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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VERY LARGE SCALE INTEGRATION (VLSI) SYSTEMS 1

Energy-Aware Video Encoding for Image Quality Improvement in Battery-Operated Surveillance Camera
Younghoon Lee, Jungsoo Kim, Student Member, IEEE, and Chong-Min Kyung, Fellow, IEEE
Abstract—Growing needs for surveillance in locations without power lines necessitates the development of a surveillance camera with extremely low-power consumption and an assured stable operation until the time of expected run-out of available energy. This paper proposes an algorithm for scheduling of video encoding configurations in a battery-operated surveillance system to reduce the image distortion while assuring the sustained operation until the battery recharge/exchange. The optimal video encoding configuration is determined based on the amount of estimated remaining event duration (considering the uncertainty of events) and remaining battery charge (considering the rate-capacity and recovery effect). The proposed algorithm consists of two steps: design-time step and run-time step. In the design-time step, prediction of remaining event duration, called duration prediction, is performed considering the uncertainty of events and tradeoff between encoding power and image quality. During run-time, video encoding configuration is switched between intra-frame encoding and inter-frame encoding based on the duration prediction obtained in design-time step and the remaining battery charge measured in run-time step. Compared to the conventional method based on the most conservative duration prediction [5], experimental results show that the proposed method provides 2.24~3.78 dB improvement in the image quality (in terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio in the H.264 encoding of four video sequences while satisfying the battery constraint. Index Terms—Battery, surveillance camera, uncertainty, video encoding.

I. INTRODUCTION

O MEET the growing demands on public security against crimes, accidents, and disasters, it is necessary to enhance monitoring functions in places even without power lines, which, in turn, depends on the availability of battery-operated video camera with very low cost and power consumption. In such a battery-powered surveillance system, energy management becomes a very critical issue. The primary requirement of such surveillance system is to capture events of concern and inform the relevant personnel before the battery runs out. To extend
Manuscript received April 09, 2010; revised July 17, 2010; accepted December 04, 2010. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant 2010-0000823 funded by the Korea government (MEST). Y. Lee is with the Software Platform Laboratory, LG Electronics, Seoul 137130, Republic of Korea (e-mail:lyh1064@gmail.com). J. Kim and C.-M. Kyung are with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 305701, Republic of Korea (e-mail:jskim@vslab.kaist.ac.kr; kyung@ee.kaist.ac. kr). Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TVLSI.2010.2102055

T

the battery lifetime in the surveillance system until the battery replacement, it needs to be operated in an event-driven manner, i.e., the system captures events and encodes the images for storage and/or transmission when and only when the event is detected. However, duration and arrival time of an event is generally assumed to be uncertain [1]. Such uncertainties make it difficult to predict actual video encoding time and to find the pareto-optimal (with respect to energy, distortion, and rate, according to the system specification) video encoding configuration. Conventional methods based on worst-case scenario are likely to waste energy, because the estimation of event duration is too conservative, i.e., each event is assumed to have the longest possible value [5]. In smart surveillance systems, video encoding configuration is selected among many encoding configurations with different distortion and energy consumption levels. In video encoding such as H.264 or MPEG4, the amount of distortion of a compressed video can be represented as a function of the amount of consumed energy when the bitrate [2] is constant. In [2], a power-scalable video encoding method is proposed to minimize the energy consumption in portable video communication devices. Such complexity control parameters as the number of sum of absolute difference (SAD) computations and fraction of skipped macro blocks are adjusted to provide a trade-off between the encoding complexity and the distortion level. High encoding complexity generally leads to low video distortion. On the other hand, in dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS)-enabled systems, increasing the number of frequency and voltage levels contributes to reduced energy consumption. In video encoding of smart surveillance systems, various complexity control parameters are adjusted to capture all events until the next battery recharge/replacement while maintaining the image distortion below a given level. When the remaining battery charge is small, captured events are encoded in a low-energy mode; otherwise high-energy mode is selected leading to low-distortion level. Using this power-scalable encoding method, we can schedule a sequence of encoding configurations to minimize overall distortion under any given battery charge constraints. Battery is not an ideal energy source. The amount of energy actually delivered to the load by battery depends not only on the available charge in the battery but also on the discharge current profile through the load. This is explained through the two nonlinear characteristics of battery: rate-capacity effect and recovery effect. Rate-capacity effect represents the dependency of the amount of energy delivered by a battery on the magnitude of

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and memory. 2 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VERY LARGE SCALE INTEGRATION (VLSI) SYSTEMS Fig. The proposed scheme considers the probabilistic characteristics of events and performs the prediction of remaining event duration called duration prediction which minimizes the total estimated image distortion until the battery replacement while guaranteeing that the scheduled list of events is completed. In [13]. Analytical battery models have been proposed for the nonlinear battery characteristics [9]. Then. with an assumption of fixed event arrival time. Content is final as presented. Section III presents the system model of our work. Some battery models considering the nonlinear behavior of battery [9]. [6] proposed an operation mode scheduling scheme to maximize the image quality considering probabilistic task execution time under energy constraints. 1 illustrates our target surveillance camera system consisting of multiple functional blocks. these methods only consider the scheduling of tasks with fixed arrival time and duration.. we modeled the stochastic event characteristics as a probability distribution function (PDF). the total charge loss of the battery is generally different from the charge consumption by the load. III. Recently. rate-capacity and recovery effect (see Section III-C). The key contribution of this paper lies in extracting the best video quality until the given timeline while exhausting the battery charge based on the most realistic battery charge model. SYSTEM MODEL In this section. and then. A. This paper first proposes analytical energy management scheme considering the two practically most important features in the design and operation of energy-aware surveillance camera systems. sensor. runtime distribution-aware DVFS algorithm was proposed. none of these methods [3]–[8] have considered the nonlinear characteristics of battery. and memory. i. video encoder. the power of the system is delivered from two batteries connected in parallel with voltage level conversion using a DC-DC converter [18]. i. In this paper. we implemented the system using LG XNOTE LW25 laptop such that event detector [16] and video encoder [17] as well as OS are running on Intel Core2Duo processor.e. Section V explains the battery-aware distortion minimization algorithm. To achieve this goal. present a scheme to scale video encoding complexity considering the statistical information of PDF and nonlinear battery behavior to obtain the best image quality. event detector. Various battery-aware task scheduling methods were proposed [11]–[15] using the analytical battery model in [9] which reflects the rate-capacity and recovery effects of battery. In [11] and [12]. In [7]. 1. static task scheduling methods to maximize battery lifetime were described. [4] by switching among multiple operation modes each with different amount of energy consumption. we propose a scheme for determining the video encoding configurations to minimize the image distortion under the constraint of fixed time-to-battery replacement.. [10] predict the total charge loss of battery to estimate the battery lifetime. stochastic event characteristic and nonlinear battery behavior. with the exception of pagination.This article has been accepted for inclusion in a future issue of this journal. II.e. This method analytically determines the performance level to minimize the energy consumption on a single processor.e. A heuristic DVFS algorithm was proposed for obtaining the optimal remaining workload which provides the minimal dynamic and leakage energy consumption [8]. A number of schemes have been proposed to reflect and exploit the probabilistic event characteristic in reducing the energy consumption. The recovery effect reflects the charge recovered when the discharge current is sufficiently small. Target System and Hardware Implementation We targeted at a battery-operated surveillance camera system which observes a specific location without moving. i. The rest of this paper is organized as follows. Target architecture of the surveillance camera consisting of sensor. Fig. Section IV describes the problem definition and overall flow. However. However. [5] proposed reward maximization algorithm while satisfying the energy constraint and real-time constraint. discharge current. we first describe our target surveillance camera system (see Section III-A). event detector.. Due to the nonlinear behavior of battery. The main function of the system is to detect suspicious objects in its camera scope. we present a model for power-quality relationship of video encoder (see Section III-B) and a battery model considering the nonlinear battery characteristics. effects of inserting idle periods were described with general guidelines for choosing between battery-aware management policy (considering the nonlinear battery characteristics) and energyaware management policy (without considering the nonlinear battery characteristics). video encoder. and then store the video . RELATED WORKS Several methods have been proposed to maximize the overall performance under energy constraints [3]. Section II reviews related works. Experiments results are given in Section VI followed by the conclusion.

which is used in our surveillance camera system for event detector and video encoder. As shown in Table I. but not lower than the value calculated by (1) among the given set of discrete frequencies. Only when an event is detected by an event detector. Thus..264 ENCODING (BIT-RATE: 2000 kb/s. 1In TABLE I VIDEO ENCODING COMPLEXITY AND IMAGE QUALITY DATA ACCORDING TO IDR PERIOD AS OBTAINED FOR H. affects the power consumption through the change of encoding complexity. 2There can be some exceptional cases. i. e. we set the frequency at the lowest possible value. we implemented the target system using LG XNOTE LW25 laptop whose processor supports DVFS.. B. is determined by the expected battery lifetime in a typical surveillance system. average power consumption (in Watts). search range. motion estimation scheme.. i. number of a battery-operated surveillance camera system. . where the complexity is defined as the average number of clock cycles to encode a frame [2]. battery charge capacity. Since the frequency level is discrete.. Extension to other parameters. As shown in Fig. as the video encoder whose complexity is scaled according to encoding configuration. DVFS is the most powerful and popular technique used to reduce the energy consumption. the complexity of the event encoding becomes lower while the image quality deteriorates. Power-Quality Model A complexity-scalable video encoder can encode a video sequence with disparate encoding configurations. with the exception of pagination. and search range. I-frame is associated with lower computational complexity and lower image quality than P.e. I-frame insertion period. is chosen as the only encoding parameter for simplicity. and the normalized encoding power consumption with respect to the power consumption when IDR period is set to 50 in Table I. motion vector search range. LEE et al. Video encoding complexity can be controlled by adjusting various encoding parameters such as frame type (I/P/B-frame representing intra/predictive/bi-directional predictive frame). -axis and -axis represent image quality (in PSNR). especially in a DVFS-enabled system. We used x264 [17]. the image quality as well as the encoding complexity and power increases as IDR period increases. 2 shows the relationship between image quality and power consumption for the case of encoding 1280 720 Pedestrian video [19]. real-life software for H.3 In general. except for an event detector. Intel Core2Duo T7200 processor. e. etc. For the event detector. FRAME-RATE: 15 fps. To avoid energy being consumed for recording uncritical events. The second to fourth columns represent the corresponding average image complexity (in 10 cycles.or B-frame. with more I-frames inserted during the event encoding. instantaneous decoding refresh (IDR) period. i.. respectively. respectively.e. we selected IDR period to show how remaining energy can be used to estimate the optimal level of image quality in a very simplistic manner.g. are normally power-gated and only wake up when an event is detected by the event detector.or B-frames between two nearest I-frames. 2 represents a pair of the normalized power consumption and image quality obtained experimentally by varying the IDR period. Intel Core2Duo processor.. which is obtained by Performance Application Programming Interface (PAPI) [20]). should not be too difficult.e.e. Table I shows the simulation result of the average per-frame video encoding complexity and the average image quality obtained by encoding 1280 720 Pedestrian video [19] for various IDR periods.1 We implemented both of the event detector and the video encoder as software running on the processor in the laptop.2 The increased complexity often leads to drastic increase in power consumption. Note that parallel connection of batteries is a typical configuration of battery to extend battery charge capacity where the number of batteries connected in parallel. The power of the system is supplied from two Li-Ion batteries connected in parallel for doubling battery capacity. which.g. In this work. The first column shows the IDR period (in terms of the number of frames). poorly designed algorithms where the image quality deteriorates despite higher encoding complexity. The power consumption is measured from thermal and power microarchitecture simulator PTscalar [21] by configuring a target processor in PTscalar as the best-effort estimate of the processor in LG XNOTE LW25 laptop. Image quality is generally improved as the complexity of video encoding configuration increases. A buck converter is used as a DC-DC converter in order to match voltage levels between the output voltage of the battery and the input voltage of the target system [18]. using the parameters presented in [22]. etc. respectively. Fig. in turn. IMAGE: 1280 720 PEDESTRIAN [19]) 2 P. the image captured by a sensor is compressed by a video encoder to be stored into a memory. can save a significant amount of energy using DVFS. 1. our target system is operated in an event-driven manner where all functional blocks.. To reduce the power consumption of the processor using DVFS. as shown in Table I. macro block mode selection. Each dot in Fig.This article has been accepted for inclusion in a future issue of this journal. which can be implemented in very low complexity. and the average image quality [in peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR)]. i. we implemented a power manager in OS such that processor operating frequency is set as the ratio of the remaining number of clock cycles to the time-to-deadline as follows: (1) where and represent the number of clock cycles for evaluating the event occurrence and encoding a frame. Content is final as presented. we used background subtraction algorithm [16]. but beyond the scope of this paper. We approximated the relationship between the image quality and the normalized power (solid line) through fitting the dots to the following form: (2) 3Despite many other encoding parameters which can be used for controlling the trade-off between the produced image quality and required energy.: ENERGY-AWARE VIDEO ENCODING FOR IMAGE QUALITY IMPROVEMENT IN BATTERY-OPERATED SURVEILLANCE CAMERA 3 in memory.264 encoder.

2 V according to the remaining battery charge. Idle period denotes the time interval between active periods. the average (max. . With longer active period. is 84 ( 24(hours/ day)/2(hours) 7(days)). . the cumulative nonlinear charge loss becomes maximum at the end of each active period. For instance.4 i. We define cumulative nonlinearity (having the dimension of “time”) at as as follows: (9) Cumulative nonlinearity represents the equivalent amount of time during which battery is assumed to be additionally discharged due to nonlinear charge loss. In this work. As stated in [9]. 3(b) shows the corresponding cumulative nonlinearity. it is a reasonable assumption since the error in terms of estimated lifetime is less than 3%. is almost constant throughout the entire range of load current in a recently presented DC-DC converter by improving the efficiency in the range of light load current. riod. amount of motion contained in the video [2]. In addition.8 and using (3).e. 1. the PCN at the end of active period becomes larger. Relationship between image quality (PSNR) and normalized power consumption with respect to the power consumption when IDR period equals 50. [9]. is calculated Total charge loss of battery until time . and . reare curve fitting parameters deterspectively. where active period is defined as time interval during which current is discharged from battery. 3(b) represents peak cumulative nonlinearity (PCN) denoted as for the th active period in the th region (region is defined in Section IV). and mined by least-square fitting. Fig. if BRT is fixed as one week and each region is two hours long. and is a technical parameter depending on the battery characteristics. can be expressed by quantizing the elapsed time into time steps and approximating the current within a time step as constant as follows: (6) with (7) Fig. and cumulative nonas the sum of actual charge loss. sents the amount of charge loss due to nonlinear battery characteristics reflecting both rate-capacity and recovery effect at time . . Fig.21% (2. with the exception of pagination. The power is supplied from a battery with voltage level conversion using a DC-DC converter whose efficiency is defined as follows: (3) and are the current and voltage of a processor. represents the amount of reprecharge consumed by the load system until time . 4(a) exemplifies an event trace during a BRT which is divided into fixed time intervals. IV. (8) where and represent. V . Since the curve fitting parameters are dependent on the video captured. the required battery dis. 2. longer idle period generally tends to lower the cumulative nonlinearity.e. Cumulative nonlinear charge loss depends not only on the active current profile but also on the idle period because of the nonlinear charge recovery during the idle period [13]. respectively. as obtained by fitting points in Table I into (2) for 1280 720 Pedestrian [19]. increases as time passes within each active pecharge loss. the efficiency of DC-DC converter. 4Even though output voltage of Li-Ion battery. in (2) can be expressed as a function of as follows: (4) where is a constant defined as (5) C. we need to find the curve fitting parameters at each video capture. . 3(a) shows the pattern of active period and idle period while Fig. where respectively. where charge current and the elapsed time at is the unit time step. Content is final as presented. and are the current discharged from a battery and battery output voltage. the number of regions. Battery Model . As shown in (8). more specifically. i. respectively.This article has been accepted for inclusion in a future issue of this journal. 3.6 V and 0. Because idle period leads to charge recovery. . 4 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VERY LARGE SCALE INTEGRATION (VLSI) SYSTEMS linear charge loss.. we assumed that an event happens when suspicious objects are observed within a 2 where and represent the image quality (in PSNR) and the normalized power consumption of the encoding condition.0~4. the cumulative nonlinear . In Pedestrian video.) fitting error becomes minimal.17%) when . . Thus.. each of which is called region. PROBLEM DEFINITION AND SOLUTION OVERVIEW Battery recharge time (BRT) is assumed to be fixed in this work. ranges 3. which depends on the pattern of active and idle periods. Each circle in Fig. we approximated that V is constant in order to reduce the solution complexity. as presented in [18]. Assuming that and are constant at their nominal values.  .

with the exception of pagination. Since the event trace of the th region has a stochastic temporal variation for each BRT.. and PCN obdifferent event traces during BRT can be repretained from sented by pdf’s shown in Fig. RAD. (b) Time profile. each with varying duration. 5(a) and (b).This article has been accepted for inclusion in a future issue of this journal. it is maintained until the end of the region. Runtime solution: battery discharge current level of each region is quantized into levels to obtain the corresponding IDR period as the video encoding configuration. IDR period in this work. while the total amount of EAD within a region. The LUT translating the battery discharge current level to the IDR period in Fig. In the design-time step. Thus. Fig. 6. of cumulative nonlinearity with each circle denoting the PCN. we determine the video encoding configuration. time duration of a single event is called event active duration (EAD). 5(c). Event trace divided into region. . The amount of active period. 5. . denoted by . 4(a).e. The runtime step of the proposed solution is shown in Fig. Fig. and the battery discharge current versus the average power consumption in (3). which is a function of battery discharge current is during the th region. is called regional active duration (RAD). Fig. as given in (4) and Fig. we determine the scheduling of video encoding configuration (IDR period in this work) to enhance the image quality under battery charge constraint. there is an alternating sequence of active and idle periods as shown in Fig. i. 5(c) shows the relationship of image quality (in PSNR) with respect to battery discharge current in (4). within a region. 5(a) and (b) show. In runtime.e. 5.: ENERGY-AWARE VIDEO ENCODING FOR IMAGE QUALITY IMPROVEMENT IN BATTERY-OPERATED SURVEILLANCE CAMERA 5 Fig.e. Once the video encoding configuration is determined. N fixed time intervals. Within each region. respectively.. which is calculated as the sum of EAD within a region. pdf of RAD and different event traces PCN of the th region obtained from during BRT. i. 3. There are video encoding configurations each of which is mapped onto corresponding battery discharge current where represents the battery discharge current of the th video encoding configuration. LEE et al. denotes the image quality (in PSNR) recorded during the th region.e. 5(a). video encoding configuration of the th region can be selected by determining the amount of battery discharge current . 6 is built from the relationship of the average power consumption versus IDR period in Table I. denoted by function (pdf) of peak cumulative nonlinearity (PCN) of the th region. which is calculated as follows: (11) camera scope. 4. we find the optimal du( ). making the sum of absolute difference (SAD) between the captured image and background image larger than a predefined threshold value. Based on the three inputs shown in Fig. i.. (a) Battery discharge current profile within a region shown as an alternating sequence of idle period and active period. each of which is called number of quantized level of . the RAD of the th region. The proposed solution consists of design-time step and run-time step. the average of . Content is final as presented. Note where is the probability that corresponds to the th quantized level and is the where . for the th region such that ration prediction. respectively. at the start of each region based on the duration prediction . The event sequence of the th region is characterized with two stochastic parameters: 1) RAD and 2) probability distribution of the th region.. 6. Solution inputs: pdf’s of (a) RAD and (b) PCN obtained from different event traces during BRT. where (10) In (10). and (c) relationship of image quality (in PSNR) with respect to battery discharge current. L i Fig. 5 shows three types of input required in the proposed procedure. average of predicted cumulative image quality from the th is defined by region to the th region is maximized. The probability distribution of is shown in Fig. Fig. M Fig. i. background subtraction [16].

and is already is the only unknown varidetermined to its worst-case RAD. First. represents the maximum value of within the th region. we describe a method to predict the duration to maximize the predicted cumulative image quality. In the third case.e. bisection. Since represents the average nonlinear charge ) represents the amount of loss during the th region. i. is adjusted to the minimum value the th quantized battery current level which satisfies the constraints in inequalities (12)~(14). is the nonlinearity effect. additional hardware is required to store LUT for a set of pairs (battery discharge current...e. 6. is a concave function with respect to able in (19). the predicted cumulative image quality metric covering . we can express as shown in the right-hand side of (11). we assume that the BRT is divided into only two regions and the RAD in each region is fixed. We then consider the second case where the RAD in each region has a pdf. at the start of each region .g. by accessing the table storing As presented in (11). The proposed solution causes hardware cost and power consumption. ( be equally distributed in encoding the remaining events when the prediction of total event duration is .. If battery discharge current determined by (11) does not satisfy the constraints in inequalities (12)~(14). i. The point can efficiently be found using root-finding algorithm. Newton–Raphson method.e. 6. In our proposed scheme. whole BRT is divided into regions with the pdf of RAD of each region. it is negligible since are usually set to small numbers ( and both and in our experiment as mentioned in Section VI-A). IDR period) shown in Fig. we check. is a unit function in this case. A..) determined as In addition. whether satisfies the following three constraints: (12) duration predictions for regions and checking inequalities in (12)~(14) in running the proposed scheme is negligible compared to other functions such as video encoding and event detection. i.e.. The second constraint (13) requires that is set so that the amount of residual charge at the start of the th region must be larger than the sum of actual charge loss consumed by the th region and the minimum amount of charge required to )th to th region encode remaining events occurring from ( in the lowest power mode.. In addition. Since the second region is the last region in this termine case. to prevent the battery exhaustion before the end of a BRT. e. i. thereby. ( average residual actual charge at the start of th region. 5(a). Two Regions With Probabilistic Distribution of RAD When RAD of each region has a probabilistic distribution as shown in Fig. (In the ideal case with . with the exception of pagination. ratio of the remaining battery charge . can be defined and from the first to the second region. we find corresponding video encoding configuration (i.. we find is set as the average peak cumulative nonlinearity (APCN) of each region. Two Regions With RAD Given as Unit Function When two regions are cascaded with RAD of each region fixed. to prevent the system failure..e. IDR period. as presented in [7]. The third constraint (14) represents the specified range of the current level. . IDR period. However. B. ). Because pens. must be less than the amount of residual charge. calculated as follows: (15) and (13) (14) which is used to represent We define a new operator the maximum value of within the corresponding region. i. and duration predictions for regions found in design time. even in the worst case. 6 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VERY LARGE SCALE INTEGRATION (VLSI) SYSTEMS where represents the amount of remaining charge measured at the start of the th region. e.. Content is final as presented. IDR period) as shown in Fig. the battery discharge current level can be expressed as follows: (16) (17) where (18) By replacing and with (16) and (17) and normalizing to one. After is determined. Then. By rearranging the equation with respect to . can we set so that the residual actual charge.e. the predicted cumulative image quality can . i. In the first case.g. First constraint (12) implies that has to be set such that the maximum charge consumed in the th region.. i. . to ( ) which is the effective remaining time reflecting . . i. sum of the actual and nonlinear charge loss when the total amount of RAD becomes the largest. Then. we dereverse order. in this work) by accessing the pre-characterized LUT which stores the set of pairs (battery discharge current. etc. BATTERY-AWARE DISTORTION MINIMIZATION In this section. . we can obtain which maximizes by finding a point where ..e. we set as the worst-case RAD of the second region to prevent battery exhaustion when the worst case actually hapwhich maximizes in (19).This article has been accepted for inclusion in a future issue of this journal. is the prediction of PCN of the th region (which is set to the average of PCN’s of the th region in this work).e. The amount of power consumed for finding proper video encoding configuration. V. we can rearrange (15) as follows: (19) We calculate the optimal event duration in each region in the .e.

78 dB and 0. In our system. respectively. which is calculated as (sum of image quality of all encoded frames)/(number of encoded frames). in our experiment.g. and DIST for the average case of Scenario 3. which equals to 40 375 in (6) (8).g. (mA-min) and 5The complexity to calculate (21) is ( 1 ) where and represent the number of quantized levels of RAD and regions. battery discharge current is set relatively low at the start of BRT while it is monotonically increasing as time goes on. Setup In our experiment.. Such an increasing battery discharge current schedule comes from conservative duration . f . and th quantized levels. in (20) is also a concave function with respect to Because . and so on. i. at a point. 7 which shows battery discharge current (first row).76%~23. measured cumulative image quality). 2) scenario 2: short-duration events occurring frequently (e..e.D Table II shows the comparison of the measured cumulative image quality (in PSNR) and measured cumulative image distortion (in MSE) obtained by applying the three methods for the above-mentioned four scenarios.. all of which exploit nonlinear battery characteristics: • WORST [5]: duration prediction as the sum of the worstcase RAD of all remaining regions. we compared the effectiveness (in terms of measured cumulative image quality) of considering the distribution of event characteristics only among battery-aware video encoding configuration scheduling methods.e. We compared the following three schemes. We used the battery-related parameters in [9]. . desert or public cemetery in the daytime). B.59~1. thereby each region is 100 min ( 1000 min/10 regions) long. However. g. with the exception of pagination. is . parking lot or road crossing in the daytime). Therefore.32%~58. We used nine IDR periods each of which corresponds to different encoding power consumption and image quality level as shown in Table I. we can obtain the global maximum point. we used the target system presented in Section III-A... AVERAGE. OR N R N D .. is the probability of fitting into the th quantized denote when and fit into the th level. 1. We applied the proposed method in four different scenarios which are classified according to event duration and occurrence: 1) Scenario 1: short-duration events occurring once in a while (e..5 .. since it is calculated in design time as we mentioned in Section IV. • DIST (proposed): duration prediction with exploiting probabilistic RAD. . Quality Improvement (21) is obtained first. initial charge.15 dB image quality improvement.D .. and a power manager shown in Fig.24~3. and residual charge (shown as “distortion (MSE)” in the third row) obtained by applying WORST. 7(a). 3) scenario 3: long-duration events occurring once in a while (e.. Content is final as presented.g. optimal duration prediction of the th region ( ) can be obtained by finding a point which maximizes the predicted cumulative image quality from the th to is then calculated by summing . • AVERAGE: duration prediction as the sum of average RAD of all remaining regions. where C.8 [18]. from the th to the th region where two batteries are connected in parallel while the battery and load system are connected by a dc-dc converter whose efficiency ( ) is 0.g. We compared the effectiveness of each scheme with the average of normalized measured cumulative image quality (in PSNR) with respect to the number of encoded frames (in short. i. Compared with WORST and AVERAGE. the proposed distribution-aware method (DIST) gives 2. The reason for such significant improvement can be analyzed with Fig. VI. respectively. desert or public cemetery at night). which correspond to 40. Since battery-unaware video encoding scheduling schemes lead to system failure due to battery exhaustion before BRT is completed. (20) is the number of quantized levels of RAD.12% and 12. LEE et al.e. . i. . respectively.. parking lot or road crossing at night).This article has been accepted for inclusion in a future issue of this journal. followed by the sequence of obtaining each . using the pdf of RAD. As shown in the first row of Fig.e.28% reduction of image distortion in terms of image distortion (MSE). the additional components required to be implemented in a target surveillance camera system are additional memory space to store duration predictions. the th region. . 4) scenario 4: long-duration events occurring frequently (e. . EXPERIMENT A.e. respectively. i..e. it is unfair to compare the effectiveness of battery-aware and battery-unaware methods. measured cumulative image quality (shown as “PSNR” in the second row) of the encoded image until the corresponding time. as follows: of two regions.: ENERGY-AWARE VIDEO ENCODING FOR IMAGE QUALITY IMPROVEMENT IN BATTERY-OPERATED SURVEILLANCE CAMERA 7 be calculated as the sum of (19) with respect to pdf’s of RAD and . Regions With Probabilistic Distribution of Event Active Duration regions with RAD of each When BRT is partitioned into region represented by a pdf. i. i. We assumed that the battery recharge time (BRT) is 1000 min and is partitioned into 10 regions.

which is inversely proportional to duration prediction as in (11). (b) AVERAGE. and residual charge (third row).. the excess residual charge cannot be fully utilized as the amount of residual charge becomes smaller in later regions. battery discharge current (the first row) is almost even during a BRT. i. 7(a). obtained by applying: (a) WORST. 7(b). In case of AVERAGE shown in Fig. respectively. Since excess residual charge cannot be fully utilized in later regions. 7. Scheduling result for Scenario 3 where three rows represent battery discharge current (first row). As a consequence. and (c) DIST (proposed). Since WORST sets duration prediction as the sum of the worst-case RAD of remaining regions. to satisfy the constraints on battery discharge current to prevent battery exhaustion. the measured cumulative image quality also monotonically increases as shown in the second row of Fig. the amount of residual charge is larger than estimated at the start of the region. In the WORST scheme. with the exception of pagination. However. corresponding normalized cumulative image quality (second row). Thus. the battery discharge current of the next region has to be increased. In contrast with WORST and AVERAGE. Content is final as presented. (12) and (13).. in earlier regions where residual charge is much larger than PCN. battery discharge current is set high in the beginning and lowered as time goes on. As a consequence. to utilize the excess residual charge to improve the encoded image quality. At the end of each region.This article has been accepted for inclusion in a future issue of this journal. because actual RAD is smaller than the RAD based on the worst-case assumption. 8 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VERY LARGE SCALE INTEGRATION (VLSI) SYSTEMS Fig. as shown in Fig. battery discharge current cannot be set sufficiently high. TABLE II COMPARISON OF IMAGE QUALITY AND DISTORTION RESULTS prediction of the WORST. is set too low owing to the overestimation of the remaining event duration. battery discharge current needs to be set lower than the other two methods due to . the proposed solution DIST sets battery discharge current in a decreasing fashion. in later regions. i.e.e. since high discharge current leads to large PCN which lowers the battery discharge current to meet the battery charge constraint. battery discharge current. despite large excess residual charge in later regions. 7(c). we set the discharge current sufficiently high and set the video encoding configuration accordingly to obtain high video quality.

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This article has been accepted for inclusion in a future issue of this journal. He was General Chair of Asian Solid-State Circuits Conference (A-SSCC) 2007. 10 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VERY LARGE SCALE INTEGRATION (VLSI) SYSTEMS sign (ICCAD) executive committee. He is a member of National Academy of Engineering Korea (NAEK) and Korean Academy of Science and Technology (KAST). and ASP-DAC 2008. with the exception of pagination. Content is final as presented.. .

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