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Prepared by: Carlos A. Cruz Noguez  April 28, 2011
Consider a squat shear wall, aspect ratio = h
w
/l
w
= 1.795m/2.5m = 0.72. Assume t
w
= 0.15m.
Data
Geometry Material properties
h
w
1.795m := fc 20MPa :=
fc [ ]
fc
1MPa
1 ⋅ MPa :=
t
w
0.15m := f
yl
400MPa :=
fc [ ] 4.472 MPa =
l
w
2.5m := f
yh
400MPa :=
A
w
l
w
t
w
⋅ := A
w
0.375 m
2
=
d
1
0.8 l
w
⋅ := d
1
2 m =
A
h
h
w
t
w
⋅ := A
h
0.269 m
2
=
lengthtothickness ratio:
l
w
t
w
16.7 = (slenderness)
heighttolength ratio:
h
w
l
w
0.718 =
Vertical Reinforcement
Reinforcement
A
sl
24π
16mm ( )
2
4
⋅ := (Rebar size: 15M)
A
sl
4825 mm
2
=
Transverse Reinforcement
A
sh
16 π ⋅
6.34mm ( )
2
4
⋅ := A
sh
505 mm
2
= A
v
A
sh
8
:= Area of horizontal reinforcement
in each spacing s
s 225mm :=
h
w
s
8 = (Rebar size: 6.34mmdiameter wire)
Reinforcement ratios
percent value:
ρ
l
A
sl
A
w
:= ρ
l
0.0129 = 100 ρ
l
⋅ 1.287 = longitudinal reinforcement
ρ
h
A
sh
A
h
:= ρ
h
0.0019 = 100 ρ
h
⋅ 0.188 =
transverse reinforcement
ACI 31805
The peak shear strength of squat reinforced concrete walls is calculated through two
semiempirical equations, both based on the modified trussanalogy approach. Equation Set 1
is from Section 21.7 of ACI 31805 (seismic design)
Coefficient α
c
h
w
l
w
0.718 = then α
c
0.25 := valid for h
w
/l
w
< 1.5 (Clause 21.7.4.1)
Equation 217
V
n
α
c
fc [ ] ⋅ ρ
h
f
yh
⋅ +
( )
A
w
⋅ := V
n
700.663 kN =
V
n1
must not exceed the diagonal compression failure limit (Clause 21.7.4.5):
ComprFailureLimit 0.83 fc [ ] ⋅ A
w
⋅ := ComprFailureLimit 1391.952 kN =
V
n1
V
n
V
n
ComprFailureLimit ≤ if
ComprFailureLimit otherwise
:=
Thus, V
n1
700.663 kN =
Equation set 2 corresponds to the procedure to predict shear strength in Section 11.10 of ACI
31805 (general design, special provisions for walls), and it is given by the following equations:
Concrete contribution is given by the lesser of Equations 1129 and 1130 from ACI 31805:
Equation 1129
N
u
0kN := M
u
2 kN ⋅ m ⋅ := V
u
1kN :=
M
u
V
u
h
w
⋅
1.114 = (Structural parameters
for cantilevered wall)
V
c1
0.27 fc [ ] t
w
⋅ d
1
⋅
N
u
d
1
⋅
4 l
w
⋅
+ := V
c1
362.243 kN =
Equation 1130
Vc2 0.05 fc [ ] ⋅
l
w
0.1 fc [ ] ⋅ 0.2
N
u
l
w
t
w
⋅
⋅ +

\


¹
⋅
M
u
V
u
l
w
2
−
+
¸
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
t
w
⋅ d
1
⋅ := Vc2 514 kN =
Equation for V
c2
is applicable if
M
u
V
u
l
w
2
− 0.75 m = is greater than 0 OK.
CheckMuVu
M
u
V
u
l
w
2
− := V
c2
Vc2 CheckMuVu 0 ≥ if
1000000kN otherwise
:= V
c2
514 kN =
Contribution of the concrete will be the lesser of Equations 1129 and 1130:
V
c
min V
c1
V
c2
,
( )
:= Thus, V
c
362kN =
Steel contribution:
A
v
63.139 mm
2
= (Area of horizontal reinforcement within a spacing of s)
V
s
A
v
f
yh
⋅ d
1
⋅
s
:= V
s
224kN =
V
n2
V
c
V
s
+ := V
n2
587kN =
CSA A23.394 (simplified, using empirical modification for aspect ratio)
Concrete contribution (Wiradinata's method to take into account the aspect ratio of the wall):
α
Wiradinata
0.5
h
w
6 l
w
⋅
− := α
Wiradinata
0.38 =
V
c
α
Wiradinata
0.9 l
w
⋅ t
w
⋅
( )
⋅ fc [ ] ⋅ := V
c
574.055 kN =
Steel contribution: θ 45 := (conservative assumption)
V
s
A
v
f
yh
⋅ d
1
⋅
s
cot π
θ
180
⋅

\


¹
⋅ :=
V
s
224.495 kN =
V
n5
V
c
V
s
+ :=
V
n5
798.549 kN =
Upper limit for shear strength 0.25 t
w
⋅ d
1
⋅ fc ⋅ 1500 kN =
Wood (1990)
This simplified procedure was found to offer better correlation between predicted and experimental
shear wall strengths, compared to the equations for squat walls contained in the ACI 31805 code
(Gulec et al, 2008).
According to Wood (1990), the peak shear strength of squat walls can be calculated according to
the following:
A
vf
A
sl
:= f
y2
f
yl
:= 0.498 fc [ ] ⋅ A
w
⋅ 835.171 kN =
0.83 fc [ ] ⋅ A
w
⋅ 1392 kN =
Vn3
A
vf
f
y2
⋅
4
:= Vn3 483kN =
Check limitations
V
n3
0.498 fc [ ] ⋅ A
w
⋅ Vn3 0.498 fc [ ] ⋅ A
w
⋅
( )
≤ if
0.83 fc [ ] ⋅ A
w
⋅ Vn3 0.83 fc [ ] ⋅ A
w
⋅
( )
≥ if
Vn3 otherwise
:=
Thus, V
n3
835.2 kN =
Sliding Shear Strength
A crack shall be assumed to occur along the shear plane and the relative displacement shall be
resisted by cohesion and friction in the shear friction reinforcement crossing the crack. The
factored shear stress resistance of the plane shall be computed according the following
equations.
CSA A23.304 Clause 11.5, Interface shear transfer
c 0.5MPa := µ 1.00 := cohesion and friction for concrete placed against hardened concrete
with a clean surface and intentionally roughened to the full amplitude of
at least 5 mm.
V
sl
c µ
A
sl
t
w
d
1
⋅
f
yl
⋅
N
u
t
w
l
w
⋅
+

\


¹
⋅ +
¸
(
(
¸
A
w
⋅ := V
sl
2600 kN =
UpperLimitSlidingShear 0.25 fc ⋅ A
w
⋅ := UpperLimitSlidingShear 1875 kN =
V
SlidingStrength
V
sl
V
sl
UpperLimitSlidingShear ≤ if
UpperLimitSlidingShear otherwise
:=
V
SlidingStrength
1875 kN =
Summary
Code provisions for Shear Calculated Shear
strength
ACI 31805 seismic provisions V
n1
701kN =
ACI 31805 V = V
c
+ V
s
V
n2
587kN =
CSA A23.394 V = V
c
+ V
s
V
n5
799kN =
Wood (1990) empirical V
n3
835kN =
Vshear 970kN :=
Vector2 shear strength
(using using ρ
h
=0.2%)
Shear associated to flexural response
(Vector2, using ρ
h
=1%)
V
flex
1025kN :=
Shear associated to flexural response
(sectional analysis)
Vflexural 960kN :=
V
SlidingStrength
1875 kN =
Sliding shear strength
Assessment
V
MaxShearStrength
max V
n1
V
n2
, V
n3
, V
n5
,
( )
:= V
MaxShearStrength
835 kN =
V
MinShearStrength
min V
n1
V
n2
, V
n3
, V
n5
,
( )
:= V
MinShearStrength
587 kN =
V
flex
V
MaxShearStrength
1.227 =
The wall is likely to fail in shear before it
reaches its flexural capacity.
V
flex
V
MinShearStrength
1.747 =
The sliding shear strength of the wall is far greater than the calculated shear or flexural strength,
so premature failure due to sliding is not likely to occur.
FRP contribution (one sheet per side)
Data from Fyfe Co.
d
v
0.9 l
w
⋅ :=
E
f
95800MPa := ε
F
0.01 := t
F
0.25mm :=
f
F
0.25 E
f
⋅ ε
F
⋅ := f
F
239.5 MPa =
V
F
2 f
F
⋅ t
F
⋅ d
v
⋅ cot π
θ
180
⋅

\


¹
⋅ := V
F
269.438 kN =
One single layer per side is enough (970 + 270 = 1240kN > flexural capacity of the wall according
to Vector2) to promote ductile flexural failure.
75 m is greater than 0 OK. V c = 362 kN .2 ⋅ l w⋅ t w ⋅t ⋅d Vc2 := 0.1) ( ) V n = 700.718 lw Equation 217 V n := α c⋅ [ fc ] + ρ h⋅ fyh ⋅ Aw V n1 m ust not exceed the diagonal compression failure lim it (Clause 21. Equation Set 1 is from Section 21. both based on the modified trussanalogy approach.83⋅ [ fc ] ⋅ Aw V n1 := V n if V n ≤ ComprFailureLimit ComprFailureLimit otherwise Thus.663 kN ComprFailureLimit = 1391.1 ⋅ [ fc ] + 0.4.ACI 31805 The peak shear strength of squat reinforced concrete walls is calculated through two sem iem pirical equations.5): ComprFailureLimit := 0.7.4.7 of ACI 31805 (seism ic design) Coefficient αc hw then = 0.952 kN α c := 0.25 valid for hw/lw < 1.5 (Clause 21.663 kN Equation set 2 corresponds to the procedure to predict shear strength in Section 11. special provisions for walls).243 kN V c1 := 0. V n1 = 700.114 (Structural parameters for cantilevered wall) V c1 = 362. Vc2 = 514 kN V c2 := Vc2 if CheckMuVu ≥ 0 1000000kN otherwise V c2 = 514 kN Contribution of the concrete will be the lesser of Equations 1129 and 1130: V c := min V c1 .27 [ fc ] ⋅ t w⋅ d1 + Equation 1130 Nu lw⋅ 0.10 of ACI 31805 (general design.7.05⋅ [ fc ] + w 1 Mu lw − Vu 2 Equation for Vc2 is applicable if CheckMuVu := Mu Vu − lw 2 Mu Vu − lw 2 = 0. V c2 ( ) Thus. and it is given by the following equations: Concrete contribution is given by the lesser of Equations 1129 and 1130 from ACI 31805: Equation 1129 N u := 0kN Mu := 2 ⋅ kN⋅ m N u⋅ d1 4⋅lw V u := 1kN Mu V u⋅ hw = 1.
V n3 = 835.139 mm Av⋅ fyh⋅ d1 s 2 (Area of horizontal reinforcem ent within a spacing of s) V s := V s = 224 kN V n2 = 587 kN V n2 := V c + V s CSA A23.495 kN V n5 = 798.5 − α Wiradinata = 0.055 kN ( ) Steel contribution: V s := Av⋅ fyh⋅ d1 s ⋅ cot π ⋅ θ := 45 (conservative assumption) θ 180 V n5 := V c + V s 0.83⋅ [ fc ] ⋅ Aw if Vn3 ≥ 0. using empirical modification for aspect ratio) Concrete contribution (Wiradinata's m ethod to take into account the aspect ratio of the wall): hw α Wiradinata := 0. the peak shear strength of squat walls can be calculated according to the following: Avf := Asl Vn3 := Avf ⋅ fy2 4 fy2 := fyl Vn3 = 483 kN 0.2 kN Sliding Shear Strength A crack shall be assumed to occur along the shear plane and the relative displacem ent shall be resisted by cohesion and friction in the shear friction reinforcem ent crossing the crack.394 (simplified.38 6⋅lw V c := α Wiradinata⋅ 0.83⋅ [ fc ] ⋅ Aw Vn3 otherwise ( ( ) ) Thus. According to Wood (1990).498⋅ [ fc ] ⋅ Aw if Vn3 ≤ 0.549 kN Upper lim it for shear strength Wood (1990) This sim plified procedure was found to offer better correlation between predicted and experimental shear wall strengths.498⋅ [ fc ] ⋅ Aw 0. com pared to the equations for squat walls contained in the ACI 31805 code (Gulec et al.83⋅ [ fc ] ⋅ Aw = 1392 kN Check lim itations V n3 := 0. The factored shear stress resistance of the plane shall be com puted according the following equations.171 kN 0. .9 ⋅ l w⋅ t w ⋅ [ fc ] V c = 574. 2008).Steel contribution: Av = 63.25⋅ t w⋅ d1 ⋅ fc = 1500 kN V s = 224.498⋅ [ fc ] ⋅ Aw = 835.
5MPa µ := 1. V n3 . V n5 ( . V n2 . V sl := c + µ ⋅ Asl tw⋅ d1 ⋅ fyl + ⋅ Aw tw⋅ l w Nu V sl = 2600 kN UpperLimitSlidingShear := 0. Interface shear transfer c := 0.CSA A23.394 V = Vc + Vs Wood (1990) em pirical Vector2 shear strength (using using ρh=0. V n3 .5. V n2 .25⋅ fc ⋅ Aw V SlidingStrength := V sl if V sl ≤ UpperLimitSlidingShear UpperLimitSlidingShear otherwise UpperLimitSlidingShear = 1875 kN V SlidingStrength = 1875 kN Summary Code provisions for Shear ACI 31805 ACI 31805 seismic provisions V = Vc + V s Calculated Shear strength V n1 = 701 kN V n2 = 587 kN V n5 = 799 kN V n3 = 835 kN Vshear := 970kN CSA A23.304 Clause 11. V n5 ( ) ) V MaxShearStrength = 835 kN V MinShearStrength = 587 kN V MinShearStrength := min V n1 . using ρh=1%) Shear associated to flexural response (sectional analysis) Sliding shear strength V flex := 1025kN Vflexural := 960kN V SlidingStrength = 1875 kN Assessment V MaxShearStrength := max V n1 .2%) Shear associated to flexural response (Vector2.00 cohesion and friction for concrete placed against hardened concrete with a clean surface and intentionally roughened to the full amplitude of at least 5 mm .
25mm fF = 239.9 ⋅ l w Ef := 95800MPa fF := 0.25⋅ Ef⋅ εF εF := 0.747 The sliding shear strength of the wall is far greater than the calculated shear or flexural strength.V flex V MaxShearStrength V flex V MinShearStrength = 1.227 The wall is likely to fail in shear before it reaches its flexural capacity. dv := 0. so premature failure due to sliding is not likely to occur. FRP contribution (one sheet per side) Data from Fyfe Co.5 MPa θ V F := 2 ⋅ fF⋅ t F⋅ dv⋅ cot π ⋅ V F = 269. = 1. .01 tF := 0.438 kN 180 One single layer per side is enough (970 + 270 = 1240kN > flexural capacity of the wall according to Vector2) to prom ote ductile flexural failure.
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