Crude Oil
A fossil fuel Consists of several fractions A mixture of very wide range of Hydrocarbons Normally Black in color Available in plenty in Middle East (Persian Gulf) Also available in North & western Africa, Indonesia, South & Central America, Scandinavia In India, it is available in Bombay High, KrishnaGodhavari basin, Assam & Rajastan

What is a Refinery?
A refinery is a complex integration of several process units that work in a coordinated fashion to make customized fuels and valuable petrochemical feed stocks. It includes Blending.

Over View of a Typical Refinery

The Refining Process Fractional Distillation Conversion Treatment Blending .

Unit & ATU Refinery Tank Farm .Typical refinery Units Crude Dist Unit & Vac Dist Unit Hydro treating unit Fluid Catalytic Cracking unit Delayed Coker unit Merox Sulfur Rec.

Typical Layout of a Refinery N g Water Storage g Buildings g RTF g Road/Rail loading g Sulphur g CPP / Utilities g Coker g PP g Aromatics g CDU / VDU RRT RRT RTF S F Cr 1 M H Cr 2 A ETP U C A CPP PP .

MTF RTF Pipeline despatch Road loading Rail loading RRTF .Material Flow SPM 2 Nos. Jetties 4 Nos.

Increased Complexity enhances margins Complexity Guwahati Barauni Panipat MRPL Reliance L ll & ma BPCL & ge ar lex mp Co Si ple m S Bongaigon Digboi Haldia Vizag Koyali Mathura CRL HPCL MRL Capacity Source: Chemsystem .

Refinery Block Flow diagram H2 521/522 H2 C1 221 HNUU LPG 331 SAT LPG MEROX HN LN 341 KERO MEROX KERO 471 LNUF 234 PSA 231/232 PLAT H2 TOLUENE 281 TATORAY 261/262/263 PAREX HN 241/242/243 XYL FR HARN GT FUEL O-XYLENE 251 OX-FR 271/272/273 ISOMAR HN P-XYLENE LPG PC NAPHTHA LAB FEED KERO / ATF 321/322 SAT GCU 351/352 DIESEL UNI.FIN LPG 414 UNSAT GCU LN LPG 311/312 CDU CRUDE GAS OIL 415 UNSAT LPG MEROX HN 416 GASOL MEROX 422 PROP REC ETYL REC 551/552 PP DIESEL ETHYLENE PP PROPYLENE MS 311/312 VDU VGO 372 COKER LN GAS PLANT LCGO VR 371 DCU HCGO 361/362 VGO UNI.FIN 411/412/413 FCC 180-215 LCO 180-215 GT FUEL C5 TAME CSO RFG CSO 441 SWS COKE 431 ARU 431/452/ 453 ARU SULFUR COKE .

CDU/ VDU UNIT .

CDU/VDU The objective of the Unit is to separate the crude oil into various fractions viz: Off gases or Lean gases Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Full Range Naphtha (FRN) Light Kerosene (LK) Heavy Kerosene (HK) Diesel (AGO or HSD) Gas Oils (HAGO / LVGO / HVGO) Vacuum Residue (VR) .Unit Objectives.

CDU Process Other stream from s D T. VGOH H T. H K D iesel Preheat 1 New Desalters Preheat 3 H AGO LVGO Water In Heater Brine Out V a c. 2nd Stg. LN U H U U. 2nd Stg. C o l. Flash Drun Preheat 2 Heater Atm osp heri c C ol. NU Lean Gas S G C LP G FR N LK / ATF Old Desalters C rude In 1st Stg. H VGO VacuumR esidue . 1st Stg.

Major Equipment Desalters Fired Heaters Heat Integration circuit Crude Flash Drum Main Fractionator Side strippers Multi Stage Ejector system .

Fluid Catalytic Cracking Unit Why FCC ? • Heavier Crudes • Need for cracking heavy ends • Heavy demand for lighter fuels .

Cheapest available conversion process Offers great flexibility of operation (can be run in LPG. Gasoline or distillate mode) Produces large quantity of Petrochemical feed stocks .Why FCC Converts VGO in to Gasoline and lighter products.

Major Equipment Reactor and Regenerator Power recovery trains (PRTs) Vortex separators/ Cyclones Main Air Blower/Expander/Motor generators/Steam generator Flue gas cooler Main Fractionator/ Side Stripper Waste Heat Boiler .

C3C4 splitter Absorber Amine absorber Naphtha splitter Depentanizer .Typical Gas Con unit Hp Receiver Stripper Debutanizer.

Puprose of Gas Con Unit To separate Close boiling range lighter products like Fuel gas. Gasoline. . Stabilizes Naptha H2S removal from gaseous products. Acts as partial heat sink for Main fractionator. LPG. Naptha.

2wt% 0.2wt%) 94% Denitrification (1658 ppm 760ppm) Aromatic and Olefin saturation .DHT and VGOHT A Hydro treater/ Union finer is a process unit Where Hydrocarbon Feed is treated with hydrogen in presence of catalyst at high temperature & pressure. Desulfurization(3.

DIESEL HYDROTREATER DHT .

Major Equipments Recycle Gas Compressor Fixed Bed Catalytic Reactor Catalyst 300m3 (NiMo CoMo) Fired Heater Stripper .

A NA PHTHA PR E HEA T EX FEED DIES EL S TRIPPER FILTER FUR NA CE R EA CTOR Fi N COOLER D r i e r Lo w mo isture DIES EL PROD UCT FEED ( HIGH S) R EA CTOR EFFLUE NT PROD UCT(LOW S) S EPA RA TOR .

VGO HYDROTREATER VGOHT .

A NAPHTHA PRE HEAT EX FEED VGO FILTER FURNACE FRACTIONATOR REACTOR Kerosene DIESEL FAN COOLER FEED (HIGH S) REACTOR EFFLUENT PRODUCT(LOW S) SEPARATOR VGO PRODUCT .

De Nitrification of Gas oil . This is to be reduced before sending to FCC for SOX emission control Hydro-desulphurization of Gas oil is carried out in VGO hydro treating units.Why VGOHT ? The Gas Oil product ex. Crude/Coker has high sulfur content.

VGOHT Major Equipments Recycle Gas Compressor Fixed Bed Catalytic Reactor Catalyst 300m3 (NiMo CoMo) Fired Heater Stripper .

Sulfur Complex Sour Water Stripping Unit (SWS) Amine Treating Unit (ATU) Sulfur Recovery Unit (SRU)CBA Granulation Unit .

Sulfur Complex SWS Unit CBA Units Amine Unit Two absorber Four Strippers Granulation Unit S -Dispatch .Overview .

SRU Objective Main Objective of the unit is to convert H2S in to elemental Sulfur. .

. Enables the refinery to process High sulfur crudes.Why SRU ? More Stringent environmental norms of Government / regulatory bodies.

SRU Process Acid gas from SWS and ATU stripper is oxidized (burnt) in 2 stages and then treated in catalytic converter. The molten sulfur is transferred to SGU to form Sulfur granules. .

Major Equipment Amine absorber Flash drum Stripper Reaction furnace Catalytic Reactor Incinerator Waste heat boiler .

ATU-Simplified Flow Scheme FG Out LA Absorber Stripper Acid Gas FG In Flash Drum RA Pump LA Pump Lean Amine .

A CBA Reactors R02 R03 Steam Drum R01 WHB F02 Acid Gas B01 B02 S03 S04 S05 S06 Vent Eductor Sulfur Cooler S02 Rundown Line Product Chamber RD Chamber Condensers Sweep Air Stack Steam Drum V04 Stack Sulfur Pit Incinerator F03 WHB .CBA-Equipment Claus Reactor Reaction Furnace V03 LPG C.

max. The rest of the country would have a maximum limit of 3 vol% from Apr 2005. E 70 E 100 ppmw % vol No. No. No. Sulfur in Gasoline to go down to 50 ppm by 2010 and benzene to less than 1% . max. min Aromatics. % vol % vol deg C deg C 1000 3 metros. Benzene. # 50 ppmw to be supplied from 2005 & 10 ppmw by 2008 ** to be reviewed by 2005 by European Union.Fuel quality trend upto 2010 Gasoline BIS-2000 Bharat stage. 5 rest @ 88/93 NA 84/88 NA NA NA NA 150 1 91/95 81/85 NA 42 21/18 10 / 45 40 / 70 50 1 91/95 81/85 NA 35 21/18 10 / 45 40 / 70 150 1 95 85 NA 42 18 20 / 48 46 / 71 EURO-IV (effective 2005 in EU) 10# 1 95 85 NA 35 11** 20 / 48 46 / 71 Sulphur. 5 rest 87 NA 84 NA NA NA NA @ The Benzene content will be progressively reduced to 1 vol% by Apr 2005 in 7 mega cities. Olefins.Euro-III Euro-IV EURO-III II (Reg/ Equivalent Equivalent (effective Prem) (Reg/ Prem) (Reg/ Prem) 2000 in EU) 500 3 metros. max. min AKI. min MON.Auto . max. RON.

Sulfur in Diesel to go down to 50 ppm by 2010 and Cetane Number will be above 51 . Flash point. max. Cetane Number.Euro-III II Equivalent 500 48 @ 46 @ 370 NA 35 350 51 46 360 11 35 EURO-III EURO-IV Euro-IV (effective (effective Equivalent 2000 in EU) 2005 in EU) 50 51 48 360 11 35 350 51 48 360 11 55 10# 51** NA 360** 11** 55 @ Cetane number 48 or Cetane index 46 # 50 ppmw to be supplied from 2005 & 10 ppmw by 2008 ** to be reviewed by 2005 by European Union. max Poly Aromatics. No.Fuel quality trend upto 2010 Diesel Fuels BIS-2000 Sulphur. ppmw No. min. DegC % wt DegC 2500 48 46 @ 370 NA 35 Bharat stage. min Cetane Index. min Distillation T95.Auto . max.

The process of formation of coke is delayed in the furnace by way of maintaining higher velocities using HP steam/ BFW .Delayed Coker Unit A thermal cracking and successive polymerization process-rapid heating of vacuum residue ( ex VDU) above cracking temperature to form mixture of distillates and coke.

Naphtha. Fuel gas and Coke) No Catalyst Involved Capable of processing Refinery slop and sludge .Why DCU ? High margin No Fuel oil generation Value added products (LPG. Diesel.

Major Equipment.Coking Section Coke drum Fractionator Fired Heater Blow down system Coke Cutting system.PLC based Heat Integration circuit Heading and De heading unit Product Filter-PLC based .

RTF Overview .

Blending Correction of Offspec product.Functions of RTF Ensure uninterrupted supply of Crude Oil and other feed/intermediates to Various Units. products and blending components from various units. Receive intermediates. Supply of RFO & slop for reprocessing. .

RTF Work Flow FINAL PRODUCTS AROMATIC COMPLEX FUEL COMPONENTS REFINERY FUEL FUEL STORAGE HEAVY NAPHTHA INTERMEDITE PRODUCT STORAGE MTF FINAL PRODUCTS STORAGE INTERMEDIATE PRODUCTS FINAL PRODUCTS BLEND COMPONENTS STORAGE RFO REFINERY COMPLEX BLEND HEADER RAW MATERIALS RAW MATERIALS STORAGE RAW MATERIALS RRTF SLOPS SLOPS STORAGE RTF .

Major Equipment Fixed Roof Storage tanks Floating roof Storage Tanks Horton Spheres Mixers Pumps .

Any Questions ? Thank you .