University for Peace

Universidad para la Paz

Master of Arts in International Law and Settlement of Disputes UPEACE Programme in South Asia, the Horn of Africa and the Middle East (UPSAM)

Conflict Resolution Mohammed Ahmed Musa

Advisor Amr Abdalla July, 2009

This curriculum is submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts, International Law and Settlement of Disputes

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Acknowledgments
First of all, my thanks to the “GOD” who gave me the strength and made things work for me to complete my studies at the University for Peace. I would like to take this opportunity to say a special word of thanks to the Netherlands Government who supports the programme at UPEACE and is carried out as an important programme in Africa. My appreciation also goes to my supervisor, Dr. Amr Abdalla, for all his support; I am very grateful and wish you the best in your life. A special word of thanks to Thomas Klompmaker for his kind assistance that I received when I was sick. Special word of thanks also to Prof. Victoria Fontan and the wonderful academic section for UPSAM programme. Thank you very much.

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................... 18 8............................................................................................ Evaluation ................. 19 10...................................................................... 21 Recommended Readings .... 9 B............ 15 H.................................................................................................................... General Objectives ... Course Meeting Times and Place ......................TABLE OF CONTENTS Permission for Use of the Curriculum ................................................................................................................................................................................................ Assessment .............. Instructor ............... Relation to the Larger Issue of Peace and Conflict Studies ............................................................................................ 10 C............. Types of Issues Addressed ........................................................................ 18 7.................................................................................... 18 4............................................................................ 11 F...... 17 Administrative Chapter 1............... 10 D............................................................ 20 Teaching Methods ........................................................................................................................ Intended Participants ................................. 19 Teachers Manual Part One Session One: The Definitions of Conflict and Dispute Contents ................................ Introduction ... Course Description ................................................................................................................. 18 9.................................................................................................... Learning Outcomes .. 20 Objectives of the Session ..................................................... The Main Goals ........................................................................................ Specific Course Title ................... Methodology ........................... 19 11.. Course Length and the Number of Sessions ..................................................................................... 14 G............................................................................................... Prerequisites ............................................ Contents ..................... 11 E........................ Course Code ....... iii Acknowledgements ........................................................................................................................................................ 18 5..................................................................................... iv Conflict Resolution A........................... 20 Evaluation of the Session ........................................................ 18 6........... 18 2................... 21 Required Readings ......................... Where does the Course fit in the General Programme of Study? .................................................................................................................................. 20 The Outcomes of the Session .................. ii Declaration of Academic Honesty ....................................................................................................................................... 18 3................................................................................................................ 21 v ..

................................................................................................. 25 Session Four: Armed Conflict and Peace Agreements Contents ..................................................................................................................................................... 24 The Outcomes of the Session .......................................................................................... 30 Teaching Methods .................................... 26 Evaluation of the Session ............ 25 Recommended Readings ......... 22 Objectives of the Session .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 26 Recommended Readings ...................................................................................... 28 Evaluation of the Session ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 22 Evaluation of the Session ............................. 29 Session Six: Group Presentations Objectives of the Session .................................. 30 The Outcomes of the Session ......................................... 24 Required Readings ............................................. 30 vi ................................................. 28 Objectives of the Session .................................................... 27 Session Five: Conflict Resolution within States Contents ................................................................................................................. 23 Session Three: Understanding Conflict Analysis Contents ..................................................................................................................... 22 Teaching Methods ......... 24 Evaluation of the Session ............................................................................................................. 26 Required Readings ....................................................................................... 23 Recommended Readings ................................................................................................................................................................................ 26 The Outcomes of the Session ................ 30 Evaluation of the Presentations ............................................... 24 Objectives of the Session ............................................................................ 28 The Outcomes of the Session ............................................................................Session Two: The Definition of Conflict Resolution Contents ............................................................................... 22 Required Readings .................................................................................................................................................... 28 Teaching Methods ................................... 28 Required Readings .............................................................................................................................................................................. 26 Teaching Methods ............. 22 The Outcomes of the Session ..... 24 Teaching Methods .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 26 Objectives of the Session ......................................................... 29 Recommended Readings .........................................................................

............ 34 Required Readings ........................................... 33 Teaching Methods ............................................................................ 36 Teaching Methods ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 36 Recommended Readings .... 34 Recommended Readings .......................................................................................................... 33 The Outcomes of the Session ............................................... 32 Session Eight: Mediation Process Contents ........ 34 Session Nine: The Role of Civil Society in International Conflict Objectives of the Session .......................... 35 Evaluation of the Session ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 31 Teaching Methods .............................................................................................................. 36 Evaluation of the Session .......................................................................................................................................... 35 Teaching Methods ........................................ 35 Recommended Readings .............................................................................................................................. 38 vii ............................ 33 Evaluation of the Session ............................. 31 The Outcomes of the Session ........................................................................................................................................ 33 Objectives of the Session ......... 30 Part Two Session Seven: Negotiation Process Contents .................................................................................... 35 The Outcomes of the Session ........................................................................... 36 Objectives of the Session .................................................. 36 Required Readings .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 38 Abstract .............Required Readings ................................................................................................................................................... 32 Required Readings .............................................................. 32 Recommended Readings ....... 32 Evaluation of the Session ..................................................... 35 Required Readings ............................................................................................................... 31 Objectives of the Session ................................................................................................................................................................................ 36 The Outcomes of the Session ............................................................................................................................................................................. 37 Session Eleven: The Sudanese Traditional Method in Conflict Resolution Contents ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 35 Session Ten: The Role of the UN in Conflict Resolution Contents ............................

......................................................... 39 The Outcomes of the Session ............. 40 Evaluation of the Session ............................................................................................................... 41 Required Readings .................................................................................................. 43 viii .............................................. 41 The Outcomes of the Session ............................................................................................ 39 Teaching Methods ....................................................................................................................... 41 Objectives of the Session ...................................................................... 41 Evaluation of the Session .. 40 Session Twelve: Group Presentations: Analyzing the Darfur Conflict´s Escalation and Resolution Process Contents ................................ 40 Recommended Readings ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 42 Bibliography ....... 41 Teaching Methods ....................................................................................................................................................................... 40 Required Readings .............................................................................................................................................................Objectives of the Session .............

etc. not only in the educational institutions. Many efforts have been made to resolve this ongoing conflict. Not surprisingly. By understanding the design and management methods of negotiation mediation practice. In the second part. It highlights the way that we.crimesofwar. focusing on the roles of negotiation and mediation in conflict resolution. the students will learn the definitions of conflict. depending on their cultural and social 1 Available at http://en. as human beings.General Chapter A.1 This agreement ended one of the longest civil wars in Africa. students will be able to bring their improved negotiation skills to bear and support others in negotiating and resolving conflicts peacefully. but also in all policy levels. In this context.org/onnews/news-darfur. such as negotiation. Available at http://www. The second part will be mediation. we will focus on conflict resolution and its process. which ended in 2005 when the parties signed a comprehensive peace agreement in Nairobi. mediation. Sudanese history involves long civil wars. dispute and conflict analysis. acting as individuals or representatives of our groups or countries. the education of conflict resolution is a prime concern. Introduction This course is developed for a Master‟s program. Adding a cultural component. The course will concentrate on the legal methods of settling conflicts. but usually they failed to do so. The course will offer the students introductory skills in negotiation. this course will also include an introduction to the traditional Sudanese methods of resolving conflicts. are used to resolving our conflicts on international. communication.wikipedia. the Darfur conflict is still going on and has become a challenge yet to be resolved. education of conflict resolution becomes a peacebuilding tool in Sudan in general and the Darfur region in particular. national and local levels. in the first part.org/wiki/Naivasha_Agreement Darfur Conflict. the students will study conflict and its analysis. Kenya. It offers a general overview on the topic of Conflict and Dispute Resolution. Since the country‟s independence from Great Britain in 1956. In such a situation. The course has two parts. conflict management and resolution. like government institutions and civil society.2 Since that time.html 2 9 . By the end of this part. it has been involved in a long civil war between the South and the North. concentrating on third party interventions to resolve conflict. a second civil war broke out in the Western region of Sudan. Darfur in 2003.

The first part of the course focuses on the definition of the conflict. students are required to participate in a simulation in analyzing the Darfur conflict. This introduction will help participants to understand how difficult and fragile the negotiation process is and how conflict can form. They will be able to compare the local approaches with the modern conflict resolution approaches in the context of Sudan. Finally. B. The second part focuses on the role that negotiation and mediation can play in conflict resolution. students will be able to apply their negotiation skills to assist others in the mediation process and resolve conflicts peacefully. After doing this simulation. regional and national conflicts. its types and analysis. By the end of this part. the course will conclude with a session drawing a planning strategy that resolves the Darfur conflict peacefully by the Sudanese themselves. specifically the role of native administration in internal conflict resolution in Sudan. C. students will do another group simulation about negotiation and mediation in the Darfur conflict. The course defines and explains the role of mediators who are involved as a third party to assist the parties when they have failed to reach an agreement. conflict resolution. Course Description: This course is an introductory skill-building course in conflict resolution. Students will learn how to improve their own negotiation skills which will help them to skillfully handle conflict situations and be able to analyze the conflict and diffuse the situation. 10 . This course will equip students with necessary tools and techniques on how to resolve international. The Main Goals The main goal of this course is to provide conceptual knowledge about conflict. focusing on the role of native administrations in resolving conflict in the Sudanese context in general and the Darfur region in particular. and conflict management. and by the end of the first part. particularly in Sudan. The cultural component of Sudanese in resolving conflict is a very important part in this course. The students will study the Sudanese cultural component at the end of the course.interactions.

Definition conflict. Burr. How do conflicts occur? Session (2) Defining Conflict 1. E. (1993). New Haven. Understanding Readings 1. John. J and Collins. Morton (1973). Manchester University of Press. Burton. conflict and peace. O. 2006. To furnish the students capacity and capability to understand a conflicting situation in an international and a national perspective. To develop the students´ skills on how to address conflict from an interpersonal level to an international level. (pages 3-19). Princeton. To establish that conflict originates in the mind of man. Therefore. To develop a course curriculum and resourceful individuals for future expansion of the study of conflict and conflict resolution. Tidwell. 3. 3. To build a generation who are aware of the conflict and its long-standing direct and underlying causes in the context of Sudan. Conflict Resolution as a Political Philosophy. Introduction to the of Resolution of Conflict. Alan.D. 2. What is conflict resolution? 1. 2. 11 . Contents: Session Title Session (1) The Definitions of Conflict and Dispute Content 1. the responsibility rests on people to resolve conflict and establish peace. Robert. Darfur: the Long Road to Disaster. CY: Yale University. W. Provide analytical tools and methods of conflict resolution to students so that they take leading roles in their future policy field. (1998) Conflict Resolved?: A Critical Assessment of Conflict Resolution. Definition disputes. General Objectives: General objectives of this course will cover the following aspects:        To introduce conflict. Markus Weiner publishers. Millard. Deutsch. its major causes and consequences to the students. 3.

Webel. (pages 2-10). (Chapters 7-8). John. pages 93-113). internal conflict. 2. The Dynamics of Conflict Resolution: A Practitioner´s Guide. 1. Introduction to Peace and Conflict Studies in West Africa. What are peace agreements? 3. Nigeria. (pages from 1-5). Limits of conflict resolution. Peace and the Global System. (2008).RSIPABIO. Ramsbotham. Blackwell Publishing Inc. Amr et al. . Identifying armed conflict. (pages 31-58). 2. (Chapters 6. Introduction to Peace and Conflict Studies. The concept of conflict. Shedrack (2006). Shedrack. Mial. London. 2. USA. London. Hand Book of Peace and Conflict Studies. Definition of 1.Resolution and Peace Agreement 2. (DVD). 2. Ibadan. 2. 2. Abdalla. 2 Conflict mapping. London. Mayer. Session (5) Conflict Resolution within States 1. Darfur Diaries: Stories of Survival. War. The role of the state. 2. American TV Network. Charles and Galtung. Negotiation: the big picture. Oliver and Woodhouse Tom (1999). Peter (2002). Part(2) Session (7) Negotiation Process 1. A Journey to Darfur. Gaya Best. (2006). Wallensteen. Understanding Conflict Resolution. Conflict Resolution and 12 negotiation. Ashgate publishing Limited (pages 31-37). Peace agreements.A Conflict analysis Model. New York. Johan. Bernard (2000). (1990). Peace and Conflict Session (3) Understanding Conflict Analysis 1. Peace agreements in civil war in 1. Nigeria.Bass. Jeong Ho-Won (2000). Jen. San Francisco: Jossey. Contemporary Conflict Resolution.C. Ibadan. 1. Studies: An introduction. (page 35). 2. Burton. Marlowe. (pages 8-9). Session (4) Armed Conflict and Peace Agreements 1. USA and Canada. Gaya Best. 2. Hugh. (2002) . Session (6) Analyzing the Darfur Conflict Student Presentations 1.

(2004) The Mind and Heart of the Negotiator. Swart. Ten stages mediation model review. Boulder. Internal conflict resolution. 3. John. 1. UN Hand Book. New York: Oxford University Press. (pages 215-256). Manchester University Press.The United Nations in the 21st Century..Prevention. (1993). The role of native administrative in Sudan. An Annual Guide 2006-2007. White. and Solomon. 1. Keeping the Peace: The United Nations and the Maintenance of International Peace and Security. (1985). Conference Papers. 2. (2003). Westview Press. Session (11) The Sudanese Traditional Method in Conflict Resolution 1. 2. The Islamic Fundamentalist State of Sudan. 2. Godwin. (2007). Session (10) The Role of UN in Conflict Resolution 1.Bass. (pages 68-76). Session(8) Mediation Process 1. 2. Anthony. (AN 26958262). I. Kew. Session(9) The Role of Civil Society in Internal Conflict Resolution 1. W. Nasong'o. Darren. 3rd ed. 2. 3rd ed. Zartman. p1. 13 . Ripe for Resolution Conflict and Intervention in Africa. 2. 2007 Annual Meeting. Thompson. Murunga. Wanis St. Conflict Trends. UN Charter. Civil society and internal conflict. C.. Moore. Mingst. NJ: Prentice Hall. London: Macmillan. San Francisco. UN in peace agreements. 2. L. D. (pages 2-15).. Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. (2003). 0p. Shadrack Wanjala. G. H. Definition of mediation. The Mediation Process. 1. 1. N. 2. International Studies Association. Jossey. Karen.

4. 1 chart. national and regional levels and peace agreements. Session(12) Final Group Presentation: Analyzing the Darfur Conflict‟s Escalation and Resolution Process. concepts and models to various national. 1.James Currey Publishers. Basic education in conflict resolution. African & Asian Studies.(AN 29259134). Understanding conflict resolution in international. Ability to analyze conflict using a variation of conflict mapping methodology. and Collins. Report by.1p. Khartoum Sudan. 32p. New York Times. p. social and cultural contexts. Wani. Burr. 4 Issue ½.Rapando. 14 . Gore. Paul. UNICEF. DOI: 10. O. Development of applied critical thinking skills. (AN 17740750).25. 10/ 4/2004. 51-82. Seeing Rwanda. Hamilton. pp. Johnson (2003). 2005 Vol. (2004). Princeton. Looking at Darfur. Application of theories. Robert. Eight grassroots conflicts in Sudan. Learning Outcomes: The following learning outcomes should be achieved from the course:         Generation build up. Dallaire. et al. . Millard. J. Roméo. Understanding the spirit and culture of peace.Dauglas. F. Markus Weiner Publishers. Conflict-free and peaceful society. 3. (2006) Darfur: The Long Road to Disaster. The Root Causes of Sudan‟s Civil Wars.1163/1569209054547328. 2. regional.

Students will also enjoy the opportunity to contribute in discussions. Methodology: The course will be use lectures with effective participation from students. Generally. The majority of activities of the course will concentrate on simulations. 1. 1.G. conflict and security. Also. the methods of teaching in this course include the following:3 1. 19-24) 15 . Group Discussion Group discussion will be an important method to increase their capacity of speaking in public forums. according to their own experiences. which will be researched. 3 UNICEF (2008).3. one discussion class consisting of 60 minutes will be conducted. different methods to increase the skills of the students and make them confident to face future challenges will be introduced.4. peace.1 Lecture The lectures will be given according to the University of Zalingei´s lecture-based method in the class room. “Learning to live together: an intercultural and interfaith programme for ethics education”. some videos concerning conflict resolution will be used as a method of teaching. The major aim of this debate and simulation is making students aware of how to come into consensus regarding conflicting issues. Debates and simulations over the conflicting issues will also be introduced so that students can understand the way of addressing issues regarding conflict resolution. prepared and presented by the students through PowerPoint presentations in groups of three or four students. Some sessions will be devoted to the major aspects of gender. Discussion After two lecture classes. Debate and Simulation The second part of this course depends on simulations regarding the negotiation and mediation process. (pp. and therefore. In each discussion class. full attendance in the class is required. 1.2.

videos and films. Movies and videos will be introduced to the students so that they can understand some techniques related to conflict resolution. photographs. Visual Aids Visual aids can include posters. Interviews provide an opportunity for students to learn and personalize issues and aspects of local history directly.6.9.8. 1. Movies and Video Watching. which is necessary to engage discussion and student participation. leaders or eyewitnesses to conflict resolution or peace building.7. 1. Student Interviews and Report. 1. 1. slides. The purpose and the place of the visit should be explained in advance. Field Class A visit will be carried out to institutions or organizations dealing with conflict resolution and peace-building. activists. Those interviewed could be community members. Students are asked to write a report as a reflection of the visit. 16 . Learning aids can be from internet resources such as You Tube.1. Media Journal Analysis Students will be assigned media journals to analyze and illustrate some issues related to conflict resolution.5.

Evaluation A. not war. Affective participation. there will be a change in students‟ attitudes and behavior. Term papers/ home assignments. The course will build in the students the spirit and culture of peace. 4. 17 . Criteria: Besides acquiring skills and knowledge. 3. B. 2.H. This the most important part and the purpose of this course which will achieved by the end of the course. Semester final examination. Class attendance. Tools: The evaluation and grading of this course will include the following: 1.

Types of Issues Addressed:       4 Conflict: definition. Conflict management. 6. Sudan. Conflict resolution: definition. According to the Zalingei University system. The course consists of 12 sessions. history. Specific Course Title: Conflict Resolution 2. Instructor: Mohammed Ahmed Musa Center for Peace and Development Studies University of Zalingei. Course Meeting Time and Place The main campus is the University of Zalingei.Administrative Chapter 1. The meeting time will be identified by the Director of the Centre for Peace and Development Studies. Negation process. and sociology will fit in this course. University for Peace. Conflict transformation. Course Length and the Number of Sessions. University of Zalingei. University of Alfashir in. methods and techniques. this course will be taught for three weeks. students who have minimum knowledge in political science. Prerequisites This is a very technical course. West Darfur State BA in Education. Intended participants This course is intended for students in the High Diploma Degree Programme in Peace and Conflict Students at the University of Zalingei. Centre for Peace and Development Studies. causes and consequences. MA in International Law and Settlement of Disputes. 4. Sudan. Therefore. PACS-Peace and Conflict Studies 18 . international relations. Mediation process. 8. The required number of participants in the course is from 25 to 30 to allow for maximum interaction during group discussions and other interactive teaching-learning models. 7. Costa Rica. 5. Course Code: PACS4 201 3.

Sudan. conflict resolution and peace building in the international. Darfur. 11. Relation to the Larger Issue of Peace and Conflict Studies The content of the course is related to conflict. simulations and discussions: 30% Group discussion: 20% Exam: 50% Total: 100% 19 . Assessment Participation in class. 10.9. Where Does the Course Fit in the General Programme of Study? This course fits in the Centre for Peace and Development Studies in the University of Zalingei. Therefore. this course is widely related to the issue of peace and conflict studies. The contents of the course will develop students who will work in the future to resolve conflict and establish peace. national and regional contexts.

20 . ´conflict´ and ´disputes´.Teacher´s Manual According to the course description. 01: The Definitions of Conflict and Dispute Contents:  Understanding conflict and peace  How conflict occurs  Definition of conflict  Definition of disputes Objectives of the Session This session will address the definitions of the terms ´peace´. Teaching Methods: This session will be taught by lecture. The Outcomes of the Session By the end of the session. this course is divided into two parts. However. It draws the distinction between conflict and dispute as explained by John Burton and other scholars. Therefore. Also. according to their understanding of the terms. Furthermore. At the end of the session. conflict and disputes. conflict and disputes. Part One: Part one has six sessions: Session: No. they will be able to make a distinction between them. students will understand the concepts of peace. students will understand the distinction between the terms. students are allowed to give their own definitions of peace. students will understand different kinds of conflict. discussion is also needed in the session.

Introduction to Peace and Conflict Studies in West Africa. John. de Reuck. Morton. Fisher.. What do we mean by negative peace and positive peace? 2. 3. Recommended Readings: 1. 2. Deutsch. What is dispute? 4. In The Resolution of Conflict: Constructive and Destructive Processes. In Conflict Resolution Theory and Practice: Integration and Application. (1973) New Haven. In Banks. 4. 2. London. 97-111). (pages 2-9). Deutsch. S. Shedrack. 21 . San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers. pp.17-22). Pages: 3-19. Do you think that there are distinctions between conflict and dispute? Required Readings: 1.. Conflict Resolution as a Political Philosophy. The logic of conflict: its origin. the teacher should ask the students some questions which relate to this session. (pp.Working with Conflict: Skills and Strategies For Action. The questions include the following: 1.Manchester and New York. In The Handbook of Conflict Resolution: Theory and Practice.. New York: St. (1993) . development and resolution. Gaya Best. CT: Yale University Press. (1984). (2000). Introduction to the Resolution of Conflict. Manchester University Press.Evaluation of the Session To evaluate this session. This procedure will help the teacher to understand the students and evaluate the session. M. Zed Book publications. Martins Press. Morton. A. What is conflict? 3. W.. Conflict in world society: a new perspective on international relations. (Ed. Define the term peace.(2000) Introduction to The Handbook of Conflict Resolution. Burton.

the teacher should ask students to define the terms so as to cover the whole session by making a summary of the students‟ points. the teacher will define conflict resolution in international. During this analysis of peace. What is the difference between conflict resolution and a peace agreement? 3. During this session the teacher should facilitate student discussion. they should know the distinction between conflict resolution. students will able to draw a clear distinction and understanding of conflict resolution. Evaluation of the Session The evaluation of this session will be through the students‟ discussion and views. Teaching Methods The session will begin with lectures. The Outcomes of the Session At the end of this session. prevention. conflict and peace agreements. The questions include: 1. What are the limits of conflict resolution? 22 . Objectives of the Session: This session concentrates on the definition of conflict resolution and the linkage between conflict resolution and peace agreements. Also. 02: The Definition of Conflict Resolution Contents:  What is conflict resolution?  What is a peace agreement?  Limits of conflict resolution. Define conflict resolution. national and regional levels. peace agreements and conflict management and the limits of conflict resolution. students should understand the meaning of conflict resolution. For this discussion. Furthermore.Session: No. Some reflection questions are also required to evaluate this session. students should know the definition of the term on national and international levels. 2.

London. 120-125). Conflict Resolution. London. Inc. 1976. Understanding Conflict Resolution. Lanham. Peace and the Global System. (pages 8 and 9). Tidwell. Continuum Publications. W. Kenneth. Sage Publications. Burton. Conflict and Conflict Management. 1996. In the Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology. EC2A 4PU. M.. 2002. Thomas. The Conflict Resolution Information Source from http:/www. Wallensteen. 3. Md. (pages 31-85).crinfo. D. (1998). Alan. The Scarecrow Press. 23 . War. Peter.jsp. and London. Conflict Resolved?: A Critical Assessment of Conflict Resolution. ed. (pages 7-12) Recommended Readings: 1. (pp. 2..Required Readings: 1. Dunnette. John. 2.org/index. C.

24 .Session: No. Identifying the parties of the conflict/ the local parties of the conflict. the teacher should distribute or draw a map used to analyse the conflict. students have ten minutes as preparation to use the case of Darfur to analyse the above points. Identifying the causes of the conflict. The map will identify the parties. The Outcomes of the Session: At the end of the session students will be able to analyse conflict by using the appropriate model they learned to the relevant conflict situation. This can give further understanding to conflict analysis. Evaluation of the Session: To evaluate this session. Teaching Methods In addition to the lecture. 2. 4. These objectives are: 1. 3. The main objectives of this session include the following points which are the most important issues to analyze conflict. roots. students should have homework to analyse a specific conflict (local or international) and write a paper of about 500 words in the case that they have chosen. Identifying the interests of the parties. In the methods for example. Identifying the root source of the conflict. which help to resolve the conflict? Above all. examples from the real conflict situations are used to illustrate some of the dry theoretical concepts. Objectives of the Session This session focuses on conflict analysis.  Conflict analysis and mapping. causes and interests of the conflicting parties. which will help students to easily understand how to analyse conflict. 03: Understanding Conflict Analysis Contents:  The concept of conflict.

Cambridge.C. United Kingdom. Ho-Won. 25 . Abdallah. Preparing for Peace: Conflict Transformation Across Culture.Required Readings: 1. (pp. (2002). John.31-37). (pages 57 and 58). Lederach.R SIPABIO. Contemporary Conflict Resolutions. 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press. Hugh. Recommended Readings: 1. Ramsbotham. P. Peace and Conflict Studies: An Introduction.A Conflict Analysis Model 2. 2. Woodhouse. Tom and Mial. Amr et al. Ashgate publishing Limited. (2000).. (2005). London. Jeong. Oliver.

Khartoum. 04: Armed Conflict and Peace Agreements Contents:  The concept of conflict. (2005). London. Edited by Paul. Required Readings: 1. Vol. UNICEF. Peace and Conflict Studies: An Introduction. Objectives of the Session The specific objectives of this session are to make students understand what armed conflict is. Ash gate publishing Limited. Gore. Wani Paul. Ho-Won. students will be able to understand armed conflict within the state and the ability to understand peace agreements as well. Collier and Nicholas Sambanis. but students are required to actively participate during the lecture.  Peace agreements. Eight grassroots conflicts in Sudan. (2006). et al. Teaching Methods The teacher can use lectures in this session. 3.Session: No. Nigeria. to make students understand the cause of the conflict as well as the difference between interstate and intrastate armed conflict and how can they reach agreements. Evaluation of the Session Student discussion and views in the session will be the evaluation of this session. Africa. Understanding Civil Wars. Gaya Best. (pp.  Identifying armed conflict. World Bank Publishers. (2004). Group discussion also will be used in this session. 31-37). Sudan. Introduction to Peace and Conflict Studies. Evidence and Analysis. 26 . 4. 2. (2000). Also. Shedrack. The Outcomes of this Session By the end of the session. Jeong. Ibadan.1.

Webel.org/resources/index. (page 35). Charles and Galtung. International Conflict Research from http:/ www.upeace. 3. UPEACE Research Center from www.ac.cfm. USA and Canada.ulst.Recommended Readings: Websites: 1. 2. Handbook of Peace and Conflict Studies.incore.uk/ 27 . Johan (2008).

Objectives of the Session The objective of this session is to make students have a further understanding of the concept of conflict resolution and peace agreements within state. What is the role of the state in civil war? 3. Another method can be used here. Evaluation of the Session Some questions are required to evaluate the students at the end of this session. the students have to understand the concept of conflict resolution and the role of the state in peace agreements in internal civil war. What is civil war? 2. The ultimate goal of this session is to equip the students to be able to resolve conflicts and build peace. The Outcomes of the Session By the end of the session.Session: No.  Peace agreements in civil war in internal state. the teacher can introduce some group work so that the students can share their experiences in this topic. 05: Conflict Resolution within States Contents:  The role of the state. specifically in civil war and peace agreements. The following are the reflection questions: 1. Teaching Methods Basically. Then the teacher should open a debate and discussion between the students. the teacher can introduce some knowledge to the students on the topic so that they can understand the topic. Do you think that a peace agreement is a challenge to interstate conflict? Why? 28 .

Mayer.transcend. San Francisco.jsp 5. Bernard. Contemporary Conflict Resolution. London. (pages from 1-5). Woodhouse. Burton. Miall. Jossey-Bass. 2. Tom. The Conflict Resolution International Sources from http:/www. Blackwell Publishing Inc.Required Readings: 1. Hugh. (1999). Ramsbotham Oliver. ( Chapter 7-8). Recommended Readings: 4. John (1996).org/ 29 . Conflict Resolution. The Dynamics of Conflict Resolution: A Practitioner‟s Guide. available at www. W. 3.crinfo. (2000). Conflict Transformation by Peaceful Means. (pages from 2-12). USA.org/index..

Robert. students should use the PowerPoint presentation. The topic of the presentation will be: Analysis to the Darfur conflict: the factors. and Collins. 4. and Collins. 30 . J. Teaching Methods In this presentation. It will build confidence in the students that could contribute to overcoming future challenges. Millard. Darfur: The Long Road to Disaster. American TV Network. Princeton. (DVD). Darfur: The Long Road to Disaster. the students should know that the presentation will be added to the final grade of the course. O. Markus Weiner publishers. Markus Weiner Publishers. Millard. Darfur Diaries: Stories of Survival. At the end of the presentation.233). Robert. Also. which is necessary as a part of the education. O. After studying conflict analysis in the previous sessions. Each group will consist of four students. 3. The Outcomes of the Session This first presentation is important because it will help and encourage the students to participate orally in the class. Also students are required to look at these readings: 1. Burr. (2006). 06: Group Presentation Objectives of the Session This session is about group presentations. so as to deeply understand the conflict and the methodology of its analysis. Evaluation of the Presentations It is important for the teacher to take some notes during the presentation to evaluate the students. the teacher should add some comments regarding the information which was introduced in the presentation. Princeton. Required Readings: Students are required to prepare for the presentation with the internet and their personal experiences to the conflict. Burr.Session: No. (pp. roots. Students will be divided into groups to do the presentation. Marlowe. parties of the conflict. New York. J. A Journey to Darfur. 2. causes. students are required to do group presentations. (pages from 2-10). Jen. The presentation should provide and build confidence of students.

 Negotiation: the big picture.  Student simulation.Part Two: Part two has six sessions: The Role of Negotiation and Mediation in Conflict Resolution Abstract: This topic is divided into two sessions. The second session will trace the process of mediation which involves the third party. Students will understand that sometimes negotiate may not be the best method in resolving conflict.  Negotiation tips forum. 07: Negotiation Process Contents:  Definition of negotiation. Objectives of the Session This is the most important part in this course. and that will come in the next session. Session: No. This session will focus on the understanding of the definition of negotiation. The aim of the course is to help students to negotiate and mediate conflict. 31 . students will understand the negotiation process and also they will be able to negotiate and resolve conflict peacefully. It concentrates on simulations of two or three difference types of conflicts that involve negotiation between the parties. this means they will need to think of other methods to resolve the problem. The Outcomes of the Session By the end of the session. the first session will focus on negotiation and its process. The main objectives of this session are to help students to be able to bring their improved negotiation skills and assist others to negotiate and resolve conflicts peacefully. Here the teacher can choose family conflict to start the simulation. and then students will be required to participate in two simulations in this session involving different types of conflict.

Lederach. Discussion is important in the session. Otite O. In the tips forum. John Paul (1997): Building Peace: sustainable Reconciliation in divided societies. By participating in this simulation students will be able to understand how they negotiate and reach a solution and they will understand how negotiation can fall apart. the students will participate in the simulation. the students will be asked to define the concept according to their experiences and understanding. Nigeria. London: Macmillan. (2006). John (1990).Teaching Methods In the first thirty minutes the teacher starts to define the concept of negotiation to the students. Burton. Following this. Required Readings: 1. Conflict Resolution and Prevention. Shedrack. United States Institute of Peace. Chapter 6. Evaluation of the Session The teacher can evaluate this session through students‟ simulation and the negotiation tips forum. their Resolution. (Eds) Community Conflict in Nigeria. . (pages 93-113). Ibadan: Spectrum Books. (1990) On Conflict. 2. the students are asked to post or write the tips of negotiation according to their understanding. Recommended Readings: 1.Washington DC. and Albert O. 32 . Introduction to Peace and Conflict Studies in West Africa. Gaya Best. Ibadan. After that. Transformation and Management in Otite O. 3. identified by the teacher.

This will.Session: No. and the mediation process will be improved. its techniques. The Outcomes of the Session Through this session students‟ skills and knowledge about the modern approach of mediation. The main objectives of this session are to provide students with the ability to demonstrate their improved mediation process and skills in reality and to provide others with some information on how and when they can mediate. 33 . the students are asked to post or write tips about the mediation process according to their understanding.  An overview on the ten-stage mediation model (using diagram). the teacher can choose family conflict to start the simulation. Discussion is important in the session. of course. 08: The Mediation Process Contents:  Definition of mediation. By doing this simulation. This group of students will be able to apply the mediation process in their personal lives and to a national context. This session will focus on the understanding of the definition of mediation. the students will participate in the simulation identified by the teacher. so as to resolve conflicts peacefully. Here. help to build a peaceful society. Objectives of the Session The objective of the session is to help students use the mediation process in conflict. students will be able to understand how they negotiate and reach a solution and they will understand how negotiation can fall apart. In the tips forum. After that. and then students are required to participate in two simulations in this session including different types of conflict. Following the lecture the students will be asked to define the concept according to their experiences and understanding. Teaching Methods In the first thirty minutes the teacher starts to define the concept of negotiation to the students.

The Mind and Heart of the Negotiator.Evaluation of the Session The instructor can evaluate this session through the students´ simulation in mediation and participation in the class. 2. Fisher. Ury. Prentice Hall... Getting to Yes. Penguin. R. and Patton. San Fran. Leigh. W. NJ. 2nd ed.Bass. (2003).. ( p 9). 3rd ed. (1991). B. NY. Jossey. The Mediation Process. Christopher. 3rd ed. Required Readings: 1. Recommended Readings: 1.. Thompson. Moore. 34 . L. (2004). W.

p1-18. Report By: “The Missing Link: Civil Society Roles in Peacebuilding” Conference Papers -. ( AN 26958262). Recommended Readings: 1. Evaluation of the Session Serious engagement in class. They will become a group of scholars to change and remodel society through the acquired knowledge. different case studies will be used to provide insight about the topic to the students. John. The United Nations in the 21st Century.Session: No. Darren. Wanis St. Boulder. Required Readings: 1. Wanis St. Conference Papers. Simulation can be used to find out policy formulation for conflict resolution in Sudan. Karen. The Outcomes of the Session Students will be encouraged to develop part of their professional life by evaluating different pivotal roles of civil society in conflict resolution. 0p. Anthony. However. p1. Anthony. 2006 Annual Meeting. Kew. ( AN 27207373).. 35 . Westview Press. A. Teaching Methods This session is lecture-based. (pages 2-15). 0p. capability to participate in discussion class. Kew. and ability to explore policies in simulation will be used as evaluation methods. Darren. 2007 Annual Meeting. 09: The Role of Civil Society in International Conflict Resolution Objectives of the Session The objective of the session is to understand and evaluate the role of civil society in the conflict resolution process from international to national contexts. 2.International Studies Association.International Studies Association. quality participation in class discussion. John. Mingst. 1 chart.

Objectives of the Session To provide students with a basic knowledge about the UN and its function in conflict resolution and to evaluate the role of the UN in peacekeeping missions. quality of participation and respect to the other students about their views and thoughts will be considered for evaluation. Teaching Methods This session is lecture-based with group discussion. students will be more interested in the UN and the structure and function of the UN in peacekeeping.  UN Charter. active participation in the class discussion. United Nations Charter. Boulder. United Nations University Press. 3.Session: No. mastery of asserting questions in the class. Karen. A. with some examples of UN peacekeepers. NY. Mingst. (2007).org/en/documents/charter/ 2. Westview Press. United Nations Peace keeping Operations: AD HOC Missions. peace-building and conflict resolution in different parts of the world. Required Readings: 1. New York. Evaluation of the Session The student‟s pre-knowledge about the UN. permanent engagement.un. The Outcomes of the Session Through this session. 10: The Role of the UN in Conflict Resolution Contents:  UN in peace agreements. Available at http://www. the successes and failures. The UN in the 21st Century. 36 .

N. 37 . Keeping the Peace: The United Nations and the Maintenance of International Peace and Security. D.Recommended Readings: 1. pages (68-76). (1993). (pages 215-256). UN Hand Book. 2. An Annual Guide 2006-2007.. White. Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Manchester University Press.

develop guidelines for post-conflict reconstruction that would minimize the possibilities of the transformation of competition into conflicts. There is an acknowledgement that any strategy for conflict management and maintenance of a long-lasting peace should take into account resource scarcity and the access to and management of natural resources. An International Development Research Centre report titled “Resource Scarcity and Conflict Management in the Horn of Africa” refers to the importance of resource management in conflicts relating to […] population movement.org/en/ev-83042-201_000994-1IDRC_ADM_INFO.5 This session will aim to identify the same conditions analyzed in the report. From http://idrc. Moreover. and outline alternative resource management policies that can prevent further eruption of conflicts in the country [… As well as] the conditions under which competition over scarce and depleted resources develop into conflicts.Session: No. The main factors are: resources and ethnic. and political/security threats. […] the ways of interaction between resource scarcity/degradation and violent conflicts. and geographical factors. Resource Scarcity and Conflict Management in the Horn of Africa. cultural. 2003. pressure on resources. conflicts in Sudan are connected to many interrelated issues. demographic. analyze how state control of allocation and management of resources makes the state both the object of 5 Suliman. Sudan‟s history of violent conflicts and political instability involves many factors. Abstract: Brief History of the Native Administration in Sudan/ Darfur and its Role in Civil War Agreements.html 38 .  The achievements of applying Sudanese traditional methods in Sudan civil war agreements. Mohamed. study methods of resource allocation among groups in conflict-prone areas and examine the „traditional methods‟ of inter-group conflict resolution. The International Development Research Centre. 11: The Sudanese Traditional Method in Conflict Resolution Contents:  The role of the native administration in Sudan.

The session will focus on the traditional Sudanese methods usually used in resolving conflicts between individuals as well as groups of insurgencies. community leaders. and policymakers to exchange ideas on resource scarcity. The International Development Research Centre. around the Darfurian community representatives of tribes. The role the native administration played was not only in the Darfur region. students will be able to figure out the reason why the role of the native administration has disappeared and did not have any positive role in the ongoing conflict. Therefore. They will be able to understand the role of native leaders and their role (negative and positive) in peace agreements. Mohamed.6 Authorities of the native administration (for example. The native administrative had the ability to control and resolve all these conflicts peacefully. and Darfur in particular. 2003. and launch a regional network of researchers. Shartaye. From http://idrc. Nazir. the conflict between Rizeigat and Ma‟alia in the 1960s. Omda. etc. Furthermore. These conflicts however. this session will highlight the role of the native administration in resolving conflict in Sudan in general.conflict and a principal means by which it is waged.org/en/ev-83042-201_000994-1IDRC_ADM_INFO. and conflict prevention. 6 Suliman. Objectives of the Session This final session highlights strategies that can peacefully resolve the Darfur conflict with the involvement of the Sudanese people. specifically Darfur. the students can successfully be achieved through the role of native administration. By examining these methods. have been playing important roles in resolving many conflicts in Sudan. were over resources and were fought in a limited scope.html 39 .). They will also be able to compare the local approaches with the modern conflict resolution approaches in the context of Sudan. Resource Scarcity and Conflict Management in the Horn of Africa. but also in the whole part of Sudan. Examples of these include. conflict management. Mahria and Banihalba in the 1970s and the Guimir and Fallata in the 1980s. Magdoum. societies and groups. assess which aspect may The Outcomes of the Session Students will become aware of traditional methods of the conflict resolution process which are generally used in the Sudanese society.

as well as the presented information. 2005. 40 . Required Readings: 1. Oxford University Press. A Report by: Nasong'o. plan and strategies to resolve the conflict. Godwin. Rapando. William. “African & Asian Studies”. and Solomon. 4 Issue 1/2. Zartman. students are required to actively participate and discuss how to resolve the problem in order to develop recommendations for a solution.. DOI: 10. (2003). Ripe for Resolution Conflict and Intervention in Africa. Recommended Readings: 1. G. I. Students will be divided into groups to participate in a simulation involving the role of the native administration as a traditional method. Conflict Trends.1163/1569209054547328. The Islamic Fundamentalist State of Sudan. Murunga. particularly in Darfur.Teaching Methods In this session. Swart. (1985). p51-82. Evaluation of the Session The evaluation of the session will consider the student simulation and participation in this session. New York. Wanjala Shadrack. 2. H. 1 chart. Vol. (AN 17740750). 32p. 2.

the teacher can ask the students to write a paper of about 1500 words of a brief summary and analysis of the conflict. Sudan with both underlying and directs causes. this presentation session will engage students to highlight the negotiation process from the very beginning of conflict and the current situation. Students will become aware of knowledge and skills in giving presentations using PowerPoint and how to deliver the information. Above all. The Outcomes of the Session: This additional presentation will provide students with further information on how to analyse conflicts and their resolution. By the end of the presentation. This presentation will demand the students to give their opinion about future challenges and options for establishing and maintaining sustainable peace in Sudan. During this session students are required make presentations which cover the whole course. 12: Group Presentations: Analyzing the Darfur Conflict’s Escalation and Resolution Process Objectives of the Session This is the final session in the course. Teaching Methods Group presentation using PowerPoint is one method IN this session. first. students should know that the presentation will be added to the final grade of the course.Session: No. This session will engage the students to focus. Evaluation of the Session The evaluation will be through the presentation and the students‟ written paper. the teacher will give comments on each group presentation and the information which they introduced in the class. Finally. on conflict formation and escalation in Darfur. 41 . Secondly.

5. Dallaire. Hamilton. 1p. Marlowe. New York. 6. Johnson. Paul et al. 4. Robert. Khartoum Sudan. Report: Looking at Darfur. Markus Weiner publishers. Darfur Diaries: Stories of Survival. Jen. Princeton. The Root Causes of Sudanese Civil Wars. Gore. Douglas. UNICEF. New York Times. Roméo. (2006). (DVD). seeing Rwanda. James Currey Publishers. (2003). American TV Network.Required Readings (Before the Presentation): 1. Millard. 42 . A Journey to Darfur. 2. Eight grassroots conflicts in Sudan 2004. O. J. Burr. and Collins. (AN 29259134).. (2004). Darfur: The Long Road to Disaster. 3.. p25. 10/ 4/2004.

Ho-Won. John. (pages 2-10). Morton. P. 2nd ed. John. Lederach. (2006). Lederach. Dallaire. B. (pages 57 and 58). United States Institute of Peace. Inc. W. pages 93-113). Morton. Johnson. Gore. The Root Causes of Sudanese Civil Wars. New Haven. Shedrack. Fisher. 10/ 4/2004. John. New York Times. Building Peace: Sustainable Reconciliation in Divided Societies Washington DC. Jossey-Bass Publishers. Wani. (pp. Burton. Jeong. (1996). (2000). New York. W.A Conflict Analysis Model Burton. 1973. Introduction to peace and conflict studies in West Africa. Spectrum Books Limited. (pp. and Patton. Ashgate Publishing Limited.17-22). John.. Conflict Resolution as a Political Philosophy. Paul. (2002). seeing Rwanda. Ibadan.C. Gaya Best. R. Conflict Resolution. London..R SIPABIO. Paul et al. Lanham. CT. San Francisco. In The Resolution of Conflict: Constructive and Destructive Processes. (1990). In Conflict Resolution Theory and Practice: Integration and Application. Amr et al. Peace and Conflict Studies: An Introduction. (AN 29259134) Deutsch. Conflict Resolution and Prevention. Introduction to the Resolution of Conflict. Douglas. 2000. Hamilton. Eight grassroots conflicts in Sudan 2004. Md and London.61-72 and Chapter 6. S. Working with Conflict: Skills and Strategies for Action. Yale University Press. (2003). Manchester and New York. Fisher. Report: Looking at Darfur.. W. 31-37). Ury. (1991). Jen.. 1p. NY: Penguin. (pp. James Currey Publishers. p25. Pages: 3-19. UNICEF Khartoum Sudan. John. Getting to Yes. Introduction to the Handbook of Conflict Resolution. Manchester University Press. Zed Book publications. (1993). Macmillan Burton.(2000). Darfur Diaries: Stories of Survival. (pages 2-12). London. Deutsch. Marlowe. Pages (2-9). (1997). 43 . The Scarecrow Press. Roméo. London.Bibliography: Abdallah. In The Handbook of Conflict Resolution: Theory and Practice. Preparing for Peace: Conflict Transformation Across Cultures.

NJ: Prentice Hall. Nasong'o. Karen. Murunga. 1 chart. Conflict in world society: a new perspective on international relations. (2003). Tom and Miall. 2005”. 2nd Edition. (1984). 3rd ed. Mohamed.Bass. (pages 6876). Suliman.. Woodhouse.html Swart. The International Development Research Centre. (2004) The Mind and Heart of the Negotiator. Mial. Ramsbotham. DOI: 10. The Logic of Conflict: Its Origin. United Kingdom. Hugh. Tidwell. H. UN Handbook: An Annual Guide 2006-2007. (2003). Conflict and Conflict Management. Godwin. 3rd ed. 32p. Transformation and Management. and Solomon. (Chapters 7-8). Blackwell Publishing Inc. Oliver. Thompson. Mingst. Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. A. Collier and Nicholas Sambanis World Bank Publishers. Conflict resolved?: A Critical Assessment of Conflict Resolution: London.1163/1569209054547328. Cambridge. Westview Press. Oliver. Contemporary Conflict Resolution.Mayer. (1999). Alan. C. Contemporary Conflict Resolution. (pages 31-85) Understanding Civil Wars. C. (page 9). The Dynamics of Conflict Resolution: A Practitioner‟s Guide: San Francisco. USA. Jossey-Bass.org/en/ev-83042201_000994-1-IDRC_ADM_INFO. San Fran: Jossey. Shadrack Wanjala. Moore. 2. L. “African & Asian Studies. A Report By. G. (2005) Africa. (1990). and Albert O. Cambridge University Press. In Banks. Resource Scarcity and Conflict Management in the Horn of Africa. On Conflict.. Boulder. Rapando.The United Nations in the 21st Century. Martins Press. Conflict Trends. Ibadan: Spectrum Books. Thomas. Hugh. (pages 120-125). (2007). pp. de Reuck. Tom. their Resolution. Edited by Paul. In Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology. Development and Resolution. M. The Islamic Fundamentalist State of Sudan. Otite O. Community Conflict in Nigeria. Bernard. 4 Issue 1/2. (2005). (pages from1-5). 44 . In Otite O. The Mediation Process. p51-82. (AN 17740750). (ed. Woodhouse. Ramsbotham. (1976).1 Evidence and Analysis. (2000). Continuum Publications.Vol. (1998). Vol. Kenneth. (pages 2-15). 97-111). From http://idrc. (2003). New York: St. (eds).

upeace. EC2A 4PU.ulst.International Studies Association. (pages 215-256).uct. (page 35). United Nations Charter.saferafrica. United Nations University press. Anthony.The missing link: Civil Society Roles in Peace building. St. Wanis. New York: Oxford University Press.uk/ Safer Africa.cfm. W. St. White.org/resources/index. Hand Book of Peace and Conflict Studies. New York.International Studies Association.crinfo. (pages 8 and9). Available at: www. Wallensteen. American TV Network.org/ International Conflict Research.htm.. 0p. (DVD).incore. Zartman. UN University Press. (2006). Conference Papers -. USA and Canada.org.United Nations Peacekeeping Operations: AD HOC Missions. Webel. (1993). Conference Papers -. AN 27207373). permanent engagement.org/en/documents/charter UPEACE Research Center. N. Websites Accord: The African Centre for the Constructive Resolution of Disputes. Charles and Galtung. p1. Available at: http:/ www. John.. Sage Publications. Understanding Conflict Resolution: War. Anthony. Peter. Videos A Journey to Darfur.transcend.ac.I.ac. Available at: http://www. Available at: www. 1 chart. Kew.ccr. Centre for Conflict Resolution. Available at: http://ccrweb. London. 45 . 0p. D. (2002).jsp.org/index. (2008). Peace and the Global System.za/ Conflict Transformation by Peaceful Means. NY. Darren. Johan.za/web/home.com The Conflict Resolution Information Source Available at: http:/www.accord. Ripe for Resolution Conflict and Intervention in Africa. Available at: www. ( AN 26958262). (1985). John. (p118.un. 2007 Annual Meeting. Kew. Darren. Wanis. Keeping the Peace: Maintenance of International Peace and Security. Annual Meeting.. Manchester University Press. Available at: www.

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