonic for 3 Syphilis cerebellar tonsil herniation columnar metaplasia of lower esophagus ( risk of adenocarcinoma) hyperreninemia similar to Duchenne, but less severe (deficiency in dystrophin protein) CNVII palsy (entire face; recall that UMN lesion only affects lower face) IgA nephropathy defect in platelet adhesion (abnormally large platelets & lack of platelet-surface glycoprotein) circle of Willis (subarachnoid bleed) often associated with ADPKD carcinoma in situ on shaft of penis ( risk of visceral ca) somatization disorder psychological: multiple physical complaints without physical pathology Motor Aphasia intact comprehension RSV hemisection of cord (contralateral loss of pain & temp / ipsilateral loss of fine touch, UMN) X-linked agammaglobinemia post-hepatic venous thrombosis acute inflammation of small, medium arteries → painful ischemia → gangrene small noncleaved cell lymphoma EBV 8:14 translocation gas emboli Median nerve entrapment Trypansoma infection sleeping disease, cardiomegaly with apical atrophy, achlasia Phagocyte Deficiency: neutropenia, albinism, cranial & peripheral neuropathy repeated infections 21-hydroxylase deficiency: virilism, no cortisol, salt loss, hypotension 11-hydroxylase deficiency: virilism, no cortisol, salt retention, hypertension primary aldosteronism glycogen storage disease (debranching enzyme deficiency) prion infection → cerebellar & cerebral degeneration congenital hyperbilirubinemia (unconjugated) glucuronyl transferase deficiency IBD; ileocecum, transmural, skip lesions, lymphocytic infiltrate, granulomas
(contrast to UC: limited to colon, mucosa & submucosa, crypt abscesses, pseudopolyps, colon cancer risk)

Parainfluenza acute gastric ulcer associated with severe burns Disease: hypercorticism 2° to ACTH from pituitary (basophilic adenoma) Syndrome: hypercorticism of all other causes (1° adrenal or ectopic) acute gastric ulcer associated with CNS trauma self-limiting focal destruction (subacute thyroiditis) thymic hypoplasia → T-cell deficiency hypoparathyroidism trisomy 21 or translocation Post-MI Fibrinous Pericarditis autoimmune congenital hyperbilirubinemia (conjugated) striking brown-to-black discoloration of the liver deficiency of dystrophin protein → MD X-linked recessive trisomy 18 rocker-bottom feet, low ears, heart disease defective collagen late cyanotic shunt (R pulmonary HTN & RVH 2to long-standing VSD, ASD, or PDA L) trauma to superior trunk of brachial plexus Waiter’s Tip undifferentiated round cell tumor of bone carcinoma in situ on glans penis impaired proximal tubular reabsorption 2° to lead poisoning or Tetracycline rheumatoid arthritis, neutropenia, splenomegaly adenomatous polyps of colon plus osteomas & soft tissue tumors Lysosomal Storage Disease glucocerebrosidase deficiency hepatosplenomegaly, femoral head & long bone erosion, anemia Crinkled tissue paper cells in marrow
systemic acidosis)

(glycosuria, hyperphosphaturia, aminoaciduria,

Gilbert’s Syndrome GIST Glanzmann's Thrombasthenia Goodpasture’s Grave’s Disease Guillain-Barre Hamman-Rich Syndrome Hand-Schuller-Christian Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis Hashitoxicosis Henoch-Schonlein purpura Hereditary Spherocytosis Hirschprung’s Disease Horner’s Syndrome Huntington’s Hunter’s Hurler’s Jacksonian Seizures Job’s Syndrome Kaposi Sarcoma Kartagener’s Syndrome Kawasaki Disease Keratoconjunctivitis Klinefelter’s Syndrome Kluver-Bucy Krabbe Disease Krukenberg Tumor Laennec’s Cirrhosis Lesch-Nyhan Letterer-Siwe Libman-Sacks Lou Gehrig’s Mallory-Weis Syndrome Marfan’s McArdle’s Disease Meckel’s Diverticulum Meig’s Syndrome Menetrier’s Disease Monckeberg’s Arteriosclerosis Munchausen Syndrome Meningioma Mesothelioma Nelson’s Syndrome Niemann-Pick Osler-Weber-Rendu Syndrome Osteogenesis imperfecta Paget’s Disease Pancoast Tumor Parkinson’s Peutz-Jegher’s Syndrome Peyronie’s Disease Pick’s Disease Plummer’s Syndrome Plummer-Vinson Pompe’s Disease Pott’s Disease Potter’s Complex Raynaud’s Reiter’s Syndrome Reye’s Syndrome Riedel’s Thyroiditis Rotor Syndrome

benign congenital hyperbilirubinemia (unconjugated) Tumor arising in cells of Cajal (pacemakers of gut) defective glycoproteins on platelets autoimmune: ab’s to glomerular & alveolar basement membranes; linear immunofluorescence autoimmune hyperthyroidism (TSI) idiopathic polyneuritis (ascending muscle weakness & paralysis; usually self-limiting) idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis chronic progressive histiocytosis autoimmune hypothyroidism (antimicrosomal or antithyroglobulin); Hurthle cells, thyroid germinal centers, initial hyperthyroidism in Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis that precedes hypothyroidism hypersensivity vasculitis hemmorhagic urticaria (with fever, arthralgias, GI & renal involvement) associated with upper respiratory infections RBC cytoskeletin defect, most commonly spectrin aganglionic megacolon ptosis, miosis, anhidrosis (lesion of cervical sympathetic nerves often 2° to a Pancoast tumor) progressive degeneration of caudate nucleus, putamen & frontal cortex; AD Decreased iduronosulfate sulfatase Decreased alpha-L-iduronidase epileptic events originating in the primary motor cortex (area 4) immune deficiency: neutrophils fail to respond to chemotactic stimuli malignant vascular tumor (HHV8 in homosexual men) immotile cilia 2to defective dynein arms infection, situs inversus, sterility mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome (lips, oral mucosa) adenovirus 47, XXY bilateral lesions of amygdala (hypersexuality; oral behavior) Beta-galactosidase deficiency adenocarcinoma with signet-ring cells (typically originating from the stomach) metastases to the ovaries alcoholic cirrhosis HGPRT deficiency gout, retardation, self-mutilation acute disseminated Langerhans’ cell histiocytosis endocarditis with small vegetations on valve leaflets associated with SLE Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis degeneration of upper & lower motor neurons bleeding from esophagogastric lacerations 2° to wretching (alcoholics) elastin defect, floppy mitral valve, arachnodactyly, cystic medial necrosis, subluxed lens glycogen storage disease (muscle phosphorylase deficiency) rule of 2’s: 2 inches long, 2 feet from the ileocecum, in 2% of the population embryonic duct origin; may contain ectopic tissue (gastric, pancreatic, etc.) Triad: ovarian fibroma, ascites, hydrothorax giant hypertrophic gastritis (enlarged rugae; plasma protein loss) calcification of the media (usually radial & ulnar aa.), pipestem arteries factitious disorder (consciously creates symptoms, but doesn’t know why) Arachnoid cap cells, whorls of cells Asbestos exposure 1° Adrenal Cushings → surgical removal of adrenals → loss of negative feedback to pituitary → Pituitary Adenoma Lysosomal Storage Disease sphingomyelinase deficiency “foamy histiocytes” Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia Type I collagen defect abnormal bone architecture (thickened, numerous fractures → pain) , woven and lamellar bone mosaic bronchogenic tumor with superior sulcus involvement → Horner’s Syndrome dopamine depletion in nigrostriatal tracts; Cogwheel rigidity melanin pigmentation of lips, mouth, hand, genitalia plus hamartomatous polyps of small intestine subcutaneous fibrosis of dorsum of penis progressive dementia similar to Alzheimer’s, knife-edged gyri hyperthyroidism, nodular goiter, absence of eye signs (Plummer’s = Grave’s - eye signs) esophageal webs & iron-deficiency anemia,  SCCA of esophagus glycogen storage disease (acid maltase deficiency) → cardiomegaly tuberculous osteomyelitis of the vertebrae renal agenesis → oligohydramnios → hypoplastic lungs, defects in extremities Disease: recurrent vasospasm in extremities Phenomenon: 2° to underlying disease (SLE or scleroderma) urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis non-infectious (but often follows infections), HLA-B27, polyarticular microvesicular fatty liver change & encephalopathy 2° to aspirin ingestion in children following viral illness idiopathic fibrous replacement of thyroid congenital hyperbilirubinemia (conjugated) similar to Dubin-Johnson, but no discoloration of the liver

Sezary Syndrome Shaver’s Disease Sheehan’s Syndrome Shy-Drager Simmond’s Disease Sipple’s Syndrome Sjogren’s Syndrome Spitz Nevus Stein-Leventhal Stevens-Johnson Syndrome Struma Ovarii Still’s Disease Takayasu’s arteritis Tay-Sachs Tetralogy of Fallot Tourette’s Syndrome Turcot’s Syndrome Turner’s Syndrome Typhoid Fever Vincent’s Infection von Gierke’s Disease von Hippel-Lindau von Recklinghausen’s
von Recklinghausen’s Disease of Bone

von Willebrand’s Disease Waldenstrom’s macroglobinemia Wallenberg’s Syndrome Waterhouse-Friderichsen Weber’s Syndrome Wegener’s Granulomatosis Weil’s Disease Wermer’s Syndrome Wernicke’s Aphasia Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome Whipple’s Disease Wilson’s Disease Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Wolff-Chaikoff Effect Zenker’s Diverticulum Zollinger-Ellison

leukemic form of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (mycosis fungoides) aluminum inhalation  lung fibrosis postpartum pituitary necrosis parkinsonism with autonomic dysfunction & orthostatic hypotension pituitary cachexia MEN type IIa (pheochromocytoma, thyroid medulla, parathyroid) triad: dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis risk of B-cell lymphoma juvenile melanoma (always benign) polycystic ovary erythema multiforme, fever, malaise, mucosal ulceration (often 2to infection or sulfa drugs) Thyroid teratoma of ovary juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (absence of rheumatoid factor) aortic arch syndrome loss of carotid, radial or ulnar pulses gangliosidosis (hexosaminidase A deficiency → GM2 ganglioside) –VSD, —overriding aorta, ˜pulmonary artery stenosis, ™right ventricular hypertrophy involuntary actions, both motor and vocal adenomatous polyps of colon plus CNS tumors 45, XO Bradycardia and in white people rose spots on abdomen “trench mouth” - acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis glycogen storage disease (G6Pase deficiency) hemangioma (or hemangioblastoma) adenomas of the viscera, especially renal cell carcinoma defect in VHL tumor suppressor neurofibromatosis & café au lait spots & Lisch nodule (iris hamartomas) osteitis fibrosa cystica (“brown tumor”) 2° to hyperparathyroidism defect in platelet adhesion 2° to deficiency in vWF; increased bleeding time and PTT proliferation of IgM-producing lymphoid cells Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery (PICA) thrombosis “Medullary Syndrome” Ipsilateral: ataxia, facial pain & temp; Contralateral: body pain & temp catastrophic adrenal insufficiency 2° to hemorrhagic necrosis (eg, DIC) often 2° to meningiococcemia Paramedian Infarct of Midbrain Ipsilateral: mydriasis; Contralateral: UMN paralysis (lower face & body) necrotizing granulomatous vasculitis of paranasal sinuses, lungs, kidneys, etc. leptospirosis MEN type I (thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal cortex, pancreatic islets, pituitary) Sensory Aphasia impaired comprehension thiamine deficiency in alcoholics; bilateral mamillary bodies (confusion, ataxia, ophthalmoplegia) malabsorption syndrome (with bacteria-laden macrophages) & polyarthritis hepatolenticular degeneration (copper accumulation & decrease in ceruloplasmin) immunodeficiency: combined B- &T-cell deficiency (thrombocytopenia & eczema) high iodine level (− thyroid hormone synthesis )’s esophageal; cricopharyngeal muscles above UES gastrin-secreting tumor of pancreas (or intestine) → acid → intractable ulcers

Hallmark Findings (and a few odd items mixed in)
Adhesive arachnoiditis Albumino-Cytologic Dissociation AFP increase AFP decrease Amnion nodosum Amyloid in thyroid Analgesic abuse Anasarca Aneurysmal nodules Angiomyolipoma Anosmia Anterior vermian atrophy Anti-centromere antibody Anti-DNA topoisomerase antibody Anti-endomysial antibody Anti-jo antibody Anti-mitochondrial antibody Antiplatelet Antibodies Anti-sacharommyces cervisiae antibody Anti-Smith antibodies Anti-smooth muscle antibody
Caused by bacterial meningitis, leads to obstructive hydrocephalus Guillain-Barre (markedly increased protein in CSF with only modest increase in cell count) Neural tube defects, hepatocellular carcinoma, yolk sac and embryonal carcinoma Down’s Renal agenesis Thyroid medullary carcinoma (calcitonin) Papillary necrosis, esp. in diabetics Minimal change disease Polyarteritis nodosa Tuberous sclerosis Kallman’s syndrome alcoholism Limited scleroderma (CREST) Diffuse scleroderma Celiac sprue polymositis Primary biliary cirrhosis idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura Crohn’s Specific for SLE, anti-ribonulceoprotein Autoimmune hepatitis type I

Arachnodactyly Aschoff Bodies Ashleaf spots (skin) Atypical lymphocytes Auer Rods Autosplenectomy Babinski Bacterial conjuntivitis Basophilic Stippling of RBCs Bence Jones Protein Bilateral breast cancer Bilateral renal cell carcinoma Birbeck Granules Bladder trabeculation Bloody nipple discharge Blueberry muffin baby Blue Bloater Blue Sclera Boot-Shaped Heart Bouchard’s Nodes Boutonniere’s Deformity Bronze Diabetes Brown Tumor Brudzinski sign Brushfield Spots Call-Exner Bodies Carbon monoxide poisoning Cardiomegaly with Apical Atrophy Central Nuclei in Muscle Chancre Chancroid Charcot Triad Charcot-Leyden Crystals Cherry-red spot on macula Cheyne-Stokes Breathing Chocolate Cysts Cholesterol clefts Chordae tendinae short and fused Chronic staph infections Chvostek’s Sign Clear nuclei Clue Cells Codman’s Triangle Coin Lesions in Lung Cold Agglutinins Cold thyroid nodules Concentric laminar intimal fibrosis of small arteries of lung Condyloma Lata Congenital Hepatic Fibrosis Contraction Band Necrosis Cotton Wool Spots Councilman Bodies Crescents In Bowman’s Capsule Crushed ping pong balls Crypt abscesses Currant-Jelly Sputum Curschmann’s Spirals
Cystathioine synthase deficieny D-dimers Depigmentation Of Substantia Nigra

Marfan’s rheumatic fever Tuberous sclerosis EBV acute promyelocytic leukemia (AML type M3) sickle cell anemia UMN lesion S. aureus, strep. pneumo, Hemophilus aegyptius lead poisoning multiple myeloma free light chains (either kappa or lambda) Waldenstrom’s macroglobinemia Lobular carcinoma Von Hippel-Lindau histiocytosis X (eosinophilic granuloma) BPH Intraductal papilloma Rubella Chronic Bronchitis Osteogenesis imperfecta Tetralogy of Fallot osteoarthritis (PIP) rheumatoid arthritis Hemochromatosis hyperparathyroidism meningitis Down’s, on iris granulosa cell tumor Hyperemia, edema and necrosis of globus Chagas’ Disease Muscular dystrophies 1° Syphilis, painless firm ulcers Haemophilus ducreyi, painful soft ulcers multiple sclerosis (nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech) bronchial asthma Tay-Sachs, 50% of Niemann-Pick cerebral lesion endometriosis atherosclerosis Rheumatic heart disease Chronic granulomatous disease, a deficiency of NADPH oxidase, can’t kill catalase positive bugs Hypocalcemia facial spasm in tetany Thyroid papillary carcinoma (Orphan Annie’s eyes) Gardnerella vaginitis osteosarcoma Pulmonary Hamartoma Mycoplasma pneumoniae infectious mononucleosis Colloid cyst or thyroid adenoma Primary pulmonary hypertension 2° Syphilis new coffee flavor at Bagel & Bagel Polycystic Kidney Disease, juvenile autosomal recessive form MI HTN dying hepatocytes rapidly progressive (crescentic glomerulonephritis) Pneumocystis carinii Ulcerative colitis Klebsiella bronchial asthma homocystinuria DIC Parkinson’s Chicken pox Asbestosis granuloma inguinale (STD) Down’s syndorme – duodenal atresia Uncal herniation osteoarthritis (polished, ivory-like appearance of bone)

Dew drop on rose petal Diaphragmatic pleural plaques Donovan Bodies Double bubble sign on ultrasound Duret Hemorrhages Eburnation

Eccentric intimal fibrosis with medial hypertrophy Ectopia Lentis Embolizing endocarditis Erythema Chronicum Migrans Excavation of Optic Cup Exopthalmos FAT RN Fatty Liver Fecalith False positive VDRL Ferruginous Bodies Fish-mouthed mitral valve Flea-bitten Kidney Frontal bossing Fungus ball in lung

Chronic transplant rejection Marfan’s Infectious, marantic (fibrin deposits in hypercoagulable states) Lyme Disease Glaucoma hyperthyroid TTP (fever, anemia, thrombocytopenia, renal failure, neuro problems) Alcoholism Acute appendicitis SLE, Treponema pertenue (non-STD tropical infection) asbestosis Rheumatic heart disease Malignant Hypertension Sickle cell anemia Apergillus

Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase deficiency or galactokinase deficiency
Arsenic (or lasagna) Tuberculosis, primary Lipid pneumonia, exogenous (aspiration) or endogenous (obstruction Duchenne’s MD use of arms to stand Argyria (silver poisoning) Paget’s disease of bone CHF; hemosiderin-laden macrophages in lungs Osteoarthritis (DIP) G6PDH Deficiency Coagulation factor deficiency HSV Henoch-Schonlein infectious mononucleosis (EBV) Alzheimer’s Ankylosing spondylitis Alkaptonuria –homogentisic acid oxidase deficiency Pulmonary fibrosis Splenectomy, remnant of nuclear DNA Sickle cell anemia Placental site trophoblastic tumor TTP Chronic pelvic inflammatory disease Megaloblastic anemia iron-deficiency anemia Rheumatoid arthritis (rheumatoid factor) X-linked Brutons agammaglobulinemia, and common variable immunodeficiency Edward’s (Trisomy 18) Syphilis over-aggressive treatment of an asymptomatic pt. that causes symptoms 2to rapid lysis osteoarthritis (fractured osteophytes) acidosis SCCA meningitis Wilson’s diabetic nephropathy HPV measles Variant of Reed-Sternberg cell seen in nodular sclerosing Hodgkin’s Disease Chronic hypertension Contain surfactant in Type II pneumocytes Tuberculosis, other including coccidioides Pernicious anemia Ultrasonographic finding in Neural Tube Defects Retinoblastoma Parkinson’s (eosinophilic inclusions in damaged substantia nigra cells) Leukemoid rxn. arterial thrombus neurofibromatosis (von Recklinhausen’s disease) Tuberous sclerosis Downs, DiGeorge, Trisomy 18 (Edwards) poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis Patent ductus arteriosus Wilson’s, viral hepatitis, alpha-1-antitrypsin

Garlic odor on breath Ghon Complex Gold Pneumonia Gower’s Maneuver Gray discoloration of skin Hat size increase Heart Failure Cells Heberden’s Nodes Heinz Bodies Hemarthrosis Hemorrhagic Temporal Lobe Lesion Hemorrhagic Urticaria Heterophil Antibodies Hirano Bodies HLA B27
ochronosis (dark pigment of fibrous tissue)

Honeycomb lung Howell Jolley Bodies H shaped vertebrae Human placental lactogen increase Hyaline thrombi Hydrosalpinx Hypersegmented PMNs Hypochromic Microcytic RBCs IgM against IgG ↓ Immunoglobulins Index finger overlapping 3rd and 4th Jarisch-Herxheimer Reaction Joint Mice Kaussmaul Breathing Keratin Pearls Kernig’s sign Keyser-Fleischer Ring Kimmelstiel-Wilson Nodules Koilocytes Koplik Spots Lacunar cells Lacunar infarct Lamellar bodies Langhans giant cells Lemon yellow skin color Lemon sign Leukocoria Lewy Bodies Leukocyte alk. Phos. Positive Lines of Zahn Lisch Nodules Loss of grey-white junction Low set ears Lumpy-Bumpy IF Glomeruli Machine-like murmur Macronodular cirrhosis

Malignant pustule Mallory Bodies Maple syrup/burnt sugar urine McBurney’s Sign Meconium ileus Mees lines Melanosis coli Mental probs. with heart defect Michealis-Gutmann Bodies Microglial nodules Micrognathia Micronodular cirrhosis Microsatellite instability Mid-systolic click Monoclonal Antibody Spike Mousy / musty odor Mucosal bleeding Myxedema Necrolytic migratory erythema dermatitis Negri Bodies and hydrophobia Neuritic Plaques Neurofibrillary Tangles Night pain relieved by aspirin Non-embolizing endocarditis Non-pitting Edema Notching of Ribs Nutmeg Liver Onion skin kidney arterioles Oligoclonal band Osteoid production Painless Jaundice Palatal Petechaie Palpable purpura Pancarditis Pannus PAS positive macrophages Patent ductus arteriosus Pautrier’s Microabscesses Periductal edema Periventricular Calcifications Phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency Philadelphia Chromosome Pick Bodies Piecemeal Necrosis Plexiform lesions Pink, foamy lung exudate Pink Puffer Podagra Porcelain gallbladder Porcelain gallstones Port-Wine Stain Posterior Anterior Drawer Sign Proliferating bile ducts Psammoma Bodies

Anthrax (black skin lesion) Alcoholic liver disease: intermediate filaments of hepatocyte cytoskeleton Alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase deficiency; valine, leucine and isoleucine build up (branched) appendicitis (McBurney’s Point is 2/3 of the way from the umbilicus to anterior superior iliac spine) Cystic Fibrosis Arsenic (parallel lines on fingernails) Laxative abuse Mitral prolapse Malakoplakia, an abnormal tissue response to kidney infection HIV DiGeorge Wilsons, alcoholic, hemochromatosis, primary biliary cirrhosis HNPCC (right-sided colon cancer), but also possible in other cancers Mitral prolapse multiple myeloma this is called the M protein (usually IgG or IgA) MGUS PKU Platelet problem (qualitative or quantitative) hypothyroidism α-cell islet tumor rabies Alzheimer’s Alzheimer’s Osteoid osteoma Rheumatic, Libman-Sacks (with SLE) Myxedema Anthrax Toxin Coarctation of Aorta CHF, right heart Malignant nephrosclerosis (malignant hypertension) Multiple sclerosis osteosarcoma pancreatic CA (head) Strep pharyngitis Hypersensitivity vasculitis (Henoch-Schonlein, serum sickness) Rheumatic fever rheumatoid arthritis Whipple’s disease Maternal rubella and prematurity mycosis fungoides (cutaneous T-cell lymphoma) Gynecomastia Congenital CMV (brain ventricles, that is) PKU CML Pick’s Disease Chronic active hepatitis (periportal hepatocytes) Pulmonary HTN (aneurysmal expansion of vessel wall) Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia Emphysema Centroacinar – smoking Panacinar - -antitrypsin deficiency 1 gout (MP joint of hallux) Chronic cholecystitis (scarring) Associated with gallbladder adenocarcinoma Hemangioma tearing of the ACL Obstructive jaundice Papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid Serous papillary cystadenocarcinoma of the ovary Meningioma Mesothelioma Duchenne muscular dystrophy Ulcerative colitis Cor pulmonale multiple myeloma herpes 2Syphilis RMSF Beta-thalassemia Hemoglobin SC Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (in liver)

Pseudohypertrophy Pseudopoyps Pulmonary atherosclerosis Punched-Out Bone Lesions Punched-out esophageal lesions Rash on Palms & Soles RBC poikilocytosis Rectangular RBC’s Red hyalin globules

Red Morning Urine Reed-Sternberg Cells Reid Index Increased Reinke Crystals Rhomboid crystals Rim pattern Rockerbottom feet Rose thorns Rouleaux Formation Rugae loss S3 Heart Sound S4 Heart Sound Scalloped colloid Schwartzman Reaction Shagreen patches Simian Crease Smith Antigen Smudge cells Soap Bubble on X-Ray Soldiers plaque Spider telangiectasia Spike & Dome Glomeruli Splinter hemorrhages Strawberry tongue Strawberry cervix Strawberry gallbladder String Sign on X-ray Sugar icing on spleen Sulfer granules Swiss cheese brain Syncitia Tamm-Horsfall protein Target Cells Teardrop RBCs Temporal lobe encephalitis Tendinous Xanthomas Tethered cord Tetrahydrobiopterin cofactor def. Thymidine dimers Thymus, parathyroid agenesis Thyroidization of Kidney TIBC increase Tingible Bodies Tophi Tram-Track Glomeruli Tree bark aorta Trousseau’s Sign TSI > TGI TGI > TSI Tyrosinase deficiency Virchow’s Node VMA and metenephrins in urine Warthin-Finkeldey Giant Cells Waterhammer pulse WBC Casts White matter petechaie Winged scapula Wire Loop Glomeruli
Wrinkled glomerular basement membrane

paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria Hodgkin’s Disease chronic bronchitis Leydig cell tumor Pseudogout SLE, staining pattern with anti-double stranded DNA antibodies Patau (Trisomy 13), Edward’s (Trisomy 18) Sporotrichosis multiple myeloma RBC’s stacked as poker chips Pernicious anemia (atrophic gastritis) LRShunt (VSD, PDA) Mitral Regurg LV Failure Pulmonary Stenosis Pulmonary HTN Grave’s disease Neisseria meningitidis impressive rash with bugs Tuberous sclerosis Down’s SLE (also anti-dsDNA) CLL (delicate cells easily destroyed on peripheral smear) giant cell tumor of bone Clinically insignificant remnant of healed pericarditis Hyperestrinism: liver faillure, pregnancy membranous glomerulonephritis Infective endocarditis Scarlet fever, Kawasaki’s Trichomonas vaginalis cholesterolosis Crohn’s bowel wall thickening Portal hypertension Collection of actinomyces or nocardia organisms in chronic abscessing bronchopneumonia Clostridia (gas forming) RSV, measles Hyaline casts (non-specific) Thalassemia Myelofibrosis Herpes Familial Hypercholesterolemia Arnold-Chiari malformation (tonsilar herniation) PKU Xeroderma pigmentosum Digeorge (3rd and 4th pharyngeal pouch) chronic pyelonephritis Anemia of chronic disease Macrophage in lymph node germinal centers gout membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis Syphilis visceral ca, classically pancreatic (migratory thrombophlebitis) hypocalcemia (carpal spasm)
These are two entirely different disease processes and different signs, but they unfortunately have the same name.

 AFP in amniotic fluid or mother’s serum  Uric Acid

Grave’s Hashimoto’s Albinism supraclavicular node enlargement by metastatic carcinoma of the stomach Pheochromocytoma Measles Aortic regurgitation pyelonephritis Fat emboli Long thoracic nerve (C5,6,7) damage, common with radical mastectomy lupus nephropathy, type IV ischemia Spina Bifida Anencephaly Gout Lesch Nyhan Myeloproliferative Disorders Diuretics (Loop & Thiazides) COPD


glucose,  protein in CSF  dopamine receptors dopamine receptors

Bacterial meningitis Schizophrenia Parkinson’s

1 Tumor arising from bone in adults Adrenal Medullary Tumor – Adults Adrenal Medullary Tumor – Children Arteries of stroke Bacterial Meningitis – adults Bacterial Meningitis – elderly Bacterial Meningitis – newborns Bacterial Meningitis – toddlers B cell defect (genetic) Bone Tumors Brain Tumor – Child Brain Tumor –Adult Breast Carcinoma Breast Mass Bug in Acute Endocarditis Bug in debilitated, hospitalized pneumonia pt Bug in Epiglottitis Bug in GI Tract Bug in IV drug user bacteremia / pneumonia Bug in PID Bug in Subacute Endocarditis Cardiac 1Tumor – Adults Cardiac 1Tumor – Child Cardiac Tumor – Adults Cardiomyopathy Carpal bone fractured Cause of 2HTN Cause of Addison’s Cause of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Cause of Cushings Cause of death in Alzheimer pts Cause of death in amyloidosis Cause of death in Diabetics Cause of Death in SLE pts. Cause of Dementia Cause of Dementia (2nd most common) Cause of food poisoning Cause of mental retardation Cause of mental retardation (2nd most common) Cause of preventable blindness Cause of Pulmonary HTN Cause of SIADH Chromosomal disorder Congenital cardiac anomaly Congenital early cyanosis Coronary Artery thrombosis Demyelinating Disease Dietary Deficiency Disseminated opportunistic infection in AIDS Esophageal cancer Fatal genetic defect in Caucasians Female Tumor Form of Amyloidosis Form of Tularemia Gynecologic malignancy Heart Murmur Heart problem in AIDS Heart tumor in adults Heart tumor in kids Heart Valve in bacterial endocarditis Heart Valve in bacterial endocarditis in IV drug users Heart Valve involved in Rheumatic Fever Hereditary Bleeding Disorder

Most Common…

Multiple Myeloma Pheochromocytoma Neuroblastoma Lateral striate Neisseria meningitidis Strep pneumoniae E. coli Hib Isolated IgA deficiency Metasteses from Breast & Prostate Medulloblastoma (cerebellum) Astrocytoma (including Glioblastoma Multiforme) then: mets, meningioma, Schwannoma Invasive Duct Carcinoma Fibrocystic Change (Carcinoma is the most common is post-menopausal women) Staph aureus Klebsiella Hib Bacteroides (2nd – E. coli) Staph aureus N. Gonnorrhoeae Strep Viridans Myxoma “Ball Valve” Rhabdomyoma Metasteses Dilated (Congestive) Cardiomyopathy scaphoid Renal Disease Autoimmune (2nd – infection) 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency (then, 11-) Exogenous Steroid Therapy (then, 1ACTH, Adrenal Adenoma, Ectopic ACTH) Pneumonia Chronic renal failure MI Lupus Nephropathy Type IV (Diffuse Proliferative) Alzheimer’s Multi-Infarct Dementia Staph aureus Down’s Fragile X Chlamydia COPD Small Cell Carcinoma of the Lung Down’s VSD (membranous > muscular) Tetralogy of Fallot LAD Multiple Sclerosis Iron CMV (Pneumocystis carinii is most common overall) SCCA Cystic Fibrosis Leimyoma Immunologic (Bence Jones protein in multiple myeloma is also called the Amyloid Light Chain) Ulceroglandular Endometrial Carcinoma Mitral Valve Prolapse Pericarditis myxoma rhabdomyoma Mitral Tricuspid Mitral then Aortic Von Willebrand’s Disease

Liver 1Tumor Liver Disease Location of Adult brain tumors Location of Childhood brain tumors Location of GI tuberculosis Lysosomal Storage Disease Motor Neuron Disease Myocarditis cause Neoplasm – Child Neoplasm – Child (2nd most common) Nephrotic Syndrome Opportunistic infection in AIDS Osteomyelitis in IV drug user Osteomyelitis in sickle cell Ovarian Malignancy Ovarian Tumor Pancreatic Tumor Patient with ALL / CLL / AML / CML Patient with Goodpasture’s Patient with Reiter’s Pituitary Tumor Primary Hyperparathyroidism Pt. With Hodgkin’s Pt. With Minimal Change Disease Secondary Hyperparathyroidism Sexually transmitted disease Site of Diverticula Site of metastasis Site of metastasis (2nd most common) Sites of atherosclerosis Skin Cancer Stomach cancer Testicular Tumor Thyroid Cancer Tracheoesophageal Fistula Tumor of Infancy Type of Hodkin’s Type of Non-Hodgkin’s Vasculitis (of medium & small arteries) Viral Encephalitis Worm infection in US

Hepatoma, seen in women on oral contraceptives Alcoholic Liver Disease Above Tentorium Below Tentorium Ileocecal Gaucher’s ALS Coxsackie B Leukemia Medulloblastoma of brain (cerebellum) Membranous Glomerulonephritis PCP Pseudomonas Salmonella Serous Cystadenoma Hamartoma Adeno (usually in the head) ALL - Child / CLL - Adult over 60 / AML - Adult over 60 / CML - Adult 35-50 Young male Male Prolactinoma (2nd – Somatotropic “Acidophilic” Adenoma) Adenomas (followed by: hyperplasia, then carcinoma) Young Male (except Nodular Sclerosis type – Female) Young Child Hypocalcemia of Chronic Renal Failure Chlamydia Sigmoid Colon Regional Lymph Nodes Liver Abdominal aorta > coronary > popliteal > carotid Basal Cell Carcinoma Adeno Seminoma Papillary Carcinoma Lower esophagus joins trachea / upper esophagus – blind pouch Hemangioma Mixed Cellularity (versus: lymphocytic predominance, lymphocytic depletion, nodular sclerosis) Follicular, small cleaved Temporal Arteritis HSV Pinworm (2nd – Ascaris)

Signature Drug Toxicities
Agranulocytosis Aplastic Anemia Arrhythmia Atropine-like Side Effects Blindness Cardiotoxicity Cartilage Damage in children Cinchonism Cough Diabetes Insipidus Disulfiram-like effect Extrapyramidal Side Effects Fanconi’s Syndrome Fatal Hepatotoxicity (necrosis) Gingical Hyperplasia Gray Baby Syndrome Gynecomastia

Clozapine Chloramphenicol NSAIDs Benzene Tricyclic antidepressant (wide QRS) Cardiac glycosides, especially with hypokalemia Tricyclics Methanol (Formic Acid) Doxorubicin Daunorubicin Fluoroquinolones (Ciprofloxacin & Norfloxacin) Quinidine ACE Inhibitors Lithium Metronidazole Sulfonylureas (1st generation) Antipsychotics (Thioridazine, Haloperidol, Chlorpromazine) Tetracycline Valproic Acid Halothane Acetaminophen Phenytoin Chloramphenicol Cimetidine Azoles Spironolactone Digitalis

Hemolytic Anemia in G6PD-deficiency

Hepatitis Hepatocellular carcinoma Hot Flashes, Flushing Induce CP450

Inhibit CP450 Interstitial Nephritis

Lupus like Malignant hyperthermia Monday Disease Neuroleptic malignant syndrome Orange Body Fluids Osteoporosis Positive Coombs’ Test Pulmonary Fibrosis Red Man Syndrome Severe HTN with Tyramine SLE-like Syndrome Tardive Dyskinesia Tinnitus Torsade de pointes Vaginal Adenosis and Clear Cell Carcinoma

Sulfonamides Isoniazid Aspirin Ibuprofen Primaquine Isoniazid Polyvinyl chloride, anaphylatoxins Niacin Tamoxifen Ca++ Channel Blockers Barbiturates Phenytoin Carbamazepine Rifampin Cimetidine Ketoconazole Methicillin NSAIDs (except Aspirin) Furosemide Sulfonamides Procainamide, hydralazine Succinyl choline, halothane Nitroglycerin Industrial exposure tolerance during week loss of tolerance during weekend headache, tach, dizziness upon

Haloperidol Rifampin Heparin Corticosteroids Methyldopa Bleomycin Amiodarone Vancomycin MAOIs Procainamide Hydralazine Antipsychotics (Thioridazine, Haloperidol, Chlorpromazine) Aspirin Quinidine Quinidine DES

• • • • • • • • •

Fastest growing tumor – Burkitt’s PE’s are found in half of all autopsies Courvoisier’s Law: tumors that obstruct the common bile duct cause enlarged gallbladders, but obstructing gallstones do not (too much scarring). Only DNA virus to replicate in cytoplasm: Pox Only RNA virus to replicate in nucleus: Influenza Bacillus anthracis has the only protein capsule Bordetella pertussis (Whooping Cough) elicits lymphocytosis rather than granulocytosis Bronchioalveolar carcinomas grow without destroying the normal architecture of the lung Cryptococcus neoformans often lacks a capsule and, when stained with GMS, looks just like Pneumycistis carinii, except that Cryptococcus lacks the prominent nucleoli.

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